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22

Current Electricity

page 598 For all problems, assume that the battery voltage and lamp resistances are constant, no matter what current is present. 6. An automobile panel lamp with a resistance of 33 ⍀ is placed across a 12-V battery. What is the current through the circuit?

12 V V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 0.36 A R 33 ⍀

Practice Problems

22.1 Current and Circuits pages 591–600

page 594 1. The current through a lightbulb connected across the terminals of a 125-V outlet is 0.50 A. At what rate does the bulb convert electric energy to light? (Assume 100 percent efficiency.) P ϭ IV ϭ (0.50 A)(125 V) ϭ 63 J/s ϭ 63 W 2. A car battery causes a current of 2.0 A through a lamp and produces 12 V across it. What is the power used by the lamp? P ϭ IV ϭ (2.0 A)(12 V) ϭ 24 W 3. What is the current through a 75-W lightbulb that is connected to a 125-V outlet? P ϭ IV

P 75 W I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 0.60 A V 125 V

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. A motor with an operating resistance of 32 ⍀ is connected to a voltage source. The current in the circuit is 3.8 A. What is the voltage of the source? V ϭ IR ϭ (3.8 A)(32 ⍀) ϭ 1.2ϫ102 V 8. A sensor uses 2.0ϫ10Ϫ4 A of current when it is operated by a 3.0-V battery. What is the resistance of the sensor circuit?

V 3.0 V R ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.5ϫ104 ⍀ Ϫ4 I 2.0ϫ10 A

4. The current through the starter motor of a car is 210 A. If the battery maintains 12 V across the motor, how much electric energy is delivered to the starter in 10.0 s? P ϭ IV and E ϭ Pt Thus, E ϭ IVt ϭ (210 A)(12 V)(10.0 s) ϭ 2.5ϫ104 J

**9. A lamp draws a current of 0.50 A when it is connected to a 120-V source. a. What is the resistance of the lamp?
**

120 V V R ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 2.4ϫ102 ⍀ I 0.50 A

b. What is the power consumption of the lamp? P ϭ IV ϭ (0.50 A)(120 V) ϭ 6.0ϫ101 W 10. A 75-W lamp is connected to 125 V. a. What is the current through the lamp?

P 75 W I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 0.60 A V 125 V

**5. A flashlight bulb is rated at 0.90 W. If the lightbulb drops 3.0 V, how much current goes through it? P ϭ IV
**

P 0.90 W I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 0.30 A V 3.0 V

**b. What is the resistance of the lamp?
**

V 125 V R ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 2.1ϫ102 ⍀ I 0.60 A

Physics: Principles and Problems

Solutions Manual

445

0 V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 4.5 ⍀ I 16.30 A 2 V 4. Repeat the previous problem.Chapter 22 continued 11. the voltmeter readings will be 60. a potentiometer to adjust the lamp’s brightness. and an ammeter that reads 85 mA. 446 Solutions Manual Physics: Principles and Problems . a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. and an on-off switch.1ϫ102 ⍀) ϭ 6. Draw a circuit using a battery. A resistor is added to the lamp in the previous problem to reduce the current to half of its original value. A ؉ V ؊ Therefore. Inc.0-V battery. What is the potential difference across the lamp? The new value of the current is 0. V V 60. 15.2ϫ102 ⍀ Ϫ 2.80 A 60.5 ⍀ in series.085 A A ؉ 85 mA 4.30 A)(6.0 V for Practice Problem 12 and 4.5 ⍀ ؉ ؊ A 13.3ϫ101 V b. a lamp.80 A R 12.1ϫ102 ⍀ c. Draw a circuit diagram to include a 60. Draw a series-circuit diagram showing a 4. How much power is now dissipated in the lamp? P ϭ IV ϭ (0.30 A 14. an ammeter. Determine the resistance and label the resistor.0 V ؊ Potentiometer 12. How much resistance was added to the circuit? The total resistance of the circuit is now V 125 V Rtotal ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 4. Both circuits will take the following form.1ϫ102 ⍀ ϭ 2. Lamp ؉ Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. A ؉ I Because the ammeter resistance is assumed zero. a.30 A)(2.5 V 53 ⍀ I ؊ V ϭ IR ϭ (0.5-V battery. Battery ؊ Switch 4.5 V R ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 53 ⍀ I 0. and a resistance of 12. Indicate the ammeter reading and the direction of the current.2ϫ102 ⍀ I 0.60 A ᎏ ϭ 0. Add a voltmeter to measure the potential difference across the resistors in problems 12 and 13 and repeat the problems.3ϫ101 V) ϭ 19 W page 600 12. Rres ϭ Rtotal Ϫ RIamp ϭ 4. adding an ammeter and a voltmeter across the lamp.5 V for Practice Problem 13. Choose a direction for the conventional current and indicate the positive terminal of the battery. a resistor.

2 Using Electric Energy pages 601–605 page 603 23. Resistance Joe states that because R ϭ V/I. a voltmeter.9ϫ104 J. because all electric energy is converted to thermal energy. Power A circuit has 12 ⍀ of resistance and is connected to a 12-V battery.0 A R 15 ⍀ Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. How much thermal energy is liberated in this time? 2.2 A R 39 ⍀ Measure the current through the wire and the potential difference across it. How much energy is used by the heater in 30. or to squander.0 W 4. Physics: Principles and Problems Solutions Manual 447 . an ammeter. so will I.0 min 3 ϩ Ϫ ϭ 4.0 min) 3. Resistance You want to measure the resistance of a long piece of wire.0 min. 19. When V increases. This decrease in potential energy is used to produce heat in the resistor. No. and the wire to be tested to make the measurement. ؉ V ؊ b. What is the current in the circuit? V 45 V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 1. Determine the change in power if the resistance decreases to 9.0 s? E ϭ I 2Rt ϭ (8.2ϫ10 J E ϭ ᎏᎏ (60. a. P1 ϭ V 2/R1 ϭ (12 V)2/12 ⍀ ϭ 12 W P2 ϭ V 2/R2 ϭ (12 V)2/9. Show how you would construct a circuit with a battery.4ϫ104 J 22.0 W increase 21.0 ⍀. 18. 2.0 A)2(15 ⍀)(30. Inc. Determine the amount of energy it will convert when it is operated for 1 h. Energy A circuit converts 2.9ϫ104 J c. if he increases the voltage. A 15-⍀ electric heater operates on a 120-V outlet.Chapter 22 continued Section Review 22. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. A 39-⍀ resistor is connected across a 45-V battery. resistance depends on the device. Divide the potential difference by the current to obtain the wire resistance. to waste.0 s) ϭ 2. Critical Thinking We say that power is “dissipated” in a resistor. 24.0 ⍀ ϭ 16 W ⌬P ϭ P2 Ϫ P1 ϭ 16 W Ϫ 12 W ϭ 4. Make sure the lightbulb will light in this circuit. Is Joe correct? Explain. What is “used” when charge flows through a resistor? The potential energy of the charges decreases as they flow through the resistor. Schematic Draw a schematic diagram of a circuit that contains a battery and a lightbulb. a.1 Current and Circuits pages 591–600 page 600 17. To dissipate is to use. What is the current through the heater? V 120 V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 8. the resistance will increase. 20. Specify what you would measure and how you would compute the resistance. A Practice Problems 22.2ϫ103 J of energy when it is operated for 3.

a. If 220 V are applied across it.78)(100. It is operated.40 29.1 W c. An automotive battery can deliver 55 A at 12 V for 1. a.1ϫ10Ϫ3 kWh)($0.65E (0.0 h/day)(30 days) ϭ 270 kWh c.0 s) ϭ 1. At $0.20 kg)(4180 J/kgи°C) b.8 kW b.3ϫ103 J b. on the average. 2.0 min? V E ϭ ᎏt R (45 V) ϭ ᎏ (5. how much does it cost to operate the heater for 30 days? Cost ϭ ($0. How much energy in kWh does it consume in 30 days? E ϭ Pt ϭ (1.12 per kWh.000 ⍀ and is plugged into a 115-V outlet. This means that 22 percent of the electric energy is converted to light energy. a.Chapter 22 continued b.8 kW)(5.7ϫ103 J 26.0-W lightbulb is 22 percent efficient. How much power does it use? P ϭ VI ϭ (115 V)(9. How much energy is used by the resistor in 5.2 h to heat a given volume of water to a certain temperature.22)(100. A digital clock has a resistance of 12.0 h each day.20 kg of water. The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. How long would a 240-V unit operating with the same current take to accomplish the same task? E ϭ IVt ϭ I (2V ) ᎏ t 2 ϭ 1. for 5.0 min) (60. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0ϫ101 A R 11 ⍀ For a given amount of energy. a.000 ⍀ b. An electric space heater draws 15.1 h 2 page 605 28. Assume that 65 percent of the heat is absorbed by the water.0ϫ101 A)2(11 ⍀)(30.0 A from a 120-V source.0 min) (60 s/min) ϭ 1.0 min)(60 s/min) (39 ⍀) 2 2 27. How many joules does the lightbulb convert into light each minute it is in operation? E ϭ Pt ϭ (0. What is the water’s increase in temperature during the 30.12/kWh) (30 days)(24 h/day) ϭ $0. How much power does the heater use? P ϭ IV ϭ (15.2 h t ϭ ᎏ ϭ 1. If the owner of the clock pays $0.6ϫ10Ϫ3 A) ϭ 1. A 120-V water heater takes 2. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 ⍀.12 per kWh. How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. A 100.0 s? E ϭ I 2Rt ϭ (2.0 J/s)(1.0 J/s)(1.3ϫ105 J c. Inc.3ϫ105 J) ᎏ ᎏ ⌬T ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ mC (1. what is the current through the stove element? 220 V V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 2.12/kWh)(270 kWh) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0 A)(120 V) ϭ 1800 W ϭ 1. doubling the voltage will divide the time by 2.10 30. how much does it cost to operate the clock for 30 days? Cost ϭ (1.0 h and requires 1. How many joules of thermal energy does the lightbulb produce each minute? E ϭ Pt ϭ (0. ϭ $32. How much current does it draw? V 115 V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 9.3 times as much energy for recharge due to its lessthan-perfect efficiency.6ϫ104 J 25.0 s/min) ϭ 4.0 s? Q ϭ mC⌬T with Q ϭ 0.6ϫ10Ϫ3 A R 12.65E 0.65)(1. How long will it Physics: Principles and Problems ϭ 17°C 448 Solutions Manual .

3)IVt ϭ (1. The headlamps use the electric charge stored in the car battery. Voltage Why would an electric range and an electric hot-water heater be connected to a 240-V circuit rather than a 120-V circuit? For the same power. Rework the previous problem by assuming that the battery requires the application of 14 V when it is recharging. Because I ϭ V /R the resistance is smaller. which produces and stores electric charge in the car’s battery. The I 2R loss in the circuit wiring would be dramatically reduced because it is proportional to the square of the current. thereby producing a “brown-out. hot and warm. 36. 34. electric energy converted to light and thermal energy in headlamps. Echarge ϭ (1.3)IVt ϭ (1. Research to improve power transmission lines would benefit society in cost of electricity.Chapter 22 continued take to charge the battery using a current of 7.” What is being saved? Power. List the forms of energy in these three operations.2 h IV (7. 31. less coal and other power-producing resources would have to be used.5 A)(12 V) V 22/R (0. Echarge ϭ (1. current. Critical Thinking When demand for electric power is high. resistance.3)(55 A)(12 V)(1.3)(55 A)(12 V)(1. chemical energy converted to electric energy in the battery and distributed to the headlamps. Mechanical energy from the engine converted to electric energy in the generator. Power Determine the power change in a circuit if the applied voltage is decreased by one-half. In which setting is the resistance likely to be smaller? Why? Hot draws more power. at twice the voltage. the current would be halved. if less power was lost during transmission.0 h) ϭ 858 Wh E 858 Wh t ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 8. P ϭ IV. Also. Physics: Principles and Problems Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 37. 33. electric energy stored as chemical energy in the battery. Energy A car engine drives a generator.25 2 P2 V 1 /R V 12 35. Chapter Assessment Concept Mapping page 610 38. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 h) ϭ 858 Wh 858 Wh E t ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 9. power companies sometimes reduce the voltage. Resistance A hair dryer operating from 120 V has two settings.5 A? Assume that the charging voltage is the same as the discharging voltage.5 A)(14 V) Section Review 22.5 h IV (7. Efficiency Evaluate the impact of research to improve power transmission lines on society and the environment. which would improve the quality of our environment. most devices will have to run longer. Inc. Electricity rate of flow rate of conversion opposition to flow current power resistance ampere watt ohm Solutions Manual 449 . so the fixed voltage current is larger.2 Using Electric Energy pages 601–605 page 605 32.5V1)2/R P1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. not energy. Complete the concept map using the following terms: watt.

How must an ammeter be connected in a circuit for the current to be correctly read? The ammeter must be connected in series. Which device turns the circuit on and off? 2 d. an incandescent lightbulb electric energy to heat and light 4 ؉ 1 ؊ 3 b.Chapter 22 continued Mastering Concepts page 610 39. Then connect the positive ammeter lead to the positive side of the break (the side connected to the positive battery terminal) and the negative ammeter lead to the negative side nearest the motor. What is the direction of the conventional motor current in Figure 22-12? (22. How should a voltmeter be connected in Figure 22-12 to measure the motor’s voltage? (22. Describe the energy conversions that occur in each of the following devices. (22. (22. Which device provides a way to adjust speed? 3 44. Figure 22-12 The positive voltmeter lead connects to the left-hand motor lead. a clothes dryer electric energy to heat and kinetic energy c. and connecting wires.1) a. 42. (22. Refer to Figure 22-12 to answer the following questions. 450 Solutions Manual Physics: Principles and Problems . Which device converts electric energy to mechanical energy? 4 46. and the negative voltmeter lead connects to the right-hand motor lead.1) a. Which wire conducts electricity with the least resistance: one with a large cross-sectional diameter or one with a small cross-sectional diameter? (22.1) Break the circuit between the battery and the motor. Inc. Define the unit of electric current in terms of fundamental MKS units.1) b. 41.1) a. Draw a circuit schematic of this simple circuit. a battery.1) from left to right through the motor 43. I ؉ ؊ I b. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. A simple circuit consists of a resistor. (22.1) A larger-diameter wire has a smaller resistance because there are more electrons to carry the charge. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. a digital clock radio 2 ! electric energy to light and sound 45.1) 1 A ϭ 1 C/1 s 40. How should an ammeter be connected in Figure 22-12 to measure the motor’s current? (22. Which device converts chemical energy to electric energy? 1 c.

A potential difference is felt over the entire circuit as soon as the battery is connected to the circuit. the temperature of the copper wire rises.2) J kgиm2 C J W ϭ ᎏᎏиᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ 3 s C s s s m2 kgиᎏᎏ s2 Therefore. The potential difference causes the charges to begin to flow. Explain why a cow experiences a mild shock when it touches an electric fence. Power Lines Why can birds perch on highvoltage lines without being injured? No potential difference exists along the wires. which causes more electrons to collide with the atoms of the wire. 54.Chapter 22 continued V Applying Concepts I A I ؉ ؊ pages 610–611 51. Explain. 56. so R ϭ ᎏ R P 47.2) The low resistance of the cold filament allows a high current initially and a greater change in temperature. the lower P is caused by a higher R. thus receiving a shock. 53. the current is halved. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. 50-W bulb V2 V2 P ϭ ᎏ . Lightbulbs Two lightbulbs work on a 120-V circuit.2) the resistance of the wire and the current in the wire 50. Which bulb has a higher resistance? Explain. so there is no current through the birds’ bodies. what effect does this have on the circuit’s current? If the resistance is doubled. V I ؉ ؊ I A By touching the fence and the ground. 48. If a battery is short-circuited by a heavy copper wire being connected from one terminal to the other. This raises the atoms’ kinetic energies and the temperature of the wire. Why do lightbulbs burn out more frequently just as they are switched on rather than while they are operating? (22. the cow encounters a difference in potential and conducts current. 49. Describe two ways to increase the current in a circuit. charges flow in the circuit almost instantaneously. What electric quantities must be kept small to transmit electric energy economically over long distances? (22. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. (22. c. 52. Either increase the voltage or decrease the resistance. Batteries When a battery is connected to a complete circuit.2) The short circuit produces a high current. How must a voltmeter be connected to a resistor for the potential difference across it to be read? The voltmeter must be connected in parallel. Note: The charges flow slowly compared to the change in potential difference. 55. Define the unit of power in terms of fundamental MKS units. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Why does this happen? (22. Physics: Principles and Problems Solutions Manual 451 . subjecting the filament to greater stress. One is 50 W and the other is 100 W.

and if the voltage and the resistance both are doubled. the current will not change. V ϭ IR. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? No.0-V battery. but when she uses a 3. so I ϭ V /R. 452 Solutions Manual Physics: Principles and Problems . a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Ohm’s Law Sue finds a device that looks like a resistor. R ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 120 ⍀ Ϫ3 25ϫ10 A ؉ Motor 1.5 A) ϭ 41 W d. When she connects it to a 1. A motor is connected to a 12-V battery. I 60. A A device that obeys Ohm’s law has a resistance that is independent of the applied voltage.1 Current and Circuits pages 611–612 Level 1 61. she measures only 45ϫ10Ϫ6 A. and the other has a low resistance. V ϭ IR. How much energy is delivered to the resistor per hour? E ϭ Pt ϭ (41 W)(3600 s) ϭ 1.0-V battery. would the ammeter have the same reading? Explain. How much power is delivered to the motor? P ϭ VI ϭ (12 V)(1. How much energy is converted if the motor runs for 15 min? E ϭ Pt ϭ (18 W)(15 min)(60 s/min) ϭ 1. Which wire will produce thermal energy at a faster rate? Why? the wire with the smaller resistance Pϭ ᎏ R V2 ! Figure 22-14 a. At 1. What is the effect on the current in a circuit if both the voltage and the resistance are doubled? Explain. Refer to Figure 22-14 to answer the following questions. so R ϭ V /I. If the ammeter in Figure 22-4a on page 596 were moved to the bottom of the diagram.5 V.5 V 4 R ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ6 ϭ 3. ؉ 27 V ؊ 18 ⍀ V Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.5 A 18 ⍀ b. Inc.0 V. 58. How much power is delivered to the resistor? P ϭ VI ϭ (27 V)(1. What should the ammeter reading be? 27 V I ϭ V /R ϭ ᎏ ϭ 1. which produces thermal energy at a faster rate. Yes.5-V battery. Mastering Problems 22. One has a high resistance.Chapter 22 continued 57. Two wires can be placed across the terminals of a 6.0 V At 3.5 A ؊ 12 V ! Figure 22-13 a. What should the voltmeter reading be? 27 V c. because the current is the same everywhere in this circuit. 59.6ϫ104 J 62. 1. as shown in Figure 22-13.5 A) ϭ 18 W b.3ϫ10 ⍀ 45ϫ10 3.5ϫ105 J Smaller R produces larger power P dissipated in the wire. she measures 25ϫ10Ϫ3 A. No effect.

How much energy is delivered to the resistor per hour? E ϭ Pt ϭ (4. does the motor use? P ϭ 2. A d. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. How much power is delivered? P ϭ IV ϭ (0. Dryers A 4200-W clothes dryer is connected to a 220-V circuit.0 ⍀ 66.4ϫ102 W 67. so E ϭ Pt E t b.50 A)(120 V) ϭ 6. Refer to Figure 22-16 to answer the following questions.9ϫ105 J ϭ (6.0 A 9. What power is dissipated by the toaster? P ϭ IV ϭ (8.0 min 1 60 s min 64.0 A. How much power is delivered to the resistor? P ϭ VI ϭ (27 V)(3.0 V I ϭ V /R ϭ ᎏ ϭ 0. How much power is delivered to the resistor? P ϭ VI ϭ (9. The current through the motor is 210 A. What should the voltmeter reading be? 9. What power.0ϫ101 W b. A lamp draws 0.0 min? The definition of power is P ϭ ᎏᎏ.8ϫ104 J 68. Toasters The current through a toaster that is connected to a 120-V source is 8. ϭ 18. a. A ؉ 9. A 12-V automobile battery is connected to an electric starter motor.Chapter 22 continued 63. What should the ammeter reading be? 27 V I ϭ V /R ϭ ᎏ ϭ 3.5ϫ103 J/s I ! b.0 A)(120 V) ϭ 9.0 A) ϭ 81 W d.5 W)(3600 s) ϭ 1.0ϫ101 W) ᎏ ᎏ 5. Inc. How much energy is delivered to the resistor per hour? E ϭ Pt ϭ (81 W)(3600 s) ϭ 2. Refer to Figure 22-15 to answer the following questions. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. How much current does the dryer draw? P ϭ IV P 4200 W I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 19 A V 220 V Figure 22-16 a.0 V ؊ 18 ⍀ V a.2 A)(120 V) ϭ 1.0 V)(0. What should the voltmeter reading be? 27 V c. How much energy is converted in 5. How many joules of energy does the battery deliver to the motor each second? P ϭ IV ϭ (210 A)(12 V) ϭ 2500 J/s or 2.0 ⍀ V I ! Figure 22-15 a. Lightbulbs A current of 1.0 V c. in watts.50 A 18 ⍀ b.2 A is measured through a lightbulb when it is connected across a 120-V source. What power is dissipated by the bulb? P ϭ IV ϭ (1.6ϫ104 J 65.5ϫ103 W 69.50 A) ϭ 4.000 J ϭ 1.5 W Physics: Principles and Problems Solutions Manual 453 . What should the ammeter reading be? 9.6ϫ102 W ؉ 27 V ؊ 9.50 A from a 120-V generator.

00 Ϫ10. Batteries A resistor of 60.0 V 73.00 0.0 A R 15 ⍀ ؊0.04 ؊0.0270 0. R ϭ 148 ⍀.0140 0.5 A? V ϭ IR ϭ (1. R ϭ 150 ⍀. 0. specify the voltage range for which Ohm’s law holds.00 Ϫ8.00 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.5 W b.06 V (volts) Level 2 75. They then measured the current through the wire for several voltages. What voltage is applied to a 4. so t Table 22-2 Voltage.40 A)(60.0390 Ϫ0.5 A)(3. Ohm’s law is obeyed when the resistance of a device is constant and independent of the potential difference. Graph I versus V.0620 ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ E ϭ Pt ϭ (4. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.00 ؊8. Physics: Principles and Problems 454 Solutions Manual . The current through the bulb is 1.0 A)(15 ⍀) ϭ 1. R R R R ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ 143 154 143 161 ⍀. Inc.02 ؊12.0ϫ103 J 71.00 Ϫ2.0510 Ϫ0.00 Ϫ4.0 V) ϭ 4.0 ⍀) ϭ 6.0520 0.00 0.0 ⍀ has a current of 0. What is the power rating of the bulb? P ϭ IV ϭ (1.0-⍀ resistor if the current is 1.2ϫ102 V 74.04 0. The resistance of the nichrome wire increases somewhat as the magnitude of the voltage increases.00 V across the wire. so the wire does not quite obey Ohm’s law.0140 Ϫ0. What voltage is placed across a motor with a 15-⍀ operating resistance if there is 8. ⍀ b.40 A through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery.5 A. For each measurement.00 ؊4.00 10. a. R ϭ 143 ⍀. ⍀.0-V potential difference. as shown in Table 22-2. How much electric energy does the bulb convert in 11 min? E The definition of power is P ϭ ᎏᎏ. Some students connected a length of nichrome wire to a variable power supply to produce between 0. V Current. The students recorded the data for the voltages used and the currents measured. V ϭ IR ϭ (8.00 12. calculate the resistance.0400 0. R ϭ 154 ⍀.00 4. ⍀.5 W)(11 min)ᎏᎏ 60 s min ϭ 3. Does the nichrome wire obey Ohm’s law? If not.00 8.0 ⍀) ϭ 24 V 72.00 Ϫ6. What is the voltage of the battery? V ϭ IR ϭ (0. R ϭ V/I (volts) (amps) (amps) 2. Flashlights A flashlight bulb is connected across a 3.00 8.00 6.0280 Ϫ0. I Resistance. A voltage of 75 V is placed across a 15-⍀ resistor.Chapter 22 continued 70. R ϭ 157 ⍀.00 V and 10.5 A)(4.06 0. c.0630 Ϫ0. for all the voltages.00 4. What is the current through the resistor? V ϭ IR V 75 V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 5.0 A of current? I (amps) a. R ϭ 159 ⍀.

08ϫ105 J) ϭ 9. Does the lamp obey Ohm’s law? No. the lamp draws 75 mA. The graph in Figure 22-17 shows the current through a device called a silicon diode.1 66 6.0-W lightbulb use in half an hour? If the lightbulb converts 12 percent of electric energy to light energy. Physics: Principles and Problems Solutions Manual 455 .0 c.75 A. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0ϫ102 ⍀) ϭ 6. Resistance depends on voltage.0ϫ10 ⍀ b.6 0. how much thermal energy does it generate during the half hour? E P ϭ ᎏᎏ t Level 3 80.88)(1.2ϫ10 A c.5. and the direction of conventional current.0ϫ102 ⍀ I 0.2ϫ102 ⍀ Ϫ3 I 5. Inc. the positive terminal of the ammeter.0 V) ϭ 0.0 W)(1800 s) ϭ 1.2ϫ10 A b.0 V) ϭ 0. ؉ ؉ ؊ 79. What is the resistance of the diode? From the graph. a battery. so 0. The voltage is increased by a 9.0 A 1 R 6. How much power does it dissipate at 9.40 A when the lamp is on.40 W c.0-V battery is used. Does the diode obey Ohm’s law? No.2 ! 0. What is the diode’s resistance when a ϩ0. a.75 A V ؍28 V b. Current in a Diode Current (A) 0.Chapter 22 continued 76. 88 percent of the energy is lost to heat. a. and an ammeter that reads 1. A lamp draws a 66-mA current when connected to a 6.40 A A 16 ⍀ I I ؍1. so Q ϭ (0.8 Voltage (V) Figure 22-17 E ϭ Pt ϭ (60. What is the lamp’s resistance when it is on? V ϭ IR 120 V V R ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 3.4 0. but the current 75 is increased by a factor of ᎏᎏ ϭ 1. Draw a series circuit diagram to include a 16-⍀ resistor. I ϭ 22 m/A.60-V potential difference is used? 0. A potential difference of ϩ0.01 0 0.60 V V R ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.70 V V R ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 32 ⍀ Ϫ2 I 2. and V ϭ IR.75 A)(16 ⍀) ϭ 28 V 77. When the lamp is cold. Lightbulbs How much energy does a 60. When a 9.0-V battery? P ϭ IV ϭ (66ϫ10Ϫ3 A)(6.02 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 0.0 factor of ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.0 V? P ϭ IV ϭ (75ϫ10Ϫ3 A)(9.70 V is placed across the diode. Indicate the positive terminal and the voltage of the battery. What is the current through the lamp as it is turned on if it is connected to a potential difference of 120 V? V ϭ IR 120 V V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2.0-V battery.08ϫ105 J If the bulb is 12 percent efficient.68 W 78.5ϫ104 J a. 5 V ϭ IR ϭ (1. How much power does the lamp dissipate when it is connected to the 6. The current through a lamp connected across 120 V is 0. its resistance is What is the lamp’s cold resistance? ᎏ (3.0ϫ101 ⍀ ᎏ1 5 1 ᎏᎏ as great as it is when the lamp is hot.

10 per kWh and the thermostat is on one-fourth of the time.9ϫ10Ϫ3 kWh $3. and a resistance of 45 ⍀ connected in series. ؉ 240.0 h)(3600 s/h) ϭ 1. E ϭ IVt ϭ (0.0 h before it must be replaced. an ammeter.0-V battery costs $3.Chapter 22 continued 81. the maximum safe voltage P ϭ V 2/R (5. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0-W.0 ⍀) V ϭ ͙PR ෆ ϭ ͙ෆ ෆෆ ϭ 45 V 86. the maximum safe power is 5. Appliances A window air conditioner is estimated to have a cost of operation of $50 per 30 days.9 Wh ϭ 5. the maximum safe current P ϭ I 2R Iϭ Ί Ί P ᎏ ϭ R 5.100/kWh) ϭ $216 87.0250 A)(9. Utilities Figure 22-19 represents an electric furnace.0 A)(1. A ؉ ؉ V ؊ 40. What is the ammeter reading? Draw arrows showing the direction of conventional current.0 ⍀ 2A 90 V 45 ⍀ I I ! ؊ Figure 22-18 V ϭ IR 90 V V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 2 A 45 ⍀ R a. Thermostat ϭ $510/kWh 83. What is the maximum current allowed in a 5. Use the figure to find the following: 456 Solutions Manual .0250 A for 26. This is based on the assumption that the air conditioner will run half of the time Physics: Principles and Problems (240.80 ⍀ 84. Batteries A 9.80 ⍀ Level 2 85.15 A Ίᎏ Ί 220 ⍀ R P 5.00 cost Rate ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ3 E 5. Inc.0 V)(26.9ϫ10 kWh b.0ϫෆ 101 W)(40. A 110-V electric iron draws 3.0 A of current. Draw a schematic diagram to show a circuit including a 90-V battery.0 V)2 4.0 V ؊ 4.25) ϭ 2160 kWh Cost ϭ (2160 kWh)($0.0 h) ϭ 5.0 W Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Calculate the monthly (30-day) heating bill if electricity costs $0.0ϫ101 W.2ϫ106 J ! Figure 22-19 E ϭ ᎏᎏ(t ) R V2 ϭ ᎏᎏ (30 d)(24 h/d)(0.0ϫ101 W ᎏᎏ ϭ 1 A 40. For the circuit shown in Figure 22-18.0 ⍀ 22.00 and will deliver 0.2 Using Electric Energy pages 612–613 Level 1 82. Calculate the cost per kWh. 220-⍀ resistor? P ϭ I 2R Iϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 0. How much thermal energy is developed in an hour? Q ϭ E ϭ VIt ϭ (110 V)(3.

45 W ϭ 4. If the cost of the battery is $2.15/kWh)(200 W)ᎏ ᎏ 1000 W $5 ϭ 200 h Physics: Principles and Problems 457 . Radios A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. The fastest speed’s resistance is R ϭ V/I ϭ 12 V/1. A 6.2 A)2(50.15 per kWh? E ϭ Pt ϭ ᎏᎏ Cost t ϭ ᎏᎏ (Rate)(P ) Cost Rate c. Cost ϭ (E )(rate) $50 Cost E ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ rate $0.0 ⍀ ϭ $18. If a person has $5.0 A R 40.5 A R 6. The same radio. it uses 0.5ϫ10Ϫ4 kW $2. Determine how much current the air conditioner will take from a 120-V outlet.0 h? Cost ϭ ($0.12 per kWh.0 min)ᎏᎏ 60 s min ϭ 2.5ϫ10Ϫ4 kW)(300 h) ϭ $0. a. When does the lightbulb use the most power? the instant it is turned on 93.0-mA current.0-V battery that supplies it with a 50. a.5 A)2(6. What is the current draw at the instant the bulb is turned on? V 120 V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 12 A R 10.0-⍀ resistor is connected to a 15-V battery.0ϫ101 ⍀ to 600 ⍀.0-⍀ resistor for 5.0 ⍀ ϭ 12.0ϫ101 ⍀.0 ⍀)(10.090/kWh 90. Inc. At its highest setting.0 ⍀ when it is not lit and a resistance of 40.2 A. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. A current of 1. A 12-V electric motor’s speed is controlled by a potentiometer. Solutions Manual ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 1 kW ($0.0 ⍀ Mixed Review page 613 Level 1 89. How much thermal energy is produced in 10.0 ⍀)(5.02 A.00/kWh b. What is the current draw when the bulb is lit? V 120 V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 3. At the motor’s slowest setting.2 A ϭ 1.02 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.050 A)(9. what is the cost per kWh to operate the radio in this manner? P ϭ IV ϭ (0. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300. by means of a converter.3ϫ104 J Level 2 92. The range is 1. What is the range of the potentiometer? The slowest speed’s resistance is R ϭ V/I ϭ 12 V/0.0 min.Chapter 22 continued and that electricity costs $0.0 min)ᎏᎏ 60 s min ϭ 556 kWh E ϭ IVt (556 kWh)(1000 W/kW) E I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (120 V)(30 d)(24 h/d)(0.0 h) b.9 A 88.2ϫ104 J 91.12/kWh) (4.5ϫ10 kW)(300.5) Vt ϭ 2. What is the current in the circuit? V ϭ IR V 15 V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2. a. b.0 h.02 A ϭ 600 ⍀.49 Cost ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ Ϫ4 (4. the motor uses 1.0 min? Q ϭ E ϭ I 2Rt ϭ (2.0 ⍀ when it is lit has 120 V placed across it. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. Lightbulbs An incandescent lightbulb with a resistance of 10.49 and it lasts for 300.0 V) ϭ 0. How much heat is generated by the resistor? Q ϭ E ϭ I 2Rt ϭ (1.2 A is measured through a 50. how long could he or she play a 200 W stereo if electricity costs $0.090 per kWh.

What is the current in the coil while it is operating? V ϭ IR 120 V V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 3. Physics: Principles and Problems 458 Solutions Manual . q. What energy is supplied to the coil in 5. how much does it cost to run the heater 6.0ϫ101 A R 4.0ϫ10 J 5 ϭ $4.Chapter 22 continued Level 3 94. At $0.5)(9ϫ10 J) ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (50.0 h 3600 s Cost ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ s day h 1kWH $0.6ϫ10 J kWh ϭ 1.0 ⍀ b. At $0. Formulate Models How much energy is stored in a capacitor? The energy needed to increase the potential difference of a charge.0 kg of water. How efficient is the motor? EW ϭ mgd ϭ (1ϫ104 kg)(9. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 m into a field each hour.10 kJ/kgи°C.0 h per day for 30 days? 500 J 6.0 min? E ϭ I 2Rt ϭ (3.6ϫ106 J kWh 1.0 A R 22. If the coil is immersed in an insulated container holding 20.0ϫ106 J Ew Efficiency ϭ ᎏ ϫ 100 Em 8ϫ10 J ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϫ 100 6 2. The motor has an operating resistance of 22.0ϫ104 L of water a vertical distance of 8.1ϫ106 J c.0 ⍀ and operates on 120 V. what will be the increase in the temperature of the water? Assume 100 percent of the heat is absorbed by the water. Q ϭ mC⌬T ϭ $7 Thinking Critically page 614 97. what is the change in air temperature in half an hour? Q ϭ mC⌬T Q ⌬T ϭ ᎏᎏ mC (0.0 ⍀ and is connected across a 110-V source.08 1 kWh ᎏ ᎏᎏ 3. Appliances An electric heater is rated at 500 W.0ϫ101 A)2(4.0 ⍀)(5.1ϫ10 J ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (20. If the specific heat of air is 1. What current does the motor draw? V ϭ IR V 110 V I ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 5. An electric motor operates a pump that irrigates a farmer’s crop by pumping 1.0 kg)(1100 J/kgиC°) 5 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Inc. a. How much energy is delivered to the heater in half an hour? E ϭ Pt ϭ (5ϫ102 W)(1800 s) ϭ 9ϫ105 J b.1ϫ106 J 5 min b. ϭ 40% 95.40 96.08 per kWh. The heater is being used to heat a room containing 50 kg of air.08 (30 days) ᎏᎏ ᎏ 6 3. and 50 percent of the thermal energy heats the air in the room.0 kg)(4180 J/kgиC°) 6 ϭ 13°C d. how much does it cost to operate the heating coil 30 min per day for 30 days? Cost ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏ (30 days) 30 min day $0. a.0 m) ϭ 8ϫ105 J Em ϭ IVt ϭ (5.08 per kWh.0 ⍀ Q ⌬T ϭ ᎏᎏ mC 1.0 min)ᎏᎏ 60 s min ϭ 8°C c. A heating coil has a resistance of 4. a.0 A)(110 V)(3600 s) ϭ 2.80 m/s2)(8.

V ϭ q/C.0 1. different ways in which you could increase the efficiency of microwave heating. it means that each coulomb would require the same maximum amount of energy to place it on the capacitor.0 0. Apply Concepts A microwave oven operates at 120 V and requires 12 A of current. The efficiency of conversion from microwave radiation to thermal energy in water is 75 percent.25 kg)(4180 J/kgи°C) Energy E ϭ area under curve Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Input 1440 J/s → Microwave converter 1440 J/s → Heat converter 1080 J/s → Useful output 810 J/s Wasted 360 J/s b.Chapter 22 continued is represented by E ϭ qV. As more charge is added. the amount of energy needed to add each charge increases as charge accumulates on the capacitor.0 5. total change times final potential difference is exactly twice the area under the curve.0 1. 98.0 3. Review your calculations carefully for the units used and discuss why your answer is in the correct form. It might be possible to use a different frequency of electromagnetic radiation to improve this rating. and its conversion efficiency from microwave radiation to heating water is also 75 percent. Its electric efficiency (converting AC to microwave radiation) is 75 percent.0 C Voltage V ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ϭ 5. Consider a 1.0 4. Physically.0-F “supercap” used as an energy storage device in a personal computer. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Or.0 F C 810 J/s ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (0. Use your equation to solve for the rate of temperature rise in degrees Celsius per second when using this oven to heat 250 g of water above room temperature. Derive an equation for the rate of temperature increase (⌬T/s) from the information presented in Chapter 12. Solve for the rate of temperature rise given the rate of energy input. and the specific heat of a substance. Discuss. in general terms.0 Charge (C) Figure 22-2b on page 593. the mass. leaving °C/s. The efficiency of conversion from electric energy to microwave energy is 75 percent.0 V)(5.0 V 1. a. it takes more energy to add the additional charge. Thus. It might be possible to find a way to convert electric energy to radiation using a different approach that would be more efficient. Inc. Label the function of each block according to total joules per second. What is the voltage across the capacitor? The area under the curve is the energy stored in the capacitor. 1 ⌬Q ⌬T ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ mC ⌬t ⌬t c.0 C) 2 ϭ 0. it might be possible to find a new Solutions Manual ϭ 13 J No. But in a capacitor. Graphically. 1 ϭ ᎏ (5. Draw a block power diagram similar to the energy diagram shown in Physics: Principles and Problems 459 . as charge is added. Find the energy in joules. ⌬T 1 ⌬Q ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ⌬t mC ⌬t → Wasted 270 J/s → q 5.0 3. The kg unit cancels and the J unit cancels.0 4. Plot a graph of V as the capacitor is charged by adding 5. Actually. e. the potential difference increases.0 2. Potential difference (V) 5.78°C/s d. Is it equal to the total charge times the final potential difference? Explain. however.0 2.0 C to it.

The containers and dishes designed for use with microwave ovens convert little of the energy. Explain. Hint: Think about heating a specific object. a. Formulate an argument to support the clerk’s claim. The conversion efficiency from microwave energy to thermal energy is good for water. in efficiency terms. Analyze and Conclude A salesclerk in an appliance store states that microwave ovens are the most electrically efficient means of heating objects. Inc. This can lead to overheating of the oven components and to their failure. in general terms. 99. a microwave oven heats mostly the potato and is more efficient than an electric oven or skillet. The empty oven means that the microwave energy has to be dissipated in the oven. In the case of heating a cup of water. racks. The physical size of a resistor is determined by its power rating. In the case of heating a potato. Formulate a diplomatic reply to the clerk. g. 101. Discuss. P ϭ I 2R 10 0 5 10 15 20 Voltage across a 10-⍀ resistor 2 PϭV R 40 30 20 10 b. an immersion heater uses only resistance for energy conversion and is nearly 100 percent efficient. 102. Make and Use Graphs Based on what you have learned in this chapter. c. identify and prepare two parabolic graphs. Formulate an argument to refute the clerk’s claim. why it is not a good idea to run microwave ovens when they are empty. voltage–power and current–power 40 Watts dissipated 30 20 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. why microwave ovens are not useful for heating everything. Explain.” 460 Solutions Manual 0 1 2 Amperes through a 10-⍀ resistor Physics: Principles and Problems . Watts dissipated 100. cabinets. “It can be true. but it depends on the specific application. etc. Apply Concepts The sizes of 10-⍀ resistors range from a pinhead to a soup can. Make and Use Graphs The diode graph shown in Figure 22-17 on page 612 is more useful than a similar graph for a resistor that obeys Ohm’s law. which also heats the air. The volt–ampere graph for a resistor obeying Ohm’s law is a straight line and is seldom necessary. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.Chapter 22 continued geometry of radiating objects to be heated to improve the efficiency. Resistors rated at 100 W are much larger than those rated at 1 W. f. It’s not as good for other materials. Hint: Think about heating a specific object. A microwave oven uses two energy conversions (electricity to microwave radiation to heat) and is typically around 50 percent efficient. Discuss.

41 N Solutions Manual 461 . and (3) derivations. Sagging lines can be dangerous if they touch objects beneath them.020 m ϭ 2.00 mm from the central bright band. First-order bright bands appear 3.3 kg/m3 at sea level. How much does she increase the entropy of the universe in that day? How does this compare to the entropy increase caused by melting 20 kg of ice? (Chapter 12) ⌬S ϭ Q/T where T is the body temperature of 310 K. Research the relationship between thermal expansion and high-voltage transmission lines. When you go up the elevator of a tall building. (2) laws.34ϫ105 J/kg)/(273 K) ϭ 2. but students should determine that transmission lines can become hot enough to expand and sag when they have high currents. (2) force is equal to mass times acceleration.9 kPa or about 2/100 of the total air pressure 107. Answers will vary. ⌬S ϭ (8. (3) power is equal to voltage squared divided by resistance.Chapter 22 continued Writing in Physics page 614 103.4ϫ10Ϫ4 m 109. In Chapter 13. There are three kinds of equations encountered in science: (1) definitions.00ϫ10 m) q q d ϭ (9. What is the magnitude of the force between them? (Chapter 20) A B F ϭ Kᎏ 2 xd L L x Cumulative Review page 614 105. first research the three categories given above.0 m)2 ϭ 0.0ϫ10Ϫ6 C is 2. What is the wavelength in air of a 17-kHz sound wave. Before you begin to write. What is the pressure change caused by riding in an elevator up a 30-story building (150 m)? The density of air is about 1.0ϫ10Ϫ5 C.80 m/s2)(150 m) ϭ 1.4ϫ106 J)/(310 K) ϭ 2. Write a one-page explanation of where “resistance is equal to voltage divided by current” fits.3 kg/m3)(9.7ϫ104 J/K For melting ice Physics: Principles and Problems (478ϫ10Ϫ9 m)(0.0 cm f 17.0ϫ109 Nиm2/C2) (3. 108. for devices obeying Ohm’s law. you learned that matter expands when it is heated. How far apart are the slits? (Chapter 19) ϭ ᎏᎏ d ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ Ϫ3 ϭ 1.4ϫ106 J per day. such as trees or other power lines. Examples of these are: (1) an ampere is equal to one coulomb per second.4ϫ104 J/K 106. ⌬S ϭ (20 kg)(3.0ϫ10Ϫ6 C)(6.0 m from a second charge of ϩ6. the definition of resistance. 104. (Chapter 13) ⌬P ϭ gh ϭ (1. A person burns energy at the rate of about 8. your ears might pop because of the rapid change in pressure. Light of wavelength 478 nm falls on a double slit. A charge of ϩ3. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 Hz Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.91 m from the slits.91 m) (3. The student’s answer should include the idea (1) that. The screen is 0. which is at the upper end of the frequency range of human hearing? (Chapter 15) v ϭ f 343 m/s v ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. Inc.0ϫ10Ϫ5 C) ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ (2. is a derivation from Ohm’s law. the voltage drop is proportional to current through the device and (2) that the formula R ϭ V/I.

and Switch 2 remains open. Next. However. 15 V Switch 2 Switch 1 1. and Switch 2 remains open. and the current eventually would become zero due to battery depletion. the capacitor voltage eventually would become zero due to leakage. What is the voltage across the capacitor and the current through the resistor immediately after Switch 2 is closed? 15 V and 13 mA 4. 1. the capacitor is uncharged. 3. if the battery and capacitor were real components instead of ideal circuit components. Initially. 462 Solutions Manual Physics: Principles and Problems . As time goes on. while Switch 1 remains open. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Switch 1 is closed.5 F 1200 ⍀ Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.Chapter 22 continued Challenge Problem page 604 Use the figure to the right to help you answer the questions below. what happens to the voltage across the capacitor and the current through the resistor? The capacitor voltage remains at 15 V because there is no path to discharge the capacitor. Switch 1 is now opened. Inc. Switch 2 is closed. the current remains at 13 mA because the battery voltage is constant at 15 V. What is the voltage across the capacitor? Why? It remains 15 V because there is no path for the charge to be removed. What is the voltage across the capacitor? 15 V 2.

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