This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
What are my strengths and weaknesses?
How am I doing? What is really making me think?
What can I remember and understand? What are my targets? How am I going to make this improvement?
How will I know if my work is good?
Where do I have to focus my revision?
What do I need to do to improve?
AAIA North East Region
This booklet has been produced by a group of AAIA members who live and work in the north east of England. Their work has focussed on the multifaceted ways of encouraging and enabling teachers to use assessment to promote and monitor learning for the benefit of the pupils. The most recent focus for the group has been to work co-operatively to develop ideas on pupil self-assessment. Most of the contributors work with learners in primary schools. The case studies reflect this bias. However, all the ideas that are presented can be and are being used in secondary classrooms. It is the skill of the teacher to recognise the principles and convert the ideas into the actual setting.
In this document “self-assessment” is the term used to describe all the activities employed within and outside the classroom to enable the pupil to reflect on what has been learnt and judge it against a set of criteria. “Self-evaluation” is the term used to describe the process of a pupil gaining an understanding of how one is learning as opposed to what one is learning. It is the means of making real strides in understanding oneself as a learner.
Durham : Carol Gater Jennifer Jones Annette O’Brien Sarah Patterson Ron Rooney Ellen Good Tim Nelson Dave Shearsmith Marcia Ewart Lesley Smith
Gateshead: North Tyneside: Sunderland:
Thanks to the many teachers in the north east of England who have supported this publication by trialing self-assessment strategies in their classrooms, enabling their work to be the focus of the case studies.
Assessment FOR Learning Pupil self-assessment · · · · ·
Who says self-assessment is important? Why bother with self-assessment? What does one need to get started? Building blocks to self-assessment Key points to note
5 6 7 9 10
CASE STUDIES Strategies to engage pupils in self-assessment · · · · · · 1: Modelling using exemplars 2: Questioning skills 3: Self-assessment “tools” – graphic organisers 4: Reflection as a process for closing the learning gap 5: Response partners 6: Future Developments - Digital Portfolios 12 14 17 21 25 28
APPENDIX Audit of self-assessment Glossary of terms References The Assessment Archipelago: exploring assessment FOR learning on a map 31 32 33
w w w w w All these elements are interlinked. These are the important elements. Teachers have responded by questioning their long-held principles and practices in order to see how they could use assessment not just to measure the amount of the learning that has happened. but to enable the pupils to learn more effectively through playing an active role. courses and research papers have helped teachers to explore ways of using assessment to raise attainment of pupils. as does having a clear curriculum target. Since then many publications. being confident that progress can be achieved is a necessary precursor to taking a risk. Some teachers use them all the time – DO YOU? * w w share the learning objectives of the lesson with the pupils plan and encourage periods of reflection on what learning has taken place and how the learning has taken place encourage pupils to assess their own work strive to build a positive climate inside the classroom so that making errors is seen as a way of improvement. At its heart Assessment FOR Learning is a way of informing and involving the learners themselves in the process of assessment. Each is a different way into encouraging self-assessment by the learners themselves. motivates and enables the pupils to improve. how schools are attempting to involve the pupils in the process in a planned way. Each teacher must choose the best route towards self-assessment and self-evaluation depending on the individual’s experiences and circumstances. * please refer to self-assessment / self-evaluation audit in appendix 1 4 . not a record of an individual’s failure incorporate curriculum targets into discussions with pupils support pupils to recognise their next steps and share the criteria that outline the standards at which they are aiming experiment with giving feedback that supports. Sharing the learning objectives helps in the process of self-assessment. and gives some pointers to teachers on certain strategies that may help this process.Pupil self-assessment Assessment FOR Learning Following the publication of “Inside the Black Box” (1998) and “Beyond the Black Box: Assessment FOR Learning” (1999) teachers in schools have experimented with ways of encouraging pupil participation in the assessment process. It looks at what these terms means. receiving positive and informative feedback enables pupils to decide their next steps. This document limits itself to an analysis of pupil self-assessment and self-evaluation. including “Working inside the Black Box” (2002) which illustrates ways of implementing the essential elements in the process in secondary school classrooms.
It focuses the pupil’s evaluation on his or her own performance rather than in comparison with others. Clarke. and appear to have become accustomed to receiving classroom teaching as an arbitrary sequence of exercises with no overarching rationale. page 136 Metacognition is the process of being aware of one’s own learning: good learners monitor their learning and thinking processes through selfmonitoring. “Classroom Assessment”. considering the clear increase in their self esteem … With more time. with assessment information very clearly being used to inform future planning. Black et al. Sutton. “Assessment for learning”. many pupils do not have such a picture. Pupils with these skills so that they are more able to persevere with tasks. page 18 There is nothing special about the techniques we can use for involving learners in reviewing in the classroom. … The enthusiasm of the children should be no surprise. children become more able to identify and solve their own learning needs. … When pupils do acquire such an overview. page 48-9 Teachers are very uncertain about the value of self-assessment and how to go about using it effectively … There is a need to recognise the necessity for training pupils to evaluate their work. Stobart & Gipps. “QCA Review of assessment arrangements : Assessment for Learning”. 1995. page 10 5 . achieve better standards of work and raise their self-esteem. 1998. Black & Wiliam. 2001. 2001 The link with and feedback into planning shows how valuable pupil self-evaluation is as an assessment tool. 2000. “Assessment”. So self-assessment is essential to learning. which we know is more likely to maintain motivation. 2002. page 9/10 Learners should be helped to develop the capacity and the habit of self-reflection so that they can increasingly become self-monitoring and self-regulating. they then become more committed and more effective as learners: their own assessments become an object of discussion with their teachers and with one another. “Unlocking Formative Assessment”. What is special is the belief that this process actually helps learning. and identifying ways to improve their learning and performance National Curriculum Handbook page 21 (Primary) and page 23 (Secondary) Pupils can only achieve a learning goal if they understand that goal and can assess what they need to do to achieve it. Surprisingly. page 18 The key skill of improving their own learning and performance involves pupils reflecting on and critically evaluating their own work and what they have learnt. Suffolk Advisory Service. “Inside the Black Box”. and this promotes even further that reflection on one’s own ideas that is essential to good learning. 1997. and sadly.Pupil self-assessment Who says self-assessment is important? … pupils can only assess themselves when they have a sufficiently clear picture of the targets that their learning is meant to attain. “Working Inside the Black Box”.
It is the means by which the pupils take responsibility for their own learning. I can from I can’t · is actively involved in the learning process (partner not recipient) · becomes more independent and motivated I am learning in the best way for me I know my strengths and weaknesses I see how I am doing This is really making me think I know why my work is good I see what I can remember and understand I see where I have to focus my revision I know what I need to do to improve I know my targets I know how I am going to make an improvement What’s in it for the teachers? · · · · · · There is a shift of responsibility from teacher to pupil Smoother. not a luxury in classroom teaching. What’s in it for the pupils? The pupil · becomes responsible for own learning · is able to recognise next steps in learning · feels secure about not always being right · raises self-esteem and become more positive e.g.Pupil self-assessment Why bother with self-assessment? Self-assessment is an essential component of “Assessment FOR Learning”. more efficient lessons if pupils are motivated and independent Feedback helps teacher identify pupil progress Identifies next steps for a group/individual Matches pupils’ perceptions of understanding with teachers – pupils explain strategies so teacher identifies thinking process More efficient lessons allow greater challenge 6 .
but do not necessarily learn as much as they are able to. avoid investing effort in learning which could only lead to disappointment. Success reinforces self-esteem and the cycle is complete. They also spend time and energy looking for clues to the ‘right answer’.a flight response . The classroom climate · · for pupils to learn.” (“Inside the Black Box” pp 9) We can learn a lot about these cycles by understanding the play of emotions in learning. High marks. when all they can think about is how to get out of the situation . so self-esteem – negative or positive – grows with each repetition of the cycle. and try to build up their self-esteem in other ways. getting things right merit attention and are celebrated. grades or place-inthe-class ranking. Pupils who encounter difficulties and poor results are led to believe that they lack ability. Low attaining pupils.Pupil self-assessment What does one need to get started? The teacher needs to ensure that the classroom climate is conducive to effective learning. This causes ‘emotional flooding’. by being able to try out techniques in a safe and secure place In a ‘normal’ classroom. being able to answer questions. “Many are reluctant to ask questions out of fear of failure. an optimum state to take risks and learn. face new challenges in a state of ‘relaxed alertness'. ‘gold stars’. experience stress when facing a challenge. 7 . So they ‘retire hurt’. where success matters (“Ten out of ten! Excellent!”). and this belief leads them to attribute their difficulties to a defect in themselves about which they cannot do a great deal. One reported consequence is that where they have any choice. the high attaining pupils are praised. then pupils look for the ways to obtain the best marks rather than at the needs of their learning which these marks ought to reflect. who believe they cannot learn. there is feedback that amplifies the output. High attaining pupils develop a positive self-image. Pupils who believe they can learn. “Where the classroom culture focuses on rewards.” (“Inside the Black Box” pp 8-9) Meanwhile.and hence no learning takes place. the fear of failure has to be taken away in order to encourage honesty and openness pupils need to be provided with support. pupils avoid difficult tasks. In each case. low attaining pupils have their low self-esteem reinforced by constant failure.
Questions are differentiated. rather than learning. It is an opportunity to learn something new. Institute of Education. that’s how you learn” “When you find something challenging. If you find your work easy. Learning is hard. In some schools. “It’s OK. it’s about taking risks and it’s the same for everyone. it’s about feeling uncertain. 2000-2001) has shown that teachers can change this culture and counteract the fear of failure by helping pupils to see difficulty as part of the learning process.” (Pupil in Gillingham project) 8 . Making mistakes. so some of the A pupils experience success. It is a sign that little has been learned. The problem is still that success is what matters. struggling to understand and asking for help are all seen as signs of the learning process and pupils are praised for showing that they are learning. Getting all the answers right quickly and easily is no longer seen as praiseworthy – quite the opposite. Research in Gillingham (Gillingham Partnership Formative Assessment Project. the classroom climate remains the same. streaming separates higher attaining from lower attaining pupils and removes some of the competition. However.” “So nobody found it difficult? So it was a waste of time – you know it all!” (Teachers in Gillingham project) In this climate. you’re not learning much. so it becomes a mini version of the original where some pupils rise to the top and others remain at the bottom. high attaining pupils are more willing to own up to having difficulties and lower attaining pupils begin to understand that they are not essentially different from their ‘clever’ peers.Pupil self-assessment Low self-esteem failure I can’t High self-esteem success I can A emotional flooding stress learning B relaxed alertness The question for the teacher is how to turn A type pupils into B type. “I like the question about ‘what did you find hard?’ because you learn more if it’s hard.
being helped to use it.Pupil self-assessment Strategies to enable self-assessment to support learning The building bricks in place Success criteria Questioning skills Reflection Feedback from marking Peer partners Portfolios Independent learning Pupil self-assessment Modelling of self-assessment by the teacher Pupils have a clear understanding of the intended learning There is a climate for learning in the classroom Building blocks to pupil self-assessment 9 In each of these strategies there is a development from being introduced to it. . and onto full independent use.
Self-assessment is WHAT we learn It can take place at any time within a lesson. Clarity of action depends on feedback from the teacher and also on what they discover themselves about their own learning.Pupil self-assessment Key points to note “Assessment for learning” involves pupils being active Pupils need to look for information about how well they are doing and search for what steps to take next in order to improve. g. What are you pleased about? 5. Self-evaluation is more than this – it involves an analysis of HOW they have learned and it involves skills that need to be planned and developed over time. The encouragement of life-long learning requires pupils being skilled at applying what they know about their current learning to future events. The pupils benefit from a clear understanding of the learning objective and from being trained in asking the right questions (especially those which interrogate actual learning against the intended). Choose one of these questions and model the answers they might say to it: 1. In many cases they are simply repeating the learning objectives. What have you learnt new about x? 6. This training should be an important element of the plenary element in a lesson.g. 1 minute) to reflect on answer to question Use variety in allowing them to share their thoughts – avoid writing (it limits thinking to what can be written and in the space provided) There are clear benefits from helping pupils to self-evaluate w w w w w It increases self-esteem The pupil recognise difficulties as a true sign of learning They see that others have same problems They develop an enthusiasm for reflection Their learning improves – they concentrate on how rather than what they learn There are many different platforms for self-evaluation w w w w w w w w during whole class discussion in one-to-one reviews via paired comments – peer or buddy evaluation by choosing a question from a poster to respond to by writing at the end of a piece of work by the pupils doing the first marking of the product by using self-evaluative tools such as graphic organisers by writing self-evaluative logs and journals 10 . What do you need more help with? 4. Self-evaluation is about learning HOW we learn Too often self-assessment is seen as the pupils reflecting on WHAT has been covered. Think about what has happened when the learning has taken place 2. How would you change the learning activity to suit another class? Thinking time (e. They are encouraged to identify the activities in which they have recently taken part. What really made you think? What did you find difficult? 3. We need to train pupils to self-evaluate – it does not just happen! w w w e.
Digital Portfolios 11 .Case Studies Classroom strategies to support self-assessment q 1: Modelling using exemplars q 2: Questioning skills q 3: Self-assessment “tools” – graphic organisers q 4: Reflection as a process for closing the learning gap q 5: Response partners q 6: Future Developments .
Together the teacher and the pupils came to an agreement about 3 important factors that this poem had and their poem should also have. It can be used at different stages throughout the teaching and learning process: · At the beginning of a unit of work. It was: “To write a poem called The Witch”. how they have done better and where they need to improve. they can use the model as a comparison for their own work using it to help them identify the success criteria. These success criteria were identified as: · · · spell witch down the side make sense be exciting to read 12 . These comparisons should be made in relation to learning objectives. particularly in literacy. The Lesson Itself The learning task of the lesson was shared with the pupils.they should gain a clearer view of what they need to achieve to meet the expectations of a unit or lesson As their work develops they can use the model as a guide in order to improve and modify their own work Once they have completed their work. They had also had experience of writing acrostic poems in a previous literacy lesson.Case Study 1 Modelling using Exemplars Definition and Introduction Modelling work is a valuable technique to help develop pupils’ self-assessment skills. by showing pupils an example of a piece of work and comparing this with written objectives . They had less experience of using the exemplar material to assess their own work. It involves using an example piece of work to help pupils self-assess. The teacher offered the class an exemplar poem entitled “The Witch” which was both displayed and read out. They can use the model to help them see how they have matched it. CASE STUDY: An example of Year 2 poetry work – using exemplars to improve understanding and develop self-assessment in young pupils · · Background Pupils had experience of using exemplar material as a stimulus for their own work.
uk -a website illustrating exemplar materials in different curriculum areas and at different key stages 13 .org.Case Study 1 The teacher made it clear that it would be against these factors that the pupils would judge their own work. teacher and pupil referred to the factors displayed throughout the lesson it allowed them to look at evidence about their present position by comparing with a standard e. At the end the lesson. both during and at the end of the lesson it helped them to develop some understanding of a way to close the gap. throughout the lesson. These factors were displayed and continually referred to by the teacher and gradually by the pupils. they compared their poem and their partner’s poem against the exemplar material. pupils were able to make suggestions about how their work could be improved by using the factors as a measure · Using this strategy teachers should ensure that they: · · · make the learning intentions clear share the assessment success criteria model judgements – using the model .g. www.ncaction.g. How does this process support self-assessment? For Pupils · · it gave them information about the desired intentions in a visual and auditory way e.show the pupils how the teacher has arrived at a particular judgement Key texts or resource: 1. in terms of the 3 factors. by seeing and listening to an example of how that can be done e. They were then asked to describe how they would improve their work.g. pupils were asked to discuss their poem with a partner and decide how well they had done against the 3 success criteria displayed.
they begin to create their own questions . The teacher then asked the pupils to think of five questions that they wanted to know more about. 2. 14 . Each pupil examined each artefact and then as a group discussed their thoughts on which was the odd one out. Like much good teaching the way to improve performance is through teachers modelling the techniques of questioning well.they start to use metacognition. There are two stages in this process: 1. They need to understand why. When pupils begin to develop higher order questioning skills (and all learners are capable of this) then the level of thinking needed is also improved. There is little doubt that the majority of questions used in classrooms are of the lower order. Pupils begin to find different solutions to problems. then pupils will better understand how and when to use them themselves. The teacher asked them to explain why they felt the artefact was different to the others. Enable teachers to better use their questioning skills. with the most frequently used being the closed variety. when and how to use questioning techniques to their best advantage. The lesson itself The class teacher first offered the class three religious artefacts and asked them to consider which was the odd one out. Since we use questioning skills to elicit information at all levels we need to extend this to consider how pupils can be taught to develop these skills themselves. Pupils in many classes have become adept at fielding this type of question. It is an incorrect assumption that informing practitioners of different types of questions will miraculously mean that they will use them. Teachers need to practice higher order questioning skills. Background Most pupils had experienced work on developing thinking and had used the community of enquiry as a model for this work.Case Study 2 Questioning Skills Definition and Introduction Teachers use questioning skills as part of a process to encourage pupil thinking at all levels from basic knowledge to evaluative and analytical assessment. they then shared their ideas with the class. Thus neither teacher nor pupils gain real understanding of learning.
? Should we……. The level of questioning used by the teacher helped to stimulate discussion. the teacher having asked them to explain the rules for this type of discussion. Can you explain that a little more? How do you think he chose it? What made you change your mind? Can you explain the big bang in space? What do you think about that answer? Can you explain a little more about the egg coming before the chicken? Pupils’ questions mostly began with why. 15 . The pupils were then regrouped and each group were asked to decide which was their best question (they were only allowed one per group). Below is a range of typical beginnings used by pupils: What is……? Why did……? How did……? What do you…. though they were first challenged to describe what made a good question.? Where did……. and unless the teacher was trying to clarify a statement made by a pupil all questions were open ended. 1. and if God asked something why did it always happen? ¨ How was God made? The pupils then began a community of enquiry. The 4 questions chosen by the pupils were: ¨ How was God created? ¨ How did God decide all the names of the animals? ¨ How did God know how to make the world. 2.. They were encouraged to decide which was their best question. Below is a list of the teacher’s questions used in this enquiry. 6.Case Study 2 once she had finished reading a text from the Torah on the ‘Creation’. 4. 3.? What does it mean……. what or how though some other forms were used. 5.? At the end of the discussion the pupils were asked to evaluate their learning through a number of questions.
Yes but next time can we decide on the questions in pairs rather than on our own. This would require them to create scenarios through devising their own set of questions. It’s more fun than what we usually do. The discussion over which question to choose during a community of enquiry can clearly show those pupils who are developing knowledge and skills often not obvious in the didactic style of teacher/ pupil exchange. I thought it was all very good. I like being able to say what you think. I learned lots of things about how to behave towards others and what other people think. Suffolk LEA. The best bit was the ‘inquiry’. it’s quite straightforward and fun. Learning is delivered through real life problems for pupils to solve. I’m thinking I really want to do this again. You get to hear other peoples thinking.uk/assessment 16 . It was hard at first but then it got easier. www. What they liked least? What they found difficult? What they found easy? Whether they would like to do this type of activity again? How does this process support self-assessment? w w w They challenge and move learning forward. 2000) 2. I enjoyed disagreeing with people.org. 2002. You got to say what you wanted without other people butting in. The teacher assesses each pupil’s input into their work.slamnet. You get different ideas.Case Study 2 Question Whether they had enjoyed the morning? What they liked best? Response I think it was really good. “How do they walk on hot sand? Using questions to develop learning”. Everyone can be a part of this. and both teachers and pupils can then see how thinking is being developed. and each pupil assesses their own and other pupil’s work. It made my brain think a lot. I enjoyed looking at the artefacts. “Questions-Assessing and Developing Children’s Understanding and Thinking” (Manchester City Council Education department. Key texts or resource: 1. I didn’t really like thinking up the questions from the story. I liked it because you didn’t have to do much writing.
Usually in the shape of a graph. which are tools that enables pupils to self-assess. they can be used as a key component in training pupils to reflect on recent learning.KWHL grids. Self-assessment doesn’t just happen. One method is to use “graphic organisers”. KWL grids can be used at the beginning of a ‘topic’ to enable pupils to direct their own learning. It needs to be learned. what they want to learn and later record what they have learnt. first developed by Donna Oggle. Prior to research pupils ‘brainstorm’ what they already know. The School Trials: in primary schools One of the most popular graphic organiser is the KWL Grid. An extra column can be added in which pupils record how they would find the information . As such. The examples that follow have been tried in both primary and secondary classrooms. Graphic organisers are useful in developing self-assessment skills in learners of all ages and all abilities. With practice learners use them independently. Such skills are not inherent – pupils have to be helped to see how the graphic organisers help illuminate the true nature of learning and of their learning gaps. chart or drawing they are designed to encourage pupils to structure work in a way that assists their exploration of their knowledge and understanding. What do I know? What do I want to know? How I will learn? What have I learnt? Teacher benefit: · · Allows teacher to see how much prior knowledge pupils have and to spot any misconceptions Views ongoing process Pupil benefit: · · · · 17 Provides opportunity to connect the prior learning Pupil can prioritise / select train of enquiry Evaluate learning that has taken place See success . The following are ideas/tools that can be modelled in lessons. The graphic organisers support pupils by reducing the complexity of learning into a meaningful summary diagram.Case Study 3 Self-assessment ‘tools’: graphic organisers Definition and Introduction There are many ways in which teachers support pupils to become proficient at actively reflecting on the nature of their work. which help pupils demonstrate elements of knowledge and understanding. comparing. contrasting and classifying can be developed using graphic organisers. Key skills such as sequencing.
18 . Teacher benefit: · · Gains an overview of learning that has taken place Has an opportunity to change the focus of teaching – if necessary Uses: Groups. pairs. · 3 new things they have learnt · what they found easy · what they found difficult · something they would like to learn in the future. Useful at various stages in the lesson – but particularly in mini-plenaries and plenaries. Teacher benefit: · Gives an immediate indication of pupils’ understanding and/or feelings · Teacher is able to tailor support and amend plans Pupil benefit: · Allows pupils to give an immediate response in a secure environment · Avoids trials of writing selfassessments. Uses: Thumbs up /thumbs down Similar to Traffic Lights in that it can be used at any point to ascertain understanding or feelings. individuals evaluate learning on post-it notes · What have I learnt? · What did you find easy? · What did you find difficult? · What do I want to know now? Pupil benefit: · · Focuses on thinking about learning Encourages them to think ‘beyond’ to the next step.Case Study 3 Traffic Lights Red – doesn’t understand Amber – not quite there Green – got it! Uses: Individuals indicate their level of understanding or feelings by showing the appropriate coloured card. More fun! Talk Partners Post –it’s Uses: Pupils share with a partner.
Drama. pupils can add questions they would like to ask. Music. There are 4 sections to be used creatively. It support the development of linking ideas and elements.different · Useful for ranking. pupils place knowledge and feelings in different areas e. identifying areas of clarity and locating unsure ground It can help the pupil come to a decision by involving her in placing learning in a ranking order – which was most important? which have I really understood best? PMI diagram · · useful for comparing and contrasting shows interrelations between two elements I + - Pupils use the venn diagram to re-arrange information in order to reveal to themselves more clearly similarities and differences.Case Study 3 The School Trials : in secondary schools Teachers in several comprehensive schools in County Durham have experimented with these graphic organisers in their classrooms (ranging from Maths. Webs ? Triangles What I have seen what I have heard What I would ask now what I have done · · · Useful in organising ideas Place the major topic in centre Similar to “mind map” or “concept map” · · It can map the learning at beginning or end of module. what I have seen.same . It can support the VAK ideas. prioritising. it can help the pupil to think ahead to what else they would like to learn or remember to do next time Venn diagram different . ICT and Modern Foreign Languages). English. In placing key information on the diagram the pupil is more likely to understand their pattern of learning Pie graph for plus. The pupils see the key areas which they have identified or missed.g. minus and interesting elements of the work Developed by Edward de Bono · · Encourages pupils to identify what has worked and not worked for their learning It can also be drawn as a table 19 plus minus interesting . Humanities. heard and done which has helped me learn inter-connecting senses and emotions Ladder The organiser is used to breakdown certain types of learning.
Case Study 3 How graphic organisers supported self-assessment in secondary schools? organiser w w w benefits to pupils useful as summary after a module encourages recognition of links between different factors able to illustrate growth in knowledge and understanding computer generated webs can be developed (ICT skills) helps to develop the “big picture” of topic or learning pupils enjoy using organiser creates active discussion helps differentiate categories e.co. www. found useful or not w benefit to teacher helps recognise what linkages the different pupils make between different parts of their learning helps identify areas with little pupil understanding.based strategy helps build up a picture of what helps pupils learn identifies imbalance of learning opportunities helps teacher prioritise learning objectives useful mechanism for sharing learning objectives with pupils gains an understanding of pupils’ skills at identifying similarities and differences releases crucial lesson time for more important items Web w w w w w w Triangles w w w w w Ladder w w w w Venn w w w KWL w PMI w w w the “i” section is the most difficult in early stages but worth persevering with There are many others.it is a treat!).k12.ca. 2.net/dobbs (see Mrs. www. identifies misconceptions and necessary changes in shortterm planning can be used as individual or class.us. “blow” “pluck” “hit” division in musical instruments when learning objectives placed on ladder it is more likely that a review about learning takes place encourages identification of key learning helps pupils come to decision on priorities very useful for comparing and contrasting easy to use in summarising knowledge and demonstrate learning enables teachers to avoid what is already known pupils react favourably to reporting on what they have learned against what they wanted to learn start them off with the plus! easy way to get them to identify what they liked and did not like.graphic. share them! Key texts or resource: 1. Collect them. www.org for an excellent introduction to graphic organisers.g.lea. Others include www. use them.nz 20 .sdcoe.bchs. Dobbs’ website .
21 . Only then will pupils become familiar with the process and begin to use the skills independently in their own learning. They need to be taught and as with the teaching of all valued skills.Case Study 4 Reflection as a process for closing the learning gap Definition and Introduction Closing the learning gap is the skill of moving learning forward. Integral to the achievement of these skills is: · · · The provision of a learning climate in which trust and respect are valued by both pupil and teacher alike The direct teaching and practising of the skills The provision of opportunities for reflection and questioning related to the learning objectives Improving pupils’ ability occurs through a series of skills. Initially the teacher. should model the questions and process orally. This is where its true value lies. pupils need to have a clear understanding of: · · The objectives of their learning The criteria against which their work will be assessed (success criteria) Only when these are shared with the pupils are they better equipped to: · · · identify their own achievements against the learning objectives and success criteria recognise areas for improvements direct their own improvement The achievement of these skills is a developmental process highly dependent upon the classroom ethos established by the class teacher. Once pupils are familiar and are confident in using the process within the support of the whole class it can be adapted to paired pupil assessment. to reflect on the learning processes of learning. needs to be planned. integrated and given appropriate time scales from within the lesson. National Curriculum suggests that the process is “to identify the purposes of learning. In order to develop this. as it provides pupils with the opportunity to share and listen to assessment skills with their peers before taking the wider step of independently closing their own gap. introducing basic self-assessment skills to learners of all abilities. to assess progress in learning and to plan ways to improve learning” (National Curriculum 2000) These will not happen automatically.
Year 6. Term 1 – Writing Composition: “to write own poems experimenting with active verbs and personification. After exploring these ideas she informed the pupils that they were now the water. Their actions. something “good” in their partners work. and asked how they would respond as different objects were thrown into the pot. The pupils were stopped at an appropriate time and asked to read through their own work before exchanging with their partner. The Lesson itself The learning objective was shared with the pupils (Literacy Strategy.Case Study 4 CASE STUDY: An example of Year 6 work using reflection time to close the learning gap as – a process of self-assessment Background All pupils had been introduced to the learning objectives and were beginning to determine their own success criteria. The teacher had already modelled a marking strategy that gave feedback against the learning objectives. The pupils had limited experience of using reflection time within the lesson. They were asked to identify an achievement. thoughts and feelings were shared collectively and recorded on the flip chart. They were encouraged to think of this as a reflection of their own ability and as an opportunity to set their own criteria against which they would be given feedback. At this stage no reminder was given about the success criteria or learning objective Comments included: “Well done” “This is good” “You have written loads” “You have used some good words” 22 . The task was to write a poem in the first person using the witches poem from Macbeth as inspiration. produce revised poem for reading aloud individually”). The pupils recorded their own agreed success criteria beneath the title. This was the beginning of reflection time for self-assessment. The pupils were asked what they thought the success criteria could be and they determined as a class that their poem should include: · · · thoughts and feelings alliteration similes They were then asked to think carefully which of the success criteria they thought they would be able to achieve. Having shared the poem the teacher asked the pupils to explain some of the sounds the water in the pot would be making. The pupils were now discussing the ideas in the first person. and similarly limited experience of using the success criteria against which to give feedback to peers or for their own use.
Case Study 4 Most of the resulting feedback was general or hinged on the amount or neatness of writing. 4. Could you change these?” (high achieving pupil) 23 . could you do another?” This was the beginning of closing the gap in their learning during reflection time. were motivated with their oral comments and continued with the task. During this reflection time the teacher listened in to some of this oral feedback and chose specific pupils to relay their comments as models for others. What about saying more about your feelings?” “You have used a good simile. This time all comments for improvement had to “link to” their success criteria and the following questions were given to help their thoughts: 1. Examples of these were: “There are good thoughts in your poem. 3. The pupils used these improvement comments in the further development of their work. was a closing the learning gap comment made by two of the pupils: “You have done well. Pupils were able to make some improvement comments which used the learning objectives and success criteria. You used feelings and thoughts. Afterwards they were given a further opportunity to read their partner’s work in order to improve the quality. This was an assessment opportunity to determine whether they fully understood how their feedback was to focus upon the quality of learning. At the beginning of the next reflection period the pupils were asked to look for some way of improving their partner’s work. Which part is not very clear? Are there words/phrases which could be improved? Did they understand the simile? Were the thoughts/feelings convincing to the reader? Pupils were invited to contribute other aspects which they might look for. In the final reflection time of the lesson they were asked to give both a positive comment and an area for improvement using both the learning objectives and the success criteria. Examples which illustrate how successful this reflection process had been. The pupils. Three of your sentences all start the same. 2. however. They were reminded of the learning objectives and asked to read their partner’s success criteria. Could you put in an alliteration?” (low achieving pupil) “I like the poem you have written. It has a good simile about the volcano erupting.
24 . It is necessary for teachers to: · · believe that the time spent upon allowing the pupils to reflect and to improve their work is more valuable than learning facts and being content driven be committed long-term to the focus of closing the learning gap so that pupils become more aware of developing their own learning. thinking and acting upon their own initiatives. · more motivated. · develop self esteem · develop team work. · understand what is agreed as a successful outcome. Key text or resource: 1. and ultimately become independent learners. · develop greater team work independence in their learning · accept more readily that work can be improved. “Unlocking formative assessment” 2001 Shirley Clarke. · the quality of their work improves and the pupil attainment is improved. · are encouraged to remain more focused throughout the lesson (this may also impact upon improved behaviour). Hodder and Stoughton. · develop a skill that can be used in most subjects and areas of learning. · focus upon their learning for longer periods of time.Case Study 4 How does this process support self-assessment? How pupils benefited Pupils · understand what they’re learning.
In their discussions they frequently referred to the learning objective (to set out dialogue correctly) and one child reminded her partner that he needed to start a new line and use capital letters. As the pupils read out their dialogue they were reminded of the learning objective (to use different voices in dramatised readings) and were asked to comment ‘What was good about that one?’ 25 . A response partner is someone who: Helps me with my work Tells the truth about my work Helps me to make my work better The learning objectives for the lesson were displayed on a board – To set out dialogue correctly To use different voices in dramatised readings After the teacher had read a section of dialogue from the chosen text. the pupils were given one minute to discuss with their partner where the next piece of dialogue might occur and what it might be. Pupils choose a partner to discuss their work or invite pupils within a group to comment on their work. The lesson itself Clearly displayed in the classroom was the role of a response partner. Art and other departmental areas. it is essential that pupils are clear about the learning objective and success criteria and that they understand the role of a response partner. She then asked them to explain their partner’s idea and the pupils collectively decided which would be best for shared writing. and have an impact on learning. The pupils were very supportive of each other and prompted each other. For it to succeed. CASE STUDY 1 Background The class teacher had successfully used response partners with a previous Y6 class but had only recently introduced the strategy to Y3 pupils. In the written task the pupils worked with their response partner to continue writing dialogue – one as character A and one as character B.Case Study 5 Response partners Definition and Introduction It is paired or partnership oral marking. In secondary schools there is good practice in PE.
‘It can’t be 6 because 6 is more than 5 and it’s pointing before 5’ On a blank 1-100 line the teacher marked where 60 should be. Child A decided the number was 6 but his partner explained why this was incorrect. The pupils have had no previous experience of learning to self-assess using response partners. CASE STUDY 2 Background The school is a newly amalgamated primary school. less reliance on the teacher and an increase in motivation. The teacher is a leading maths teacher.evaluation by asking ‘What did you find difficult?’ ‘How did your partner help you?’ The pupils were able to identify how their partner had helped them and how their learning had moved forward. During the main part of the lesson the objective was: To be able to measure accurately using centimetres. Pupils take more control of the learning. This leads to greater independence.Case Study 5 During the plenary the pupils were asked to tell their partner what they had learned and the teacher encouraged self. The lesson itself The context is a Year 2 numeracy lesson. Where pupils did not have the same result they each checked their own and their partner’s work and discussed any errors. Her partner replied ‘that’s not right because 50 is in the middle’. After discovering her partner’s mistakes one child showed her partner how to line up the ruler correctly thus reinforcing the learning. How does this process support self-assessment? What are the benefits? To the teacher: Pupils are more honest about what they do not understand and are not afraid of expressing their difficulties. The learning objective for the mental starter was specific – to be able to put numbers to 100 in order. On a 1-10 number line the teacher marked an arrow where 4 should be. The context was to measure several lines and the pupils were told to compare their answers as they should be the same. The teacher placed arrows on a blank number line and asked the pupils to tell their partner what they thought the arrowed number was. The pupils have a ‘magic spot’ on the carpet and always work with the same partner of similar ability. One child told her partner that the number was 50. 26 . asking themselves and their partner questions about their work.
“Targeting assessment in the primary classroom” Shirley Clarke. Pupils learn from their partner’s responses. 1998 27 . Pupils are able to co-operate with a partner and are able to accept suggestions about where their work can be improved. Pupils talk openly about the learning. Pupils talk analytically about their work with each other. It overcomes the fear of failure and they are no longer afraid of making mistakes.Case Study 5 To the pupil: Working with a response partner is less inhibiting for pupils to express difficulties and all pupils are able to respond. Hodder and Stoughton. Key texts or resource: 1.
A. The project is based on self-evaluation/ assessment techniques. It also has implications for all teachers in all settings. 28 . Initial recordings of pupil discussions show clearly that pupils have a strong inclination towards evaluating their learning. How Portfolios Aid Pupil Self Assessment/Evaluation It aids pupil self-assessment through: · · · · · Practical approaches to formative assessment that provides support through digital technology Pupils will be able to record their evaluations and compare them with others Pupils will be able to look at examples of the current level of work of themselves and and others They will be able to see what the next level is like and what they need to do to improve It will store all aspects of the work and be a true record of all achievements It will celebrate improvement as the pupils work progresses.s are looking at digital portfolios as part of pupils evaluating and storing samples of a wide range of pupils work.Case Study 6 Future Developments: Digital Portfolios Definition and Introduction A digital portfolio is a system of storing. and show areas for development. but involves the latest in technological tools to facilitate easy pupil selfevaluation. recording and encouraging pupils to compare their work with that of others within their class. The project on Pupil Self Evaluation / Assessment led by Nick Packard. Marie Hindmarsh North Tyneside along with Grid Ref and other North Eastern L.E. given the right climate. It is a highly flexible system that can also match summative and formative information together to give a view of the whole child. Lea or the rest of the country. school. cohort.
Pupils and teachers will also be able to use the QCA ncaction website to compare their work with that of others in terms of standards and as a result work can be viewed prior to and after a learning experience. The intention is to be able to collect digital evidence about learning that in the past has been almost impossible to record due to its intangible nature. The intention is to create pupil/school portfolios that focus on the process of learning and enables pupils and partners in the pupil’s learning to assess and as a consequence promote effective learning. Methods and systems that will be set up will be simple. fast and manageable and child/teacher friendly.Case Study 6 The focus of the study is to use ICT: · · · · as as as as an assessment tool – to promote pupil self-assessment a catalyst – to focus pupils’ thinking a microscope – to focus on a specific aspect of learning an archive .to store pupils work efficiently and effectively The initial findings reveal that teachers are able to assess group activities more successfully and that speaking and listening can be assessed excluding adult intervention. Teachers will also be able to model self-evaluation techniques and promote digital tools to facilitate learning through ICT. They will form a clear record of achievement for every pupil in a format that will be easily accessible by all partners in the pupils’ learning. Speaking and listening and early years development will be the focus for some of the work. Pupils will be involved in the review and assessment of their work supported by digital technology to enable them to use a variety of self-assessment/learning tools as mentioned in other parts of the document. 29 . Pupils will be able to access digital versions of mind mapping and other graphic organisers to promote pupils thinking and understanding of the learning process They will be able to have a virtual response partner through web based activities.
music etc) 30 .Case Study 6 How does this process support self-assessment? What are the benefits to the teacher? Teachers are able to: · · · · · see progress over time assess pupils’ ability to self-evaluate see pupils’ ability to improve see pupils work quickly see easily how pupils compare with national standards What are the benefits to the pupils? Pupils are able to benefit from the process through · · · · · easy access to their work ability to be able to compare their work with others ability instantly to see their improvement easy access to a self evaluation process and tools to help them ability to assess their performance in areas not easily assessed (eg: P.E..
We encourage pupils to assess their own work. We see making mistakes as a way of improving. We plan/encourage a time for reflection on what we have learnt. Modelling is seen as an effective approach to encouraging self-evaluation. Teachers incorporate targets in their discussions with pupils. Oral work is seen as a method of developing questioning towards self-evaluation. We share standards of achievement and attainment with pupils Teachers give feedback that supports and motivates and enables pupils to improve. We share learning objectives with pupils. Learning objectives are written in pupil friendly terms. 1 2 3 4 5 The above tool could be used by schools to assess their current use of self-evaluation processes in order to support school self review 31 .Appendix 1 Audit of Self-Assessment How well this reflects your school Low High Importance attached Low High 1 2 3 4 5 We create a positive learning environment where differing learning styles are valued. We support pupils in recognising their next steps. Pupils are encouraged to explain the process of learning. We use a variety of techniques which focus on pupils self-assessment.
psychological environment in which the learning takes place short term elements of work that the pupil focuses upon in the learning and demonstrates personal improvement the use of ICT to store.Appendix 2 Glossary of terms accomplishment of pupils in relation to what one would expect of those particular learners. the aim is to use this increased selfawareness to improve learning in the future using paired groups to discuss each other’s work and suggest improvements the activities employed within and outside the classroom to enable the pupil to reflect on what has been learnt and judge it against a set of criteria. often referred to as summative assessment the social. it is the learner who needs to see the nature and relevance of these short term changes a classroom friend or partner who works with a learner to identify strategies for improvement the skill of looking at what one is learning and how that learning is developing. the process of a pupil gaining an understanding of how one is learning as opposed to what one is learning. how one will recognise the accomplishment of the planned learning – also referred to as the “assessment criteria” or “learning outcomes” achievement attainment assessment FOR learning assessment OF learning classroom climate curriculum targets digital portfolio feedback graphic organisers learning objectives modelling next steps peer partners reflection response partner self-assessment self-evaluation success criteria 32 . enabling teachers and pupils to monitor progress towards expected ends. often referred to as formative assessment school processes which place a value on the amount of learning. emotional. it relates to progress and success valued by the individual accomplishment of pupils in relation to a clear benchmark. record and encourage pupils to compare their work with that of others. in order to identify a pathway to improvement information the learner receives about current work that may improve standards in the future simple drawings which enable pupils to explore and graphically represent their learning – they are also known as visual tools or thinking organisers the learning planned to be developed within the lesson – sometimes also named the “learning intention” or the “teaching objective” (QCA schemes of work) using exemplars to illustrate assessment practices so that pupils are able to judge the standard of their work a series of improvements in the work that will lead the pupil eventually to a higher standard. it relates to progress and success that is externally valued everyday classroom practices which support the process of learning. It is the means of making real strides in understanding oneself as a learner.
The online article at www. March 1998 for a full account of the initial research 6. 2002 14.htm is very easy to read 2. 2002 16. vol 5. “Assessment: What’s in it for schools” Paul Weeden.org.org/kappan/kbla9810.uk) 3.pdkintl.org. Christine Harrison. “Working inside the Black Box” Paul Black. "Assessment and Classroom Learning" Black & Wiliam. 2000 11. 1998 13. 2002 33 .uk) 5. NFER Nelson 12. 2001 10.assessment-reform-group. “Teaching and targets: Self-evaluation and school improvement” John Blanchard. University of Cambridge School of Education. “Teacher Assessment in Action” AAIA 7. Jan Winter & Patricia Broadfoot. RoutledgeFalmer. ”Promoting Assessment as learning: Improving the learning process” Ruth Dann. “Using assessment for (Secondary) School Improvement” Mary James. 1991. “Assessment – A framework for teachers” Ruth Sutton. Clare Lee. “Primary Assessment Practice: Evaluation and Development Materials” AAIA. tele 020-7836 5454 ext 3189. (free download from www. “Secondary Assessment Practice: Evaluation and Development Materials” AAIA. 2001 9. tele 020-7836 5454 ext 3189 4. “Beyond the Black Box” the Assessment Reform Group. King’s College London. “Inside the Black Box” Paul Black & Dylan Wiliam.Appendix 3 References on Assessment FOR Learning 1. 2002 15. in Assessment in Education. 1999 ( free download from www. Cambridge CB2 2BX. “Assessment for Learning: 10 principles” a leaflet from the Assessment Reform Group. “Assessment for learning in practice: criteria for observation” Oxfordshire CC. Bethan Marshall & Dylan Wiliam. Shaftesbury Road. no 1. OUP. King’s College London. 2002 8. RoutledgeFalmer. RoutledgeFalmer. Heinemann. “Assessment in Secondary Schools” Val Brooks. “Pupils’ learning from teachers’ responses” AAIA.assessmentreform-group.
“Assessment – a teacher’s guide to the issues” Stobart & Gipps.the best up-to-date website on assessment for learning 29.uk/assessment 21. Institute of Education. www. Teaching. University of London.uk. 27.uk .org. "Assessment for Learning" Ruth Sutton.org. Learning and Assessment in the classroom" Torrance & Pryor. www. 1997 26.slamnet.org.slamnet. 1998 24. 2001 19.a video produced by Birmingham City Council Education Service £50.slamnet. www.uk/assessment 20.qca. Hodder & Stoughton.3” Shirley Clarke et al. “Assessment .17.Suffolk LEA assessment website 34 .assessment-reform-group.latest ideas from the Assessment Reform Group 31. Hodder and Stoughton. “How do they walk on hot sand? Using questions to develop learning” Suffolk LEA.2.uk .uk see the assessment FOR learning materials on this website 28.making a difference” .org.org.org. 2000-2. RS Publications. “How am I doing? Assessment and feedback to learners” Suffolk LEA.org. Hodder and Stoughton. "Investigating Formative Assessment. 1995 25.org. “Targeting assessment in the primary classroom” Shirley Clarke. 2002 www.uk/assessment 22. “Gillingham Partnership Formative Assessment Project 2000-2001 – parts 1. (available on AAIA website) 23. “Classroom Assessment – a survey of current practice in Suffolk schools” Suffolk LEA. 2001 www.gtce.aaia. www. 1998 18. Open University Press.uk . 2000 www.General Teaching Council website’s research of the month June 2001 30. “Unlocking formative assessment” Shirley Clarke.slamnet. www.
The Assessment Archipelago .a land of self-assessment where everyone learns and develops Assessment is fun isle (try & visit) Exemplars modelled Where teachers make short term planning changes based on assessment See next steps from here Point Next Steps Lagoon (shallow water) Support from Activities match objectives Closing the Gap Bay Quality Questions peers Bay Clear tasks Exemplars seen Clear standards Star Island Positive Feedback Bay Assessment – central point Portfolio Port Success Peak Self assessment Peer assessment What we learn How we learn Clear Viewpoint (must be seen) Main Learning Isle Cape Review Learning Objectives Isle Revisit village Assessment Reform Group to the rescue! What will work look like Bay? Metacognition Hills Revision Plain Assessment FOR Learning Sharing intentions Sea of Discovery Graphic forest How will I know when I get there Point Improvement City We are all learners together plain Targets Plain Organisers Headland Reflection Island Island often lost in mist!!! (and missed through lack of time to explore) High self-esteem Tests to show what you don’t know Lighthouse (Disused Lighthouse) Learn from Errors Mount Risk taking tribe No Grades Bay Motivation Mountain! We’re here to help Point You can do it spur! Climate Island © Ron Rooney 35 .
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