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In this case study:
In 1998, Richard Laydoo, Kurt Bonair and Gerard Alleng authored a paper on the ecology and coral reef ecosystem of the Buccoo Reef and Bon Accord Lagoon in Tobago. 1 This paper, together with work undertaken by the Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) to formulate a management plan for the Buccoo Reef Marine Park, 2 provide the majority of information for the sections dealing with location, and biodiversity.
The Buccoo Reef is located on the leeward southwest coast of Tobago between 11o08’N and 11o12’N latitude and 60o40’W and 60o51’W longitude. Buccoo Reef comprises five emergent fringing reefs, a shallow sandy lagoon with a patchy distribution of coral communities, and an adjacent sheltered lagoon (Bon Accord Lagoon). Together these cover an area of 7km2. The reef flats are generally characterized by narrow seaward reef crests and a more extensive back reef toward the reef lagoon. Between the reef flats are sandy bottom channels, the widest and deepest is the Deep Channel located between the Western and Northern Reefs. The fore reef is most extensive in the northern part of the reef system, and here it slopes to depths of 10 to 15m in depth. West of the reef flats the fore reef slopes to a depth of 20m; to the east the fore reef slopes to a depth of 15m. The Bon Accord Lagoon is located to the south of the Nylon Pool and to the west of the Eastern Reef Flat. The lagoon is poorly flushed, and the water in the lagoon circulates every 2 to 5 days.
Figure 1: Map of Buccoo Reef Ecosystem !
Adapted from Laydoo et al. (1998)
1 Richard Laydoo, Kurt Bonair and Gerard Alleng, “ Buccoo Reef and Bon Accord Lagoon, Tobago, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago”, Coastal Region and small island papers, 3 (1998). 2 IMA, “The formulation of a management plan for the Buccoo Reef Marine Park”, volume 2 Socioeconomic aspects, (Institute of Marine Affairs, 1994).
Coral polyps are the building blocks of any coral reef. They are soft-bodied, tubular-shaped, invertebrate animals that grow to a length and height between 3mm and 56mm.3 Coral polyps have evolved a symbiotic relationship with a type of algae called zooxanthellae.4 The zooxanthellae give the coral its characteristic colour. Zooxanthellae produce sugars and oxygen through photosynthesis and aid the polyp in the process of producing limestone or calcium carbonate.5 The polyp secretes the limestone to form a hard shell around its body and attach itself to a stable substrate. During reproduction, coral polyps move across the substrate to extend coral colonies or to make new coral colonies. When the polyps die the calcium carbonate skeletons of the polyps, together with limestone deposits of coralline algae fuse to form coral reefs. Reefs grow upward as generations of coral polyps produce limestone skeletons, die and become the base for new generations. Table 1: Conditions for growth of coral reefs 6
The Buccoo Reef is a fringing reef. Fringing reefs are relatively young coral reefs that grow close to the shore; they grow upwards to sea level or just below and outwards toward the open oceans. Buccoo Reef is of Holocene origin, and lies on a Pleistocene carbonate platform which is similar to the terrestrial geology of the low lying south-western region of Tobago. 8
3 G.J. Edgar and Steve Parish, “Coral Reef Fact, Great Barrier Reef interesting facts about the reef”, Autstralian Marine Life, http://www.barrierreefaustralia.com/the-great-barrier-reef/coralfacts.htm 4 Teresa Zubi, “Coral Reefs: Reef Formation”, http://www.starfish.ch/reef/reef.html 5 Ibid
6 Science Clarified, “Biology of corals, Formation of coral reefs”, http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ci-Co/Coral.html 7 TDE, “Tobago Diving Temperatures and Visibility Table”, Tobago Dive Experience, http://www.tobagodiveexperience.com/tde/temperature.aspx 8 Laydoo et al. 1998
Figure 2: The zones profile of a typical coral reef
Source: Carothers (2007)
This section draws heavily on J.S. Kenny’s studies of the Buccoo Reef/ bon Accord Complex. Buccoo Reef is exposed to the prevailing North East trade winds for most of the year, except for periods in the dry season (January to May) when the prevailing wind direction is westerly. As a result, the Outer and Eastern Reef flats are subject to high wind and wave energy particularly in the dry season when the winds are stronger. During November and December strong oceanic swells are common, and the north-eastern fringe of the reef experiences high wave action. Water movement in the Buccoo Reef is wind-driven and generally westerly, with some reversal in the Bon Accord Lagoon and the south west channel near Pigeon Point during flood tide. Surface circulation to the west of Buccoo Reef is apparently more influenced by north-westerly water movement between Trinidad and Tobago. 9 Discharges from the Orinoco River reduce the salinity and increase the turbidity of this water during the wet season, which reduce light availability needed for coral growth. 10 However, this chronic seasonal stress has not prevented the development of massive and biologically diverse reef formations in the Buccoo Reef. 11
9 Ibid 10 Brain E. Lapointe, “Impacts of land-based nutrient pollution on coral reefs of Tobago”, (Prepared for Buccoo Reef Trust, 2003). 11 Ibid
Coral Reefs Various coral communities exist in the Buccoo Reef area, and the diversity of the area is dependent on spatial characteristics of the reef such as water depth, slope of the substrate and wave action.
Along the fore reef, the coral community is stratified according to depth. On the shallow forereef areas (2 to 6m depth) the elkhorn coral is common, although much of this coral is dead standing elkhorn coral skeletons or rubble. Star coral (which is more wave resistant than other coral types) is also present here.12 In deeper areas of the fore reef, large colonies of brain coral, starlet coral and star coral dominate the reef. In the deepest areas of the fore reef, colonies of leaf coral, gorgonians and sponges are common. A number of small coral formations characterised by one or few species, occur throughout the shallow backreef lagoon and the Bon Accord Lagoon. The coral formation in the northern areas of the backreef lagoon comprises large boulder-like reefs of star coral and brain coral, in association with sea fans. The formations in the western areas of the backreef lagoon consist of thickets of staghorn coral. In the eastern areas the coral formations also comprise staghorn coral as well as fire coral. To the south and in Bon Accord Lagoon, patches of finger coral occur in association with a calcareous green alga.
Figure 3: Coral Reefs
Figure 4: Seagrass Beds
Figure 5: Fish & Marine Animals
Seagrass Beds In the western area of the Bon Accord Lagoon, the plant and animal community comprises an extensive seagrass bed of which turtle grass is the dominant seagrass. Other marine organisms found there include macroalgae, sea urchins, molluscs, oysters and sea cucumbers. 13
Mangrove Wetlands Mangrove communities comprised of species of red, white and black mangrove trees border the south and east of the Bon Accord Lagoon in a belt several hundred metres wide.
Fish and Marine Animals In 1994, the IMA reported that there are about 70 species of fish in the reef. However, with continual degradation of the reef, this figure may now be reduced. Some of the fish species include blue tang; blue striped grunt; four-eye butterfly fish; creole wrasse and queen angel fish.14 Some other fauna include banded coral shrimp; Christmas tree worm; Caribbean reef squid; hawksbill turtle; spotted moray; and yellow tube sponge.15 The many varied habitats – different types of corals, mangrove, seagrass beds – facilitate a wide diversity of species. Although the diversity is well represented in terms of fish and coral species, Buccoo Reef is not as diverse as other areas of Tobago. The lower diversity is due to stress on the reef because of the close proximity to the Orinoco River discharge. The report also highlighted that these natural stresses may have some important management implications since the reef’s plant and animal communities will be much more sensitive and susceptible to human activities which result in direct or indirect negative impacts on the quality of the reef environment.
12 Kenny 1976 13 Ibid
14 Keisha Sandy, “ Buccoo Reef Marine Park Tour Operator’s Companion”, Department of Marine Resources and Fisheries, Tobago. 15 Ibid
Table 2: Number of marine species of various taxa recorded for Buccoo Reef and Bon Accord Lagoon 16
Note: Some taxa may contain more species than indicated in the table.
16 IMA (1994)
In 2008, a report 17 was produced by Lauretta Burke, Suzie Greenhalgh, Daniel Prager and Emily Cooper based on an economic valuation of coral reefs in Tobago and St. Lucia. The valuation project was led by the World Resources Institute, in close collaboration with IMA, Buccoo Reef Trust, CANARI and UWI. The report provides much of the information that was used in Section 2. Some important economic findings of the report are presented as “Revenue Sheets”. The next section will apply the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment18(MA) Conceptual Framework to the Buccoo Reef ecosystem to help examine some of the benefits and services that the Buccoo Reef ecosystem provides; to look at some of the problems affecting the reef; and to look at how some of these problems are being solved. The MA conceptual framework will also help us to examine the links between human wellbeing, the benefits and services that the reef provides, and the problems affecting the reef.
Box 1: Parts of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Conceptual Framework
17 Lauretta Burke, Suzie Greenhalgh, Daniel Pragerand Emily Cooper, “Coastal Capital - Economic Valuation of Coral Reefs in Tobago and St. Lucia”, World Resources Institute, 2008. 18 From 2001 – 2005, UNEP undertook an assessment of the consequences of ecosystem change on human well being and established a scientific basis for actions needed to reduce the harmful effects that humans have on ecosystems.
How do we benefit from The Buccoo Reef Ecosystem?
Tourism and Recreation (Provisioning and Cultural services) Coral reefs have long been regarded as the treasures of the sea because of their aesthetic beauty, complexity and vast biodiversity. As a result coral reefs tend to be a hub for tourist activity as well as scientific research. The Buccoo Reef ecosystem is still the highlight of Tobago tourist attractions, and boat tours of the reef are the major tourist activity. The areas of the reef used for boat tours include the Outer Reef flat, the Coral Gardens and the Nylon Pool. Other activities include snorkelling on the shallow backreef of the Outer Reef flat, and sport diving at forereef sites. 19 The Coral Gardens experiences one of the highest volumes of
tourist activity mainly because many of the other areas of the Buccoo Reef are degraded and have low fish and coral abundances.
Coral reef-associated tourism and recreation is a source of employment and livelihood for many people in Tobago. Employment is provided directly through hotels, guest houses and boat tours of the island’s reefs, and indirectly from the sale of crafts, transport services, food and beverage services and land tours. In 2005 it was estimated that tourism employed about 60% of Tobago’s workforce. In addition to being a source of employment for many, coral reef-associated tourism and recreation is Tobago’s largest economic sector and contributes about 46% of Tobago’s annual gross domestic product (GDP).
Local residents also utilize the reefs for recreational purposes. Many Trinidadians visit Tobago for vacation several times in any one year. A survey undertaken by the University of the West Indies of local residents’ use of reefs and coralline beaches estimated a contribution between TT $78 and 264 million to annual GDP. Fisheries (Provisioning service) The Buccoo Reef supports a high diversity of fish and other marine animal species, particularly in the Coral Gardens and in the forereef area.20 The surrounding mangrove also provides habitats, food sources, and nurseries for many fish and marine animal species. The Buccoo Reef inclusive of the Bon Accord Lagoon and surrounding mangroves supports fisheries which provide livelihoods for many persons in Tobago.21
19 Richard Laydoo, “The Forereef Slopes of the Buccoo Reef Complex, Tobago”, Technical Report IMA Trinidad, 1985. 20 Chris Bentley, “Effects of Reef Isolation on the rapid colonisation of Artificial Reefs by fishes on Buccoo Reef, Tobago, West Indies”, (Master’s thesis Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne, 2004). 21 FAO, “Shrimp and Pot Fishing”, Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, http://www.fao.org/fishery/fishtech/1017
Reef-fishing in Tobago is predominantly small-scale and traditional, and operates seasonally. Fishermen use pot fishing as their primary fishing method, and at times may also practice seine fishing. Pot fishing is used to catch mainly shell fish and finfish, while seine fishing can catch more species of fish but is potentially more harmful to the reef than pot fishing. Information from consultations with stakeholders including staff of the Fisheries Division, the Buccoo Reef Trust, the head of the Tobago Fisherfolk Association, several fishermen, and Tobago Live (a fish exporter), suggests that many coral reefs in Tobago are overfished, and that fish size and overall productivity of the coral fishery is declining. The economic valuation of Tobago’s reef fisheries undertaken by Burke et al. (2008) revealed some very important findings about the contributions of fisheries to Tobago’s economy and to livelihoods. Although in this study Tobago’s reefs were considered collectively, the information is quite valuable when considering the contribution that Buccoo Reef’s fisheries make to livelihoods.
Coastal Protection (Regulating service) Coral reefs protect the coastline from wave erosion by reducing the intensity of the waves as they travel towards the coast from offshore. Burke et al. (2008) suggest that coral reefs reduce wave energy by as much as 75 to 95%. High intensity waves have the ability to erode coastlines, remove sand from beaches and destroy coastal property. Mangroves also play an important role in shoreline protection especially for storms of high energy and intensity like hurricanes. The damage avoided by coral reef protection in Tobago is estimated to range from TT $108 to 198 million per year. This is the amount of money that will need to be spent on damages caused by the effects of waves if coral reefs and mangroves are removed.
The Importance of Valuing Ecosystem Services
When we attach a monetary value to an ecosystem service it becomes easier to appreciate the value of the ecosystem service. Appreciation of ecosystem services may encourage public participation and support for environmental initiatives. The economic valuation studies undertaken in Tobago attached a dollar-value to some of the services that the Buccoo Reef ecosystem provides. Valuing ecosystem services in this way is called economic valuation. Economic valuation applies different techniques for different situations. For example, some ecosystem services like food, fuel and timber are easy to valuate because they can be bought and sold on the market. Other ecosystem services like water purification, aesthetic beauty and climate regulation are not easily valuated and other valuation methods must be applied in order to attach a dollar-value to the service. More information on valuation of ecosystem services is available in “Ecosystem Services: A Guide for Decision Makers, available at: http://www.wri.org/publication/ecosystem-services-a-guide-for-decision-makers The services provided by the Buccoo Reef ecosystem enhance human well-being in a number of ways through livelihoods, food provisioning, recreation and coastal protection. These services, however, are under threat by some drivers acting on the reef ecosystem. Losing these services will mean that we need to find some other activity to provide livelihoods, to generate income to purchase food, and to offset costs due to coastal damage. We will explore these drivers in the next sections, and in the section that follows we will explore the links between ecosystem services, human well-being and drivers. If we lose the services that the Buccoo Reef ecosystem provides: What happens to the many persons dependant on these services for livelihoods? What economic activities can offset the contribution made to annual GDP by Reef’s services? What other services and benefits could we lose if we lose the Buccoo Reef?
The Drivers on The Buccoo Reef Ecosystem
Pollution in Buccoo Reef Pollution is one of the main problems affecting the Buccoo Reef, and its effects are evident by the dying corals, lack of fish and general lack of marine life in some parts of the reef. One of the major effects of pollution on the reef is EUTROPHICATION. The accumulation of nutrients in the Buccoo Reef has encouraged macroalgae to thrive and overgrow much of the coral. Overfishing of macroalgae consumers like parrotfish and surgeonfish in the reef has also allowed the macroalgae to grow unchecked. As a result many of the coral species die, the fish and other marine animals move to other areas, and that section of the reef becomes a dead zone. The source of the nutrient input into the reef is not immediately obvious, and in fact the nutrient input is suggested to come from a number of sources. One of the suggested sources is SEWAGE. Many of the houses, hotels and properties located in the reef catchment have septic tanks and soakaways built underground in the limestone rock. The sewage from these septic tanks soaks through the limestone rock in a process called percolation, and the sewage then enters the underground water table. Water is supplied to surface streams from the underground water table and these surface streams drain into the Buccoo Reef.
Another source of nutrient input to the Buccoo Reef is from AGRICULTURE, including animal farms. Many fertilizers used in agriculture contain nitrogen and phosphorous nutrients, and often not all of the nutrients are absorbed by plants. The runoff from crop fields and from farms into streams in the Buccoo Reef catchment area may also contribute to nutrient enrichment of Buccoo Reef.
What are some other likely sources of nutrients into the Buccoo Reef? Deforestation on the Main Ridge may cause soil erosion. How might this be linked to increasing sediment levels and turbidity in the Buccoo Reef? Coral damage: the downside of tourism Tourism in Buccoo Reef generates a large income for Tobago, however, tourism also comes with a price. One of the activities associated with glass-bottom-boat tours of the Buccoo Reef is reef walking. Reef walking is a practice where persons are allowed to come off of the tour boat and walk over the coral. This practice causes significant damage to the reef as the coral – in most cases - is broken or crushed. Reef walking can also stir up sediments and increase the turbidity of the water which is also detrimental for corals. The boats themselves sometimes destroy the reefs when the bottoms of the boats drag against the coral: this is called boat grounding. Studies have indicated that yacht and boat groundings are for broken and crushed corals. Coral damage can also occur naturally as a result of wave action impacting the reefs. Improper placement of anchors also destroys sections of the reef. In the next section we will look at measures to control these problems. Corals get sick too Coral diseases have the ability to destroy the coral polyps that build up the reefs. Although coral diseases are natural phenomena, the susceptibility of coral to diseases is enhanced by disturbances such as pollution, increased water temperatures or reef damage. White Band Disease Type 1, Type 2 and White pox disease are three major diseases affecting corals in the Caribbean. 22 White Band Disease is characterized by uniform bands of peeled-off tissue on corals. The bands can range from few millimetres to centimetres thick. The alarming characteristic of this disease is that it spreads from the base to the tip of the coral at a rate of 5mm per day. White Band Disease Type 1 affects elkhorn and staghorn corals, and is the only one known to cause major changes in the composition and structure of reefs, and mortality of corals.
22 Rosie E. Carr, “The Status of Elkhorn Coral, Acropora palmate in Southwest Tobago”, (Master’s Thesis Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne, 2004). 23 S. O’Farrell and O. Day, “Report on the 2005 mass coral bleaching event in Tobago, Part 1: Results from Phase 1 Survey”, Coral Cay Conservation and Buccoo Reef Trust, 2006.
Protecting Buccoo Reef
Many measures have been put in place to protect the reef from some of the problems described above. The Tobago House of Assembly and a number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and community-based organisations (CBOs) have been making efforts since the early 1970s to improve management of the Buccoo Reef. Some of these are described below.
The Buccoo Reef was formally protected in 1973 under the Marine Areas (Restricted Area) Preservation and Enhancement Act of 1970. The Act gives the reef protection against some activities like pollution of the reef, damage of the reef structure and illegal hunting of fish and marine animals. There are plans to establish the Buccoo Reef as a national park. As a national park the reef would have greater protection against activities like pollution, disturbance to habitats, and protection of coral and other threatened species like the hawksbill turtle. Buccoo Reef is also protected under international agreements like the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and the Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) Protocol. When the government signed on to these agreements, it became responsible for meeting the requirements of the agreements. Scientific research and monitoring of the reefs is a major activity ongoing in the Buccoo Reef. NGOs and CBOs in Tobago play a major role in this activity. Scientific research can help us to determine what is wrong with the reef and to provide solutions to problems. Research will also enable us to act pro-actively to prevent damage to the reef. Monitoring allows us to keep an eye on the health and state of the reef ecosystem. To reduce the damage due to improper use of anchors the Buccoo Reef Trust, the Department of Marine Resources and Fisheries of the THA and the Tobago Diving Association embarked on a project to install reef demarcation buoys. The buoys will help to prevent anchors being placed on the reef. Reef walking is now prohibited on the reefs. Reef tour operators are trained before becoming licensed tour operators. Part of the training includes general information on the Buccoo Reef and avoiding actions that damage the reef like reef-walking. Reef walking is also prohibited under the Marine Areas (Restricted Area) Order Preservation and Enhancement Act of 1970.
Education and public outreach is a major part of protecting the reef. The THA, EMA, along with NGOs and CBOs consider this a priority and are targeting users of the reef like local residents, businessmen, developers, fishermen and reef tour operators and guides. Education and public awareness are important for people to see how their actions may enhance or degrade the Buccoo Reef Ecosystem, and also how the Buccoo Reef Ecosystem is important to their livelihoods, culture and the environment. Education of local residents is key because it reinforces a sense of ownership of the reef and a greater responsibility for the reef.
Figure 6: The MA Conceptual Framework applied to the Buccoo Reef Ecosystem
The arrows represent the linkages between the different components of the framework
(See Sampling Methodologies) • Water quality testing – total suspended solids; turbidity; faecal coliform. (See Guidelines for Learning Activities) • Conducting surveys to obtain information on how people value and appreciate the Buccoo Reef.
Suggested Activities to help understand issues
Five Whys An example of how the Five Whys exercise can be used is provided below. For more information on the Five Whys exercise refer to Guidelines for Learning Activities.
Note that this example is oversimplified, and in reality issues tend to have multiple causes. This activity should be repeated to include a variety of answers for ‘Whys’- this can help students to appreciate the multitude of complex factors surrounding any one issue. Leopold Matrix An example of how the Leopold Matrix can be used is provided below. For more information on the Leopold Matrix refer to Guidelines for Learning Activities.
Alkins-Koo, Mary. 2005. Ecological Assessment and Human Impacts. BIOL 2461, Dept. Of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Alkins-Koo, Mary. 2007. Environmental Evaluation & Impact Assessment. BIOL 2461, Dept. Of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Bentley, Chris. 2004. Effects of Reef Isolation on the rapid colonization of Artificial Reefs by fishes on Buccoo Reef, Tobago, West Indies. Master’s Thesis. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Brough, David. Blue Tang. Animal World. http://animal-world.com/encyclo/marine/tangs/ BlueTang.php (accessed March 03, 2009). Buchheim, Jason. Coral Reef Bleaching. Odyssey Expeditions. http://www.marinebiology.org/coralbleaching.htm (accessed March 13, 2009). Burke, Lauretta, Suzie Greenhalgh, Daniel Prager and Emily Cooper. 2008. Coastal Capital – Economic Valuation of Coral Reefs in Tobago and St. Lucia. World Resources Institute. Carothers, Kyle. 2007. Cayman Islands Twilight Zone 2007 Exploration. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Explorer. http://oceanexplorer.noaa. govexplorations/07twilightzone/background/plan/plan. html (accessed June 29, 2009). Carr, Rosie E. 2004. The Status of Elkhorn Coral, Acropora palmata in Southwest Tobago. Master’s Thesis. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Edgar, G. J. and Steve Parish. Coral Reef Fact, Great Barrier Reef interesting facts about the reef. Australian Marine Life. http://www.barrierreefaustralia.com/the-greatbarrier-reef/coralfacts.htm (accessed March 02, 2009). Environment TOBAGO. Focus on Tobago’s Environment. http://www.scsoft.de/et/et2.nsf/KAP2VIEW (accessed February 01, 2009). FAO. 2003. Shrimp Pot Fishing. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. http://www.fao.org/fishery/fishtech/1017 (accessed March 11, 2009). Fry, Jessica. 2004. The Role of herbivory in controlling the coral-algal phase shift on nutrient impacted reefs. University of New Castle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Google Maps. Map Tobago. http://maps.google.com/ maps?hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org. mozilla:en-US:official&hs=EWE&q=map++to bago&um=1&ie=UTF-8&split=0&gl=tt&ei=g DqsSefwA9yymQe6tInfDQ&sa=X&oi=geocod e_result&resnum=1&ct=image (accessed March 02, 2009). Griffiths, David. 2004. Anthropogenic physical damage to coral reefs in Tobago. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Guy, Allan. Interview by Maurice Rawlins. Department of Marine Resources and Fisheries, Tobago House of Assembly, Tobago, 3rd February, 2009.
Hassan, Rashid, Robert Scholes and Neville Ash, eds. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends. Island Press: Washington. IMA. 1994. The formulation of a management plan for the Buccoo Reef Marine Park. Volume 4, Socio-economic aspects. Institute of Marine Affairs. Prepared for the Tobago House of Assembly. Kenny, J. S. 1976. A Preliminary Study of the Buccoo Reef/ Bon Accord Complex with Special Reference to Development and Management. Department of Biological Sciences, University of the West Indies, Trinidad. Lapointe, Brian E. 2003. Impacts of land-based nutrient pollution on coral reefs of Tobago. Prepared for Buccoo Reef Trust. http://www.buccooreef.org/Brian_Lapointe_NutrientImpacts.pdf (accessed March 13, 2009). Laydoo, Richard S. 1985. The Forereef Slopes of the Buccoo Reef Complex, Tobago. Technical Report, Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad. Laydoo, Richard S. Kurt Bonair, and Gerard Alleng. 1998. Buccoo Reef and Bon Accord Lagoon, Tobago, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, in CARICOMPCaribbean coral reef, seagrass and mangrove site. Coastal Region and small island papers 3, UNESCO Paris, xiv +347 pp. http://www.unesco.org/csi/pub/papers/laydoo.htm accessed February 25, 2009). New Jersey Fishing. Trap and Pot Fishing. http://www.fishingnj.org/techpot.htm (accessed March 11, 2009). NOAA. 2007. Major Reef-building Coral Diseases. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.coris.noaa.gov/about diseases/#white%20band (accessed March 13, 2009).
NOAA. 2008. Coral Reef Data Discovery Glossary. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Information System. http://coris.noaa.gov/glossary/ (accessed June 26, 2009). O’Farrell , S. and O. Day. 2006. Report on the 2005 mass coral bleaching event in Tobago, Part 1: Results from Phase 1 Survey. Coral Cay Conservation and Buccoo Reef Trust. Patton, Casey. Biological Profiles: Four-eye Butterflyfish. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/ ButterflyFour/ButterflyFour.htm (accessed March 03, 2009). Ranganathan, Janet, Karen Bennett, Ciara Raudsepp-Hearne, Nicolas Lucas, Frances Irwin, Monika Zurek, Neville Ash and Paul West. 2008. Ecosystem Services A guide for Decision Makers. Washington: World Resources Institute. Robinson, Laura. 2004. The Influence of Adjacent Habitats on Artificial Reef fish Assemblages on Buccoo Reef, Tobago, West Indies. Master’s Thesis. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Sandy, Keisha. Buccoo Reef Marine Park Tour Operator’s Companion. Department of Marine Resources and Fisheries, Tobago House of Assembly. Science Clarified. Coral – Biology of corals, Formation of coral reefs. http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ci-Co/Coral.html (accessed March 02, 2009). TDE. Tobago Diving Temperatures and Visibility Table. Tobago Dive Experience. http://www.tobagodiveexperience.com/tde/temperature.aspx (accessed March 03, 2009).
The Cropper Foundation (TCF). 2009. Sustainable Development Terms and Concepts: A Reference for Teachers and Students. Port of Spain, Trinidad. Turtles.org. 2005. The Hawksbill Turtle. http://www.turtles.org/hawksd.htm (accessed March 03, 2009).
UNEP. 2007. GEO4 (Global Environmental Outlook 4: Environment for Development). Malta: Progress Press Ltd. Zubi, Teresa. 2008. Coral Reefs: Reef Formation. http://www.starfish.ch/reef/reef.html (accessed March 02, 2009).
Banded coral shrimp Bluestriped grunt Blue tang Brain coral
Scientific names of plants and animals mentioned in the text Stenopus hispidus Haemulon sciurus
Paracanthurus hepatus Sepioteuthis sepioidea Clepticus parrae Millepora spp. Porites porites
Caribbean reef squid Creole wrasse Fire coral
Colpophyllia spp.; Diploria spp. Spirobranchus giganteus Acropora palmata
Christmas tree worm Elkhorn coral Finger coral Green alga
Four-eye butterflyfish Hawksbill turtle Macroalgae Molluscs Oysters
Chaetodon capistratus Halimeda spp. Eretmochelys imbricata Phylum Mollusca Pinctada radiata Scarus iserti
Bryopsis spp.; Dictyota spp.; Chaetomorpha spp.
Striped parrot fish Queen angelfish Sea fan Sea urchin
Holacanthus ciliaris Gorgonia ventalina Lytechinus variegatus Acropora cervicornis Siderastrea siderea
Spotted moray Starlet coral Star coral Turtle grass
Montastrea cavernosa; Montastrea annularis Thalassia testudinum Aplysina fistularis
Yellow tube sponge Zooxanthellae
CANARI CBO CITES EMA FAO GDP IMA MA NGO SPAW THA UWI
Acronyms used in the case study Caribbean Natural Resources Institute community based organisation Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna Environmental Management Authority of Trinidad and Tobago Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations gross domestic product Institute of Marine Affairs Millennium Ecosystem Assessment non-governmental organisation Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife Tobago House of Assembly University of the West Indies Glossary of terms used in the case study Primitive non-flowering photosynthetic plant of a large assemblage that includes mainly aquatic forms like seaweed and plankton. A cnidarian of the class Anthozoa that possesses a flexible cylindrical body and a central mouth surrounded by tentacles. Belonging to the phylum Annelida, and comprises the segmented worms, and includes earthworms, leeches, and a number of marine and freshwater species. A solitary or colonial sea squirt of the phylum Chordata, class Ascidiacea. The variability among living organisms from all sources: terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems, as well as the ecological complexes of which they are a part. Colonial cnidarians in the Order Antipatharia. They are found throughout the world’s oceans, but are most common in tropical deep water habitats from 30-80 m depth. These species of black coral have rigid, erect skeletons that form branched, bush-like colonies. A phylum containing over 9,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic mostly marine environments. Includes sea anemones, corals and jelly fish.
Algae Anemone Annelid Ascidians Biodiversity
Coralline beach Coral polyp Crustacean
A beach where instead of sand bits of coral of various sizes covers the shore. Soft-bodied, tubular-shaped, invertebrate animals that grow to a length and height between 3mm and 56mm. A subphylum of Arthropoda that includes shrimp, mantis shrimp, lobsters, crabs, water fleas, copepods, crayfish and wood lice. There are almost 40,000 described species of crustaceans. A part of a water body so low in oxygen that normal life cannot survive. The low oxygen conditions usually result from eutrophication caused by fertilizer runoff from land. Any natural or human induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. Belonging to the animal phylum Echinodermata that contains starfishes, sea cucumbers, sand dollars, brittlestars, basket stars, sea lilies, feather stars, and sea urchins. Dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. The benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include provisioning services such as food and water; cultural services such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits; and regulating and supporting services such as flood and disease control; nutrient cycling that maintain the conditions for life on Earth. The concept of “ecosystem goods and services” is synonymous with ecosystem services. Eutrophication occurs when there is an over accumulation of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous in an ecosystem, causing changes to the ecosystem. An anthozoan of the subclass Octocorallia, commonly called sea fans and sea whips. 10,000 years ago to present. Coral species in the order Gorgonacea that embeds calcium carbonate in a semi-soft, flexible material called keratin. This allows for the flexibility sea fans and sea whips require to survive in strong currents. Belonging to the class Hydrozoa within the phylum Cnidaria. The Hydrozoa contains five orders that include: small medusae with no polyp generation; colonial forms with alternating polyp and medusa stages and a chitinous exoskeleton; solitary polyps that lack a medusoid stage; colonial forms with
Ecosystem Ecosystem services
Eutrophication Gorgonians Holocene Horny corals
massive aragonite skeletons (e.g., fire coral); and complex colonial forms, with individual polyps specialized for feeding, swimming, prey capture, and reproduction. Livelihood Macroalgae Mangrove Means of living or supporting oneself. Algae that project more than one centimetre above the substratum. Evergreen trees and shrubs that grow in dense thickets or forests along tidal estuaries, in salt marshes, and on muddy coasts in the tropics and subtropics. The name also refers to the vegetal communities formed by these plants. 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago. The reef catchment is the entire area that is considered to be part of the reef. The catchment also includes areas surrounding the reef that have a direct impact on the reef. In the case of Buccoo Reef, the catchment would include the reef itself, the mangrove wetlands, the Bon Accord Lagoon, and areas of the coast adjacent to the reef. A flowering plant, complete with leaves, a rhizome (an underground, usually horizontally-oriented stem) and a root system. They are found in marine or estuarine waters. Most seagrass species are located in soft sediments. However, some species are attached directly to rocks with root hair adhesion. Seagrasses tend to develop extensive underwater meadows. Belonging to the phylum Porifera. There are approximately 5,000 living species classified in three distinct groups, the Hexactinellida (glass sponges), the Demospongia, and the Calcarea (calcareous sponges). A coral in the anthozoan order Scleractinia, also known as the hard corals. These organisms possess a hard external calcareous skeleton. A relationship between two species that appears necessary and inseparable. Can buffer the impact of waves. However, most materials are not completely wave resistant and will eventually degrade with time. The extent to which the basic material for a good life, freedom of choice, health, good social relations, security, peace of mind, and spiritual experience are satisfied. An anemone of the family Zoanthidae, usually found in intertidal areas and coral reefs. In some species the polyps separate from each other almost completely after budding, while in other species, the polyps are all interconnected by a common
Pleistocene Reef catchment
Stony corals Symbiotic relationship Wave resistant Well-being
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