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Training & Development is the field concerned with workplace learning to improve performance. Such training can be generally categorized as on-the-job or off-the-job. On-the-job describes training that is given in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that they will use when fully trained. On-the-job training is usually most effective for vocational work. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situation which means that the employee is not regarded as productive worker when training is taking place. An advantage of off-the-job training is that it allows people to get away from work and totally concentrate on the training being given. This type of training is most effective for training concepts and ideas. TRAINING The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at technical colleges and polytechnics. In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market[attribution needed] recognise today the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: training and development. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job:
On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work.
Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on 1
the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas. Training differs from exercise in that people may dabble in exercise as an occasional activity for fun. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, and performance. Education – formal and informal – is the part of learning which is concerned with development general knowledge, understanding and background of our total environment and may continue throughout human life. The manpower service Commission’s Glossary of trading terms(1981) defines education as activities which aim at developing the knowledge, skills, moral values and understanding required in all aspects of life rather than a knowledge and skill relating to only a limited field of activity. The purpose of education is to provide the conditions essential to young people and adults to develop an understanding of the traditions and ideas influencing the society in which they live and to enable them and make a contribution to it. It involve to study to there own culture and of the laws of nature. As well as aquatic and linguistic and other skills which are basic to learning, personnel development, creativity and communication “Depending upon the nature of knowledge contained in the education, it is classified into various disciplines at different levels like arts science and commerce which are in turn divided into social sciences, physical science engineering, medical and so on. Further depending on the nature of skill, education is put into several categories like technical, non-technical and management education.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
It helps to understand the training methods It gives valuable suggestions to improve the training methods It helps to find the need for change in training methods It helps to find the whether the training program helps to increase productivity
NEED FOR THE STUDY
Management needs information on employee satisfaction in performance appraisal; the benefit from the survey is that, they will give to management an indication of general level of satisfaction regarding the effectiveness of appraisal. Hence this study titled “A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AAVIN AMBATTUR, CHENNAI“
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of Training and Development Program
SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the need for training programme. To create the awareness among the employees towards training programme To identify the effectiveness of training programme To know the training methods adopted in the company. To ascertain the relationship between working process and the training programme. To draw the opinion of employees towards training programme
1.5 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
The research instrument used in this study “structured questionnaire”. Structured questionnaire are those questionnaire in which there are predetermined question relating to the aspect for which the researcher collects data. all the respondents. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN The structured questionnaire for Appraisal System with the following types of questionnaires open ended, closed ended, multiple choice, types of questions. DATA COLLECTION Data refers to information or facts. It includes numerical figures, non – numerical figures, descriptive facts, and qualitative information. The task of data collection begins after research problem has been defined and research plan has been decided. The nature of the data is both Primary and Secondary data. The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to
PRIMARY DATA The primary data are those that are collected through questionnaire and direct personal interview. The questionnaire was framed in such a manner to obtain correct information, graded suitably for the study. SECONDARY DATA The secondary data has been collected through oral communication. Secondary data about the company profile and other details were collected from the company website.
PERIOD OF STUDY The study was under taken for a 3 months during January 08 to MARCH 08. During the period the following steps were taken: 6
Objectives were set and questionnaire was finalized. Data were collected and recorded Data were analyzed and interpreted Reports were generated SAMPLING SIZE Due to time and resource constraint the sample size has been taken as 100. In consultation with the company guide and the project guide. SAMPLING PROCEDURE Convenience sampling ha been used in this study. Convenience sampling is used for selection of homogeneous sample for the study. It refers to selection a sample of study. It is a non-probability sampling. Thus research study may include study objects, which are conveniently located. Research findings based on convenient sampling however, cannot be generalized. PILOT SURVEY A pilot survey with 20 samples from employees was conducted for testing the validity of the questions. It was found that there was no need for changes in the questionnaire and hence the same questionnaire was used for final survey also.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Time was the main constraint. The project should be completed within stipulated time limit.
Since the project is of qualitative nature there was the participant’s bias in some cases. Some information cannot be accessed due to its confidential nature. Cost is also the main constrain as this research involves massive amount for the purpose of meeting the employees in different branches.
Chapterisation includes the following contents
Chapter one consist of introduction, scope of study, need for study, objectives of study, methodology of study, limitations of study and chapterisation.
• • • •
Chapter two includes industry profile, company profile and product profile. Chapter three includes review of literature. Chapter four includes analysis and interpretation. Chapter five includes findings, suggestions and conclusions.
National Diary Development Board (NDDB)
Diary co-operative account for the major share of processed liquid milk marketed in the country. Milk is processed and marketed by 170 milk producers’ co-operative unions, which federate into 15 state co-operative milk marketing federations.
The diary development board’s programmes and activities seek to strengthen the functioning of diary co-operatives, as producer-owned and controlled organizations. NDDB supports the development of diary co-operatives by providing them financial assistance and technical expertise, insuring a better future for Indian farmers.
Over the years, brands created by co-operatives have become synonymous with quality and value. Brands like Amul (GCMMF), Vijaya (AP), Verka (Punjab), Saras (Rajasthan), Nandini (Karnataka), Milma (Kerala), Gokul (Kolhapur), Aavin(Tamilnadu), are those that have earned customers confidence.
Some of the major diary co-operatives federations include a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Andra Pradesh Diary Development Co-operative Federation Ltd.,(APDDCF) Bihar State Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd.,(COMPFED) Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd.,(GCMMF) Hariyana diary Development Co-operative Federation Himachal Pradesh state Milk Producers Federation Ltd., (HPSCMPF) Karnataka co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd., (KMF) Kerala state co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd., (KCMMF) Madhya Pradesh state co-operative Dairy Federation Ltd., (MPCDF) Maharastra Rajya Shakari Maryadit Dugdh Mahasangh Orissa State Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd., (OMFED) 10
Prdeshik Co-operative Dairy Federation Ltd., (UP PCDF) Punjab State Co-operative Dairy Federation Ltd., (MILK FED)
m) Rajasthan co-operative Dairy Federation Ltd., (RCDF) n) o) Tamilnadu co-operative Dairy Federation Ltd., (TCMPF) West Bengal co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd., (WBCMPF)
ACHIEVMENT OF DIARY CO-OPERATIVES:
Commitments to help rural help themselves has guided the diary boards work for more than 30 years this commitment has been rewarded with achievements made by co-operative diaries in milk production, employment generation, percapital availability of milk, foreign exchange Savings and increased farmer incomes.
The Diary Co-operative Network. Include 170 milk unions. Operates in over 285 districts.
Covers nearly 96,000 village level societies. Is owned by nearly 10.7 million farmer members.
1. India’s milk production increased from 21.2 million MT in 1968-69 to 78.1 million MT in 1999-2000.Per capita availability of milk presently is 213 grams per day, up from 107 grams per day in 1969-70
India’s 4% annual growth of milk production surpasses the 2% growth in population. The net increase in availability is around 2% per year.
2. Diary Co-operatives now market milk in about 200 classes 1 town and During the last decade, the daily milk supply to each 1000 urban Indians some 550. has increased from 17.5 to 43.5 liters.
1. Bulk − vending − saving money and environment. 2. Milk travels as far as 2200 Kms to deficit areas, carried by innovative and road milk tanker. 3. 95% of diary equipment is produced in India, saving valuable foreign exchange.
1. 2. The annual value of India’s milk production amounts to Rs.780 billion. Diary co-operative generate employment opportunities for some 10.5 million farm families.
The perspective 2010 plan of the Diary Board maps the future of dairying in India, setting realistic goal for strengthen co-operative business, production enhancement, assuring quality, and creating National Information Network. The plan was realistic with the successful completion of the operation flood program and has developed by the State milk Marketing Federation and the Milk Producer’s Co-operative Unions in consultation with the diary Board. The perspective 2010 goals and strategies to meet them have been drawn by its actual implementersfederation and unions and supported by NDDB. (National Diary Development Board) 12
PERSPECTIVE 2010 GOALS:
1. Increase liquid milk procurement by co-operatives to 33% (488 lakhs kilograms per day) of the marketable surplus in operation Flood Areas constituting 80% of the National Milk Produced (i.e. quadruple liquid milk procurement by the year 2010)
2. Increase liquid milk sales to 365 lakhs kilo grams per day, more than 60% of the market shares in metros, and on average of close to 50%in class 1 cities served by Co-operative (i.e. triple fluid milk marketing by the year 2010)
INTRODUCTION: TCMPF ltd. Is an apex co-operative federation in Tamilnadu government of India formulated milk supply scheme developed in 1963. This scheme was taken over by the Dairy Development Department which was subsequently taken over by the establishment, while Tamilnadu Dairy Development Corporation (TNDDC) the government of Tamilnadu under taken in ANAND (place in Gujarat-AMUL) pattern. And apex Federation was formed on 1-2-1981, with 3-tier system. Village level milk producers, society district level unions and state level federation. The federation has to arrange for marketing of surplus milk and milk products. FEDERATION AND OVERVIEW: Diary sector has assumed much significance by generating income not only to rural but also to the urban population the state especially to the women folk by providing self- employment opportunity. TCMPF was registered as a “co-operative under Tamilnadu co-operative societies act 53 of 1961” on 15-12-1980 and the federation took over the activities of the diary development department organizing registration supervision and control of milk co-operatives. are
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of TCMPF is to make available quality milk and milk products to urban consumers as reasonable products. FEATURES OF FEDERATION: To carry out act for promptly production, procurement, processing and marketing of milk and milk products for the economic development of farmer’s community. Purchase diary products and commodities from the members or from other source without affecting the interest of members. Establish the quality control. Provide vetnary aid and artificial insemination services. To purchase or to erect building, plant, machinery and other ancillary equipment to carry equipment to carry out the business of the federation. Encourage folder production by members, union and societies. The commissioner for milk production of any diary development is the head of the diary development department in Tamilnadu. He has been appointment as the registrar of milk co-operatives under the Tamilnadu co-operatives societies act 53 of 1961. DAIRY The Tamilnadu Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Ltd. constituted on the 1st February 1981 is handling the entire commercial activities of procurement, processing and marketing of milk and milk products. The Federation had implemented the Dairy Development activities with the funds provided by the National Dairy Development Board under Operation Flood Programmed in 24 Districts and in Non-operation Flood Districts Dairy Development activities are implemented by the Dairy Development Department through budgetary support both under State/Central Plans. To facilitate, better administration and qualitative improvement of integrated Dairy Development, there are 17 Districts Cooperative milk Producer’s Unions covering all 28 Revenue Districts except Chennai. The normal activities of milk procurement and distribution are being attended to by the District Unions. However, for genetic improvement of milch animals, the Federation through the 15
two bull mother farms owned and managed by TCMPF carries out the production of frozen semen both for white cattle and black cattle. The Federation owns four dairies, one at Ambattur with a capacity of 4.00 lakh liters per day, one at Madhavaram with a capacity of 1.75 lakh liters per day, a third dairy at Sholinganallur with a capacity of 4.00 lakh liters per day. These dairies cater to the processing, packing and distribution of liquid milk in and around Chennai City. The fourth dairy, a product dairy at Ayyanavaram with a capacity of 12000 liters per day, is engaged in the manufacture of milk by-products such as yogurt, ice-cream and khova The Federation supervises and coordinates the activities of the District Unions and provides technical expertise as and when required and also undertakes planning and erection/expansion of Dairies and Chilling Centers of the unions on turnkey basis. The Federation helps the Unions in marketing their milk products like Skimmed milk powder, Ghee, Butter and Cheese both within and outside the state. OBJECTIVES OF THE DAIRY Assure a remunerative price for the milk produced by the milk producers' societies through a stable, steady and well organized market support. Distribution of quality milk and milk products at reasonable prices to the consumers. Bearing the above two objectives in mind, the following major multifarious activities are undertaken by the Dairy Development Department. Provision of free veterinary health cover to all animals owned by the members of milk cooperatives, implementation of Artificial Insemination Programmed, supply of balanced cattle feed and inculcation of farmers with the modern animal husbandry methods and practices. All activities, which are essential for the up gradation of the milch animals and improving their productivity in the long run, are also to be imparted on them. Provision/creation of necessary infrastructure facilities for the enhancement of processing and marketing has been made by way of establishing new chilling centers, pasteurization plants and adoption of modern marketing system in order to supply quality milk to the consumers. FUNCTIONS OF THE DAIRY 16
The main functions of the Dairy Development Department are Organization of societies, registration of societies, supervision and control of primary milk cooperatives, District Cooperative Milk Producers Union and Tamilnadu Cooperative Milk Producers Federation. The Dairy Development Department exercises statutory function - like Inquiry, Inspection, Surcharge and Super session, appointment of special officer’s liquidation and winding up of dormant Societies etc. The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development, Deputy Milk Commissioner (Co-operation), and Circle Deputy Registrars (Dairying) are vested with quasi-Judicial powers in respect of settlement of disputes, appeal, revision and review under various provisions of Tamilnadu Cooperative Societies Act 1983 & the rules made there under. The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development has been designated as the State Registering Authority for the state of Tamilnadu, under the provisions of Milk and Milk Products Order'92. All the Dairy units including private Dairies handling more than 10,000 lpd of milk or Milk Products containing milk solids in excess of 500 Metric tones per annum has to obtain registration certificate under the provision of Milk and Milk Products Order'92. The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development / State Registering Authority has been conferred with powers to register the dairy units having handling capacity from 10,000 LPD to2 lakh LPD. The Commissioner / State Registering Authority / Deputy Milk Commissioner (Co-operation) / District collector and Deputy Registrars have
been authorized to carry out supervision and periodic inspection of the dairies
HISTORY OF AAVIN AMBATTUR DIARY: The Aavin Ambattur dairy was established in Ambattur Industrial Estate at an area covering 47.25 acres on 16.04.1946 by his Excellency shri Fakruddin Ali Ahmed, President of India. The dairy was designed, erected, and commissioned by National dairy development Board Under Operation Flood I on turkey basis Ambattur dairy is an
ISO 9001:2000 and HACCP certified dairy is an and comes pneumonic symbol. In addition for getting ISO14001. DAIRY DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT
The Dairy Development Department was established in 1958 in Tamilnadu. The administrative and statutory controls over all the milk cooperatives in the State were transferred to the Dairy Development Department on 1.8.1965. The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development was made as the functional Registrar under the Tamilnadu Cooperative Societies Act. With the adoption of 'Anand pattern' in the State of Tamilnadu, Tamilnadu Co-operative Milk Producers' Federation Limited was registered in the State on 1st February 1981. The commercial activities of the Department such as Milk Procurement, Processing, Chilling, packing and sale of milk to the consumers etc., hitherto dealt with by the Tamilnadu Dairy Development Corporation Ltd., were transferred to the newly registered Tamilnadu Co-operative Milk Producers' Federation Limited, popularly in the wake of liberalization policy, private dairies have also entered into the field of dairying. As per the directions of the Hon'ble Chief Minister of Tamilnadu high priority has been given for improving the performance of milk Cooperatives by adopting a systematic approach and proper strategy in Milk Cooperatives. Significant achievement has been made by Milk Producers' Cooperative Societies, Unions and Federation in the State of Tamilnadu. The cattle population in India is approximately 15% of total cattle population in the world. India stood no. 1 position in milk production. Tamilnadu is one of the leading states in milk production. The milk production in Tamilnadu per day is 145.88 Lakh litres.
OBJECTIVES OF THE DAIRY DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT (1) Assure a remunerative price for the milk produced by the member of the Milk Producers' Co-operative Societies through a stable, steady and well organized market support. (2) Distribution of quality milk and milk products to the consumers at reasonable price. 18
Keeping these objectives in mind, a number of activities are undertaken by the Dairy Development Department, viz., Provision of free veterinary health cover to all animals owned by the members of milk cooperatives, implementation of Artificial Insemination Programme, supply of balanced cattle feed and inculcation of farmers with the modern animal husbandry methods and practices. All activities, which are essential for the up gradation of the milch animals and improving their productivity in the long run, have been undertaken. Provision of necessary infrastructure facilities for marketing milk and milk products and supply of quality milk to the consumer has been made by way of establishing new chilling centres, pasteurization plants and adoption of modern processing system.
DEPARTMENTAL SET UP The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development is the Head of the Dairy Development Department. He is the functional registrar in respect of Dairy Co-operatives in the State. He is also the Ex-officio Managing Director of the Tamilnadu Cooperative Milk Producers' Federation Limited. i.e. Aavin. The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development exercises all the statutory powers with regard to the registration of societies, supervision, inspection, inquiry, disputes, liquidation of milk cooperatives including the District Cooperative Milk Producers' Unions and Federation under the relevant provisions of the Tamilnadu Cooperative Societies Act, 1983 and Tamilnadu Cooperative Societies Rules, 1988. While discharging the statutory functions, the Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development is assisted by the Deputy Milk Commissioner (Co-operation) in the rank of Joint Registrar of Cooperative Societies and a Deputy Registrar at the Headquarters besides 23 Deputy Registrars (Dairying) at the District level by way of conferring the powers of the functional Registrar.
FUNCTIONS OF THE DAIRY DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT The main functions of the Dairy Development Department include Organization of societies, registration of societies, supervision and control of primary milk cooperatives, District Cooperative Milk Producers Unions and Tamilnadu Cooperative Milk Producers Federation. The Dairy Development Department exercises statutory function - like Inquiry, Inspection, Surcharge and Super session, appointment of special officers, liquidation and winding up of dormant Societies etc. The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development, Deputy Milk Commissioner (Co-operation), and Circle Deputy Registrars (Dairying) are vested with quasi-Judicial powers in respect of settlement of disputes, appeal, revision and review under various provisions of Tamilnadu Cooperative Societies Act, 1983 & the Tamilnadu Cooperative societies Rules, 1988 made there under. The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development has been designated as the State Registering Authority for the state of Tamilnadu, under the provisions of Milk and Milk Products Order'92. All the Dairy units including private Dairies handling more than 10,000 lpd of milk or Milk Products containing milk solids in excess of 500 Metric tones per annum have to obtain registration certificate under the provision of Milk and Milk Products Order'92. The Commissioner for Milk Production and Dairy Development / State Registering Authority has been conferred with powers to register the dairy units having handling capacity from 10,000 lpd to 2,00,000 lpd. The Commissioner / State Registering Authority, Deputy Milk Commissioner (Co-operation) / District collectors and Deputy Registrars (Dairying) have been authorized to carry out supervision and periodic inspection of the dairies. PRIMARY DAIRY COOPERATIVES MILK SOCIETIES A minimum of 25 or more individuals competent to contract under section 11 of the Indian Contract Act of 1872, owning milch animals, can form a Primary Dairy Cooperative Society, with one or more villages as its area of operation. Such persons have to approach the Circle Deputy Registrar's (Dairying) office 20
functioning at the District for further guidance. The members of Primary Cooperative milk society have to supply milk to the Society which will procure milk on quality basis and they will receive milk cost once in 10 days / 15 days from the Society. Milch animals are provided with free veterinary health cover, artificial insemination and the supply of balanced cattle feed. Inductions of farmers on modern animal husbandry practices are aimed at by upgrading the milch animals and thereby improving their productivity in the long run for the benefit of the members.
FUNCTIONS OF DISTRICT COOPERATIVE MILK PRODUCERS UNIONS
There are 17 District Cooperative Milk Producers' Unions functioning in the State of Tamilnadu covering 30 Districts. There are 15 Dairies in District Cooperative Milk Producers' Unions with an installed processing capacity of 19.42 llpd. There are 36 Chilling Centres (Functional) in District Co-operative Milk Producers' Unions with installed chilling capacities of 13.55 llpd. (1) Establishment of chilling centres (2) Formation of new milk routes to collect milk produced by the members of the societies. (3) Collection of milk from societies, process and pack in modern dairy plants by maintaining quality standards. (4) Supply of quality milk to Chennai Metro under hygienic conditions. (5) Fixation of procurement and selling price of Milk (6) Increase of liquid milk sales by introducing innovative sales promotional activities. (7) Supply of inputs to the members of the societies.
(8) Render Veterinary Health Service and emergency service to the cattle of members of primaries, to impart training on First aid and on Artificial insemination to the staff of member societies. (9) Extending Artificial insemination services to the cattle owned by the members of Milk Cooperative Societies. (10) Providing milk cans, Milk 'O' testers and LN2 containers. (11) Salem, Erode, Madurai and Dharmapuri Unions are the Feeder Balancing Dairies. Surplus milk in the District Unions, after meeting their local sales is diverted to the nearest Feeder Balancing Dairies for conversion into milk products, such as Skim Milk Powder, Butter and Ghee. (12) The three Cattle Feed Plants at Madhavaram, Erode and Kappalur are run by the Kancheepuram - Tiruvallur Union, Erode Union, Madurai Union respectively. The production capacity of these cattle feed plants is 100 MT per day each. The balanced cattle feed produced in the form of pellets and mash are supplied to the members of the Milk Co-operatives, livestock farms manned by the Animal Husbandry Department and to various local bodies including the Corporation of Chennai.
MILK PROCUREMENT BY DCMPUs: Most of the rural people especially women make their livelihood by rearing milch animals and by supplying milk to the Co-operatives. Keeping this in view and to improve the rural economy and to enhance the personal income of the stake holders in rural area, Government of Tamilnadu directed the Tamilnadu Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation and District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union to raise the procurement price of the cow's milk from Rs.10.50 to Rs.12.00 per litre and that of the buffalo’s milk from Rs.12.50 to Rs.14.00 with effect from
07.03.2007 and the milk cost as per the revised procurement price is being disbursed to the Milk producers. MARKETING: The three wings are carrying out the marketing of milk and milk products of the Federation namely: 1. Metro Liquid milk marketing. 2. Metro Milk Product marketing. 3. Up country marketing. The product wing of the Federation located at Nandanam directly carries of marketing of the products in Chennai Metro and suburbs. The products are stored at the Godown at Ambattur and distributed to the outlets The sales of milk in sachets is being carried out through 24 zones, 516 Depots, 364 Distribution Points, 35 Whole Sale Milk Distributors, 89 Milk Retailers and 48 Milk Consumers’ Co-operative Societies. The sale of milk product is being carried out through 42 parlours, 185 Franchise Retail Outlets (FROs), 12 Wholesale dealers, and 4824 Retailers. The Federation also caters to the needs for functions like marriages by booking Special orders standardized milk, Buffalo milk and double tonned milk are being sold through 218 Automatic Vending Machines and 185 FRPs to the city consumers. Milk products are also sold in certain AVM Units. Sachet milk sales are also carried out in AVM units STRENGTHENING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR QUALITY AND CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION Government of India sponsored a scheme called ‘Strengthening
Infrastructure for Quality and Clean Milk Production’ to strengthen infrastructure facilities and to ensure Clean milk production at village level. The period of the scheme is two / three years. Objective of the scheme is to train farmers on clean milk production activities, to provide chemicals and utensils to pouring members, to strengthen
district union dairies / chilling centres laboratory and to install bulk milk coolers at societies to improve initial quality of milk. Government of India will release the entire amount as full grant for training, provision of antiseptic solutions, supply of stainless steel utensils and modernization of Quality Control Labs at Dairies / Chilling Centres. Government of India will release 75 percent as grant for installation of bulk milk coolers and the remaining 25 percent will be met by the concerned beneficiary District Unions. Government of India so far has sanctioned Rs.1224.21 lakhs to Vellore, Villupuram, Trichy, Dharmapuri, Salem Kancheepuram-Tiruvallur, Erode, Nilgiris and Madurai milk Unions for the implementation of the scheme. Under these schemes, 48001 members will be benefited, 90 Bulk Milk Coolers will be installed and the chilling capacity will be increased by another 3.71 lakhs LPD. CO-OPERATIVE DISTRICTS: To facilitate better administration and qualitative improvement of integrated dairy development, there are 17 district co-operative milk producer’s unions covering all 28 revenues districts except Chennai. The district covered under each co-operative milk producer’s unions is furnished below:
OPERATION FLOOD DISTRICTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Kancheepuram Villupuram vellore Dharmapuri Salem Erode Coimbatore Madurai 24
9. 10. 11. 12. 13.
Dindugal nilgiris Trichy Tanjavur Pudukottai
NON-OPERATION FLOOD DISTRICTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sivagangai Virudunagar Thirunelveli Kanyakumari The district Unions attend to the normal activities of milk procurement and distribution. The Federation supervises and coordinate the activities of the district unions and provides technical expertise as and when required and also undertakes planning and erection/expansion of diaries and chilling centers of the unions on turnkey basis. The federation also helps the unions in marketing their milk products like skimmed milk powder, ghee, butter and cheese both within and outside the state. QUALITY POLICY: TCMPF is committed to continually improve the process of meeting and exceeding the customer expectations by providing hygiene, safe environment and competent work force throughout the organization. QUALITY OBJECTIVES: 1. Involve all the employees. 2. Improve the processes. 3. Meet and exceed the expectation of customers. 4. Achieve high standard in hygiene. 5. Achieve high stranded in food safety. 6. Continual Improvement.
PRODUCT RANGE MILK: The federation is engaged in production of both milk and milk products. The federation sells the following type of milk to customers in Chennai metro: Standardized Milk Toned milk Full cream milk UTH milk These products are marked under the brand name “AAVIN” MILK PRODUCTS: 1. Yogurt 2. Ice creams 3. Butter Milk 4. Khova 5. Skimmed milk powder 6. Ghee 7. Butter 8. Cheese 9. Flavoured milk 10. Mavin mango drink
PRODUCT DETAILS: Product diary is situated next to the Ambattur dairy. It is controlled by the manager (production and maintenance). The milk which is received through load tankers are pumped into raw milk storage tank, then taken for different product processing. The various products produced here are as follows: Ice Creams Khalakhad Yoghurt/ fermented milk Curd Buttermilk Gulabjamun Flavoured Milk Khoa (sweetened) Khoa (unsweetened) Mysorepak.
MARKET COMPETITORS: Aavin stands first in the production and distribution of milk in Tamilnadu. Its competitors are: Arokya Heritage Thirumala
MARKETING: MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS The Chennai dairies have marketed an average of 7.19LLPD of milk to customers up to march 2001. Milk is sold in bulk to institutional consumers and to individual consumers and to individual consumer through 196 automated vending units(AVM), 182 fiber reinforcement plastic (FRP) supplying milk to consumers. Aavin milk cards are available liberally to the consumers throughout the month. Apart from the above, 5 liter milk cards are also being issued to tea shops, canteens and retail outlets through the city’s zonal offices. Further, sale of milk has been introduced through milk distributors in Chennai. At present 25 milk distributors have been appointed and around 70,000 litres of milk are being sold through to the milk distributors, everyday. TCMPF also caters to the needs of consumers by booking special orders for the supply of milk in connection with marriage functions and special requirement. tanks and in sachets through 512 boots and 34 parlours, 34 consumers cooperate societies are functioning in and around Chennai
REVIEW OF LITRATURE
Training and Development- Distinctions. Training is a part of learning which essentially improves job knowledge, skills and attitudes in a person and is concerned with work life of human beings. The manpower service Commission’s Glossary of training terms (1981) defines training as a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill through learning experience to achieve effective performance in the activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the ability of the individual and to satisfy the current and future manpower needs of learning and its directly related to organization. Thus performance improvement is basic to training. Organization jobs are divided into technical and managerial jobs. This division of jobs provides the concept of technical training and management training. Technical training is concerned with those jobs which are structed, repetitive in nature and involve direct application of human energy like clerical jobs, manufacturing and production jobs. Management training is associated with those jobs which are semi-structured, unstructed and involves indirect application of human energy in leadership position. It is concerned with the management of total organization or a part of it in relation to its environment. Management training also refers to improving managerial practices with that of modern management practices in the organization. Training specified the work behaviour of the trainee at the end of this training. In other words, training objectives can be expressed in behavioral terms while educational objectives are not amenable to definitions in behavioural terms because they are very complex and in many cases they are unknown. Training is concerned with performance, education is concerned with personnel development and the learner is free to use his understanding in his own way to specific situations. Hence, education is more oriented. Training is job centered.
Training objectives can be achieved in short duration in his own way to specific situations. Hence, education is more person oriented programme is of longer period.
Training is mechanistic learning which is achieved as result of stimuli and responses, reinforced by practices. Education is orient learning which involves rather than what he can do. Thus, outcome of education is difficult to predict. Basic principles of Training Programme A training program in order to be effective should be based on the following broad principles. 1. The training should be based in the field situation of trainers and should be meaningful to them. 2. The training must start from the level at which the trainees are... 3. The training must give the opportunity for relevant experiences change, if they are the ones who have to bring about changes in their field situation. Prevailing concept 1. The acquisition of subject matter knowledge by a participant leads to action. 2. The participant terms what the trainer teaches. Learning is a simple function of the capacity of the participant to learn and the ability pf the trainer to teach. 3. Individual action leads to improvement on the job. 4. Training is the responsibility of the training institution. It begins and ends with the course New Concept 1. Motivation and skills lead to action skills are acquired through practice. 2. Learning is the complex function of the motivation and capacity of the individual participant, the norms of the training groups the training methods and the behavior of the trainer and the general climate of the institution.
3. Improvement on the job is complex function of individual learning, the norms of working group and the general climate of the organization. Individual learning used, leads to frustration. 4. Training is the responsibility of three partners: The participant organization, the participant and the training institution. It has a preparatory pre-training and a subsequent, post training to the success of training. There are two approaches to identify training needs accurately for different categories of personnel particularly managerial. They are role analysis and job analysis. Role may be defined as set expected behavior of a person occupying a leadership position in an organization. It is highly personnel and dynamic. The important factors determining the role are personnel qualities like growth, perceptions, values, ambitions, organizational internal and external integration and environment sensitivity. This concept is more suitable for suitable for those in top management positions whose jobs are generally Unstructured job may be defined as a set of tasks assigned to a position. Organization expects at least a fair behavior from the position holder in line with the assigned job and tasks. Job, thus is static an impersonal. The factors determining role also determine job but with some limitations. This concept is suitable for middle, supervisory and technical level personnel descriptions are prepared generally structured. In order to identify training needs role and job individual capabilities and qualities occupying the position are analyzed in the light of role and job are generally specifications to find out performance deficiencies. Following organizational analysis individual capabilities and qualities occupying the position are analyzed in the light of role and job specifications to find out performance deficiencies constituting training needs. The process of job oriented training analysis Organization analysis reveals various job positions requiring training interview. These jobs are selected for job-oriented training analysis. All Such jobsmanagerial of non-managerial are analyzed in stages as given below. Job and task description
Job description is a statement of duties and responsibilities assigned to a position. Hence, all the jobs of a position are described and further each job is broken down into independent responsibilities, duties or tasks. This may be recorded from the duty chart of a position or through discussion with the position holder his superior and subordinate. While writing job and task description care is taken that no job is left out. There are three alternatives to this exercise viz., comprehensive job analysis, critical job analysis and problematic job analysis. In comprehensive jobs analysis, all the jobs of a position are taken and detailed inventory of tasks involved in each job is prepared. The critical job analysis concentrates on major of a description of job description and task analysis Job Specification It is an organized statement of human qualities required to perform a job effectively, Therefore, each task of a job is examined to visulise requirements of human qualities for its effective performance. Form the task narration, an attempt is made to derive desired level of knowledge, skill and attitude categorically required to perform each task. Training Specification This stage will give three types of statements – list of tasks, standard level of competence to the corresponding task and existing level of competence. First the standard gaps causing usually expressed in negative terms and are further expressed in passive statements in terms of knowledge, skill and attitudes which denote training needs are specifications on which a training programme is developed. position having critical importance keeping minor jobs. This stage is a combination of job
Identifying training needs involves five steps. 1. List the duties and responsibilities or tasks under considerations, using job description as a guide. 2. List the standards of work performance in the job. 3. Compare actual performance against the standards. 32
4. Determine what parts of the job are giving the employees trouble. Where is he falling down in his performance? 5. Determine what kind of training is needed to overcome the specific diffuculity or difficulties.
Essentials of Training Some special equipments, and aids are important prerequists of a training program. They facilate in imparting the training contents and make the training progress more lively and effective. The following are some of the points which may be kept in mind while planning a training program. 1. The planning should take into consideriation the needs of training in the areas which should be assessed through field visit, survey reading of material/ scanning of literature, discussion with field officers, etc.. 2. The subject and scope of the training should be very clear to the training instution trainers and trainers and the agencies who are to utilize training of their functionaries. 3. Different methods that are likely to be used in the training program should identify and clearly lay down against each topic/ session lesson. 4. Nature and type of audio-visual aids of the traditional teaching aids to be used should be planned well in advance. 5. Library facilities including books, newspapers, magazine, newspaper clipping should be provided.
On the Job Training A large number of management development methods and techniques are used in training and development. These include lectures, conferences, seminars or groups discussions, case studies, film and slides, outside reading, private study panels, forums, role playing and workshop. The other techniques used are: understudy, job – rotation, coaching and counseling, position rotation, professional classes, membership, professional and technical associations, committee assignments, management courses in colleges, and professional institutes and universities, multiple management syndicates project management, or in basket, business game and sensitivity training. 33
Merits of On- The – job Training 1. The main advantage of the on the job training is that the trainee learns on the actual equipment in use and in the true environment of his job 2. It is highly economical since no additional personnel or facilities are required for training 3. The trainee learns the rules, regulations and procedures by observing their day to day applications. He can therefore, be easily sized up by the management. 4. This type of training is a suitable alternative for a company in which there are almost as many jobs as there are employees. 5. It is most appropiacte for teaching the knowledge and skills which can be acquired in relatively short period, say, a few days of weeks. Off The Job Training “Off the job training” means that training is not a part of every day job activity. The actual location may be in the company calss rooms of in places which are owned by the company, or in universities or association which hae no connection with the company. A number of on the job management development programme are in vogue. Yet they are considered inadequate for a number of reasons. And , hence, the need for off-the-job techniques. The limitations of on-the-job techniques are already stated in the precious lesson. There are a wealth of executive development techniques that managers partake in off-the-job. Of, these, the more popular ones are: 1. Conferences 2. Lectures 3. Role Playing 4. Case Study 5. Panel Discussion 6. Seminars 7. Participating Method 8. Exercise-Programme instruction 9. In basket method 34
10. Management Games 11. Simulation 12. Syndicate 13. Sensitivity, Laboratory of T. Group Training.
4.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTER PRETATION
TABLE NO 4.1 TABLE SHOWING THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE AGE OF LABOURS
SL NO 1 2 3 4
AGE 20-30 31-40 41-50 ABOVE 50 TOTAL
NO OF RESPONDENTS 0 1 53 46 100
PERCENTAGE 0 1 53 46 100%
Source: Primary data Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 0% of the labours are aged betwen20-30 1% of the labours are aged between31-40 53% of the labours are aged between41-50 46%of the labours are aged above 50
CHART NO 4.1 CHART SHOWING THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE AGE OF THE LABOURS
60 50 40 no of 30 respondents 20 10 0 0 20-30 1 31-40 age
TABLE NO 4.2 TABLE SHOWING THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE SEX OF THE LABOURS. Sl particulars 1 Male 2 female Total no of respondents % 98 2 100
98 2 100
Source: Primary data
INFERENCE: From the above table it is inferred that 98% of the respondents are male And 2% of the respondents are female
CHART NO 4.2
CHART SHOWING THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE SEX OF THE LABOURS.
98 100 90 80 70 60 no of 50 respondents 40 30 20 10 0
2 male sex female
TABLE NO 4.3 TABLE SHOWING THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE MONTHLY INCOME OF EMPLOYEES
Sl 1 2 3 4
monthly income below 5000 5000-10000 10000-15000 above 15000 Total
no. of respondents % 1 1% 58 58% 33 33% 6 6% 100 100%
Source: Primary data Inference: From the above table it is inference that 1% of the respondents are earning income below 5000 58% of the respondents are earning income ranging from 5000-10000 33% of the respondents are earning income ranging from 10000-15000 6% of respondents are earning income above 15000
CHART NO 4.3 CHART SHOWING THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE MONTHLY INCOME OF EMPLOYEES
10000-15000 monthly income
below 5000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
no of respondents
TABLE NO 4.4 TABLE SHOWING THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE EXPERIENCE OF EMPLOYEES sl no 1 2 3 4 experience level Below 5 yrs 5-15 yrs 15-25 yrs above 25 yrs Total no of respondents 1 4 53 42 100 % 1% 4% 53 42% 100%
Source: Primary data
Inference; From the above table it is inferred that 1%of the respondents are experienced below 5yrs 4%of the respondents are experienced between 5-15yrs 53%of the respondents are experienced between 15-25yrs 42%of the respondents are experienced above 25yrs
CHART NO 4.4 CHART SHOWING THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE EXPERIENCE OF EMPLOYEES
60 50 40 no of 30 respondents 20 10 0 1 below 5 yrs 4 5-15 yrs 53 42
above 25 yrs
TABLE NO 4.5 TABLE SHOWING INFORMATION REGARDING WHETHER TRAINING IS CONDUCTED IN THE COMPANY OR NOT. Sl Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total no of respondents % 46 54 100 46 54 100
Source: Primary data
Inference: 46% of the respondents say that training is conducted whereas 54% of respondents say that training is not conducted.
CHART NO 4.5 CHART SHOWING INFORMATION REGARDING WHETHER TRAINING IS CONDUCTED IN THE COMPANY OR NOT.
56 54 no of respondents 52 50 48 46 44 42 yes particulars 46
TABLE NO 4.6 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER TR AINING HAS IMPROVED THE PERFORMANCE OF THE LABOURS. Sl particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total no of respondents % 46 54 100 46 54 100
Source: Primary data
Inference: 46% of people say that training has improved their performance whereas 54% people say that it has not improved.
CHART NO 4.6 CHART SHOWING WEATHER TRAINING HAS IMPROVED THE PERFORMANCE OF THE EMPLOYEES.
54 54 52 50 no of 48 respondents 46 44 42 yes particulars no 46
TABLE NO 4.7 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER TRAINING HELPS YOU IN MAINTAING GOOD RELATIONSHIP. Sl Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total no of respondents % 46 54 100
46 54 100
Source: Primary data Inference: 46% of people say that training helps in maintaining good relationship whereas 54% people say that it does not help.
CHART NO 4.7 CHART SHOWING WHETHER TRAINING HELPS YOU IN MAINTAING GOOD RELATIONSHIP.
54 54 52 50 no of 48 respondents 46 44 42 yes particulars no 46
TABLE NO 4.8 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER SUPERVISION IS REQUIRED FOR TRAINED EMPLOYEES OR NOT. Sl Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total no of respondents % 45 55 100
45 55 100
Source: Primary data Inference: 45% of people say that supervision is not required for trained employees whereas 55% people say that they require supervision.
CHART NO 4.8 CHART SHOWING WHETHER SUPERVISION IS REQUIRED FOR TRAINED EMPLOYEES OR NOT.
30 no of respondents
TABLE NO 4.9 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER TRAINING HELPED IN REDUCING WORK STRESS OR NOT. Sl Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total no of respondents % 41 59 100
41 59 100
Source: Primary data Inference: 41% of people say that training helps them in reducing stress whereas 59% of people say that it does not help in reducing stress.
CHART NO 4.9 CHART SHOWING WEATHER TRAINING HELPED IN REDUCING WORK STRESS OR NOT.
59 60 50 40 no of 30 respondents 20 10 0 yes particulars no 41
TABLE NO 4.10 TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF TRAINING PROGRAMS EXPERIENCED IN A YEAR Sl 1 2 3 4 Particulars None One Two Above3 Total no of respondents % 54 34 10 2 100
54 34 10 2 100
Source: Primary data Inference: 54% of people say that they have not experienced training program in a year 34%of people say that they have experienced training program once a year 10%of people say that they have experienced training program twice a year 2%0f people say that they have experienced training more than three times a year
CHART NO 4.10 CHART SHOWING NUMBER OF TRAINING PROGRAMS EXPERIENCED IN A YEAR
60 50 40 no of 30 respondents 20 10 0 none one two above3
TABLE NO 4.11 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER YOU ARE SATISFIED THE TRAINING PROGRAM GIVEN BY THE COMPANY
Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total
no of respondents % 84 16 100
84 16 100
Source: Primary data Inference: 84%of the respondents are satisfied with training program 16%of the respondents are not satisfied with training program
CHART NO 4.11 CHART SHOWING WHETHER YOU ARE SATISFIED THE TRAINING PROGRAM GIVEN BY THE COMPANY
84 90 80 70 60 no of 50 responents 40 30 20 10 0
TABLE NO 4.12 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER COMPANY IS PROVIDING FREQUENT TRAINING PROGRAM Sl 1 2 3 4 Particulars Yes Always not always no Total no of respondents % 79 9 10 2 100
79 9 10 2 100
Source: Primary data Inference; 79%of the respondents say that company provides frequent training program 9%of the respondents say that company always frequent training program 10%of respondents say that company not providing training programs always 2%of respondents say that company is not providing training program
CHART NO 4.12 CHART SHOWING WHETHER COMPANY IS PROWIDING FREQUENT TRAINING PROGRAM
no frequency of training provided
9 79 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
no of respondents
TABLE NO 4.13 TABLE SHOWING TRAINING UNDER GONE BY THE EMPLOYEE Sl Particulars Internal 1 training External 2 training 3 study tour Total no of respondents 78 15 7 100 % 78 15 7 100
Source: Primary data Inference: 78%of respondents say that they have undergone internal training 15%of respondents say that they have undergone external training 7% of respondents say that they have undergone study tour to other factories
CHART NO 4.13 CHART SHOWING TRAINING UNDERGONE BY THE EMPLOYEE
90 80 70 no of respondents 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
external training training undergone
TABLE NO 4.14 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER TRAINING HELP IN COOPERATION BETWEEN THE WORKERS Sl Particulars to a greater 1 extent to some 2 extent 3 not at all Total no of respondents 78 20 2 100 % 78 20 2 100
Source: Primary data Inference: 78%of respondents say that training had help toa greater extent in the co operation between the workers 20%of respondents say that training had help to some extent in the co operation between the workers 2% of respondents say that training had not at all helped in the co operation between the workers
CHART NO 4.14 CHART SHOWING WHETHER TRAINING HELP IN COOPERATION BETWEEN THE WORKERS
80 70 60 no of 40 respondents 30 20 10 0 50
20 2 to a greater extent to some extent not at all
co-operation of workers
TABLE NO 4.15 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER JOB ROTATION IS NECESSARY FOR EMPLOYEES
Sl 1 2 3 4
Particulars Yes Always not always no Total
no of respondents % 74 16 5 5 100
74 16 5 5 100
Source: Primary data
Inference 74% 0f the respondents say that they need job rotation 16% of respondents say that they need job rotation always 5% of the respondents say that there is no need of job rotaction
CHART NO 4.15 CHART SHOWING WHETHER JOB ROTATION IS NECESSARY FOR EMPLOYEES
80 70 60 no of 40 respondents 30 20 10 0 50
16 5 yes always not always no 5
TABLE NO 4.16 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER COMPANY CONDUCTS TRAINING SESSION BEFORE STARTING A NEW PROJECT Sl particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total no of respondents % 64 36 100
64 36 100
Source: Primary data
Inference 64% 0f the respondents say that there are training section conducted before starting a new project 34%of the respondents say that there is no training section conducted starting a new project
CHART NO 4.16 CHART SHOWING WHETHER COMPANY CONDUCTS TRAINING SESSION BEFORE STARTING A NEW PROJECT
36 yes no 64
TABLE NO 4.17 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER COMPANY HELPS YOU IN PURSUING HIGHER STUDIES Sl particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total no of respondents % 76 24 100 76 24 100
Source: Primary data Inference; 76%of the responding say that company help them in pursuing their higher studies 24%of the responding say that company want help them in pursuing their higher studies
CHART NO 4.17 CHART SHOWING WHETHER COMPANY HELPS YOU IN PURSUING HIGHER STUDIES
76 80 70 60 50 no of 40 respondents 30 20 10 0 yes particulars no 24
TABLE NO 4.18 TABLE SHOWING WHETHER TRAINING SHOULD BE COMPULSORY OR NOT Sl Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total no of respondents % 86 14 100 86 14 100
Source: Primary data Inference; 86%of the respondents says that training should be made company for all 14%of the respondents says that training should not be made compulsory for all
CHART NO 4.18 CHART SHOWING WHETHER TRAINING SHOULD BE COMPULSORY OR NOT
90 80 70 60 no of 50 respondents 40 30 20 10 0
14 yes particulars no
53% of the employees are aged between 41-50, 46% of the employees are aged above 50, whereas the remaining 1% of employees are below 40 years 98% of employees are male and remaining 2% are female. 1%percentage of the employees are having below 5 years experience, 4% of the employees are 5 -15 years experienced, 53% of the employees are 15-25 years and remaining 42% of the employees are working for 25 years and above. It is seen that salary of most of the employees lie between Rs5000Rs10000 33% of employees salary lie betweenRs10000-Rs15000. An 6% salary lie above Rs15000. 46% of employees say that the company has given them training program whereas 54% say that the company has not given training programs. 46% of the employees says that training helps in increasing their performance whereas 54% say that it does not. 46% of the employees says that training helps in maintaining good relationship whereas 54% say it does not help them. 71
45% of employees say that there is need of supervision of trained employees while 55% employees say that there is no need. 41% of the employees say that training helped in reducing stress while 59% say it does not
Majority of the employees say that they have not experienced training program in a year, 34% say that they have experienced once a year whereas only 2% of employees have experienced more than 3 times a year. 84 % of employees say that they are satisfied with the training program company has given them. Majority of the employees say that company is providing them frequent training program. 78% of employees say that they have undergone internal training, 15% say that they have undergone external training, whereas 7% say that they have undergone study tours Majority of the employees say that training has helped in cooperation between the workers. Majority of the employees say that job rotation is necessary for employees. 64% of employees say that there is training given before a new project whereas 36% say that no training is given. Majority of employees say that company helps them on pursuing higher education. Majority of employees say that training is compulsory for all. 72
Training should be conducted regularly Training should be conducted department wise regularly Training should be conducted regularly on the introduction of new process There should be a proper schedule for training program The trainers should make the employees to attend the program regularly Training should be conducted more effectively.
The study has concentrated on the effectiveness of training and development in AAVIN, The study has been conducted only for the employees who have work experience above six months. Training is a part of learning which essentially improves job knowledge, skills and attitudes in a person and is concerned with work life of human beings. The manpower service Commission’s Glossary of training terms (1981) defines training as a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill through learning experience to achieve effective performance in the activity or range of activities. Effective implementation of this suggestion of this study will enhance the process of increases the productivity by adopting the following suggestions given by the employees.
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