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Solute and Solvent

Solute and Solvent

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Published by uminoriah
solute and solvent, dilute solution, concentrated solution and sturated solution
solute and solvent, dilute solution, concentrated solution and sturated solution

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: uminoriah on Sep 08, 2009
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03/02/2013

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A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. • The most common solvent in everyday life is water. • Most other commonly-used solvents are organic (carbon-containing) chemicals. These are called organic solvents. • Solvents usually have a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving the dissolved substance behind. 5. Solvents should therefore not react chemically with the dissolved compounds — they have to be inert. Solvents can also be used to extract soluble compounds from a mixture, the most common example is the brewing of coffee or tea with hot water. 6. Solvents are usually clear and colorless liquids and many have a characteristic odor. 7. The concentration of a solution is the amount of compound that is dissolved in a certain volume of solvent. 8. The solubility is the maximal amount of compound that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature

Solution of Salt in Water (regular table salt, regular tap water)

a suspension is a heterogenous mixture in which the particles of at least one component are larger

Common examples • Mud or muddy water, is where soil, clay, or silt particles are suspended in water. • Flour suspended in water • Paint • Chalk powder suspended in water. • Dust particles suspended in air.

Flour suspended in water (appears light blue because blue light is scattered off the flour particles to a greater extent than red light)

The solubility of a solute is the maximum quantity of solute that can dissolve in a certain quantity of solvent or quantity of solution at a specified temperature.

The main factors that have an effect on dissolving are:
• The nature of the solute -properties • The nature of solvent. –type of solvent • Temperature - the hotter the solvent • Volume of solvent- larger has more empty space • Size of solute -powder

Concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. 1. Concentrated solution- one must add more solute, or reduce the amount of solvent 2. Dilute solution- one must add more solvent, or reduce the amount of solute. 3. Saturated solution - additional maximum solute, cannot dissolve any more solute.

Concentration of Solution

Organic Solvent
• Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes), in perfumes (ethanol), and in chemical syntheses. The use of inorganic solvents is typically limited

Acid and Alkali
• 2 classes of acids • Inorganic acids- hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acids and nitric acids • Organic acids- citric acids (lemon), formic acids (ant and bees). Malic acids (apple), tartaric acids (grape)

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
SOUR

BLUE TO RED

pH < 7

ACIDS

CONTAIN HYDROGEN

CORROSIVE

Properties of alkalis
BITTER Blue To red ALKALIS

Ph > 7

corrosive

soapy

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