KENYA

EDUCATION SECTOR POLICY OVERVIEW PAPER

MAY 2006

1

It does not represent the opinion of the Community. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. 2 . IT Power East Africa The sole responsibility for the content of this paper lies with the authors.Authors: Ashington Ngigi & Daniel Macharia.

Second. focused on redefining Kenya’s educational policies and objectives. including 2 years of pre-primary. including disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. The Report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies (The Gachathi Report. including TSC Act. 1976). First. and are no longer adequately responsive to the current and emerging trends in education and training. it also recommended the establishment of the 8:4:4 system of education and the Commission for Higher Education (CHE). and the economic.EDUCATION POLICY OVERVIEW PAPER Introduction The provision of education and training to all Kenyans is fundamental to the success of the Government’s overall development strategy. In addition to the establishment of Moi University. The first Commission. Education and training in Kenya is governed by the Education Act (1968) and other related Acts of Parliament. It resulted in Government support for ‘Harambee’ schools and also led to establishment of the National Centre for Early Childhood Education (NACECE) at the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE). development of quality human resource is central to the attainment of national goals for industrial development. Fourth. giving consideration to national unity. Third. The Commission proposed an education system that would foster national unity and creation of sufficient human capital for national development. Policy Evolution Since independence. The Report of the Presidential Working Party on the Second University in Kenya (The Mackay Report. the Government has addressed the challenges facing the education sector through Commissions. education is necessary for the development and protection of democratic institutions and human rights. after independence. 8 years of primary and 4 years of secondary/technical education. came up with the Report of the Kenya Education Commission (The Ominde Report. 3 . Education also aims at enhancing the ability of Kenyans to preserve and utilize the environment for productive gain and sustainable livelihoods. KNEC Act. Sessional Paper No: 10 of 1965 on African Socialism and its Application to Planning in Kenya formally adopted the Ominde Report as a basis for post-independence educational development. 1964) that sought to reform the education system inherited from the colonial government to make it more responsive to the needs of the country. and the related Acts are not harmonized. the Education Act of 1968. and various Acts and Charters for universities. the realization of universal access to basic education and training ensures equitable access to education and training for all children. the long-term objective of the Government is to provide every Kenyan with basic quality education and training. social and cultural aspirations of the people of Kenya. University Act. However. The legislation governing the sector has therefore not kept pace with new developments. Adult Education Act. Committees and Taskforces. 1981) led to the removal of the advanced (A) level of secondary education and the expansion of other post-secondary training institutions.

mutual social responsibility. While the Government did not adopt the Report due to the cost implications some recommendations. The Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya (The Koech Report. accelerated industrial and technological development. Considering the importance of ECDE.246 girls and 447. Development and Education (ECDE). despite increased enrolment. the number of students enrolled at various levels of education has substantially increased.249 children were not enrolled in pre-primary schools and that a large proportion of children entering 4 .4 percent in 1999. life-long learning. At the primary level. in particular. enrolment grew from 30. this GER is low as there are many 4-5 year-old children who are still out of school.7 million boys) as shown in Figure 2. however. The conference mandated the Ministry of Education. Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) for pre-primary. enrolment in formal public primary schools grew from 891. retention.295 children (420.741 girls and 473. quality and relevance.2 million pupils in 2004 (3. The National Conference on Education and Training held in November 2003 brought together over 800 key players in the sector. such as curriculum rationalization have been adopted and implemented.148 children in 1982 to 894. and internal and external efficiencies within the education system. This Sessional Paper constitutes the Government policy on education and training.000 students in 1963 to 862. This led to the policy of cost sharing between government. Science and Technology (MOES&T) to develop a new policy framework for the education sector. Universal Primary Education (UPE).533 pupils in 1963 to 7. In addition. Performance of the Education Sector Since independence in 1963. equity. The effectiveness of the current 8-4-4 structure and system has also come under increasing scrutiny in light of the decline in enrolment and retention particularly at the primary and secondary school levels in the last decade. and of the various studies undertaken on the sector. quality and relevance. based on the recommendations of the conference.908 students in 2003 (415. enrolment grew from 483. the Government produced Sessional Paper No 6 on Education and Training for the Next Decade and Beyond. However. and is developing strategies for moving the country towards the attainment of this goal. such as the EFA goal. and adaptation in response to changing circumstances.5 million girls and 3. the sector is still faced with issues of access. This was at a time when the Government scheme for the provision of instructional materials through the National Textbook Scheme was inefficient and therefore adversely affected the quality of teaching and learning. parents and communities. At the Early Childhood. 1988) focused on improving education financing. equity and quality.4 percent in 1990 to 33. The Government is committed to the provision of quality education and training as a human right for all Kenyans in accordance with the Kenyan law and the international conventions. The Koech Report recommended Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training (TIQET). At the secondary level. The 1999 Population Census indicated that a total of 574.554 boys) in 2003 as shown in Figure 1 below. declined from 35. From the recommendations of the Working Party in 1988.662 boys). 2000) was mandated to recommend ways and means of enabling the education system to facilitate national unity. The implementation of Free Primary Education (FPE) is critical to the attainment of UPE as a key milestone towards the realization of the EFA goal.The Report of the Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade and Beyond (The Kamunge Report. Recent policy initiatives have focused on the attainment of EFA and. it embraces the Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The key concerns are access.

lack of economic ability and awareness among communities and parents regarding the importance of pre-primary education. Figure 1: Enrollement at Pre-Primary by Sex: 1998-2003 700.000 500.5 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 Years 1998 2000 2002 Boys Girls Source: MOES&T Statistics Section 5 .5 2 1.5 Enrollment (millions) 3 2. The low enrolment in pre-primary school level is due to various factors.000 Enrollment 400.5 1 0.000 0 1998 1999 2000 Years 2001 2002 2003 Girls Source: MOES&T Statistics Section Boys Figure 2: Enrollment in P ublic P rimary Schools by Gender: 19902003 4 3.000 200. including the fact that Government plays a rather limited role.000 300.000 100.primary schools do not pass through pre-primary.000 600.

000 400. The survival rate at the primary level has also been low.000 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 Years 1998 2000 2002 Boys Girls Source: MOES&T Statistics Section The population of people with special education needs in Kenya is estimated at 10% of the total population.907 students in 2003 as shown in Figure 3 below. Enrolments in secondary education rose from 30. required to sustain the current enrolment and address the key issues of improved access. Figure 3: Enrollment in Public Secondary Schools: 1990-2003 450. need for policy measures to address the poor access to secondary education as a way of supporting the country’s overall goals. The number of public secondary schools has also increased from 151 at independence to 3.000 100.000 50. On average these children go to school when they are 8 years and above. 6 . Pursuit to internal efficiency in our education system requires policy attention. Over the last one decade the cumulative dropout rate in primary education has been as high as 37%. about 25% of these are children of school-going age.000 250. at 40%. A special needs policy is also required to cater for the learning requirements of children with special needs.000 students in 1963 to over 862. This implies that over 90% of children with special needs are at home. Based on the 1999 census data. following the implementation of FPE. Enrolment in special education is low given that out of a total population of 750. At the tertiary level.661 today. they become adults before they complete their educational programmes. Of this number. Every effort is. Consequently.000 Enrollment 300. about 26.8 million boys and girls aged between 14 -17 years who should have been in secondary school were not enrolled. only an estimated 90.000 200. GER at the public secondary level declined. a total of 2.000 children with special needs who have reached school-going age. and the repetition rate has been 14% between standards 1 and 7. from 30 percent to 22 percent over the same period. However. the enrolment level of people with special needs is very low.4% but declined to 87. resulting in a GER of 99% in 2003 (102% for girls and 97% for boys). therefore.The GER at public primary level peaked during the early 1990s to stand at 105. there has been an upsurge in enrolment in public primary schools.000 have been assessed to establish the nature of their special needs. and although at the secondary level the survival rate has been better at 84%. the overall performance remains low considering that the GER for the secondary level is 22%. equity and quality. Hence.000 350. Similarly.885 are enrolled in educational programmes.6% in 2002.000 150.

074. Twenty years later. Regional disparities also exist in literacy levels among adults. communities. at 93. it is fully committed to an education system that guarantees the right of every learner to quality and relevant education. In 1979 when the national literacy programme was launched. the total enrolment was 415. the Government has implemented the FPE.2 million illiterate adults in Kenya. 27th and 29th November 2004. Conclusions Amidst the many challenges the government is facing. At the same time the Government. Illiteracy manifests itself more dramatically among the poor particularly women who constitute 61% of the total illiterate population. enrolment in adult literacy programme has been characterized by declining rates. The Government has committed itself to the recommendations made by the delegates attending the National Conference on Education and Training held between. completed a review of the education sector and is finalizing an Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP). the total enrolment had dropped to 101.7%. Every effort requires to be made to reduce the number of illiterate Kenyans and to ensure that the education offered is of acceptable quality. 7 . development partners and other stakeholders continue to make substantial investments to support education programmes within the sector.The 1999 Population Census estimated there were 4.052.261. to develop sector policies and implementation strategies that will ensure the provision of relevant and quality education and training to Kenyans. The enrolment in 2001 was even lower. Additionally. with women in the Coast and North Eastern provinces showing literacy levels of as low as 37. In view of this.

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