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Earths Surface Chapter 3- Rock 3.1 The rock cycle shows how rocks change. (pp. 75-81) 1.

Most rocks are made of minerals. A rock is a naturally formed solid that is usually made up of one or more types of minerals. However, a few types of rocks contain mostly one mineral, and a few have no minerals. Coal, for example, is a rock that may have no minerals. It is made up of the remains of ancient plants that have been compressed. 2. Rocks change as they move through the rock cycle. The rock cycle describes the natural processes that form, change, break down, and re-form rocks. The three types of rocks are igneous sedimentary, and metamorphic. The following diagram shows the three types of rocks and the rock cycle.

3.2 Igneous rocks form from molten rock. (pp. 82-88) 1. Magma and lava form different types of igneous rocks. An igneous rock is classified based on its mineral composition(how much silica it contains) and the size of its crystals. Rocks formed from magma can have the same composition as rocks formed from lava, but the size of their crystals differ. The sizes of the mineral crystals depend on how quickly the molten rock cooled. An intrusive igneous rock forms when magma cools within earth. High temperatures within Earth allow the magma to cool slowly, and large crystals form (coarse-grained). An extrusive igneous rock forms when lava cools on Earths surface. The cooler temperatures at the surface cause lava to harden quickly, and tiny crystals form (fine-grained).

Sometimes the lava cools so fast, that no crystals form. Light-colored igneous rocks are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, and silica. These rocks are called felsic rocks. The dark-colored rocks, called mafic rocks, are rich in calcium and magnesium, and poor in silica. 3.3 Sedimentary rocks form from earlier rocks. (pp.89-95) 1. Some rocks form from rock particles. Sedimentary rock is named after sediment. Sediments are materials that settle out of water or air. Most sedimentary rocks develop from layers of sediments that are deposited on land or underwater. Loose material can be deposited and then pressed or cemented into rock as shown in the diagram.

2. Some sedimentary rocks form from plants or shells. A process similar to the one that produces sedimentary rocks from rock particles also produces rocks from plant remains or shells. Coal forms in swamps as plants die and layers of dead and decaying plants build up. The weight of sediments above presses plant material into coal. Often a fossil is preserved in coal. A fossil is the trace or remains of an organism of a past time, preserved in rock. The shells and skeletons of ocean organisms contain carbonate minerals. As the organisms die, their shell and skeletons settle on the ocean floor, building up layers of sediment. Over time, the layers become buried, pressed together, and cemented to form limestone. 3. Some sedimentary rocks form when dissolved minerals re-form from water. As rainwater washes over rock, it picks up minerals and rock particles. Some of the minerals dissolve in the water. When the water evaporates, it leaves behind the minerals, which can form thick layers or rock. 3.4 Metamorphic rocks form as existing rocks change. (pp. 96-103) 1. Heat and pressure change rocks. Metamorphism is the process that changes an existing rock by heat or pressure or both. The parent rock may be a sedimentary rock, an igneous rock, or even another metamorphic rock. During metamorphism, the structure of a rock changes and new mineral may grow, but the rock remains solid and does not melt. Heat and pressure can break the bonds that join atoms in minerals. Then atoms can join together differently as new bonds form in a

process called recrystallization. This process has two main results: individual mineral crystals can grow larger, and atoms can combine in different ways to form new minerals. 2. Most metamorphic rocks develop bands of minerals. Foliation is an arrangement of minerals in flat or wavy parallel bands. Foliation develops when rocks are under pressure and minerals line up in bands. Folitation does not develop if rocks consist mainly of one type of mineral, however, or if rocks are not subjected to pressure that is higher in a particular direction.