Human Resource Management System

For Labour Department of MOHL of Somaliland
by

Warsame Ismail Ahmed
submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of

B.Sc. of Information and Communication Technology to the

FACULTY OF INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

ADMAS UNIVERSITY COLLEGE Hargeisa Main Campus August 2009

Project Title: Human Resource Management
A Project Report: Employee Information and Attendance Submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree in

ICT (Information and Communication Technology)
Under the Guidance of Muluken

By

Student Name: Warsame Ismail Ahmed
IDNO: ICT-0151/06

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

Admas University College
Hargeisa Main Campus August – 2009

Human Resource Management System
for Labour Department of MOHL of Somaliland
August 2009

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that this project is my original work and has not been presented for the award of any degree/diploma in any other college and university.

Signature……………………………………….

Date………………………

This project has been submitted with my approval as supervisor Ahmed Hassan Hajji Academic Vice president Admas University College, Hargeisa Somaliland

Signature………………………………………..

Date……………………….

FACULTY OF INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ADMAS UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
Hargeisa Main Campus (HMC)

II

ADMAS University College—Hargeisa Main Campus

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled “HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT” is the bona-fide work done by

Student Name: Warsame Ismail Ahmed
IDNO: ICT-0151/06

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) During the period 2006-2009

.

Advisor

Head of the Department

Academic Vice president

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to thank the Almighty God and my Parents who are the most graceful and merciful for their blessing that Contributed to the successful completion of this project I present here in this booklet. I would also like to take this opportunity to express my profound sense of gratitude and respect to all those who helped me throughout the duration of this project. The Admas University College—Hargeisa Main Campus, in particular has been the source of inspiration for me. I acknowledge the effort of those who have contributed significantly to my project. I express my sincere gratitude and thankfulness towards Prof. Ahmed Nasser, Head of Department of ICT - Admas University College for his valuable time and guidance throughout this Project. I feel privileged to offer my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Ibrahim Derieh Hayd, Director General of Labour of the MOHL for his honest welcoming and provision of data/information and all support, help & encouragement in obtaining necessary raw data for this Project. I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards all my teachers, especially Mr. Muluken my special advisor, A/Rashid, Khayriya, Muna and Samatar I. Ahmed for their precious suggestions and encouragements. Last but not the least I would like to thank all those who contributed to this project either in moral or material. I regret any inadvertent omissions. Thank you all.

Warsame Ismail Ahmed ICT graduate, ADMAS University College, 2009

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ABSTRACT
The world is said to be in the ‘Technology Era’ and realistically speaking that is an absolute truth. However, computer-enabled databases as well as IT-based systems and solutions are not so familiar in Somaliland despite the user-friendliness and efficiency of their usage. Some major companies in Somaliland especially in Hargeisa

(Telecommunication and Remittance sectors) use but they are a small percentage of the country’s national economy and the community / companies that need Information Technology (IT) systems and solutions. This came as a result of poor education,

uninterested society and Somaliland government with less capacity.

This project entitled with ‘Human Resource Management System’ has been designed towards improving the management of information of employees in the Ministry of Health and Labour of Somaliland. It maintains all basic information of employees like New Employee Registration, Modification of Registered Employees, Registration and Modification of Department, Payroll calculation and Attendance. The following two management reports can be generated through the system: General Report for Registered employees Attendance Report The information on which this project is based was compiled with an interview with the concerned Head of the Ministry—Director General of the MOHL of Somaliland.

The project has been an enriching experience for me in the field of programming and Practical Application of knowledge. It has been developed to fulfill the requirements of the Employees in Labour Department of MOHL. The tools and technologies used for developing the software are VB.NET for analysis, design phases, and developing the codes of the application as Front end tool and Microsoft’s Ms-Access® as the back end tool on Microsoft Windows® XP platform.

V

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ADO API B.Sc CA COM DAO DG DLL EPS ERD GUI GDI+ HMC HR HRM ICT IIS IT MDI MOHL MOHL MSAA ODBC OLEDB RDO SDK SQL TCO VB.NET WIA ActiveX Data Objects Application Programme Interface Bachelor of Science Computer Application Component Object Model Data Access Object Director General Dynamically Linked Libraries Employment Promotion Services Entity-Relationship Diagram Graphical User Interface Graphical Device Interface Hargeisa Main Campus (Admas University College) Human Resources Human Resource Management Information and Communication Technology Internet Information Server Information Technology Multi Document Interface Ministry of Health and Labour (Somaliland) Ministry of Health and Labour Microsoft Active Accessibility Open Database Connectivity Object Linking Embedded Database Remote Data Objects System Development Kit Standard Query Language Total Cost of Ownership Visual Basic. NET Warsame Ismail Ahmed

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TITLE PAGE-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I DECLARATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- II CERTIFICATE---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ------------------------------------------------------------------- IV ABSTRACT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ----------------------------------------------------------------- VI

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background-------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 1.2 Motivation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 1.3 Realization of the Problem -------------------------------------------------------------2 1.4 Broad outline of work ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3

Chapter 2: Literature Survey
2.1 Definitions of Human Resource -------------------------------------------------------5 2.2 Human Resource Management --------------------------------------------------------5 2.2.1 The Goal of HRM -----------------------------------------------------------------6 2.2.2 Business practice ------------------------------------------------------------------7 2.3 About Department of Labour of MOHL ----------------------------------------------7 2.4 Introduction to Windows® Forms (VISUAL BASIC.net) -------------------------8 2.5 Understanding the Advantages of Visual Basic------------------------------------ 16

Chapter 3: Problem Formulation ------------------------------------------------3.1 Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 3.2 Detailed Description of the Project -------------------------------------------------- 19 3.3 Major Function as Employee Management tool ----------------------------------- 20 3.4 Methodology to Be Used Carrying Out the Study--------------------------------- 20 3.5 Business Processes -------------------------------------------------------------------- 20

Chapter 4: system Analysis
4.1 Defining a System -------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 4.2 Systems Life Cycle -------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 4.3 System Analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 23

VII

4.4 Analysis and Development of the Actual Solution ---------------------------------------------- 23 4.5 Project Overview ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24 4.6 User Interface ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 4.6.1 Hardware – Software Interface -------------------------------------------------------------- 24 4.6.2 Memory Constraints -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 4.6.3 Product Function ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24 4.7 Constraints of the System--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 4.8 Information Gathering------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 4.8.1 Information about project -------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 4.8.2 Information Sources -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

Chapter 5: System Design
5.1 Database Design ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 5.2 Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERD) ------------------------------------------------------------- 29 5.3 Data Dictionary -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32 5.4 Interface Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37 5.5 Report Design ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45

Chapter 6: Testing and Implementation
6.1 Objectives of Testing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48 6.2 Types of Testing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48 6.3 Quality Assurance ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50

Chapter 7: Result and Conclusion
7.1 Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54 7.2 Future Scope of Improvement---------------------------------------------------------------------- 54

Annexures
Annexure A – Sample General Report ---------------------------------------------------------------- 56 Annexure B – List of Common Validations ---------------------------------------------------------- 57 Annexure C – Bibliography/References -------------------------------------------------------------- 58 Annexure D – About the Programmer----------------------------------------------------------------- 59

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HRM application

Introduction

CHAPTER

1
This chapter presents the background and motivation of the system that has been designed and prototyped in this project. The section also reviews the objectives of the project.

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Introduction

1.1 Background
In terms of background, the ‘Human Resources Management System for Ministry of Health and Labor (MOHL)’ project is actively involved in the development of the application for managing the employees of the ministry especially the department of Labour. The ministry is responsible of maintaining the health and Labour affairs for Somaliland government. MOHL has its Headquarter in Hargeisa and its sub-offices are spread across the country—in all six regions of Somaliland although with different capacities and activities. This system maintains the information regarding all Human Resources who work at the headquarter especially the department of Labour; It is a matter of future and sophistication of the system to include the field offices so that the manpower at field offices can be monitored at Headquarter. Currently, this system is confined to the Headquarter of the department. The application software takes care of database and day to day operations. The different modules were added to the system as per MOHL Desk requirement and are being integrated into this application.

1.2 Motivation
Realizing a higher need of development efforts and the investment of time, developing uniform, more user-friendly application software for implementation of day to day activities at the department and smooth co-working with other departments of the ministry is of great deal of need. To add, this is very important to the currently-established office at the department of Labour called EPS (Employment Promotion Services)—an office responsible for creating a database of potential employers and employees and the liaising between potential employers and employees for the sole purpose of creating employment opportunities for skilled and educated Somalilanders across the country since the universities and technical/vocational schools are developing more than ever. With keeping in mind the supportive processes existing at MOHL, it appears a fruitful concept which adds more value to this system, thereby increasing quality of services offered.

1.3 Realization of the Problem
The Present system used by the Department of Labour is manual and thus it is not user friendly. The proposed system in this project for MOHL will be implemented as an In-Office application. -2-

HRM application

Introduction

The application software will be installed on the personal computer of the person responsible for handling the human resources data and information of the department of Labour at MOHL (Ministry of Health & Labour). The application software will be used easily as Microsoft Access but is more valuable and customized for the department. A Central database will compile at the computer where all information needed from the employees will be saved and retrieved as needed. The system can be only be accessed by the authorized user and to whom he allows.1 The function of the system will be managing Employees at the Headquarter of the ministry. It manages information about Employees of Labour department of the MOHL of Somaliland especially those who work in the office compound at the headquarter and sub-offices in the capital city of Hargeisa so that manpower can be monitored at Labour department.

1.4 Broad outline of work
Chapter 1> This chapter has introduced the problem along with brief description of the project. Chapter 2> The second chapter describes literature that has been surveyed when this project was under way. Chapter 3> This chapter describes the problem formulation. What is need of work? Chapter 4> This chapter deals with analysis of the system, its application, the hardware and software requirements for implementing it. Chapter 5> This chapter discusses the design of the system whether it be the database, the reports and the Interface. Chapter 6> This chapter discusses the implementation part of the system. The hardware and software requirement for implementing the system have been discussed. The operation manual and input requirement to the system have also taken up in this chapter. Chapter 7> This chapter (the final) deals with the result and discussion of the new system, stating interpretation of the results, and importance of the work.

1

Anyone who learns about the Username and Password can also get access to modifying the saved data.

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Literature Survey

CHAPTER

2
This chapter contains the literature that has been surveyed in preparation for conducting this project effectively in order to illustrate more the basics of Human resources management and the department of labour of the Ministry of Health and Labour. -4-

HRM application

Literature Survey

2.1 Definitions of Human Resource
Human resource is an increasingly broadening term with which an organization or other human system describe its most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. It is a term used to denote all employees of one institution, organization, company etcetera, from the top management to the lowest level of employment excluding the owner/partners/shareholders. Source: Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - http//: www.wikipedia.org Human resource is a body of persons usually employed in a factory, office or an organization for doing specific works as per agreed with their employers. Source: Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary

2.2 Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, management, and the direction of the people in the organization. Human Resource management is also performed by line managers. It is the approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms "human resource management" and "human resources" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense, HRM means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement. HRM features include: Organizational management Personnel administration Manpower management Industrial management

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The theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. The field takes a positive view of workers, assuming that virtually all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process. HRM is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organizations. Synonyms such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, and administrating their work-life needs. 2.2.1 The Goal of HRM The goal of human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. The key word here perhaps is "fit", i.e. a HRM approach seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organization's employees, and the overall strategic direction of the company. The basic premise of the academic theory of HRM is that humans are not machines; therefore we need to have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the workplace. Fields such as psychology, industrial engineering, industrial, Legal/Paralegal Studies and organizational psychology, industrial relations, play a major role. In many ways, critically or not, many writers contend that HRM itself is an attempt to move away from the modernist traditions of personnel (man as machine) towards a postmodernist view of HRM (man as individuals). Critiques include the notion that because 'Human' is the subject we

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should recognize that people are complex and that it is only through various discourses that we understand the world. Man is not Machine, no matter what attempts are made to change it.

2.2.2 Business practice Human resources management comprises several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. These processes can be performed in an HR department, but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company. These processes are: Workforce planning Recruitment Induction and Orientation Skills management Training and development Compensation in wage or salary Payroll (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) Employee benefits administration Performance appraisal Source: HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT – Gaining a competitive advantage; 2nd Edition 2002; Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhardt, and Wright.

2.3 About department of Labour of MOHL
Ministry of Health and Labour (MOHL) is one of the ministries of Somaliland government. It was one of the first ministries established after the restoration of Somaliland’s sovereignty and has its main office in Hargeisa—the capital of the country, and field offices in some regions. Since health and labour are two important social issues, the ministry is so important for the country and has a proportionate national budget to implement its operation across the country.

As apparent in the name it comprises two large departments: Health department and Labour department. The two fields deserved a ministry of it own each but due to economic constraints of

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the country they are currently merged with one minister but two Director-generals—the Director general of Health of MOHL and the Director general of Labour of MOHL.

Figure: Organization chart of top ministry officials

This project and the resulted application programme concerns the Labour department only but in the future it may include both departments if they are not named as two separate ministries.

The department of labour is responsible for MOHL for all activities concerning employees in the areas of setting regulations, guidance through policies, management, coordination of employment agencies/centers1, and arbitration of employee disputes whether they are in Public or private sectors. Source: department of Labour of MOHL of Somaliland, Hargeisa office

2.4 Introduction to Windows® Forms (VISUAL BASIC.net)
Windows Forms is the new platform for Microsoft Windows application development, based on the .NET Framework. This framework provides a clear, object-oriented, extensible set of classes that enable you to develop rich Windows applications. Additionally, Windows Forms can act as the local user interface in a multi-tier distributed solution. Windows Forms is a framework for building Windows client applications that utilize the common language runtime. Windows Forms applications can be written in any language that the common language runtime supports.

1

Currently there are no employment agencies or centers in Somaliland, but regulating those agencies is the responsibility of the department of Labour of MOHL.

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What Is a Form? A form is a bit of screen real estate, usually rectangular, that you can use to present information to the user and to accept input from the user. Forms can be standard windows, multiple document interface (MDI) windows, dialog boxes, or display surfaces for graphical routines. The easiest way to define the user interface for a form is to place controls on its surface. Forms are objects that expose properties which define their appearance, methods which define their behavior, and events which define their interaction with the user. By setting the properties of the form and writing code to respond to its events, you customize the object to meet the requirements of your application. As with all objects in the .NET Framework, forms are instances of classes. The form you create with the Windows Forms Designer is a class, and when you display an instance of the form at run time, this class is the template used to create the form. The framework also allows you to inherit from existing forms to add functionality or modify existing behavior. When you add a form to your project, you can choose whether it inherits from the Form class provided by the framework, or from a form you have previously created. Additionally, forms are controls, because they inherit from the Control class. Within a Windows Forms project, the form is the primary vehicle for user interaction. By combining different sets of controls and writing code, you can elicit information from the user and respond to it, work with existing stores of data, and query and write back to the file system and registry on the user's local computer. Although the form can be created entirely in the Code Editor, it is easier to use the Windows Forms Designer to create and modify forms. Some of the advantages of using Windows Forms include the following:

Simplicity and power: Windows Forms is a programming model for developing Windows applications that combines the simplicity of the Visual Basic 6.0 programming model with the power and flexibility of the common language runtime.

Lower total cost of ownership: Windows Forms takes advantage of the versioning and deployment features of the common language runtime to offer reduced deployment

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costs and higher application robustness over time. This significantly lowers the maintenance costs (TCO) for applications written in Windows Forms.

Architecture for controls: Windows Forms offers an architecture for controls and control containers that is based on concrete implementation of the control and container classes. This significantly reduces control-container interoperability issues.

Security: Windows Forms takes full advantage of the security features of the common language runtime. This means that Windows Forms can be used implement everything from an entrusted control running in the browser to a fully trusted application installed on a user's hard disk.

Licensing: Windows Forms takes advantage of the common language runtime enhanced licensing model.

• •

Printing: Windows Forms offers a printing framework that enables applications to provide comprehensive reports.

Accessibility: Windows Forms controls implement the interfaces defined by Microsoft Active Accessibility (MSAA), which make it simple to build applications that support accessibility aids, such as screen readers.

Design-time support: Windows Forms takes full advantage of the meta-data and component model features offered by the common language runtime to provide thorough design-time support for both control users and control implementers.

Crystal reports Crystal Reports for Visual Basic .NET is the standard reporting tool for Visual Basic.NET; it brings the ability to create interactive, presentation-quality content — which has been the strength of Crystal Reports for years — to the .NET platform. With Crystal Reports for Visual Basic.NET, you can host reports on Web and Windows platforms and publish Crystal reports as Report Web Services on a Web server. To present data to users, you could write code to loop through recordsets and print them inside your Windows or Web application. However, any work beyond basic formatting can be complicated: consolidations, multiple level totals, charting, and conditional formatting are difficult to program.

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With Crystal Reports for Visual Studio .NET, you can quickly create complex and professionallooking reports. Instead of coding, you use the Crystal Report Designer interface to create and format the report you need. The powerful Report Engine processes the formatting, grouping, and charting criteria you specify. Report Experts Using the Crystal Report Experts, you can quickly create reports based on your development needs:

Choose from report layout options ranging from standard reports to form letters, or build your own report from scratch.

• • • •

Display charts that users can drill down on to view detailed report data. Calculate summaries, subtotals, and percentages on grouped data. Show TopN or BottomN results of data. Conditionally format text and rotate text objects.

Active x data objects

In Visual Basic .Net, three data access interfaces are available: Active X Data Objects (ADO), Remote Data Objects (RDO) and Data Access Objects (DAO). These access interfaces are used to access the data from database.

Why use ADO? Consistently accessing data within the enterprise is a challenge for today's business applications. ODBC provides the first step toward overcoming this challenge by enabling applications to access relational databases. However, as developers and system architects want to include non-relational data sources and to work in environments such as the Internet, they encounter the dilemma of either developing their own data-access paradigms or working with application program interfaces (APIs) that are incompatible in the new environments. Microsoft® ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO) along with OLEDB solves this dilemma by providing a single model that works with all data sources in a variety of environments.

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ADO provides consistent, high-performance access to data, whether you're creating a front-end database client or middle-tier business object using an application, tool, language, or even an Internet browser. ADO is the single data interface you need for developing 1- to n-tier client/server and Web-based, data-driven solutions. This paper introduces ADO and the ADO programming model for application developers who are targeting Microsoft SQL Server™. Particular attention is given to taking advantage of SQL Server features with ADO, such as stored procedures and server cursors. The concepts presented in the sections titled "The ADO Object Model" and "Using ADO with Visual Basic, VBScript, Visual C++, and Java" are applicable to all ADO programmers.
ADO Overview

ADO was first introduced as the data access interface in Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS). ADO is easy to use because it is called using a familiar metaphor: the Automation interface, available from just about any tool and language on the market today. Because of its popularity as an easy-to-use, lightweight interface to all kinds of data, and the growing need for an interface spanning many tools and languages, ADO is being enhanced to combine the best features of, and eventually replace, RDO and DAO, the data access interfaces in widest use today. ADO is in many ways similar to RDO and DAO. For example, it uses similar language conventions. ADO provides simpler semantics, which makes it easy to learn for today's developers. ADO is designed to be the application-level interface to OLEDB, Microsoft's newest and most powerful data access paradigm. OLEDB provides high-performance access to any data source. Together ADO and OLEDB form the foundation of the Universal Data Access strategy. OLEDB enables universal access to any data. ADO makes it easy for developers to program. Because ADO is built on top of OLEDB, it benefits from the rich universal data access infrastructure that OLEDB provides. OLEDB Overview OLEDB is an open specification designed to build on the success of ODBC by providing an open standard for accessing all kinds of data throughout the enterprise. OLEDB is a core technology supporting universal data access. Whereas ODBC was created to access relational databases, OLEDB is designed for the relational and nonrelational information sources, such as mail stores, text and graphical data for the Web, directory services, and IMS and VSAM data

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stored in the mainframe. OLEDB components consist of data providers, which expose data; data consumers, which use data; and service components, which process and transport data (for example, query processors and cursor engines). These components are designed to integrate smoothly to help OLEDB component vendors quickly bring high-quality OLEDB components to market. OLEDB includes a bridge to ODBC to enable continued support for the broad range of ODBC relational database drivers available today.

OLEDB Providers

There are two types of OLEDB applications: consumers and providers. A consumer can be any application that uses or consumes OLEDB interfaces. For example, a Microsoft Visual C++® application that uses OLEDB interfaces to connect to a database server is an OLEDB consumer. The ADO object model that uses OLEDB interfaces is an OLEDB consumer. Any application that uses the ADO object model uses OLEDB interfaces indirectly through the ADO objects. An OLEDB provider implements OLEDB interfaces; therefore, an OLEDB provider allows consumers to access data in a uniform way through a known set of documented interfaces. In a sense, an OLEDB provider is similar to an ODBC driver that provides a uniform mechanism for accessing relational data. OLEDB providers not only provide a mechanism for relational data but also for non-relational types of data. Furthermore, OLEDB providers are built on top of Component Object Model (COM) interfaces that allow more flexibility; whereas ODBC drivers build on top of a C API specification. Microsoft OLEDB SDK version 1.1 shipped two OLEDB providers: the ODBC Provider and sample text provider. The sample text provider is an example that demonstrates the implementation detail of an OLEDB provider. The ODBC Provider is an OLEDB provider for ODBC drivers. This provider enables consumers to use the existing ODBC drivers without having to implement new OLEDB providers to replace existing ODBC drivers. With OLEDB version 2.0, providers for SQL Server, Oracle data, and Microsoft Jet databases were added to the SDK. For more information about OLEDB and OLEDB providers, see the OLEDB section of the Microsoft Data Access

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The ODBC Provider

The ODBC Provider maps OLEDB interfaces to ODBC APIs. With the ODBC Provider, OLEDB consumers can connect to a database server through the existing ODBC drivers in the following process: A consumer calls an OLEDB interface on the ODBC Provider. The ODBC Provider invokes corresponding ODBC APIs and sends the requests to an ODBC driver.

Because the ODBC Provider allows OLEDB consumers to use existing ODBC drivers, there may be some performance concern about the additional layer of the ODBC Provider on top of the existing ODBC driver manager. The design goal of the ODBC Provider is to implement all the functionality of the ODBC driver manager; therefore, the ODBC driver manager is not needed. However, the ODBC Provider still requires the ODBC Driver Manager to support connection pooling with ODBC applications.

The ADO Object Model

The ADO object model defines a collection of programmable objects that you can use in Visual Basic, Visual C++, Microsoft Visual Basic, Scripting Edition, Java, and any platform that supports both COM and Automation. The ADO object model is designed to expose the most commonly used features of OLEDB. The ADO object model contains their objects: • • • Connection Command Record set

The Connection Object

The Connection object allows you to establish a communication link with a data source. The Connection object provides a mechanism for initializing and establishing the connection, executing queries, and using transactions.

The underlying OLEDB provider used for connecting is not limited to the ODBC Provider; you can also use other providers for connecting. Specify a provider through the Provider property. If none is specified, MSDASQL (the ODBC provider) is the default provider used for the connection.

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The Command Object The Command object allows you to issue commands to the database. These commands can be, but are not limited to, query strings, prepared query strings, and associated parameters with query strings. The actual command language and features supported are dependent on the underlying provider for the database. The information and examples contained here focus on the Microsoft ODBC Provider that supports a wide variety of relational databases. The Recordset Object The Recordset object provides methods for manipulating result sets; it allows you to add, update, delete, and scroll through records in the result set. You can retrieve and update each record using the Fields collection and the Field objects. You can make updates on the Recordset object in an immediate or batch mode. When you create a Recordset object, a cursor is automatically opened. Dynamic Cursor Allows you to view additions, changes and deletions by other users, and allows all types of movement through the records that don’t rely on bookmarks; Allows bookmarks if the provider supports them. Key-set Cursor Behaves like a dynamic cursor, except that it prevents you from seeing records that other users ad, and prevents access to records that other users delete. Data changes by other users will still be visible. It always supports bookmarks and therefore allows all types of movement through the Records. Static Cursor Provides a static copy of a set of records for you to use to find or generate reports. Always allows bookmarks and therefore allows all types of movement through the records. Additions, changes or deletions by other users will not be visible. This is the only type of cursor allowed when you open a client side (ADO) records object. Forward-only Cursor Behaves identically to a dynamic cursor except that it allows you to scroll only forward through records. This improves performance in situation where you need to make only a single pass through a record.

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2.5 understanding the advantages of visual basic
The following key points make Visual Basic an excellent development tool: Visual Basic applications are event – driven. Even driven means the user is in control of the application. The user generates a stream of events each time he or she clicks with the mouse or pressed a key on the keyboard. Your Visual Basic application responds to those events through the code you’ve written and attached to those events. Visual Basic supports the principle of object-oriented design. This means that you can

compartmentalize different aspects of your application as objects and develop and test those objects independently of the rest of the application. By modifying certain properties and invoking the methods of these objects, you exert a great deal of control over the user’s interaction with the visual basic you’ve written. Although Visual Basic does not comply with all the concepts and principles behind the object – oriented development model supported by visual basic includes enough of these features to more than satisfy all but most ardent followers of object oriented programming

Microsoft has designed Visual Basic to be complete Windows Application Development system. This means that you’re Visual Basic Application will look and behave like other.

Windows programs your users might work with. In other words, you Visual Basic applications will conform to the windows – 95 look and feel without any extra work on your part Unlike visual c++ and other development platforms you don’t have to go to extreme measures to employ even the most sophisticated window features in your visual basic application. Visual Basic is infinitely extensible through the use of Active X controls, dynamically linked libraries (DLL’s) and add-ins. You can create these Active X controls, DLL’s and add-ion with Visual basic 6 or buy them off the shelf from a large number of third party software vendors. In fact, one of the influences driving the rapid adoption of visual basic 6 is the desire of many developers to create active X controls and DLL’s for use in other windows applications such as excel, word or Access. Visual basic offers the fastest and easiest way to create application for windows. It is a complete set of tools that simplify raid application development for both experienced professional and

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Literature Survey

novice window programmers. The visual in refers to the method used to create the GUI, rather than writing numerous line of code to describe the appearance and location of interface elements, pre built objects are dragged and dropped into place on screens. “BASIC” refers to the Basic programming Language VB evolved from the original Basic Language and how contains several hundred statements, functions, and Keyboard many of which are related directly to the windows GUI. Features • • • • • • Rapid – application development Database features to create fast, high performance applications and components Team development and scalability features with Microsoft visual Modeler, Visual Database Tools, Visual Source safe and SQL server. The ability to create reusable Active X components for traditional Client/server Architecture, Internet, and Microsoft Transaction Server. Native code compiles that can be optimized for speed, size and even for Pentium preprocessor’s. A common programming language for all Microsoft Office applications. Visual basic is providing to be most powerful and flexible way of developing for GUI’s as a windowprogramming tool Database Management as a front-end tool Internet as web programming tool. Error Finding Methods The debugging facility in the Visual Basic is also quite advanced. I have the immediate window where in at runtime I apply break and change the values in the variables. I can set break points and thus I come to know the flow and locations of errors in the code. Even as I type the code I have a runtime list that lists out the syntax and prevents us from making syntactical errors. I have used a lot of debugging methods in finding errors, there are different methods which exists but the one I frequently used was the line by line tracing of the program at runtime this is done by pressing F8 key, I also used the immediate window which shows the results of the expressions at the run time. Watch windows also helped me little. These facilities also helped Visual Basic 6.0 tools to be good.

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HRM application

Problem Formulation

CHAPTER

3

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HRM application

Problem Formulation

3.1 Introduction
Problem introduction or problem stating is the starting point of the software development activity. The objective of this statement is to answer: Exactly what must the system do? The software project is initiated by the client’s need. In the beginning, these needs are on the minds of various people in the client’s organization—the Ministry of Health and Labour especially the Labour department. The analyst has to identify the requirements by talking to the people and understanding their needs. It goes without saying that an accurate and thorough understanding of Software requirements is essentials to the success of software development effort. All further development like system analysis, System design and coding will depend on how accurate and well understood the requirements are. Poorly-analyzed and specified software will disappoint the user and will bring brief to the developer. No matter how well designed and well coded the software is, it must be a relatively simple task, but appearances are often deceiving. Chances of misinterpretation are very high, ambiguity is probable and communication gap between customer and developer is bound to bring confusions. Requirement understanding begins with a clear and concise heading stating in a sentence the task to be performed. Then Requirements are described in a technical manner in precise statements.

3.2 Detailed Description of the Project
Labour Department of the Ministry of Health and Labour (MOHL) is responsible for the government of Somaliland to act as a Directorate General of the welfare of the Labour in the country (public and private). As well, it is actively involved in development and handling of all duties of liaising between Labourers and Employers across Somaliland. This application will facilitate the department perform its national and in-office duties easily and successfully. This system maintains the information about the Employee records, it maintains each and every record about the employee regarding their posting, leave, vacancy position etc, and in the future it will include1 the details of all Employees located at various regional offices. The application software takes care of database and day-to-day operations. MOHL (Ministry of Health and Labour) has its Headquarter in Hargeisa but does not have fully-functioning regional offices in
1

Currently it does not include, but in future the system will be made sophisticated by adding fields/records for Regional offices of the department of Labour of MOHL.

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HRM application

Problem Formulation

the other regions of Somaliland, thus this project will help in capturing information regarding Human Resources through the main office in the capital city.

3.3 Major Function as Employee Management tool
The function of the system will be managing Employees at the ministry headquarter especially for those who work in the department of Labour. It manages information about Employees of Labour department at the main office in Hargeisa so that the manpower can be monitored at the main office.

3.4 Methodology Used in Carrying Out the Project
• Studying the existing system. This involved the amount of information, the manpower equipment space and other resources used for the information storage. • After analysing the existing setup this Project suggested a new management setup. The benefits and disadvantages of existing and new system had been critically revised. • The database structure and information storage retrieval process was also studied and a new system for faster response using operation research techniques had been designed.

3.5 Business Processes a) Existing System

The existing system comprises of a system in which details are to be manually handled. This is not user friendly.

b) The proposed system
It will be able to manage information about Employees in a more user-friendly way. This system will manage Employees’ information at the main office in Hargeisa. Various reports based on the data entered by the authorized officer in the main office are generated as per the need of them. These reports are helpful in Manpower management decisions.

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HRM application

System Analysis

CHAPTER

4

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HRM application

System Analysis

4.1 Defining A System
Collections of components, which are interconnected, and work together to realize some objective, form a system. There are three major components in every system, namely input, processing and output.

4.2 Systems Life Cycle
The sequencing of various activities required for developing and maintaining systems in an ordered form is referred as Systems Life Cycle. It helps in establishing a system project plan as it gives overall list of process and sub-processes required for developing any system. Here, the systems life cycle will be discussed with reference to the development of Human Resource Management System. Broadly, following are the different activities to be considered while defining the systems development cycle for the said project: Problem Definition Systems analysis Study of existing system Drawbacks of the existing system Proposed system

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HRM application

System Analysis

Systems Requirement study Data flow analysis Systems design Input Design (Database & Forms) Query /Report Design Testing Implementation Maintenance

4.3 System Analysis
System analysis is a logical process; the objective of this phase is not actually to solve the problem but to determine what must be done to solve the problem. The basic objective of the analysis stage is to develop the logical model of the system using tools such as the data flow diagram and elementary data description of the elementary algorithm. The logical model is Subject to review by both the management and the user who agree that the model does in fact reflect what should be done to solve the problem. System analysis is not a precise science. It is in fact more of an art, aided by scientific approach to find definition and recording data, gathering traditional structures is only one part of the system analysis, the next step is to examine the data, assess the situation and looking for alternatives.

4.4 Analysis and Development of the Actual Solution
A complete understanding of the requirement for the new system is very important for the successful development of a software product. Requirement Specification is the foundation in the process of software development .All further developments like system analysis; designing and coding will depend on how accurate and well documented the Requirement Specification is. Requirement specification appears to be a relatively simple task, but appearance is often deceiving. There is always a chance of wrong specification because of communication gap between the user and the Developer. Requirement Specification begins with a clear statement of the problem and the

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HRM application

System Analysis

task to be performed. Then the requirement is described in a technical manner in precise statements. After the initial specification reports are received, they are analyzed and redefined through customer interaction.

4.5

Project Overview
It will be able to manage information about Human Resources in more user-friendly way. This system will manage Employees information at Labour department in MOHL. Various reports based on the data entered by the authorized person at the department are generated at the main office of the department. These reports are helpful in Manpower management decisions.

4.6 User Interface
User will have to select the options form the given menu. The system will be entering the information into the database to generate reports. The forms will be designed to enter the data. Buttons will be used to insert, retrieve or modify the data. Links will be provided to shift from one form to another. 4.6.1 Hardware – Software Interface Windows XP/VISTA is used to host the application. The application software, Human Resource Management, is developed in VB.NET, Crystal Reports. The backend database is MS ACCESS 2003. 4.6.2 Memory Constraints No memory constraints are applicable. A normal memory configuration is more than sufficient.

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HRM application

System Analysis

4.6.3 Product Function It is advisable to have weekly data backups. The system administrator will do the data recovery. Selection of panel is user-initiated operation, while indent handling is client initiated.

4.7 Constraints of the System General Constraints
1) This system will not take care of any virus problem that might occur on the computer with which it is installed. Avoiding the use of pirated/illegal software and ensuring that floppies and other removable media are scanned for viruses before use could minimize the possibility of viral infection. 2) Recovery of data after a system crash will be possible only if backups are taken at regular intervals. 3) Manual interfaces cannot be fully avoided. Documented proofs like dates etc. will have to be verified by the concerned staff before entering it into the computerized system

Hardware Constraints
The performance of the system will be dependent on the machine conditions. The primary memory (RAM) and the secondary memory (Hard Disk Space) requirement of the system will be the same as that required by the normal application and the operating system. And the space required storing the data. The space required to store the data would increase as more and more records are added to the system.

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HRM application

System Analysis

Assumptions and Dependencies
a. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basic computer fundamentals. b. Timely backup of data should be taken to avoid data loss in case of system crash. c. Floppies and other removable media should be scanned for viruses before use. d. It is assumed that the maintenance of the database will be assigned to the authorized person only. e. Only authorized persons will be allowed inside the system.

4.8 Information Gathering
We have taken an approach of gathering information with sensitivity and precautions. 4.8.1 Information about project During the analysis, we collected whole information from the Director General of Labour of MOHL (Mr. Ibrahim Derie Hayd) whom I thank very much for his honest welcome and help during my visits to the Ministry’s compound. 4.8.2 Information Sources We have collected the information about the current system from: The DG of Labour Written Reports System Documentation Existing System

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HRM application

System Design

CHAPTER

5

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HRM application

System Design

5.1 Database Design

EMPLOYEE DETAILS
Empno Title Fname Mname Lname sex dob doj job city telephone mobileno faxno Email deptno photopath
Empno Time_in Date Status

ATTENDANCE
Empno

PAYMENTS
Emp_type Rate Hours Amoutn

Time_out

DEPARTMENTS
Deptno Dept_name Location

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HRM application

System Design

5.2 Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERD)

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HRM application

System Design

5.2.1 Login Table

5.2.2 Employee Table

5.2.3 Attendance Table

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HRM application

System Design

5.2.4 Payment Table

5.2.5 Department Table

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HRM application

System Design

5.3 Data Dictionary: 5.3.1 Log In Table.

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HRM application

System Design

5.3.2 Employee Table.

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HRM application

System Design

5.3.3 Attendance Table.

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HRM application

System Design

5.3.4 Payment Table.

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HRM application

System Design

5.3.5 Department Table.

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HRM application

System Design

5.4 Interface Design:
5.4.1 Splash Screen

Figure: Splash screen displays the name, logo and copyright of the program and disappears after 30 seconds to one minute.

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HRM application

System Design

5.4.2 Login Form

Figure: Login form is the authentication form that keeps unauthorized access to the program’s database.

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HRM application

System Design

5.4.3 Main Form

Figure: Main Form is where all the other parts of the program like: data entry forms and reports work on.

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HRM application

System Design

5.4.4 Employee’s Registration form

Figure: Employee Registration form is where the user records/registers the new employee information.

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HRM application

System Design

5.4.5 Employee Details

Figure: This form is where you can view registered employee’s details and also make modification to his details.

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HRM application

System Design

5.4.6 Department Details

Figure: This form is the one which the user registers new department and also make modification to it if it exists.

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HRM application

System Design

5.4.7 New Account

Figure: This form is where the user makes new user accounts for authorized access.

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HRM application

System Design

5.4.8 Employee Attendance form

Figure: This form is where all the employee status whether he/she is present or absent

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HRM application

System Design

5.5 Report Design
5.5.1 General Report

Figure: This is the general report that can be used for quick view of employees’ names, phone numbers, ID numbers, and jobs.

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HRM application

System Design

5.5.2

Attendance Report

Figure: This is the attendance report showing time-in and time-out of employees in their working days.

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HRM application

Testing and Implementation

CHAPTER

6
This section introduces the concept of testing and how important it is for the successful implementation of the project. Different phases of testing are described along with the level of testing incorporated in this particular project.

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HRM application

Testing and Implementation

Part I: Testing phase
6.1 Objectives of Testing:
The testing phase involves the testing of the developed system using various kinds of data. An elaborated testing of data is prepared and a system is tested using the test data. While testing, errors are noted and corrections remade, the corrections are also noted for future use. This section introduces the concept of testing and how important it is, for the successful implementation of the project. Different phases of testing are described along with the level of testing incorporated in this particular project. Testing is vital to the success of any system. Testing is done at different stages within the phase. System testing makes a logical assumption that if all phases of the system are correct, the goals will be achieved successfully. Inadequate testing at all leads to errors that may come up after a long time when correction would be extremely difficult. Another objective of testing is its utility as a user-oriented vehicle before implementation. The testing of the system was done on both artificial and live data. Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (e.g., “if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B and does C, then D should not happen”). The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions.

6.2 Types of Testing:
System Testing Testing is a set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically. System testing is done when the entire system has been fully integrated. The purpose of the system testing is to test how the different modules interact with each other and whether the entire system provides the functionality that was expected. System testing consists of the following steps: 1. Program Testing

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HRM application

Testing and Implementation

2. System Documentation 3. User Acceptance Testing The proposed system is tested in parallel with the software that consists of its own phases of analysis, implementation, testing and maintenance. Following are the tests conducted on the system. Unit Testing During the implementation of the system each module of the system was tested separately to uncover errors with in its boundaries. User interface was used as a guide in the process. Module Testing A module is composed of various programs related to that module. Module testing is done to check the module functionality and interaction between units within a module. It checks the functionality of each program with relation to other programs within the same module. It then tests the overall functionality of each module. Integration Testing Integration testing is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing. The objective is to take unittested module and build a program structure that has been dictated by design. Acceptance Testing The software has been tested with the realistic data given by the client and produced fruitful results. The client satisfying all the requirements specified by them has also developed the software within the time limitation specified. A demonstration has been given to the client and the end-user giving all the operational features. Black Box Testing Also known as functional testing, this is a software testing technique whereby the tester does not know the internal working of the item being tested. Black-box test design treats the system as a “black-box”, so it does not explicitly use knowledge of the internal

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HRM application

Testing and Implementation

structure. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. Synonyms for black-box includes: behavioral, functional, opaque-box and closed-box. White Box Testing White box test design allows one to peek inside the “box”, and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. Synonyms for white-box include: structural, glass-box and clear-box.

6.3 Quality Assurance
Proper documentation is must for any software. Apart from documentation, help files corresponding to each program were prepared so as to facilitate the ease of use of the system by the authorized user(s).

Part II: Implementation phase
The implementation is the final and important phase. It involves User training, system testing and successful running of the developed system. The users test the developed system when changes are made according to the needs. The testing phase involves the testing of the developed system using various kinds of data.

Implementation is the stage where theoretical design turned into a working system. It is planned carefully to help the system avoid unanticipated problems. Many preparations involved before and during the implementation of proposed system. The system needed to be plugged in to the organization’s network then it could be accessed from anywhere, after a user logins into the portal.

The next phase in the implementation was to educate the system. A demonstration of all the functions that can be carried out by the system was given to examination department person, who will make extensive use of the system.

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HRM application

Testing and Implementation

Out-Put Reports for Implementation
General Report

Figure: This is the general report that can be used for quick view of employees’ names, phone numbers, ID numbers, and jobs.

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HRM application

Testing and Implementation

Attendance Report

Figure: This is the attendance report showing time-in and time-out of employees in their working days.

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HRM application

Result and Conclusion

CHAPTER

7
This section discuses the result of the work done in this project And also mentions the future scope for improvement.

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HRM application

Result and Conclusion

This section discuses the result of the work done in this project and also mentions the future scope for improvement.

7.1 Conclusion
Today we are at the cross roads of innovation and technology especially in Hargeisa, where I currently live and study the Information Technology ICT. The right direction to take will only evolve with time, but efforts has to be done seriously by everyone involved in education including me; the ADMAS University College as a whole—its administration, faculties, students and parents so as to get prepared for the way forward. By designing this Project “Human Resource Management System” for the Labour department of Ministry of Health and Labour, we are able to provide both the basic and more sophisticated application softwares to our nation of Somaliland. This will enable users get their respective works done with ease. We were using the Microsoft Software Development Platform for the development of this project, which had given me a complete, tight and integrated approach for the process of design and development of this project. Hence we may conclude that this application system developed will help a great deal in modifying the manual system used by the Labour department of MOHL.

7.2 Future Scope of Improvement
The “Human Resource Management System for Labour department MOHL” is a big and ambitious project. I am thankful for being provided this great opportunity to work on it. As already mentioned, this project has gone through extensive work. On the basis of the work, we have successfully designed and implemented Human Resource Management System. This system is based upon PC usage architecture. The tools used for development were as follows. Front-end----VB.Net Back-end----Microsoft Access® 2003 Query Language----PL/SQL

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HRM application

Annexures

CHAPTER
Annexure A - Sample General Report Annexure B - List of Common Validations Annexure C - Bibliography/References Annexure D – About the Programmer

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HRM application

Annexures

Annexure A – Sample General Report

Annexure B - List of Common Validations
ID no. First Name Middle Name Last Name Job Phone No. Dept-ID

105 108 119 109 111 100 101 120 103

Khayro Canab Samatar Xamda Hodan Abdilaahi Ahmed Huda Fadumo

Ismail Dahir Ismail Ali Dahir Mohamed H. Dahir Saalax Cumar

Ahmed Hussein Ahmed Dahir Muhumed Jaamac Ahmed Mohamed Hussein

Student Nurse Accountant Secretary Finance officer IT assistant CEO Office clerk Computer operator

65370150 4445643 4407009 4440098 4111189 434326 4420001 4453323 4549331

30 50 99 20 40 27 01 80 22

116 117

Jamaal Khadar

Mohamed Hassan

Jama’ Dahir

IT consultant Network Analyst

4423324 4333421

64 23

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HRM application

Annexures

Annexure B - List of Common Validations

1. No field in any form should be left blank. 2. The name of a person cannot be numeric value. It has to be in alphabets 3. Data has to be entered in a valid format. 4. Date of Birth has to be a date previous than the current date. 5. Time has to be entered in valid format. 6. In any form, only one option can be selected from the given number of options.

7. Email addresses should be entered in a valid format, for example name@wia.com

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HRM application

Annexures

Annexure C – Bibliography/References

1. 2.

Ministry of Health and Labour especially the department of Labour HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT – Gaining a competitive advantage; 2nd Edition 2002; Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhardt, and Wright.

3. 4. 5.

Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - http//: www.wikipedia.org
Visual Basic .NET Tutorial by: Paul Michelbrink; 2004

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HRM application

Annexures

Annexure D – About the Programmer

Born in Hargeisa, Somaliland in late 1980s, WARSAME ISMAEL AHMED graduates from Admas University College – Hargeisa Main Campus (HMC), Faculty of Information & Communication Technology as Database Administrator (DBA) in the year of 2009 with cumulative GPA of 3.88 as of the eighth of nine semesters.

This project to which this page is annexed and titled with “Human Resource Management System for MOHL” has been written as a partial fulfillment to the requirements of obtaining a Bachelor Degree in ICT with Database Management Concentration.

Academically, he has studied from primary to university in Hargeisa, the GCSE and Intermediate/Primary education at ADMAS University College – Hargeisa main campus and Ga’ma Dheere School respectively. Currently he lives in Hargeisa with his family.

Warsame I. Ahmed DBA/Programmer in Hargeisa

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