THE CROPPER FOUNDATION

Aripo savanna
In this case study:

As

The Aripo Savannas
The Aripo Savannas are a natural savanna ecosystem situated between the Northern and Central Ranges in Trinidad. In August 2007, the Aripo Savannas and some of the surrounding forest ecosystems were given the designation of Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) under the ESA Rules 2001. The Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area (ASESA) includes - in addition to the savanna ecosystems - marsh forest and palm marsh. This case study will focus on the ASESA.

Section 1 History & Background
Many of the descriptions of the Aripo Savannas provided in this and other sections are drawn from a study that was undertaken by the Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI) to prepare a literature review on the Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area. 1 A recent history of the Aripo Savannas is provided in this table:

Table 1: A recent history of activity in the ASESA
2

1

2

EMA, “Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Literature Review to Facilitate the Preparation of Management Plans,” (Prepared by CANARI, 2007a). The Long Stretch Forest Reserve was established in January, 1934 under the Forest Ordinance Chapter 141 of 1916. The Long Stretch Forest Reserve is part of the Cumuto/ Arena Range under the management of the North West Conservancy.

3

SPNPPA has three main objectives: preservation of species, conservation of species, and protection of wildlife. The plan included 61 protected areas in six categories. SPNPPA was approved in principle by the Cabinet of Trinidad and Tobago. However, the legislation failed largely because of bureaucratic bickering and resource management conflict.

!Figure 1: Old Army Bunker
In 1962, W.D. Richardson undertook vegetation and ecological studies of the Aripo Savannas. His studies yielded very important information about the flora, fauna and ecosystems that exist in Aripo Savannas. Many subsequent studies have been based on these fundamental studies undertaken by Richardson, and information for his studies is still used quite extensively. Many of the descriptions provided in the sections on Climate, Soils, Vegetation and Flora are based on Richardson’s work. 4 The ASESA is located at latitude 100 35’ 30’’ N and longitude 610 12’ 0’’, and is bordered to the north by the Valencia River, to the east by the Eastern Main Road between Valencia and Sangre Grande, to the West by the Aripo River and to the south by the Trinidad Government Railway Reserve (now abandoned) - (see Figure 2). The area of the ASESA is 1788 hectares. The open savannas cover a total area of 267 hectares, and comprise three large savannas between 60.7 hectares and 80.9 hectares, one a little under 40.5 hectares, and a number of small savannas all less than 10.1 hectares. The savannas are generally flat and rise gently to the north. The microtopography, however, is undulating or broken up into hummocks in some places. The savannas are situated on old alluvial terraces elevated 30 to 45m above sea level. These terraces fan out from the foothills of the Northern Range and consist of layers of gravel, sands and clays representing depositional environments believed to be of Pleistocene age.

Location & Topography

4

W. D. Richardson, “Observations of the Vegetation and Ecology of the Aripo Savannas Trinidad,” The Journal of Ecology, 51 no.2 (1962), 295-313.

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The ASESA is delineated by the red line in the figure opposite. The savannas are numbered 1 to 10. Savannas 9 and 10 are not shown in this figure. Savanna 1 is generally used for public visits to the savannas.

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Figure 2: Map of Aripo Savannas

Source: EMA (2008 b)

Climate
Rainfall Average annual rainfall ranges from 2400 to 2600mm, with two distinct seasonal fluctuations; the dry (January to May) and wet (June to December) seasons.5 The seasonal variation of the rain is determined mainly by the annual north-south migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Temperature and Sunlight Monthly temperatures in Trinidad range from minimum of 22.7oC to a maximum of 31.3oC. 6 The average number of hours of sunshine for Trinidad is 7.2 hours. Humidity and Winds During the night and pre-dawn, relative humidity (RH) may be at 100%. In the dry season RH may be 60% in the afternoon and in the wet season 75%. The prevailing wind direction changes from dry season to wet season. During the dry season prevailing winds are from the north-east, whilst during the wet season prevailing winds are from the south-east. Wind speeds seldom exceed 40 kph and are higher during the dry season - particularly in the afternoon.

Soils
In 1953, W. P. Panton produced a study on the soils of the Aripo Savanna district.7 Panton’s work provides the majority of the information used in this section. 7 Most of the soil in the savannas has some clay component and can be divided into four slightly different soil profiles. (See Table 2.) These differences are attributed principally to slight textural variations in the parent material. Weathering and groundwater movements have modified alluvial material and created a hardpan layer (claypan) of cemented clays that is impervious to water movement. The claypan underlies the ASESA at varying depths, and in places where the claypan is close to the surface flooding occurs. The claypan is the major driver contributing to flooding of the savannas. Some of the savannas become flooded only after a rainfall event, for example savanna 1, while ! Figure 3: Flooded Section of Savanna 1 there are others that remain inundated for the entire wet season, for example savanna 9. The waterlogged conditions during the wet season inhibit root growth and function due to a lack of oxygen - a condition called “physiological drought”. Alternatively, in the dry season, the sandy soils dry out rapidly and give rise to physical drought. Also, as the claypan and fragipan dry out, they become extremely hard so that roots can no longer penetrate to the lower horizons, nor can water move upwards through the soil. Plants, however, have adapted to the conditions of low nutrient availability and the flooding or drought in the savannas and specialised forms of plants continue to thrive in the area. Some of the adaptations of plants to the conditions in the ASESA will be described in the section on vegetation.
5 6 7

EMA, “State of the Environment Report”, 1998. CSO, “First Compendium of Environmental Statistics Trinidad and Tobago”, (Ministry of Planning and Development of Trinidad and Tobago, 2007). W. P. Panton, “Field and Laboratory Studies of the Soils of the Aripo Savanna District”, (Dip. diss. Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture Trinidad, 1953).

Table 2

Soil types of Aripo Savannas 8

The uniqueness of the ecosystems (high density of rare, threatened and endemic species) of the ASESA has prompted management of the Aripo Savannas since 1980. A number of studies on the flora of ASESA have been undertaken by J.S. Beard in 1946, W.D. Richardson in 1962, S.I. Schwab in 1985 and others, and recorded a total of 457 plant species of which 39 are restricted to the Aripo Savannas, 16 to 20 are rare or threatened, and two are endemic. 9 Three main ecosystem types comprise the ASESA: open savannas, palm marsh and marsh forest. Open Savannas The soils of the open savannas are generally thin, low in nutrients and are underlaid by a claypan layer. The shallowness of the claypan prevents large stands of trees from being established; individual trees spaced far-apart from each other are more common. 10 Sedges, grasses and herbs dominate the savanna landscape. Some examples of these include Lagenocarpus tremulus (herbaceous sedge), Lagenocarpus guianensis (herbaceous sedge), Chrysobalanus icaco var. pellocarpa (shrub), Miconia ciliate (shrub), Paspalum pulchellum (herb), and Rhynchospora barbata (herb). Ground orchids like Otostylis brachystalix, Pogonia tenuis, and Epistephium parviflorum are also found in the savannas. A number of species are rare or confined to these savannas; they include clubmoss and several species of bladderwort. 11 The sundew is an insectivorous (consumes insects) plant growing in the savannas. Insectivorous plants, like the sundew, are typical of environments where nitrogen and other nutrients are limited. The plants consume insects for nitrogen. In this way, the sundew Figure 4: Sundew compensates for the low soil nutrition of the savanna soils. ! 8
9 10 11

Vegetation

Panton 1953

EMA 2007a EMA, “Administrative Record for the Environmentally Sensitive Area: Aripo Savannas Scientific Reserve”, (Port of Spain Trinidad, 2007b). Forestry Division Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, and Fisheries, “Technical Document Forestry Division/ OAS Project on the Establishment of a system of National Parks and Protected Areas”, (Port of Spain Trinidad, 1980).

Marsh Forest The marsh forest covers most of the land area of the ASESA. This forest surrounds the other two plant communities and in places it joins the palm marsh community. The marsh forest is flooded for several months of the year (during the wet season), and the plants in the marsh forest have adapted to these alternating flooding and dry conditions. Flooding is a result of the claypan which underlies the marsh forest (see explanation in section on soil). The claypan under the marsh forest is thinner and deeper than in the open savannas. The root systems of some plants, such as palms, penetrate deep into the claypan where other roots cannot. This feature allows the palms to access water during drought periods and to protect the roots from physiological drought. Another example of a plant which has Figure 5: Marsh Forest adapted to the conditions is the moriche palm which has aerial roots that allow for a part of the root to be out of the water in flooded conditions. The difference in plant communities between the open savannas and the marsh forest is stark and the ecotone therefore is very narrow and sharp. The plant community in the marsh forest can be separated into strata: the upper stratum trees consist of wild kaimit, yellow mangue, bois bande and cajuca and the lower stratum consists of biscuit-wood and agalie.12 There are a few species of plants that are restricted to the marsh forest, for example, the lady slipper orchid. Palm Marsh The palm marsh community is found fringing the savannas in a belt usually 20m wide, and in clumps in the open savannas. 13 The palm marsh usually comprises a moriche palm - fat pork association. In ecology, an “association” is defined as a group of organisms that live together in a geographical region and constitute a community with a few dominant species. The moriche palms form evenly spaced stands with a thick understory of shrubs or tall sedges or grasses. 14

Figure 6: Palm Island

12 13 14

Forestry Division 1980 J. S. Beard, “The Natural Vegetation of Trinidad”, (Oxford Forest Mem. 20, 1946). EMA 2007b

Fauna

The Aripo savannas support a diverse group of organisms many of which are rare or threatened. These include the red brocket deer, armadillo, agouti, lappe, opossum and porcupine. Earthworms also inhabit the open savannas. In the wet season, earthworm activity becomes visible on the savannas even in low-flooded conditions; the worm casts build up mounds of dirt that rise above the water surface.15 Worm casts are biologically active mounds containing thousands of bacteria, enzymes and remnants of plant materials that were not digested by the earthworm.16 Termites are also found on the savanna landscape and their ground nests can be found scattered over the open savanna. In flat areas the nests are often found associated with small clumps of vegetation. The plant communities in ASESA provide a diverse array of habitats for birds. Rare species of birds include the scarlet-shouldered parrotlet, the white-tailed golden-throat hummingbird, the savanna hawk, the sulphury flycatcher and red-bellied macaw which feeds on the seeds of the moriche palms. 17 During the flooded conditions the savannas support several species of fishes, frogs and reptiles. Water boas and caimans are common in the savannas occupying the palm marsh and marsh forest communities. 18

15 16 17 18

Richardson 1962 Mary Appelhof, “Worms Eat My Garbage”, (Michigan USA: Flowerfield Enterprises, 2006), 68. EMA, “Managing Together: a summary of the management plans for the Aripo Savannas, and environmentally sensitive area”, (prepared by CANARI, 2008a). Forestry Division 1980

Section 2

This section focuses on one of the options that exist for addressing some of the drivers that impact on the Aripo Savannas and surrounding ecosystems. Teachers and students are encouraged to identify other possible driving forces acting on the Aripo Savannas, and some responses to these challenges. See the Administrative Record for the Environmentally Sensitive Area: Aripo Savannas Scientific Reserve or Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Resource Management Plan: A Framework for Participatory Management for more information on drivers.

Figure 7: Some of the driving forces that impact on Aripo Savanna Environmentally Sensitive Area

Information for section 2 is drawn from two main sources. These are “Aripo Savannas Area Literature Review to Facilitate the Preparation of Management Plans” 19 and “Managing together: a summary of the management plans for the Aripo Savannas, an environmentally sensitive area” 20: both of these documents were prepared by CANARI.

Quarrying

Areas within the ASESA – mainly along the Aripo River - have been mined for gravel, sand and clay for use in the local construction industry since the 1960s. KP Quarries was the first quarrying company to mine the Aripo Savannas. In 1979, KP began operations on 16 hectares of the northern part of the Aripo Savannas on a one year lease. Mining operations continued until 1996 when KP Quarries pulled out of the ASESA. During the seventeen-year period, the company mined approximately 60 hectares of the area. However, KP Quarries was not the only mining operator during this time. In 1982, six companies were known to be operating on 162 hectares of the savannas and royalties were being accepted by the government on a gravel load basis. Mining operations physically damaged the savannas, and in some areas intense excavation and wash plant activities irremediably destroyed the ecology. Comparison of aerial photos of the Aripo Savannas taken in 1969 and 1994 showed that the area in the south-western part of the savannas to the north of Savanna 1 and immediately to the east of the Aripo River was destroyed by quarrying. The EMA has noted that quarrying has disturbed 2 to 5% of the marsh forest and palm marsh communities. Although quarry operations have been stopped in the ASESA, the effects are still felt (Box 1). The high demand for aggregates for the local construction industry puts the ASESA at risk for quarrying in the future. This demand from the local construction industry is an example of an indirect driver.
19 20

EMA 2007a EMA 2007b

Mining operations physically damaged the savannas, and in some areas intense excavation and wash plant activities irremediably destroyed the ecology. Comparison of aerial photos of the Aripo Savannas taken in 1969 and 1994 showed that the area in the south-western part of the savannas to the north of Savanna 1 and immediately to the east of the Aripo River was destroyed by quarrying. The EMA has noted that quarrying has disturbed 2 to 5% of the marsh forest and palm marsh communities. Although quarry operations have been stopped in the ASESA, the effects are still felt (Box 1). The high demand for aggregates for the local construction industry puts the ASESA at risk for quarrying in the future. This demand from the local construction industry is an example of an indirect driver.

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Figure 8: Black River

See the Administrative Record for the Environmentally Sensitive Area: Aripo Savannas Scientific Reserve or Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Resource Management Plan: A Framework for Participatory Management for more information. These two documents are available on EMA’s website.

Can the problems due to quarrying be reversed? If yes, how can it be done?

Discussion:

One of the forest marsh communities situated to the northwestern edge of Savanna 1 is an example of the effects of quarrying on the savannas. KP Quarries - while in operation - constructed a road through the savannas for ease of access to the quarrying site. The road acted as a dam to the Black River and caused flooding in one of the adjacent forest marsh communities. The damming of the Black River causes water to inundate that forest marsh community for almost the entire year, and has a detrimental effect on the growth of palms. The palms in that forest marsh community are now experiencing crown thinning disease. Crown thinning disease is usually a result of chronic stress; in this case the stress is the continuous presence of water to which the palms are unaccustomed.21

21

Edmund Charles, Interview, September 2008.

Fire

Fire is a major problem for the biodiversity within the ASESA. The direct impact of fire is injury or mortality of flora and fauna. The indirect impact includes the possible loss or change in biodiversity. When fires burn trees, understory plants or ground vegetation, the microclimate of the area can be radically altered, and this can subsequently affect recovery of the forest. For example, the removal of trees can result in a decrease in humidity of an area, which can cause leaf litter to dry out, and increase the susceptibility to burning. The change in microclimate also reduces the ability of the forest to recover from disturbance. Large fires occurred in 1987 and 2003, and it is suggested that these were the result of human carelessness. These fires significantly damaged large areas of palm swamp and marsh forest. It is suggested that fires are actually set by hunters to lure animals out of the forested areas. Illegal farmers may also set fires to clear areas of the ASESA for agriculture.

Hunting

Hunting for animals in the Aripo Savannas occurred on a regular basis during pre-Colombian and historic Amerindian times. Trapping and removal of birds – particularly for the brilliantly-coloured feathers of the red-bellied macaw – was common in the savannas. Indigenous peoples kept birds as pets and also used the feathers for decorative purposes. Legal restrictions linked to the protected area status of Aripo Savannas prohibit unlawful entry into the area for hunting. The lack of adequate surveillance over the savannas, coupled with the lucrative price of wild meat (that is, the meat of animals not reared for human consumption) encourages illegal hunting of small game including deer and lappe. Illegal collection of flora and fauna for private collections and for sale is also a common occurrence.

Disturbance

Residential and agricultural squatting is highlighted as a major problem in the management of the Aripo Savannas. In 2003, it was estimated that approximately 375 hectares of land within the savannas was squatted upon. Clearing the land for agriculture, as well as extensive fires and quarrying have greatly impacted on the ecology of some areas in the savannas. Forester Edmund Charles notes that squatting takes place on the borders of the savannas. From comparisons of aerial photos of the Aripo Savannas taken in 1969 and 1994, ecologist Michael Oatham concluded that the status of the savanna ecosystems changed between those years as Savannas 9 and 10 in the north of the reserve were heavily disturbed.

See the Administrative Record for the Environmentally Sensitive Area: Aripo Savannas Scientific Reserve or Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Resource Management Plan: A Framework for Participatory Management for more information.

Squatting is not occurring in the savannas but on the fringes: why is this a problem?

Discussion:

The EMA has identified possible threats to the area: 1. The development of the eTeck industrial park and the University of Trinidad and Tobago. 2. The extension of the road network in the area by the Ministry of Works and Transport of Trinidad and Tobago using the abandoned railway line that is the southern boundary of the reserve. The road has a number of associated problems including habitat disturbance, light, sound and gaseous pollution, and increased access to the savannas. 3. A town planning initiative by international consultants may lead to fragmentation of habitats, which could lead to species loss. Species loss is a problem of particular concern for the ASESA as it is home to a significant number of rare species.

Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area (ASESA)
What is an Environmentally Sensitive Area or ESA? An ESA is a portion of the environment where the landscape, wildlife or ecological functions require special legal protection so that its value can be preserved for the present and future generations.22 The EMA has selected some criteria for the designation of an area as an ESA. These include, but are not limited to an area that is: - The actual or prospective habitat of any environmentally sensitive species. - Required for protection by the government because it falls under the auspices of a ratified or acceded international convention. For example, the Ramsar Convention or the SPAW Protocol. - Unique or rare in its ecosystems, geological features or biological features. - Regarded by the scientific community as having significant value for non-destructive research. - The Aripo Savannas was declared an environmentally sensitive area on 5 June 2007. What does designation as an ESA mean for management? Specific objectives were outlined by the EMA in the designation of the Aripo Savannas as an ESA. These include: 1. Protection of habitats To ensure the protection of the integrity of the Aripo Savannas, actions or activities that alter or upset the integrity of the natural functioning of the ecosystems of the savannas, or cause undue stress to plant and animal communities, are prohibited. Table 3: Recommendations/ Interventions for prohibited actions and activities in ASESA

22 23

EMA, “Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Resource Management Plan: A Framework for Participatory Management”, (Prepared by CANARI, 2008b). EMA 2007a

There are activities that encourage preservation and sustainable management and these are permitted in the savannas. These activities include scientific and cultural research, educational activities, and any non-destructive activity that is in keeping with the enjoyment and experience of the environment of the savannas. 2. Conservation of natural resources and the environment and support of environmental education and information sharing Education is a major aspect of any plan for management of resources. It helps to transform attitudes and behaviour, which in turn influence people’s actions. In the ASESA resource management plan, several recommendations are made for education and information programmes which should: - Target local primary and secondary schools and communities in the areas surrounding the ASESA with activities that focus on some of the issues that ASESA faces, such as fire management. - Include lectures, informational brochures and posters for local community groups, corporate entities and businesses. - Establish a visitor centre which would be a hub of information for the ASESA, but would also provide a facility for training, meetings and storage of equipment. - Provide opportunities for research in the ASESA. This research can be used to guide future management of the area. The ASESA resource management plan has outlined a number of research priorities for the ASESA. Who is responsible for management? Trinidad and Tobago has signed several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) such as the SPAW Protocol 24, CITES 25 and the CBD 26 which obligate the state to support protection, preservation and sustainable management of the ASESA. Under the umbrella of the government and through support from MEAs, the EMA has the ultimate responsibility of management of the ASESA, with the Forestry Division undertaking the administrative and day-to-day responsibilities of the ASESA. A cabinet appointed committee - Aripo Savannas Stakeholder Management Committee (ASSMC) - which includes representatives from public and private sectors, NGOs, CBOs and community representatives is supposed to provide guidance and strategic direction for the management of the ASESA. In addition to the Government of Trinidad and Tobago, a number of stakeholders including community groups, individuals, NGOs, and organisations like the Sundew Tour-guiding Services play an active role in helping to manage the ASESA. One of the major challenges to management is to ensure that the efforts of the stakeholders (including the state) of the ASESA, are coordinated to avoid conflicting efforts or duplicating efforts.

Compare ASESA with other ESA areas in Trinidad and Tobago and the region - are the management systems effective there? What could be done to improve management systems in ASESA and other ESAs?

Discussion:

24 25 26

SPAW Protocol available at http://www.cep.unep.org/pubslegislation/spaw.html CITES available at http://www.cites.org/ CBD available at http://www.cbd.int/

Suggested Activities
Leopold Matrix An example of how the Leopold Matrix can be used is provided below. For more information on the Leopold Matrix refer to Guidelines for Learning Activities.

Five Whys

An example of how the Five Whys exercise can be used is used is provided below. For more information on the Five Whys exercise refer to Guidelines for Learning Activities.

Note that this example is oversimplified, and in reality issues tend to have multiple causes. This activity should be repeated to include a variety of answers for Whys to help students appreciate the many complex factors surrounding any one issue.

Suggested Sampling Methodology For The Aripo Savannas
Measuring Species Richness of Plants on the Aripo Savannas This activity is drawn from a field exercise designed by Dr. Michael Oatham of the Life Sciences Department of the University of the West Indies. 27 Diversity in communities can be considered in terms of numbers of species or other taxonomic category, e.g. species diversity. There are two main constraints to describing the diversity of communities. First, the sample from the community must be large enough to represent the community adequately. This means that large numbers of samples must be taken. The second constraint is the time and other resources needed to take these samples. Generally, as sample size increases, the study becomes more expensive in terms of time and resources and these are usually limited in availability. One of the main methods to determine a balance between these two constraints is by deriving a species-area curve. A species-area curve is derived by sampling larger and larger areas of the community until no new species are added to a cumulative species list. When no new species are encountered in new quadrats, the cumulative number of species remains the same for a further increase in sampling area. This is taken as the optimum sample size (in terms of area) for sampling this community. Background

Figure 9: Species-area curve

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27

Michael Oatham, “Measuring Species Richness of Plants on the Aripo Savannas”, (Field manual Dept. of Life Sciences Univ. of the West Indies, 2006).

Species-area curve At the end of the activity students should be able to: 1. Conduct quadrat sampling in a grassland community. 2. Construct a species-area curve for this community and derive from this an estimate of species richness and the optimum number of quadrat samples needed for sampling this community. 3. Distinguish between the common species of plants in the Aripo Savannas. Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. To sample a community of plants in the Aripo Savannas using quadrats. To draw a species-area curve for this community. To estimate the species richness (the number of species) of plants in the Aripo Savannas. To estimate the minimum number of quadrat samples needed for this sampling community.

Materials

1. Three to six 0.25m2 or 0.5m2 quadrats 2. Measuring tape 3. Magnifying glass

Field methods 1. At the Aripo Savannas study site similar areas of savanna vegetation need to be identified. Be careful not to trample the vegetation within your study area. 2. The arrangement of quadrats outlined is not mandatory and can be extended or reduced depending on the size of class, or the required sample effort.

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Figure 10: Arrangement of sampling quadrats

3. Using a 0.5m2 quadrat, lay the measuring tape down for a length of 2.0m, and locate along this the first four quadrats at the top of the sampling area. Mark the corners of the quadrats 1 to 4, and move the quadrats along to the new positions for the second set of samples (5 to 8). When these are completed, the other 8 quadrats can be set up in a similar fashion so that they are all contiguous. 4. For each quadrat, identify each species by giving it a letter name (AA, AD, BB, etc.). Use the magnifying glass to identify minute features on plants. Draw up a list of letter names and a rough sketch or description of identifying features, e.g. hairy grass, short herb with purple flowers. For each quadrat, note the presence of each of these species and the quadrat number. Remember that the Aripo Savannas is a protected scientific reserve and environmentally sensitive area and no collecting of plants or animals or damage to the habitat is allowed.

Data analysis 1. Using the quadrat labels from Figure 10, randomly select one of your quadrats and note which species are present and count them. 2. Randomly select another quadrat and count the number of species that occur in this second quadrat that did not occur in the first. Add these to the number of species in the first quadrat for a cumulative total for the 2 quadrats.

3. Calculate the cumulative number of species for 3 quadrats using step 2 and repeat until all 16 quadrats have been analysed. Construct a table of number of quadrats and the cumulative number of species. 4. Plot a line graph of cumulative number of species (y-axis) against numbers of quadrats (x-axis). 5. Identify the minimum number of quadrats required for deriving a species-area curve for this community.

Bibliography
Alkins-Koo, Mary. 2005. Ecological Assessment and Human Impacts. BIOL 2461, Dept. Of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Alkins-Koo, Mary. 2007. Environmental Evaluation & Impact Assessment. BIOL 2461, Dept. Of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Appelhof, Mary 2006. Worms Eat My Garbage. Michigan, USA: Flowerfield Enterprises. Pp 68. http://www.kitsapezearth.com/contactus.html [accessed 20 August 2008] Beard J.S. 1946. The natural vegetation of Trinidad. Oxford Forest. Mem. 20 Beeby, Alan and Anne-Maria Brennan, 1997. First Ecology. London: Chapman and Hall. Central Statistical Office (CSO). 2007. First Compendium of Environmental Statistics Trinidad and Tobago. Ministry of Planning and Development, Trinidad and Tobago. Charles, Edmund, 2008. Interview on 4th September, 2008. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 2009. The Convention on Biological Diversity. http://www.cbd.int/ (accessed 20 August 2008). Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). http://www.cites.org/ (accessed 20 August 2008.) Environmental Management Authority (EMA). 2007a. Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Literature Review to Facilitate the Preparation of Management Plans. Prepared by the Caribbean Natural Resource Institute (CANARI). Environmental Management Authority. 2007b. Administrative Record for the Environmentally Sensitive Area: Aripo Savannas Scientific Reserve. Port of Spain, Trinidad. Environmental Management Authority. 2008a. Managing together: A summary of the management plans for the Aripo Savannas, an environmentally sensitive area. Prepared by the Caribbean Natural Resource Institute for the Environmental Management Authority. Port of Spain, Trinidad Environmental Management Authority. 2008b. Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Resource Management Plan: A Framework for Participatory Management. Prepared by the Caribbean Natural Resources Institute for the Environmental Management Authority. Port of Spain, Trinidad. Forte, Maximilian C. 2006. We the Carib Community of Trinidad and Tobago. Santa Rosa Carib Community. http://www.kacike.org/srcc/weone.htm [accessed 12 August 2008]. Johnson, Kim. (2002, June 23). Aripo: A scarred National Treasure. The Trinidad Guardian, p.20.

Oatham, Michael, 2006. Measuring Species Richness of Plants on the Aripo Savannas. Field Manual. Dept. of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies. Panton, W.P. 1953. Field and Laboratory Studies of the Soils of the Aripo Savanna District. Dissertation for Diploma, Trinidad: Tropical Agriculture of the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. Richardson, W.D. 1962. Observations on the Vegetation and Ecology of the Aripo Savannas, Trinidad. The Journal of Ecology 51 (2): 295 - 313 Trinidad and Tobago. Forestry Division Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, and Fisheries. (1980). Technical Document Forestry Division/ OAS Project on the Establishment of a system of National Parks and Protected Areas. Port of Spain: Forestry Division, OAS. UNEP. 2007. Global Environment Outlook 4 (GEO4): Environment for Development. Malta: Progress Press Ltd.

United Nations Environment Programme Caribbean Environment Programme (UNEP-CEP). Overview of the SPAW Protocol. http://www.cep.unep.org/cartagenaconvention/ spaw-protocol (accessed 12 August 2008)

Additional references include:
Comeau, P.L., Y. S. Comeau, and W. Johnson. 2003. The Palm Book of Trinidad and Tobago including the Lesser Antilles. International Palm Society. Schwab, S. 1988. “Faunal checklist of the Aripo Savannas (Scientific Reserve)”. Living World: Journal of the Trinidad and Tobago Naturalist Field Club. pp. 8-11 Schwab, S.I. 1988. Floral and faunal compostion, phenology and fire in the Aripo Savannas Scientific Reserve, Trinidad, West Indies. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

APPENDIX A:
Table 1

Scientific Names of Plants and Animals mentioned in the text

Common and Scientific Names of Plants Mentioned in the Text

Table 2

Common and Scientific Names of Animals Mentioned in the Text

Sources: EMA (2007a); EMA (2007b); EMA (2008b)

APPENDIX B:
ASESA ASSMC ASSR CBD CBO

Acronyms used in this case study

Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Aripo Savannas Stakeholder Management Committee Aripo Savannas Scientific Reserve Convention on Biological Diversity Community based organisation

APPENDIX B:
CITES EMA ESA GoRTT LSFR MEAs NGO OAS RH SPAW SPNPPA US WASA

Acronyms used in this case study Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Environmental Management Authority of Trinidad and Tobago Environmentally Sensitive Area Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Long Stretch Forest Reserve Multilateral Environmental Agreements non-governmental organisation Organisation of American States Relative Humidity Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife Systems Plan of National Parks and other Protected Areas United States of America Water and Sewage Authority of Trinidad and Tobago Glossary of terms used in this study

APPENDIX C:
Aggregate

Unit of soil structure generally < 10 mm in diameter and formed by natural forces and substances derived from root exudates and microbial products which cement smaller particles into larger units. Flat elevated benches composed of unconsolidated alluvium found on either side of a stream channel. Formed when a stream down cuts into its floodplain. Alluvium is the material deposited by a stream. The variability of among living organisms from all sources: terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, as well as the ecological complexes of which they are part. Biodiversity includes diversity within and among species (genetic and species diversity) and diversity within and among ecosystems (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversity is considered at three main levels: genetic, species and ecosystem. A layer of compact, stiff, relatively impervious non-cemented clay. Mineral particle with a size less than 0.004 mm in diameter. An assemblage of species occurring in the same space and/ or time, and is often linked by biotic interactions such as competition or predation.

Alluvial terrace Biodiversity

Claypan Clays Communities (ecological)

Driver/Driving forces Ecosystems Ecotone Endemic Ferns

Any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. Dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organisms communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. The transitional area between two adjacent ecosystems or ecological communities. Native to and found only in a specified area. A group of about 11,000 species of vascular seedless plants that belong to the division Pterophyta. About 75 percent of the various species of ferns are found in the tropics. Some ferns grow on the branches of trees as epiphytes. A group of organisms that live together in a geographical region and constitute a community with a few dominant species. A dense, natural subsurface layer of hard soil with relatively slow permeability to water, mostly because of its extreme density or compactness, rather than its high clay content or cementation. Type of plant that has long slender leaves that extend from a short stem or the soil surface. A term used to describe unconsolidated sediments composed of rock fragments. These rock fragments have a size that is greater than 2 mm. A non-woody angiosperm whose above ground vegetation dies off seasonally. This period was around the 16th – 17th century.

Floral association Fragipan

Grasses Gravel Herbs Historic Amerindian period Hummock Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Liana

A general geological term referring to a small knoll or mound above ground that are typically less than 1.5m in height and tend to appear in groups or fields. Zone of low atmospheric pressure and ascending air located at or near the equator. Rising air currents are due to global wind convergence and convection from thermal heating. Location of the thermal equator. A species of plant that grows on the trunk or branches of woody plants.

Microtopography Surface features of the earth of small dimensions, commonly less than 50 ft. (15 m). Palms Pleistocene Any of numerous plants of the family Palmae, most species being tall, unbranched trees surmounted by a crown of large pinnate or cleft leaves. 1.8 million - 10,000 years ago

Pre-Colombian Of, or relating to the time before the arrival of Columbus to the Americas period

Relative humidity Sand Savanna

The ratio between the actual amounts of water vapour held in the atmosphere compared to the amount required for saturation. Relative humidity is influenced by temperature and atmospheric pressure. Mineral particle with a size between 0.06 and 2.0 millimeters in diameter. A tropical or subtropical region of grassland and other drought-resistant vegetation. This type of growth occurs in regions that have a long dry season, but a heavy rainy season, and continuously high temperatures. May also occur as a result of soil conditions e.g. Aripo Savannas. A woody plant species that is smaller than a tree. Shrubs usually do not have a trunk. Layer within a soil profile that differs physically, biologically or chemically from layers above and/or below it. The act of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied space or building that the person committing the act (squatter) does not own, rent or otherwise have permission to use. The individuals, groups or organizations that are involved in, or may be affected by a change in the conditions governing the management and use of a resource, area or sector. The layers or beds found in sedimentary rock. Also refers to the different height groupings of trees in a forest. The cover of plants, above and below ground, commonly but not always differentiated into layers (storeys, tiers).

Shrub Soil horizon Squatting Stakeholder Strata (stratum sing.) Vegetation

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