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Petroleum Engineering Handbook


Editor-in-Chief Howard B. Bradley Professional/Technical Training Consultant Associate Editors Fred W. Gipson Senior Engineering Professional (retired) Conoco Inc. Aziz S. Odeh Senior Scientist Mobil R&D Corp. Phillip S. Sizer Senior Vice President/Technical Director Otis Engineering Corp. Mohamed Mortada President Mortada Intl. Inc. Lewis L. Raymer President Lewis L. Raymer Enterprises Gerry L. Smith Engineering Consultant (deceased)

Third Printing Society of Petroleum Engineers Richardson, TX, U.S.A.

@Copyright 1987 by the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, cannot be reproduced in any form without written consent of the publisher.

Third printing, Feb. 1992, incorporating minor changes on Pages 22-3,30-3, 30-4, 33-2, and 51-52.

ISBN 1-55.563-010-3

ii

Preface
The 1962 edition of the Petroleum Production Handbook filled a need at that time for a comprehensive compilation of practical information and data covering production equipment and reservoir engineering. This 1987 edition updates the original 48 chapters and adds 11 new ones. New technology, developed over the past 25 years, resulted in improved equipment, materials, and methods. They are described and discussed in the revised original chapters and in the new ones. The 11 new chapters are the following: Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 7-Electric Submersible Pumps 1 &Offshore Operations 19-Crude-Oil Emulsions 4%Miscible Displacement 46-Thermal Recovery 47-Chemical Flooding 48-Reservoir Simulation 5 l-Acoustic Well Logging 52-Mud Logging 58-SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard 59-SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard

This 1987 edition, now called the Petroleum Engineering Handbook, provides a current and worthwhile addition to the industry s literature for students and experienced professionals working in the petroleum industry. The handbook is again divided into three sections: Sec. 1, Mathematics (one chapter); Sec. 2, Production Engineering (18 chapters); and Sec. 3, Reservoir Engineering (40 chapters). There are 57 chapters written by professionals who are recognized as authorities in their fields of expertise. Chap. 58 is a revised version of the 1982 SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard, and Chap. 59 is the 1986 revision of the 1984 Standard SPE Letter and Computer Symbols for Economics, Formation Evaluation and Well Logging, Natural Gas Engineering, and Petroleum Reservoir Engineering. The Mathematics section presents the basic tables and calculation procedures required by persons engaged in petroleum production. The Production Engineering section covers basic types of materials, methods, and tools available for use in petroleum operations, including their capabilities and proper applications. The Reservoir Engineering section treats gas, oil, condensate, and formation water properties and correlations; reservoir rocks and traps; primary, secondary, and tertiary recovery data and methods; oil and gas reserves; formation evaluation, including well logging methods; and well treating methods. The what, why, how, and now-what aspects of each topic are emphasized. Also, at the end of the appropriate chapters, key equations are presented with SI metric units. Special acknowledgment is due the SPE staff for their immeasurable help and advice, the associate editors for their avid dedication to the technical-editing task, and all the authors who contributed much time and effort to provide the timely and excellent information included within each chapter. We are much indebted to the editor-in-chief of the 1962 edition, Thomas C. Fricke. and to the original group of authors for their arduous 3-year job of developing the original edition of the Petro/eum Production Handbook. Special thanks are due Ed Mayer of THUMS and B.J. Dotson of Mobil Oil Corp. (now retired) for their advice and helpful discussions on the proper use of the 1986 SPE standard letter symbols throughout the handbook and for their editing of Chap. 59, the SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard. Our hope is that by proper application of the updated information contained within the second edition of this handbook, the petroleum-industry professional will be led to more efficient production and use of the world s petroleumenergy resources. Howard B. Bradley Editor-in-Chief

Acknowledgments
The Society of Petroleum cited material. Engineers sincerely thank\ the following organizations and individuals for permission to use the

Chap. 2 Figs. 2.1 through 2.3 and 2.6 through 2.8, from Casino,
(1985). Tubi,l~, and Drill Pipe, API Spec. 5A, 38th edition. API. Dallas

Fig. 2.9, from Line Pipe, API Spec. 5L, 35th edition. API. Dallas (1985). Figs. 2.10A, 2.10B, 2.11, 2.12, and 2.14 through 2.18, from 7hrt&inR, &g;,lg,
1 Ith edition, API. Dallas (1985). Table 2.1, modified from Cusing, Tubing, (1972). and Drill Pipe,

and 7 hveud hl.~fcct;or2,

API

Spec,SB.

Tables 2.2, 2.5 through 2.7, and 2.25 through 2.27, Casing, Tables 2.3, 2.4, and 2.24,
API. Dallas (1972). (1983). from USS Seamless modified from Performance

API Spec. 5A, 37th edition, API, Dallas (1984). Tubing, and Drill Pipe, Bull., USS. Pittsburgh. of Casing, Tubing, Tubing, and Drill Pipe,

PA

Propertics Casing.

Apf Bu//. 5~2, PA

Tables 2.8 through 2.11 and 2.28,

and Drill Pipe,

Bu//, , USS. Pittsburgh,

Table 2.14, Bull. 664. National Supply Co.. Houston. Tables 2.31 through 2.33, 2.36, and 2.37, from Line Pipe, API Spec. 5L. 34th edition. API, Dallas (1984). Tables 2.38 through 2.43, from Formulas and Calculations for Casing, Tubing. Drill Pipe. and Lint Pipe Properties.
API Bull. 5C3, No. 4. API. third edition (1983). with Supplement No. 1. API.

Tables 2.44 through 2.54, from Thrrudit~~. Gaging, und thread


Dallas

Dallas (1983). Inspection.

API Spec.

5B,

10th edition

with Supplement

Chap. 3 Figs, 3.1 and 3.3, and Tables 3.1 through 3.33, from Speci carionsfor
Spec. 6A. 14th and 15th editions, API. Dallas (April 1. 1986). Fig. 3.2, courtesy McEvoy Co., General Catalog 58-59 (Jan. 1959). for AWHEM Fig. 3.5, from Eichenberg, R., Design Consideration 22, 1957. Figs. 3.6 through 3.17, courtesy Otis Engineering Corp.. Dallas. Wellhcad and Chrisrtnas Tree Eyuipment. API

15,000

psi Flanges,

ASME

Paper

57.PET-23,

Sept.

Chap. 4
L.D. and Abbott, W.A.: Well Completions and Workovers: Energy Publications, Dallas (1985) 57-67. Tables 4.1 and 4.2, from Pucker Culculations Handbook, Baker Oil Tool Div. (1971). second edition,

Figs. 4.1 through 4.11, from Patton,

The Systems

Approuth.

Chap. 5 Fig. 5.1, from Winkler.


1960) 116-19. H.W.: How to Design a Closed Rotativc Gas Lift System-Part Training Series, I: Proccdurc, revised edition. World Qj/ (July API. Dallas (1984)

Figs. 5.2, 5.5, 5.6, and 5.18, from Gus Lij?, Book 6 of API Vocational
65.

Fig. 5.3, from Winkler.


Determinations.

H.W.: Here s How to Improve Your Gas Lift Installations-Part I : Pressure at Depth World Oil (Aug. 1959) 63-67. Figs. 5.4 and 5.29, from Winkler. H.W. and Smith. S.S.: Cameo Gas Liji Manual, Cameo Inc.. Houston (1962) A2-001. U.S. Patent No. 2.339.487 (Jan. 1944). Fig. 5.7, from King, W.R.: Time and V 0 Iumc Control for Gas Intermitters, in Gas-Lift Technology, API Drill. and Prod. Pruc. (I 959) 24-60. Fig. 5.21, from Kirkpatrick. C.V.: Advances Fig. 5.25, from Gas Lt, Book 6 of API Vocational Training Series. API. Dallas (1965) 109. Fig. 5.33, from CLlmco Cornplere Service Cuialog, Cameo Inc. (1962) 42.

Chap. 6 Figs. 6.1, 6.5, 6.7, 6.12, 6.13, 6.31, 6.40, 6.44, 6.47, 6.49, and 6.51, and Table 6.18, courtesy
Gardena. CA, Trico Industries.

Figs. 6.2, 6.3, 6.6, 6.8, 6.11, 6.14, 6.15, 6.19 through 6.24, 6.26 through 6.29, 6.32 through 6.39, 6.41 through 6.45, 6.48, 6.50, 6.52, 6.53, and 6.55, and Table 6.1, from National-Oilwell. Los Nietos. CA. Fig. 6.9, courtesy Otis Engineering Corp., Dallas. Figs. 6.17 and 6.52, and Tables 6.3, 6.12, and 6.17, courtesy Dresser Industries, Dallas. Fig. 6.18 and Table 6.4, courtesy of Highland Pump Co. Inc.. Midland. TX. Fig. 6.56, from Si;ing und Selecrion of Electric Submersible Pump Installations, API RP I IU, second edition, API. Dallas
(May 30, 1986).

Table 6.2, courtesy Chap. 7

Kobe Inc.,

Huntington

Park,

CA.

Figs. 7.1 through 7.18 and 7.20 through 7.32, and Table 7.1, courtesy
Bartlesville. OK.

TRW Energy

Products

Group,

Reda Pump

Div.,

Chap. 8 Fig. 8.1, from Subsurface Pumps and Fitrings, API Spec. 11 AX, seventh edition, API, Dallas (June 1979). Figs. 8.3, 8.5, and 8.7, courtesy Oilwell Div. of U.S. Steel Corp., Garland, TX.
V

Chap. 9 Figs. 9.2 and 9.3, and Tables 9.1 through 9.4, from Sucker Rods. API Spcc. 119, 2lst editmn. API, Dallas (May 1985). Figs. 9.5 and 9.9, and Table 9.9, from Cure und Hundling of Sucker Rod.,, API RP 1 IBR. seventh edition. API. Dallas
(May 30, 1986).

Fig. 9.10 and Tables 9.10 and 9.11, from Reir@ced


I, 1986). Table 9.7, from Design Culrulurions

Plu~fic Sucker Rods, API Spec.

1 IC, first edition. API,

API, Dallas

Dallas (Feb.

(Jan, 1977)

for Sucker Rod P~inpini:

Systems, API RP I 1L. third edition,

Chap. IO Figs. 10.1, 10.3, 10.6, 10.7, 10.9 through 10.12, and 10.14 (pumping unit), courtesy Lufkin Industries Inc., Lufkin. TX. Fig. 10.8, from Design Calculations for Sucker Rod Pumping Sytems (Convenrional Units), API RP 1 IL. third edition.
API. Dallas Equipment (Feb. Co., 1977). Oil Well Odessa, TX. Fig. 10.14 (engine), from Arrow Specialty Co., Tulsa, OK. Fig. 10.15, from Waukesha Engine Div.. Dresser Industries Inc., Waukesha. WI. Fig. 10.21, from Mom-s and Generators, MG l-1978. Natl. Electrical Manufacturers Assn.. Washington. DC (1978). Figs. 10.29 through 10.31, from Ronk Electrical Industries Inc., Nokomis. IL. Figs. 10.32 and 10.33, from Classijcnlion of Areas for Electrical lnstullations at Drilling Rigs and Production Facilities on Land and on Marine Fixed and Mobile Platform, API RP 5009, second edition, API, Dallas (July 1973) 8. Tables 10.2 and 10.3, from lnsrullation and Luhrimtim of Pumping Units, API RP 1 IG, second edition. API. Dallas (Feb. 1959) and Supplement (Jan. 1980). Tables 10.6 and 10.10, from Motor Application and Muintenunce Hundbook, second edition, R.W. Smeaton (ed.), McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.. New York City, Table 1 on Page 3-7 and Table 3 on Page I l-3.

Figs. 10.13, 10.16 through 10.20, and 10.24 through 10.28, and Tables 10.5, 10.7, and 10.9, from Sargent

Chap. 11
Products, American Hot Dip Galvanizer Assn. and the Zinc Inst. 1983). Fig. 11.7, from CBI Industries Inc. (Chicago Bridge and Iron Co.), Oak Brook, IL. Figs. 11.9 and 11.10, from Fenix & Scisson Inc., Tulsa. OK. Table 11.1, from Bolted Production Tanks, API Spec. 129, 12th edition, API Div. of Production, Dallas (Jan. 1977). Tables 11.3 and 11.4, from Venting Atmospheric cmd LowPressure Storage Tunk.7, API Std. 2000, third edition, API, Dallas (Jan. 1982). (Nov.

Figs. 11.1 and 11.3, from C-E Natco, Tulsa. OK. Fig. 11.4, from Design and Fuhricution of Gulvunixd

Chap. 12 Fig. 12.2, courtesy Jaragua S.A. Industrias Mechanicas. Sao Paula, Brazil. Figs. 12.7 and 12.8, courtesy Fisher Controls Co., Marshalltown. IA. Figs. 12.16 and 12.19, courtesy ACS Industries Inc., Woonsocket, RI. Fig. 12.18, courtesy Peerless Mfg. Co., Dallas. Fig. 12.20, courtesy Plenty Metrol. Newbury. England. Fig. 12.21, courtesy Vortec. Inc.. Woodside. CA. Fig. 12.22, courtesy Porta-Test Systems, Ltd., Edmonton, Alta., Canada. Figs. 12.24, 12.26, and 12.40, courtesy C-E Natco, Tulsa, OK. Tables 12.9 and 12.10, courtesy Cornsign Computer Program, Ellis Engineering Inc., Houston. Tables 12.11 and 12.17, from KWIC Index of Intl. Standards, Intl. Organization for Standardization. Geneva. Tables 12.12, 12.18, and 12.19, from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Div. 1, New York City (1984). Tables 12.13 and 12.14, from Megyesy, E.F.: Pressure Vessel Handbook, Pressure Vessel Handbook Publishing Inc.,
Tulsa, OK. Meeting.

Table 12.15, from Kimmell,


Oklahoma

G.O.: Stage Separation, paper 48.PET-15 presented at the ASME Annual City, Oct. 1949. Table 12.16, Separation Flash Calculations, Process Version 0882, Simulation Sciences Inc., Houston.

Chap. 13 Fig. 13.2, courtesy The Bristol Co. Fig. 13.3, from Ori ce Constunt Tub/es. American Gas Assn., Report No. 3, revised (1969). Also, ANSI/API 2530. Fig. 13.4 and Tables 13.2a, 13.2b, and 13.4, from GPSA Engineering Dutubook, Gas Processors Suppliers Assn., Tulsa,
OK (1972).

Figs. 13.20 through 13.22, courtesy Fischer Governor Table 13.1, courtesy American Meter Co.. Inc. Chap. 14 Fig. 14.5, from GPSA Engineering
(1981). Dutuhook,

Co.

ninth edition.

fifth revision,

Gas Processors

Suppliers

Assn.,

Tulsa,

OK

Fig. 14.14, from NGSMA Handbook. Figs. 14.19 through 14.21, and Tables 14.1 and 14.2 from Campbell,
Processing. Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, OK (1962) 2.

J.M.:

J.M.

Campbell

Gas Conditioning

and

vi

Chap. 15 Figs. 15.1 through 15.3, and Table 15.9, from Desl,qn and hstd/don
API RP l4E, Assn.. third edition, API, Dallas (1981) 22. Durchx~k, @IS Processors of O&how P~C~CY;OH ~l+t~~ Pip;~ ~~~~~~~~~~~

Figs. 15.4 through 15.6, and Tables 15.2 through 15.5, from GPSA Engineerirlg
Tulsa, OK (1980). Fig. 15.8, courtesy Paragon Engineering Services Inc.. Houston. Wells, TX.

Suppliers

Fig. 15.11 and Table 15.10, courtesy Perry Equipment Co., Mineral Fig. 15.12, courtesy C-E Natco, Tulsa. OK. Fig. 15.13, courtesy U.S. Filter. Fluid System Corp.. Whittier, CA. Figs. 15.15 and 15.19, from Oil-Water Separator Process Design.
Wastes, API. Dallas (1975) Chap. 5. Fig. 15.20, Engineering Spccialtiea Inc.. Covington. LA. Tables 15.6 and 15.7, from Amr~rictr~~ ~triiov7d .bmk~rd. York City (1981). on Liquid

API Manual

on Disposal

of Refinery

Wastes.

Volume

Pip

/%mgr.s

arzd

F/m&

FirtirrRs.

ANSI B26.5.

ASME,

New

Chap. 18 Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 18.32, 18.36, 18.38, 18.40, 18.41, 18.43, 18.44, 18.45,
Resources Ltd., New Westminster, B.C., Canada. Services. Irvine. CA. courtesy Hamilton Bros. Oil Co., Denver. from Lagers, G.H.C., Gusto, B.V., and Bell, C.R.: The Third Generation Lay Barge. Proc., Conference (1974) 1, 35-46. courtesy Apache, Santa Fe Intl. Corp., Alhambra. CA. courtesy Swan Wooster Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, B.C., Canada. from Willits. K.L.: Well Completions in the Prudhoc Bay Field. Pet. Eng. (Feb. 1976). courtesy Brian Watt Assocs., Houston. courtesy CanOcean

courtesy Fluor Subsea

Offshore

Technology

Chap. 19 Figs. 19.1, 19.3, and 19.6 through 19.8, courtesy Shell Development Co., Houston. Figs. 19.4, 19.5, 19.9, and 19.10, courtesy Baker Performance Chemicals Inc., Santa Fe Springs, Fig. 19.12, courtesy ASTM, Philadelphia. PA. Fig. 19.17, courtesy Chemineer-Kenics. Dayton. OH. Fig. 19.18, courtesy Modular Production Equipment Inc., Houston. Figs. 19.19, 19.29, and 19.30, courtesy C-E Natco Inc.. Tulsa, OK. Figs. 19.20 and 19.32, courtesy Hydrocarbon Research Inc.. Long Beach, CA. Figs. 19.21, 19.22, and 19.28, courtesy Energy Recovery Div., Daniel Industries Inc. Chap. 20
CA

of Nutuuu/ Gus Eng;nrcr;ng, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1959). Figs. 20.2B and 20.2C, from Brown, G.G. ~1 nl.: Natural Gasoline and the Volatile Hydrocarbons. Natural Gas Assn. of America. Tulsa OK (1948). Factor for Sour Natural Gases, Cdn. J. C!zerrr. Gl,q. (1972) Fig. 20.4, from Wichert, E. and Aziz. K.: Compressibility 49, 269-75. Figs. 20.8 and 20.9, from Stiel. L.I. and Thodos, G.: The Viscosity of Non-Polar Gases at Normal Pressures. AICIfE J. (1961) 7, 61 l-20. Proc~. , Natural Gas Fig. 20.10, from Matthews, T.A.. Roland. C H.. and Katz, D.L.: High Pressure Gas Measurement. A$sn. of America (1942) 41-51. Fig. 20.14 and Table 20.1, from Perry. R.H. and Chilton, C.H.: C/~cwicz/ 0tgin~er.s ffmdbook. fifth edition. McGrawHill Book Co Inc., New York City (1975). Table 20.2, from GPSA Enyi~~wriufi Dorcrbonk, ninth edition. fifth revision. Gas Processors Suppliers Aasn.. Tulsa. OK,
Figs. 20.2A and 20.3, from Katz, D.L. ef (il.: Hcr!rdhook Chau. 21 Fig. 21 .l, from Gq~~/oym/ic~ c$ C/ic,n~ic,tr/ T~~c~/tno/o,e~,The Interscicnce Encyclopedia Inc. ( 1953) 10, 1 17. Fig. 21.3, after N&on. W.L.: Parrnlertr?~ Rc$rrrj:v ~ri,t~irt~~~ri/t~, fourth edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc., New York
City (1958) 910-37.

Fig. 21.4, courtesy Hansen. D.N. and Hurd. C.O., Shell Devolopmcnt Co , Prtrd~wrn Rc$wr (Aprtl 1945). Figs. 21.7 through 21.21, from ASTM Slcrf&rcl.c 011 Pt,/ro/c~trfi P,.oc/lrc~f.s crnd Lubricants. Part 24, ASTM, Philadelphia
( 1975) 796. Proc,., Natural Gas T.A.. Roland. C.H.. and Katz. D.L: High Prcssurc Gas Measurements. (1942) 41. r~lrr/tif,/rrc, t/rid Phcrsr Brhcr~~io~ r!fOil Fir/t/ Hwlrr,c&~orr S\stc~rns, Reinhold Figs. 21.23 and 21.24. from Standing. M. B. : l Publtshing Corp.. New York City (1952). Fig. 21.25, from Standing. M.13.: A Prcssurc-Volulnc-Tcmpcraturc Correlation for Mixtures of California Oil and Gases. Drill. curd Prod. Pm , API ( 1937) 275. Fig. 21.26, courtesy Calitornia Rcjcarch Corp., 1947. Fable 2 I .7, from Nelson. W. L. : Pr~f-oic,lr!~r Rc:/iucy\ En,g;n~criyy, fourth edition, McGrawHill Book Co. Inc.. New York City (11)5X) 910-37. Table 21.10, from A Guide to World Export Ct-udcs. Oil & Gtrv J. (1976). Table 21.11, courtesy Bartlcavillc Energy Technology Ccntcr. Bartlc~ville. OK. Aasn. of America vii

Fig. 21.22, from Matthews.

Chau. 22 Figs. 22.1 through 22.3, from Standing,


M.B.: Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil Field Hydrocarbon Systems, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York City (1952). Fig. 22.4, from Katz, D.L.: Prediction of the Shrinkage of Crude Oils, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API (1942). Figs. 22.5, 22.9, and 22.13, courtesy California Research Corp. Figs. 22.19 and 22.20, from Baker, 0. and Swerdloff, W.: Finding Surface Tension of Hydrocarbon Liquids, Oil & Gas 1. (Jan. 2, 1956).

Chap. 23
Fig. 23.9 from GPSA Engineering Databook, Gas Processors Suppliers Assn., ninth edition, Tulsa, OK (1972). Systems, Figs. 23.12 and 23.13 from Reamer, H.H., Fiskin, J.M., and Sage, B.H.: Phase Equilibria in Hydrocarbon lnd. Eng. Chem. (Dec. 1949) 41, 2871.

Chao. 24
from Hoke, S.H. and Collins, A.G.: Mobile Wellhead Analyzerfor Oil-Field Waters, ASTM STP 735 (1981) 34-48. Fig. 24.9, from Burcik: Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids, John Wiley Figs. 24.11 and 24.12, from PI-Petroleum Information,

Fig. 24.3,

the Determination & Sons Inc.,

of Unstable

Constituents

in

New York City (1957).

Chap. 25
Figs. 25.3 and 25.4, from Kobayashi, R.: Vapor-Liquid dissertation, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1951). Handbook of Natural Equilibria in Binary Hydrocarbon-Water Systems, PhD

Systems, Gas Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1959) 189-221. Figs. 25.6, 25.8, and 25.33, from Kobayashi, R. and Katz, D.L.: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Binary Hydrocarbon-Water Systems, Ind. Erg. Chem. (1953) 45, 440-5 1. Fig. 25.7, from Alder, S.B. and Spencer, C.F.: Case Studies of Industrial Problems, Phase Equilibria and Fluid Properties Proc., Equilibrium Fluid Properties in the Chemical Industry (1980) 465-95. in the Chemical Industry, Fig. 25.14, from von Stackelberg, M.: Solid Gas Hydrates, Natunvissenschaften (1949) 36, 327-33, 359-62. Figs. 25.17 through 25.20, from Sloan, E.D.: Phase Equilibria of Natural Gas Hydrates, paper 67f presented at the 1983 AIChE Summer Natl. Meeting, Denver, Aug. 28-31. Fig. 25.22, from Song, K.Y. and Kobayashi, R.: Measurement and Interpretation of the Water Content of a MethanePropane Mixture in the Gaseous State in Equilibrium with Hydrate, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. (1982) 21, No. 4, 391-95. Fig. 25.25, from Deaton, W.J. and Frost, E.M.: Gas Hydrates and Their Relation to the Operation of Natural Gas Pipe 8, USBM, Washington, DC (1946). Lines, Monograph Fig. 25.30, from Saito, S., Marshall, D.R., and Kobayashi, R.L: Hydrates at High Pressures: Part II. Application of AIChE J. (1964) 10, No. 5, Statistical Mechanics to the Study of the Hydrates of Methane, Argon, and Nitrogen, 734-40. Fig. 25.32, from Dodson, CR. and Standing, M.B.: Pressure-Volume-Temperature and Solubility Relations for Natural Gas-Water Mixtures, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1944) 173-79. Figs. 25.34 through 25.36, from Peng, D.-Y. and Robinson, D.B.: Two- and Three-Phase Equilibrium Calculations for Coal Gasification and Related Process, Thermodynamics of Aqueous Systems with Industrial Applications, S.A. Newman (ed.), Symposium Series 133. ACS (1980) 393-414. Figs. 25.37 and 25.41, from Scauzillo, F.R.: Inhibiting Hydrate Formations in Hydrocarbon Gases, Chem. Eng. Progr. (1956) 52, No. 8, 324-28. Figs. 25.38 through 25.40, from Gas Conditioning Fact Book, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (1962) 69-71, Table 25.5, from Dharmawardhand, P.B.: The Measurement of the Thermodynamic Parameters of the Hydrate Structure and Application of Them in the Prediction of Natural Gas Hydrates, PhD dissertation, Colorado School of Mines, Golden (1980).

Figs. 25.5, 25.10, 25.21, 25.23, and 25.24, and Table 25.4, from Katz, D.L. et al.: Water-Hydrocarbon

Chap. 26
H.J. and Graton, L.C.: Systematic Packing of Spheres-With Particular Relation to Porosity and J. Geol. (Nov.-Dec. 1935) 785-909. Figs. 26.3 and 26.30, courtesy Core Laboratories Inc., Dallas. Fig. 26.5, 26.24, and 26.25, from Stevens, A.B.: A Laboratory Manual for Petroleum Engineering 308, Texas A&M U., College Station (1954). Fig. 26.7, from Krumbein, W.C. and Sloss, L.L.: Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc., New York City (1951) 218. Fig. 26.27, from Klinkenberg, L.J.: The Permeability of Porous Media to Liquids and Gases, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1941) 200-13. Fig. 26.29, from Kennedy, H.T., VanMeter, O.E., and Jones, R.G.: Saturation Determination of Rotary Cores, Pet. Eng. (Jan. 1954) B.52-B.64. Permeability,

Fig. 26.1, from Fraser,

Chap. 27 Table 27.12, courtesy Alaska Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Anchorage. Tables 27.13 through 27.15 and 27.17, courtesy Core Laboratories Inc., Dallas. Table 27.16, from European Continental shelf Guide, Oilfield Publications Ltd., Ledbury,

Herefordshire,

England

(1982).

Chap. 28 Figs. 28.3 and 28.4, from Rose. W.: U.S. Patent No. 4,506,542 (1985). Fig. 28.7, from Rose. W.: Permeability and Gas Slippage Phenomena.
127-35. Probability Model for Estimating Three-Phase Relative Permeability. J. Ccl,z. P<,t. Tech. 1973) 53-59. Fig. 28.12, from Panteleev. V.G. et ctl.: Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Three Phase Permeability by Oil and Water, Nej?eprom.wlowe de10 (1973) No. 6. I l-13. Fig. 28.16, from Ashford. F.E.: Determination of Two Phase and Multiphase Relative Permeability for Drainage and lmbibition Cycles Based on Capillary Pressure Measurement, Revisru Tecnicu Intevep (198 1) 1, 71-94. Fig. 28.19, from Lin, C. and Slattery. J.C.: Three-Dimensional. Randomized, Network Model for Two-Phase Flow Through Porous Media. AlChE J. (1982) 28, No. 2, 311-24. (Oct. Drill. and Prod. Pruc., API. DalIah (1948)

Fig. 28.8, from Stone. H.L.:

Chau. 29 Figs. 29.1 through 29.3, from Galloway, T.J.: Bull. 118, California Div. of Mines, Sacramento (Aug. 1957). Fig. 29.6, from Sams. H.: Atkinson Field. Good Example of Subtle Stratigraphic Trap, Oil & Gas .I. (Aug.
145-63. Erosional Channel in the Middle Wilcox Near Yoakum. Lavaca County. Texas, Trrlrt~. Gulf Coast Assn. of Geological Societies (Nov. 1959) 9, 41-50. Fig. 29.8, from Pirson, S.J.: Oil Reservoir EnRinerring, second edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1958). Figs. 29.9 and 29.10, from Occurrence of Oil and Gas in Northeast Texas, F.A. Herald (ed.). Bureau of Economic Geology and East Texas Geological Sot. (April 1951). Fig. 29.11, from An Infrod~rction to Gulf Cousf Oil Fields, Houston Geological Sot., Houston (1941). Fig. 29.12, from A Guide Book, Houston Geological Sot.. Houston (1953). 12. 1974)

Fig. 29.7, from Hoyt. W.V.:

Chap. 30 Tables 30.1 through 30.4, from Bergman,


Measurement Systems. Schlumberger J.C., Gulmard, A., and Hagenar, Well Services, Houston (1980) 10. D.S.: High Performance Pressure

Chao. 31 Fig. 31.1, from Clijnutu/ogicul Chap. 32 Fig. 32.1, from the Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin. Figs. 32.2 and 32.3, from Calhoun, J.C. Jr.: Fundamentals
Press. Norman (1953). API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standurd.T, Chap. 5. Sec. 3. Liquid Hydrocarbons by Positive Displuccment Meter, API Std. IlO1, first of Reservoir Engineering, revised edition, U. of Oklahoma Dutu in the United Slates. U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington, DC

Figs. 32.10 and 32.11, from Turbine Meters, Fig. 32.12, from API Measurement of Perroleum
edition (Aug. 1960).

Chap. 33 Table 33.7, from Rawlins,


to Production Practices, E.L. and Schellhardt. M.A.: Back-pressure Data on Natural USBM Monograph, Washington. DC (1935). Gas Wells and Their Application

Chap. 34 Fig. 34.2, from Moody, L.F.: Friction Factors for Pipe Flow, Trans., ASME (1944) 66, 671. Fig. 34.3, from Brown. G.G. et al.: Nutural Gusohe and the Volatile Hydrocarbons, Natural Gas Assn. of America
(1948). F.H.: Calculation of the Flow and Storage of Natural Gas in Pipe, Per Enx. I. D-14; No. 2, C-36; No. 3, D-37. Figs. 34.8 and 34.9, from Griffith, P. and Wallis, G.B.: Two-Phase Slug Flow, J. Heur Transfer (Aug. 1961) 307-20: Trans., ASME. Figs. 34.11 and 34.12, from Poettmann, F.H. and Carpenter, P.G.: Multiphase Flow of Gas, Oil, and Water Through Drill. und Prod. Pruc., API (1952) Vertical Flow Strings with Application to the Design of Gas-Lift Installations, 257-3 17. Figs. 34.13 through 34.17, from Davis, G.J. and Weidner, C.R.: Investigation of the Air Lift Pump, Bull., Eng. Series, U. of Wisconsin (191 I) 6, No. 7. Figs. 34.23 through 34.25, from Poettmann, F.H. and Beck, R.L.: New Charts Developed to Predict Gas-Liquid Flow World Oil (March 1963) 95-101. Through Chokes, Table 34.7, from Rawlins, E.L. and Schellhardt, M.A.: Back-Pressure Data on Natural Gas Wells and Their Application Monograph Series, USBM (1936) 7. to Production Practices, (1955) 27, No.

Fig. 34.4, from Nisle, R.G. and Poettmann,

Chap. 36 Fig. 36.9, from Dahm,


Gulf of Thailand-A C.G. and Graebner. R.J.: GeophvJics Case History. Field (Feb. Development With Three-Dimensional 1982) 149-76. Seismic Methods in the

ix

Chap. 37 Fig. 37.6 and 37.7, from Tarncr,


Recoverable Oil. J., How Different Sire Gas Caps and Pressure Maintenance Programs Affect Amount Oil Week!\~ (June 12. 1944) 32-44. Figs. 37.16 through 37.24, and Tables 37.1 and 37.2, from Singh. D. and Guerrero. E.T.: Material Balance Equation Oil & Gas .I. (Oct. 20. 1969) 95-102. Sensitivity, Producing Volatile Oil Reservoirs. Workl Oil (April 1979) Figs. 37.29 and 37.30, from Cronquist, C.: Evaluating 159-66 and 246. ot

Chao. 39 Figs. 39.1 through 39.3, and Table 39.1, after Eilerts.
Gas Assn., New York City (1957). Trcrns., Drill. trrrrl K.C. er ~1.: Phusr Rr/ution.s of Gas-Co,l~lenscite F1ui~l.s. American

Figs. 39.4 through 39.6, and Tables 39.2 through 39.10, courtesy Core Laboratories Inc., Dallas (1985). Fig. 39.7, after Marshall. D.L. and Oliver, L.R.: Some Uses and Limitations of Model Studies in Cycling.
(1948) 174, 67-87. Fig. 39.8, after Stelzer, R.B.: Model Prod. Pruc., API (1956) 336-42. Fig. 39.9, data derived from Stelzer, Reservoir. Drill. and Prod. Prac., Table 39.12, from Miller, M.G. and Project. New Methods of Predicting Prac., API (1946) 128849. AIME Study vs. Field Performance, Cycling the Paluxy Condensate Reservoir,

Cycling the Paluxy Condensate R.B.: Model Study vs. Field Performance, API (1956) 336-42. Lents. M.R.: Performance of Bodcaw Reservoir, Cotton Valley Field Cycling Gas-Condensate Reservoir Performance Under Cycling Operations. Drill. wzd Prod.

chap. 41 Table 41.11, courtesy Republic Bank of Dallas. Table 41.14. from Wilson. W.W. and Boyd. W.L.:
1958). Simplified Calculations Determine Loan Payout. World Oil (May

Chao. 44 Figs. 44.6 through 44.8 and Table 44.2, from Craft,
Engineering, Prentice-Hall B.C. and Hawkins, M.J. Jr.: Applied Pc~troleum Reservoir Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1959) 107, 357, 412-13. Figs. 44.58 through 44.61, from Guerrero. E.T. and Earlougher, R.C.: Analysis and Comparison of Five Methods Used Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (I 961) 78-95. to Predict Waterflooding Reserves and Performance, Fig. 44.62, from Higgins, R.V. and Leighton. A.J.: Computer Techniques for Predicting Three-Phase Flow in Five-Spot Waterfloods, RI 7011. USBM (Aug. 1967).

Chap. 45
from Brown, G.G. et al.: Natural Gasoline and the Volatile Hydrocarbons, Natural Gasoline Assn. of (1948). Fig. 45.5, from Hutchinson, C.A. Jr. and Braun, P.H.: Phase Relations of Miscible Displacement in Oil Recovery. AIChE J. (1961) 7, 64. Fig. 45.7, modified from Slobod, R.L. and Koch, H.A. Jr.: High Pressure Gas Injection-Mechanism of Recovery Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1953) 82. Increase, Fig. 45.8, modified from Sage B.H and Lacey, W.N.: Some Properties of the Lighter Hydrocarbons, Hydrogen Suljde, Research Project 37, API, Dallas (1955). Carbon Dioxide, Monograph

Fig. 45.4,
America

and

Chap. 46 Fig. 46.1, from Farouq


Compact Ali, S.M.: Steam Injection, Secondary and Tertiary Oil Recovery Processes, Interstate Oil Commission, Oklahoma City (Sept. 1974) 148. Fig. 46.2, from McNeil, M.S. and Moss, J.T.: Oil Recovery by In-Situ Combustion, Pet. Eng. (July 1958) B-29-B-42. Fig. 46.5, from Smith, R.W. and Perkins. T.K.: Experimental and Numerical Simulation Studies of the Wet Combustion Recovery Process, J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. (July-Sept. 1973) 44454. Fig. 46.34, from Mace. C.: Deepest Combustion Project Proceeding Successfully, Oil & Gus J. (Nov. 17, 1975) 74-81. Fig. 46.59, from Poettmann. F.H. and Mayland, B.J.: Equilibrium Constants for High Boiling Hydrocarbon Fractures of Pet. Refiner (July 1949) 101ll2. Varying Characterization Factors, Tables 46.1 through 46.6, from Steam Dominates Enhanced Oil Recovery, Oil & Gas J. (April 5, 1982) 139-59. Table 46.31, from 1967 ASTM Steam Tables, ASME. New York City (1967).

Chap. 47 Figs. 47.1, 47.12, and 47.26, from U.S. DOE: drawing by J. Lindley, Bartlesville, OK. Fig. 47.3, from Mungan, N.: Rev. Inst. Fr. Pet., Editions Technip, Paris (1969) 24, 232. Fig. 47.4, from Tsaur, K.: A Study of PolymeriSurfactant Interactions for Micellar/Polymer
thesis.

Flooding Applications, MS U. of Texas, Austin (1978). Fig. 47.5, from Martin, F.D., Donaruma, L.G., and Hatch, M.J.: Development of Improved Mobility Control Agents for SurfactantiPolymer Flooding, second annual report, Contract No. DOEiBCiOCO013, U.S. DOE (Oct. 1980). Fig. 47.8, from Overbeck, J.Th.G.: Colloids and Surface Chemistry. A Self-Study Subject Guide. Part 2, Lyophobic Colloids, Bull., Center for Advanced Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (1972). Fig. 47.9, from Khan. S.A.: The Flow of Foam Through Porous Media, MS thesis, Stanford U., Stanford, CA (1965).

R.N.: Some Physico-Chemical Aspects of Microemulsion Flooding: A Review. Improved Oil Recovery by Sutjticttmt and Polwner Flooding, D.O. Shah and R.S. Schechter (eds.), Academic Press, New York City (1977) 383-438. Fig. 47.20, from Harwell. J.H.: Surfactant Adsorption and Chromatographic Movement with Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery. PhD dissertation, U. of Texas, Austin (1983). Fig. 47.23, from Lake, L.W. and Pope, G.A.: Status of Micellar-Polymer Field Tests, Pet. Eng. Intl. (Nov. 1979) 51, 38-60. Fig. 47.27, from Minssieux, L.: Waterflood Improvement by Means of Alkaline Water, Enhunced Oil Recovery by Displacement wifh Saline Solutions, Kogan Page Ltd., London (1979) 75-90; courtesy BP Trading Co. Ltd. Table 47.1, from Manning, R.K., Pope, G.A., and Lake, L.W.: A Technical Survey of Polymer Flooding Projects, Contract No. DOE/BETC/l0327-19, U.S. DOE (Sept. 1983). Table 47.2, from Akstinat, M.H.: Surfactants for WOR Process in High-salinity Systems: Product selection and evaluation, Enhanced Oi/ Recovery, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., New York City (1981).

Fig. 47.19, from Recd. R.L. and Healy,

Chap. 49 Figs. 49.9, 49.10, 49.19 through 49.22, 49.25 through 49.30, and 49.34, from Log Interpretation
Schlumberger New Dimension Well Services, Houston. Principles, Vol. 1,

J:C.. Rau, R., and Wells, L.: Electromagnetic Propagation-A Schlumberger Well Services, Houston. in Logging, Figs. 49.46 and 49.47, from Best, D.L., Gardner. J.S., and Dumanoir, J.L.: A Computer-Processed Wellsite Log paper presented at the 1978 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, June 13-16. Computation, Fig. 49.48, from Coates, G.R., Schulze, R.P., and Throop, W.H.: VOLAN*-An Advanced Computational Log paper presented at the 1982 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, July 6-9. Analysis, Tables 49.1 and 49.3 through 49.6, from Bateman. R.M., Log Qunlir?, Control, IHRDC, Boston, 1984.

Figs. 49.42 through 49.44 and Table 49.2, from Calver,

Chap. 50 Figs. 50.5 and 50.6, from Evans, R.D.: 7 he Aromic Nucleus, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1967) 426-38. Figs. 50.9, 50.21, 50.30, 50.32 through 50.34, 50.40, 50.43, 50.50, and 50.51, courtesy Schlumberger Well Services.
Houston.

Fig. 50.18, from Tidman,


Academic Press (1986)

J.: Geophysical Well Logging. excerpts from Methods in Experimental Phyic.\: Physics, 24. Figs. 50.22 and 50.36, from Schlumberger Log Interpretation Charts, Schlumberger Well Services, Houston. 1984. Figs. 50.23, 50.24, and 50.26, from Edmundson, H. and Raymer, L.L.: Radioactive Logging Parameters for Common Minerals. paper presented at the 1979 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, Tulsa, June 3-h. Fig. 50.29, from Hertzog, R.C. and Plasek, R.E.: Neutron-Excited Gamma-Ray Spectrometry for Well Logging. IEEE Trms. NM. Sti. (Feb. 1979) NS-26, No. 1, Fig. 50.46, Arnold, D.M. and Smith, H.D. Jr.: Experimental Determination of Environmental Corrections for a DualSpaced Neutron Porosity Log, paper W presented at the 1981 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, Mexico City, June 23-26. Fig. 50.47, from Schlumbergcr Chart Book, Schlumberger Well Services, Houston (1977). Table 50.3, from Bcrtuzzi. W., Ellis. D.V., and Wahl. J.S.: The Physical Foundation of Formation Lithology Logging with Gamma Rays, Geophy.siu (Oct. 1981) 46, No. 10.

Chap. 51 Fig. 51.2, from Sears,


(1955) 1031. F.W. and Zemansky, M.W.: Unirwsi@ Physics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Inc., Reading. MA

J. and Krautkramer, H.: Ultrasonic Testing ofA4ateriais, Springer-Verlag. New 521. Figs. 51.6 and 51.71, from Timur. A.: Rock Physics, The Arabian J. Sri. Eng. Special Issue (1978) 5-30. Figs. 51.7 and 51.15, from Timur. A.: Temperature Dependence of Compressional and Shear Wave Velocities in Rocks, Groph~sics (1977) 42, 950-56. Figs. 51.8 and 51.9 and Table 51.2, from Jones, S.B., Thompson, D.D., and Timur. A.: A Unified Investigation of paper presented at the Rock Mechanics Conference, Vail, CO (1976). Elastic Wave Propagation in Crustal Rocks, of Seismic Waves in Dry and Saturated Fig. 51.10, from Johnston. D.H., Toksoz. M.N., and Timur, A.: Attenuation Grophvsics ( 1979) 44, 69 l-7 1 I Rocks: Part II: Theoretical Models and Mechanism. Fig. 51.11, from Wyllie, M.R.J.. Gardner, G.H.F., and Gregory, A.R.: Studies of Elastic Wave Attenuation in Porous Media. Geophysics (1962) 27, 269. Figs. 51.12 through 51.14, from Gardner. G.H.F., Gardner, L.W.R., and Gregory, A.R.: Formation Velocity and Density-The Diagnostic Basics for Stratigraphic Traps, Geophysics (1974) 39, 770-80. Fig. 51.16, from Timur, A.: Velocities of Compressional Waves in Porous Media at Permafrost Temperatures, Geophysics (1968) 33, 584-96. Figs. 51.17, 51.19, and 51.21, from Toksoz, M.N., Cheng. C.H., and Timur, A.: Velocities of Seismic Waves in Porous Rocks, Geoph?sirs ( 1976) 41, 62 l-45. Fig. 51.17, from King, M.S.: Wave Velocities in Rocks as a Function of Changes in Overburden Pressure and Pore Fluid Saturants. Geophysics (1966) 31, 50-73. Fig. 51.18, Gregory, A.R.: Fluid Saturation Effect\ on Dynamic Elastic Properties of Sedimentary Rocks. Geophysics York City (1969)

Figs. 51.3 and 51.4, from Krautkramer,

(1976) 41, 895-921. Fig. 51.20, from Timur.


Systems in Rocks.

A.. Hempkins. W.B., J. Geophy. Res. (1971)

and Weinbrandt. R.M.: 76, No. 20, 4932-48.

Scanning

Electron

Microscope

Study of Pore

xi

R.L. and Myung, J.I.: The 3-D Velocity Log: a Tool for In-Situ Determination of the Elastic Moduli of Rocks. Proc., Twelfth Symposium on Rock Dynamic Rock Mechanics, Mechanics (1971) 71-107. Figs. 51.23 and 51.24, from Minear, J.W. and Fletcher, C.R.: Full-Wave Acoustic Logging, Tr0n.c.) SPWLA (1983) paper EE. Fig. 51.25, from Cheng. C.H. and Toksoz, M.N.: Elastic Wave Propagation in a Fluid-Filled Borchole and Synthetic Acoustic Logs, Geophysics (1981) 46, 1042-S3. Fig. 51.26, from Cheng. C.H. and Toksoz. M.N.: Generation, Propagation and Analysis of Tube Waves in a Borehole, Trans., SPWLA (1982) paper P. Figs. 51.27, 51.28, 51.31, and 51.46, from Thomas, D.H.: Seismic Applications of Sonic Logs, The Log Analwt (Jan.Feb. 1977) 23-32. Figs. 51.29 and 51.33, from Lynch, E.J.: Forrnutiorz Evu/uurwn, Harper and Row, New York City (1962) 422. Figs. 51.36 and 51.77, from Ausburn, J.R.: Well Log Editing in Support of Detailed Seismic Studies, Trans., SPWLA (1977) paper F. Figs. 51.39 and 51.42, from Goetz, J.F., Dupal. L., and Bowler, J.: An Investigation into Discrepancies Between Sonic Log and Seismic Check Shot Velocities, Part I, APEA J. (1979) 19, 131-41. Fig. 51.40, from Ransom, R.C.: Methods Based on Density and Neutron Well-Logging Responses to Distinguish Characteristics of Shaly Sandstone Reservoir Rock, The Log Analyst (May-June 1977) 18, 47-62. Figs. 51.41, 51.43, 51.44, and 51.48, from The Long Spaciflg So&, Schlumberger technical pamphlet (1980). Fig. 51.45, from Misk, A. ef a/.: Effects of Hole Conditions on Log Measurements and Formation Evaluation, SAID, Third Annual Logging Symposium (June 1976). Figs. 51.47 and 51.49, from The Long Spacing Sonic, Schlumberger technical pamphlet (1982). Fig. 51.56, from Parks. T.W., McClellan, J.H., and Morris. C.F.: Algorithms for Full-Waveform Sonic Logging, paper presented at the 1983 IEEE-ASSP Workshop on Spectral Estimation. Fig. 51.58, from Wiley. R.: Borehole Televiewer-Revisited. Trans., SPWLA (1980) 21, paper HH. Fig. 51.60, from Seisviewer Logging, Birdwell, Div. of Seismograph Service Corp.. technical pamphlet (1981). Fig. 51.61, from Broding, R.A.: Volumetric Scanning Well Logging, Trans., SPWLA (1981) 22, paper B. Fig. 51.63, from Log Interpretation Charts. Schlumberger (1979). Fig. 51.65, from Evaluaci6n de Formaciones en la Argentina, Schlumberger (1973) 9455. Fig. 51.66, from Raymer, L.L.. Hunt, E.R., and Gardner, J-S.: An Improved Sonic Transit Time-To-Porosity Transform. Trms., SPWLA (1980) paper P. Fig. 51.67, from Hartley. K.B.: Factors Affecting Sandstone Acoustic Compressional Velocities and An Examination of Empirical Correlations Between Velocities and Porosities, Tram, SPWLA (1981) paper PP. Figs. 51.70 and 51.72, from Nations, J.F.: Lithology and Porosity from Acoustic Shear and Comprcssional Wave Transit Time Relationships, Trms., SPWLA 18th Annual Logging Symposium (June 1974). Fig. 51.73 and 51.74, from Gardner. G.H.F. and Harris, M.H.: Velocity and Attenuation of Elastic Waves in Sands. Trans.. SPWLA (1968) 9, paper M. Fig. 51.75, from Arditty. P.C.. Ahrens, G., and Staron, Ph.: EVA: A Long Spacing Sonic Tool for Evaluation of Velocities and Attenuation. paper presented at the 1981 SEG Annual Meeting, Los Angeles. Fig. 51.76, from Domenico. S.N.: Effect of Brine-Gas Mixture on Velocity in an Unconsolidated Sand Reservoir. Thr Log A~~nl~st (1977) 18, 38-46. Figs. 51.78 and 51.79, from Kithas. B.A.: Lithology, Gas Detection, and Rock Properties from Acoustic Logging Systems, Trcrns., SPWLA (1976) 17, paper R. Figs. 51.80 and 51.81, from Laws. W.R.. Edwards. C.A.M., and Wichmann, P.A.: A Study of the Acoustic and Density Changes Associated with High-Amplitude Events on Seismic Data. Trans., SPWLA (1974) 15, paper D. Figs. 51.83 and 51.84, from Herring, E.A.: North Sea Abnormal Pressures Determined from Logs, Per. Eng. (1973) 45, 72-84. Figs. 51.85 through 51.89, from Acoustic Cement Bond Log, Dresser Atlas technical pamphlet (I 979) 20. Figs. 51.90 and 51.92, from Cement Bond Evaluation in Cased Holes Through 3-D Velocity Logging, Birdwell technical pamphlet (1978) 12. Fig. 51.91, from Cement Evaluation Tool, Schlumberger technical pamphlet (1983). Fig. 51.96, from Walker. T.: Acoustic Character of Unconsolidated Sand, Welcx paper (1971). Fig. 51.97, from Myung. J.I. and Baltosser. R.W.: Fracture Evaluation by the Borehole Logging Method. Stuhi& Rock Sloprs. Thirteenth Symposium on Rock Mechanics (1972) 31-56. Figs. 51.98 and 51.99, from Taylor, T.J.: Interpretation and Application of Borehole Televicwer Surveys. Tram., SPWLA (1983) 24, paper QQ. Fig. 51.100, from Williams. D.M. et (II.: The Long Spacing Acoustic Logging Tool, Trans., SPWLA (1984) 25, paper T. Table 51.1, from Timur. A.: Application of Acoustic Wave Propagation Methods to Evaluation and Production of Hydrocarbon Rcscrvoirs, Pm-, IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium, Dallas (1984). Table 51.3, from Guyod. H. and Shane. L.E.: Geophysical Well Logging, Hubert Guyod, Houston (1969) I, 256; and Wyllic, M.R.J.. Gregory, A.R.. and Gardner. G.H.F.: Elastic Wave Velocities in Heterogeneous and Porous Media, Geophysic~s (1956) 21, 41-70. Chap. Figs. Figs. 52 52.1 and 52.2, from MS-196, Exploration Logging Inc., Sacramento, CA (1979). CA

Figs. 51.22, 51.37, 51.50, and 51.94, from Gcycr.

52.3 through 52.12 and 52.22 and Table 52.1, courtesy Exploration Logging Inc., Sacramento, CA. Figs. 52.13, 52.14, 52.16, 52.17, and 52.19 through 52.21, from MS-156, Exploration Logging Inc.. Sacramento,

(1981). Figs. 52.15 and 52.18, from AV-6. Exploration Logging Inc.. Sacramento. CA (1980). Fig. 52.23, from AV-13. Exploration Logging Inc.. Sacramento. CA (1982). xii

Chap. 53
Anadrill Logging Unit, Schlumherger. Fig. 53.3, from Measurement While Drilling, Technical Specifications. Fig. 53.7 and Table 53.2, from Log Qualify Conrrol Munurri. Vizilog Inc., Houston. Figs. 53.9 through 53.11, from Dipme/er InferpretLltion~Vol. I, Fundamentals, Schlumberger, Houston (1981). Offshore Services, Fig. 53.12 and 53.15, from Gilbreath. J.A.: Dipmeter Interpretation Rules, Schlumberger Orleans.

New

Figs. 53.13 and 53.14, from Open Hole Log Analysis and Formation Evaluation. Vizilog Figs. 53.16 through 53.18, from 7k Lox Analyst (March-April 1979) 20. Schlumherger, Houston (1982). Fig. 53.20, from Well Evaluation Developments Fig. 53.23 through 53.25, from Dresser Atlas Production Senlices Catalog, Dresser Atlas. Fig. 53.26, from The &IR Analyst (March-April 1984) 25-28. Fig. 53.27 through 53.32, from Well Evaluation Developments 1982, Schlumherger. Table 53.1 and Fig. 53.5, from EXLOG Flyer GA 817-A. EXLOG (June 1983). Table 53.3 and Figs. 53.21 and 53.22, from Dia-Log flyer, The Dia-Log Co., Houston. Chap. 54 Figs. 54.6 through 54.9, courtesy
Tulsa, OK (1981). Dowell Schlumherger Technical Brochure TSL-2038,

Inc..

Houston.

Acidizing-State-of-the-Art,

Chap. 56 Figs. 56.1 through 56.8, courtesy


and Equipment Catalog (Sept. Dowell Schlumberger 1982). Tulsa. OK. Technical Brochure TSL45 19, Dowell Sand Control Techniques

Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Acknowledgments 1. Mathematical .. ..... .... . . . . . . . ..~......................___.____._. v

Tables and Units and Systems of Weights and Measures


and Measures .. ...

Mathematical Tables Units and Systems of Weights

...............
...............

1-2 1-68

2. Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe


.............................................................................. Casing.. Tubing ................................................................................ Line Pipe .............................................................................. Equations for Calculating Performance Properties of Casing, API Threading Data ..................................................................... 2-1 2-38 2-46 2-46 2-64

Tubing,

and Line Pipe

...............

3. Wellhead Equipment and Flow Control Devices


Introduction . API Flanged or Clamped Wellhead Equipment. Flow Control Devices: Safety Shut-In Systems Other Flow-Control Devices Corrosion Special Application. Independent Screwed Wellhead.

...............
............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ...............

3-l 3-l 3-18 3-34 3-35 3-36 3-39

4. Production Packers
Production Packers Classification and Objectives Tubing-to-Packer Connections. Packer Utilization and Constraints Considerations for Packer Selection Tubing/Packer System Tubing Response Characteristics. Combination Tubing/Packer Systems Tubing/Packer Forces on Intermediate Packers

...............
............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ...............

4-l 4-l 4-l 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-11 4-l I

5. Gas Lift
Introduction................................................... Gas Fundamentals as Applied to Gas Lift Gas Lift Valve Mechanics Continuous-Flow Gas Lift Intermittent Gas Lift Unloading Procedures and Proper Adjustment .

of Injection

. Gas Rate

5-l S-3 5-12 5-21 5-38 5-53

6. Hydraulic Pumping
Introduction Downhole Pumps Principles of Operation-Reciprocating Jet Pumps Surface Equipment Appendix A-Fluid Properties Appendix B-Friction Relationships 6-1 6-2 6-8 6-34 6-49 6-66 6-69

Pumps

7. Electric Submersible
Introduction

Pumps
7-l 7-l 7-l 7-3 7-9 7-12 7-14

ESP System.
Application5 ESP System Components. Selection Data and Methods Handling, Installation. and Operation Troubleshooting

xv

8. Subsurface Sucker-Rod Pumps


Introduction ................... Pump Selection ................ Plungers ...................... Slippage Past Plungers. ......... Soft-Packed Plungers ........... Balls and Seats ................ Double Valves ................ Bottom-Discharge Valve ........ Three-Tube Pump. ............. Gas Anchors .................. Special Pumps. ................ Corrosion .................... Effect of Gases and Vapors. ..... Conclusions ................... 8-l 8-2 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-7 8-8 8-8 8-9 8-9 8-9 8-10 8-10

9. Sucker Rods
Introduction ................... Steel Sucker Rods ............ Fiberglass Sucker Rods .........

..,................,..

9-l 9-l 9-10

10. Pumping Units and Prime Movers for Pumping Units: Part l-Pumping
Introduction ............................................................ Pumping Units ......................................................... Component Parts ....................................................... Pumping Unit Loading ................................................... Counterbalance ......................................................... Sizing ................................................................. Installation ............................................................. Lubrication ............................................................ Changing the Oil .......................................................

Units
IO-I IO-I IO-4 IO-5 IO-6 IO-7 IO-7 IO-12 IO-13

Pumping Units and Prime Movers for Pumping Units: Part 2-Prime
Introduction ............................................................................ Internal-Combustion Engines .............................................................. Electric Motors for Oilwell Pumping .......................................................

Movers for Pumping Units


lo-14 IO-14 IO-19

11. Oil Storage


Types of Storage Tanks ................................ Tank Corrosion Protection ............................. Appurtenances ........................................ Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks ...... Materials of Construction .............................. Production Equipment ................................. Vapor Losses ........................................ Vapor Control and Gravity Conservation With Storage Tanks Underground Storage .................................. 11-l 1 l-4 11-6 11-6 1 l-9 11-9 11-11 I l-12 11-13

12. Oil and Gas Separators


........................................... Summary.. Introduction ........................................... Primary Functions of Oil and Gas Separators ............... Secondary Functions of Oil and Gas Separators ............. Special Problems in Oil and Gas Separation ................ Methods Used To Remove Oil From Gas in Separators ...... ............ Mist Extractors Used in Oil and Gas Separators ...... Methods Used To Remove Gas From Oil in Separators Estimated Quality of Separated Fluids ..................... Classification of Oil and Gas Separators ................... Centrifugal Oil and Gas Separators and Gas Scrubbers ....... .................... Illustrations of Oil and Gas Separators Comparison of Oil and Gas Separators .................... Estimating the Sizes and Capacities of Oil and Gas Separators. xvi 12-l 12-l . 12-3 12-4 12-6 12-8 12-l I 12-13 12-13 12-16 12-20 12-21 12-21 12-21

..

............................. Computer Sizing of Oil and Gas Separators ........ Capacity Curves for Vertical and Horizontal Oil and Gas Separators ................. Practical Considerations in Sizing Oil and Gas Separators Stage Separation of Oil and Gas. ...................................... Selection and Application of Separators and Scrubbers .................... .......................... Construction Codes for Oil and Gas Separators Controls, Valves, Accessories, and Safety Features for Oil and Gas Separators Operation and Maintenance Considerations for Oil and Gas Separators .......

12-25
12-27 12-32 12-32 12-35 12-38 12-39 12-40

13. Gas Measurement and Regulation


Introduction ............................................ ...................................... Gas Measurement. ........................................... Regulation.. 13-l 13-l 13-49

14. Lease-Operated

Hydrocarbon Recovery Systems Introduction............................................... Low-Temperature Separation (LTS) Systems . Gas-Treating Systems for Removal of Water Vapor,

.. CO,,

. . .... and H,S

14-l 14-l 14-17

15. Surface Facilities for Waterflooding

and Saltwater Disposal


5-l 5-l 5-14 5-18 5-2 I 15-28 15-29 1.5-30 15-30 1.5-32

Introduction ............................................ Piping System Design ................................... Selecting Pumps and Drivers ............................. Separating Suspended Solids From Heater. .................. Treating Hydrocarbons From Water. ....................... Dissolved Gas Removal .................................. Dissolved Solids Removal ................................ Removing Hydrocarbons From Solids ...................... .................. Process Selection and Project Management Project Control .........................................

16. Automation of Lease Equipment


Introduction ........................................... .................. Automatic Production-Control Equipment Production Safety Controls .............................. ...................... Automatic Quantitative Measurement ...................................... Gas Measurement .............................. Temperature Measurement Automatic Sampler. .................................... BS&W Monitor ....................................... Net-Oil Computer. ..................................... Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Typical Automatic-Control Installations .................... Automatic Well Testing ................................. LACT ............................................... 16-1 16-2 16-4 16-5 16-6 16-7 16-7 16-7 16-7 16-8 16-10 16-12 16-12

Systems

17. Measuring, Sampling, and Testing Crude Oil


Introduction ............................................ Procedure for Typical Measuring, Sampling, Abstract of API Manual ................................. and Testing ...... 17-l 17-l 17-3

18. Offshore Operations


Introduction ............................... Historical Review .......................... Offshore Drilling .......................... Field Operations ........................... ...................... Special Considerations ................................ Structures .............. Offshore Production Operations Arctic .................................... Electrica:, Instrumentation and Control Systems Control of Subsea Production Facilities ........

. .. .. .

..

18-I 18-l 18-3 18-17 18-20 18-22 18-27 18-38 18-43 . 18-48

19. Crude Oil Emulsions


Introduction............................................. Theories of Emulsions Sampling and Analyzing Crude Oil Emulsions Methods Used in Treating Crude Oil Emulsions, Emulsion-Treating Equipment and Systems . Description of Equipment Used in Treating Crude Oil Emulsions Operational Considerations for Emulsion-Treating Equipment. Economics of Treating Crude Oil Emulsions . 19-I 19-I 19-6 19-6 19-15 19-16 19-28 19-32

. . . .

20. Gas Properties and Correlations


Molecular Weight. . ... Ideal Gas . . Critical Temperature and Pressure Specific Gravity (Relative Density) Mole Fraction and Apparent Molecular Specific Gravity of Gas Mixtures Dalton s Law . Amagat s Law. Real Gases . . . Principle of Corresponding States. Equations of State . . .. Van der Waals Equation. . .. Viscosity . . . .. Viscosity Correlations .. Natural Gasoline Content of Gas . . . Formation Volume Factor . . Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility Vapor Pressure . . Cox Chart Calingeart and Davis Equation . Lee-Kesler ............................ Example Problems .....................

Weight

. . . . of Gas Mixtures . . . . . .. ... ..

. .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . ...
. . . I

...

.. .

20-I 20-l 20-2 20-4 20-4 20-4 20-4 20-4 20-4 20-4 20-6 20-7 20-9 20-9 20-10 20-I 1 20-11 20-11 20-12 20-13 20-13 20-13

21. Crude Oil Properties and Condensate Properties and Correlations


Introduction .................................................. ............................................ BaseofCrudeOil Physical Properties ............................................ True-Boiling-Point Crude-Oil Analyses ........................... ............................... Bubblepoint-Pressure Correlations ................................. Dewpoint-Pressure Correlations Sage and Olds Correlation ..................................... ............................ Total Formation Volume Correlations 21-I 21-l 21-3 21-8 21-9 21-10 2llll 21-15

22. Oil System Correlations


Introduction . .. . .. Oil Density Determination. . Bubblepoint-Pressure Correlations Solution GOR for Saturated Oils Oil FVF Correlations .. Total FVF s Oil Viscosity Correlations . Gas/Oil IFT . . . Glossary . . . . . . . .

.... .. .. .... ..

.. .

.
.

. .

22-l 22-2 22-5 22-9 22-10 22-13 22-13 22-16 22-20

23. Phase Diagrams


Introduction . . Single-Component Phase Diagrams Phase Rule .. . . . Types of Diagrams. . . Calculation of Phase Compositions.

. .
. .

.... . . . .
XVIII

23-l 23-l 23-2 23-2 23-10

24. Properties of Produced Waters


Introduction and History Sampling ... ... . Analysis Methods for Oilfield Waters Chemical Properties of Oilfield Waters . Inorganic Constituents . Physical Properties of Oilfield Waters Interpretation of Chemical Analyses Occurrence, Origin, and Evolution of Oilfield Recovery of Minerals From Brines . . . 24-l 24-3 24-5 24-5 24-9 24-12 24-18 24-19 24-20

.. . . . .. .. . . Waters . ..

.. ..
. . . .

25. Phase Behavior of Water/Hydrocarbon

Systems
25-l 25-1 25-4 25-10 25-11 25-16 25-16 25-17 25-18 25-19

Introduction ........................................................................... General Hydrocarbon/Water Phase Diagrams and Equilibrium Data Sources ..................... Hydrate Stability Conditions ............................................................. Determining the Water Content of Gas (or Hydrocarbon-Rich Liquid) in Equilibrium With Hydrates Definition of the Saturated Water Content of Natural Gases in Equilibrium With Aqueous Phases ... Quantitative Prediction of Water Content in Light Hydrocarbon Systems ........................ Quantitative Predictions of Solute Concentrations in the Aqueous Phase ......................... ......................................................... Sour Water Stripper Correlations Oil and Gas Reservoirs That Exist in the Gas Hydrate Region ................................. ..................................................................... Hydrate Inhibition

26. Properties of Reservoir Rocks


Introduction . . Porosity . . .... .. .... .... .... . Permeability .. Fluid Saturations. . Electrical Conductivity of Fluid-Saturated Rocks Empirical Correlation of Electrical Properties.
. .

26-l 26-l 26-10 26-20 26-27 26-29

27. Typical Core Analysis of Different Formations


Introduction ............................... Porosity .................................. .............................. Permeability ......................... Liquid Saturations Percussion Sidewall Core Data ............... Data From U.S. Areas ..................... Data From Non-U.S. Areas ................. 27-l 27-1 27-l 27-8 27-9 27-9 27-9

. .. ..

. .

28. Relative Permeability


Introduction . .. Historical Background Framework Ideas . Measurement Methodologies Recent Literature Critique of Recent Work . . . . . Ramifications Needing Attention. Conclusions . . . . . . 28-l 28-2 28-2 28-3 28-9 28-10 28-12 28-13

29. Petroleum Reservoir Traps


.......... Introduction .............. ................... Trap Classification Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks. ...... ................ .......... Glossary

. .

29-l 29- 1 29-6 29-8

30. Bottomhole Pressures


Introduction BHP Instruments . . Pressure Transducer Technology Calculated BHP . Application of BHP . 30-l 30-l . 30-6 30-7 30-8

. ......... ,.,,.,.....,
xix

31. Temperature in Wells


Introduction ........... ......... Thermometers ......... Thcrmometry Summary .............

.......
....... ....... .......

31-l 31-I 31-2 31-7

32. Potential Tests of Oil Wells


Texas Allowable Rule .................... Productivity Index (PI) ................... Specific PI. ............................. Theoretical PI ........................... Pseudosteady-State Flow .................. ................. Stock-Tank Measurement. Portable Well Testers, .................... GOR .................................. GOR as a Criterion of Reservoir Performance 33. Open Flow of Gas Wells Introduction .. ........................ Pitot-Tube Gauging of Low-Pressure Wells ........................ Backpressure Testing ..... Gas Well Inflow Equation. Pseudosteady State ......... Multipoint Test and Example ....................... Isochronal Test and Example ....................... Comparison of Multipoint With Isochronal Test ........ ............... ............. Gas Measurement ... Calculation of Subsurface Pressures .................. Application of Backpressure Tests to Producing Problems ............. Production Rate .................... ............. Causes of Deterioration in Performance ..... ............. Examples of Remedial Operations

....... .
....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

..

32-1 32-2 32-4 32-4 32-5 32-6 32-7 32-14 32-15

....... ...
....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ........ ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

33-l 33-1 33-3 33-5 33-7 33-10 33-l 1 33-13 33-13 33-20 _ 13-20 33-20 33-22

34. Wellbore Hydraulics


Introduction Theoretical Basis Producing Wells . Injection Wells Oil Wells Multiphase Flow. Flow Through Chokes Liquid Loading in Wells

....... . . .. . .. ..
....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......

34- 1 34- 1 34-3 34-28 34-30 34-35 34-45 34-46

35. Well Performance Equations


............... Introduction. Diffusivity Equation ......... Multiphase Flow. ........... ....... Oil Well Performance ...... Gas Well Performance. Transient Well Test Analysis

....... . .. . . . ..
....... ....... ....... ....... .......

35-1 35-l 35-2 35-2 35-10 35-14

36. Development

Plan for Oil and Gas Reservoirs


36-l 36-2 36-3 36-9

Introduction. Oil and Gas Differences Characterization of the Reservoir Prediction of Reservoir Performance

. ..

37. Solution-Gas-Drive

Reservoirs
37-1 37-l 37-1 . 37-2 _ 17-2 . 37-3 _ 17-5
XX

Introduction .................................. .................................. Definitions. .......................... Typical Performance Types of Models Used. ........................ Basic Assumptions of Tank-Type Material Basic Data Required. .......................... Material-Balance Equation ......................

Balance

Material Balance as Equation of Straight Line for Determination of OIP and of Gas-Cap Material-Balance Calculations Using Tracy s Method .................................. Comparison of Tarner s and Tracy s Methods ........................................ Material-Balance Calculations Using Muskat and Taylor s Method ....................... Sensitivity of Material-Balance Results .............................................. Production Rate and Time Calculations .............................................. Insights From Simulator Studies .................................................... ....................................... Volatile Oil Reservoir Performance Predictions

Size

37-6 37-7 37-10 37-10 . 37-13 37-17 37-21 37-22

38. Water Drive Oil Reservoirs


Introduction ........................... ........................... Definitions. Mathematical Analysis ..................

. . .

. 38-1 . 38-l 38-l

34. Gas-Condensate

Reservoirs
. 39-1 39-1 39-4 . 39-6 39-10 39-15 39-24 . 39-26

Introduction ................................................ Properties and Behavior of Gas-Condensate Fluids. ............... Gas-Condensate Well Tests and Sampling ....................... Sample Collection and Evaluation ............................. Operation by Pressure Depletion .............................. Operation by Pressure Maintenance or Cycling .................. General Operating Problems: Well Characteristics and Requirements Economics of Gas-Condensate Reservoir Operation ...............

40. Estimation of Oil and Gas Reserves


Estimating Reserves ........................... Petroleum Reserves-Definitions and Nomenclature. Glossary of Terms ..................................................................... Computation of Reservoir Volume ........................................................ Computation of Oil or Gas in Place. ...................................................... Saturated Depletion-Type Oil Reservoirs-Volumetric Methods ................................ API Estimation of Oil and Gas Reserves. .................................................. Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs Without Water Drive Above the Bubblepoint-Volumetric Method ... Volatile Oil Reservoirs-Volumetric Methods ............................................... Oil Reservoirs With Gas-Cap Drive-Volumetric Unit Recovery Computed by Frontal-Drive Method Oil Reservoirs Under Gravity Drainage. ................................................... Oil Reservoirs With Water Drive-Volumetric Methods ...................................... Volumetric Recovery Estimates for Nonassociated Gas Reservoirs ............................. Production-Decline Curves ................ Other Performance Curves ................ 40- 1 40-2 40-3 40-4 40-5 40-8 40-12 40-12 40-13 40-13 40-14 40-15 40-2 1 40-26 40-32

41. Valuation of Oil and Gas Reserves


Types of Oil and Gas Property Ownership Valuation . . . Forecast of Future Rate of Production Development and Operating Costs . . Federal Taxes . .. ... . . Different Concepts of Valuation Interest Tables and Deferment Factors. 41-l 41-2 41-9 41-l 1 41-12 41-16 41-25

42. Injection Operations


Introduction . . . . . . Important Factors in the Design of Injection Operations Analysis of a Reservoir for Injection Operations 42-l 42-2 42-3

43. Gas-Injection Pressure Maintenance in Oil Reservoirs


Introduction. . . . ... Types of Gas-In.jection Operations . Optimal Time To Initiate Gas Pressure-Maintenance Operations Efficiencies of Oil Recovery by Gas Displacement . Methods of Evaluating Unit-Displacement Efficiency. Methods of Evaluating Conformance Efficiency . . Methods of Evaluating Areal Sweep Efficiency . Calculation of Gas Pressure-Maintenance Performance xxi 43-1 43-2 43-3 43-3 43-3 43-6 43-7 43-8

Appendix A-Example Calculations of Future Performance . Appendix B-Selected References Containing Equations, Calculation Procedures, and Example Calculations Related to Gas-Injection Performance Predictions . .. . . . Appendix C-Data Requirements for Engineering Analysis of Gas-Injection Operations

43-10

. . . 43-16
43-17

44. Water-Injection

Pressure Maintenance and Waterflood Processes


. . 44-l 44-2 44-5 44-7 44-32 44-36 44-37 44-39 44-41 44-43 44-45

Introduction ....................................................... Important Factors in Waterflooding or Water-Injection Pressure Maintenance Determination of Residual Oil After Waterflooding ...................... Predicting Water Injection Oil Recovery and Performance Water-Injection Well Behavior ....................................... Water-Injection Case Histories ....................................... Pilot Floods ....................................................... Surface-Active Agents in Waterflooding ............................... Water Source and Requirements ...................................... Water Treating .................................................... Selection and Sizing of Waterflood Plants. .............................

.. . . . . .

45. Miscible Displacement


Introduction . . . Theoretical Aspects of Miscible-Phase Displacement Factors Affecting Displacement Efficiency Engineering Study . . . . Appendix-Engineering Examples

. . . .

. 45-l
. . 45-l 45-6 45-8 . 45-10

46. Thermal Recovery


Introduction. ........................ Two Forms of Steam Injection Processes Three Forms of In-Situ Combustion. .... Historical Development ............... Current Status. ...................... Theoretical Considerations. Analytical Models for Steam Injection ... Numerical Simulation. ................ Laboratory Experimentation ........... Field Projects ....................... Project Design ...................... Well Completion. .................... Field Facilities ...................... Monitoring and Coring Programs ....... Operational Problems and Remedies .... Case Histories ....................... Thermal Properties ...................

.
. .. .

.. . .

. . .. .

46-l 46-l 46-l 46-3 46-3 46-4 46-7 46-l 1 46-12 46-13 46-17 46-19 46-19 46-20 46-2 1 46-22 46-3 I

47. Chemical Flooding


Introduction ......................... Mobility Control Processes ............ Low-IFT Processes. .................. High-pH Processes ................... Summary ...........................

47-l . 47- 1 . 41-9 47-18 47-22

48. Reservoir Simulation


Introduction ........................................... A Brief History ....................................... General Description of Simulation Models ................. Purpose of Reservoir Simulation. ......................... Considerations in Practical Application of Simulation Validity of Simulation Results. ........................... Simulation Technology .................................. 49. Electrical Logging ....................... Fundamentals Spontaneous Potential (SP) Log ........ Resistivity Logging Devices ........... xxii 48-l 48-l . 48-2 . . 48-6 . 48-7 . 48-9 . 48-13

Models.

. . .

49-l 49-7 49-l I

Induction Logging ................................ Focused-Electrode Logs. ........................... Microresistivity Devices ........................... Uses and Interpretation of Well Logs ................ The Digital Age ..................................

49-14 49-1x 49-22 49-25 49-36

50. Nuclear Logging Techniques


Introduction ...................................... ............ Nuclear Physics for Logging Applications. Nuclear Radiation Logging Devices .................. Interpretation of Nuclear Logs ......................

50-l 50-3 50-15 50-23

51. Acoustic Logging


Introduction ...................................... Elasticity ........................................ Acoustic Wave Propagation in Rocks. ................ Acoustic Wave Propagation Methods ................. Methods of Recording Acoustic Data. ................ ..................................... Applications Conclusions ...................................... Appendix-Theory of Elastic Wave Propagation

.. .. .

in Rocks

51-l 51-l 51-4 51-l I 51-14 51-28 51-47 51-49

52. Mud Logging


Introduction . . .. Service Types . . . Formation Evaluation Services . . The Modern Mud Logging Unit The Mud Log ... .... Petroleum Engineering Services . Drilling Engineering Services .. Selecting a Mud Logging Service. Standards for and Status of Services

. .
. .

. .

52-l . 52-l 52-2 52-11 52-11 52-16 52-27 52-28 52-30

53. Other Well Logs


Introduction ...................................... MWD .......................................... Directional Surveys ............................... Dipmeter Logging ................................ Caliper Logs ..................................... Casing Inspection Logs ............................

. .. . .

53-l 53-l 53-3 53-7 53-16 53-17

54. Acidizing
Introduction . General Principles . Acid Reaction Rates Acid Additives Acidizing Techniques Laboratory Testing Acid Treatment Design Critical Wells Summary .

. . . . . . . . .

...

54-l 54-l 54-4 54-6 54-8 54-9 54-10 . 54-11 54-12

55. Formation Fracturing


Introduction . Hydraulic Fracturing Theory Formations Fractured . . Fracture Planes. . Fracture Area ... . Reservoir-Controlled Fluids. Viscosity-Controlled Fluids Fluid-Loss-Controlled Fluids

.. . . ... . . . . . .. .

Stimulation Results.
Fracturing Fracturing Materials . Techniques

..
. .

..

55-l 55-l 55-2 55-2 55-2 55-2 55-4 55-4 55-4 55-5 55-8

Multiple-Zone Fracturing. Fracturing Equipment. Treatment Planning and Design

55-9 55-9 55-9

56. Remedial Cleanup, Sand Control, and Other Stimulation Treatments


Introduction................................................... Reperforation ___.,..,,,..._..___.,,.,..,,,._.._..,._____._.._. Abrasive Jet Cleaning . Mud Removal................................................. Water Blocks and Emulsions Scale Deposits................................................. Paraffin Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Large-Volume Injection Treatments Steam Injection General Comments . Sand Control ~~~~.~..~.~.~~~..~..~~~.~.~~~~....~~~..~~~...~~.~~ 56-l 56- 1 56-l 56-l 56-2 56-2 56-2 56-2 56-2 56-2 56-2

57. Oil and Gas Leases


The Landowner s Interest ......... The Oil and Gas Lease ........... Assignments by the Landowner .... Assignments by the Lessee ........ Unit Operations ................. Getting the Well Drilled .......... Lease Problems During Development Taxation ....................... Offshore Leasing ................ 57-l 57-3 57-6 57-7 57-7 57-8 57-10 57-l I 57-l I

58. The SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard


Preface .................................. Part 1: SI-The International System of Units Introduction ................................................... SI Units and Unit Symbols ....................................... Application of the Metric System ................................. Rules for Conversion and Rounding. .............................. Special Terms and Quantities Involving Mass and Amount of Substance Mental Guides for Using Metric Units ............................. Appendix A-Terminology .............. Appendix B-S1 Units ................... . Appendix C-Style Guide for Metric Usage Appendix D-General Conversion Factors. .. Appendix E-Conversion Factors for the Vara ...................... Part 2: Discussion of Metric Unit Standards .......................... Introduction ................... Review of Selected Units ........ Unit Standards Under Discussion Notes for Table 2.2 ............ . Notes for Table 2.3 ............ 58-2 58-2 58-2 58-2 58-3 58-5 58-7 58-8 58-8 58-9 58-l I 58-14 58-20 58-2 I 58-2 I 58-22 58-24 58-25 5x-25

59. SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard


Symbols in Alphabetical Order.. Quantities in Alphabetical Order. Subscript Definitions in Alphabetical Order Subscript Symbols in Alphabetical Order 59-2 59-18 59-52 59-63

..

. .....

..

Index
Author Subject .... .... .

.
.... .... . .

I . . .. .... ...
1 15

xxiv

Chapter 1

Mathematical Tables and Units and Systems of Weights and Measures


Philip Franklin,
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology* U.S. Nat].Bureau of Standards L.E. Barbrow.

Contents

Mathematical Tables By PhilipFranklin Numbers Table Table Table Table Table Table Circles Table Table Table Table Table Table Spheres Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 1 .l-Squares I.2-Gibes 1.3-Square Roots 1.4-Cube Roots 1.5-Three-Halves Pow& 1.6--Reciprocals I-2 I-7 .i-ii l-14 :l-19 1-21 l-24 .I-26 l-28 I-30 l-31 1-32

Compound

Interest I-62 l-63 l-64

Table 1.34-Amount of a Given Principal Table 1.35-Amount of an Annuity Table 1.36-Principal Amounting to a Given Sum Annuities Table 1.37-Amountino to a Given Sum (Sinking Fund) y., Table 1.38-Present Worth Table 1.39-Provided for by a Given Capital Table 1.40-Decimal Equivalents Units and Systems of Weights and Measures by L.E. Barbrow Conversion Tables Table 1.41-Length Equivalents Table 1.42-Conversion of Lengths :: : ::: Table 1.43-Common Fractionsof an Inch to Millimeters Table 1.44-Decimals of an Inch to Millimeters Table 1.4%Millimeters to Decimals of an Inch Table 1.46-Area Equivalents Table 1.47-Volume and Capacity Equivalents Table1.48-Areas Table 1.49-Volumes or Cubic Meters Table 1.50-Volumes or Capacities ::: Table 1.51-Mass Equivalents Table 1.52-Masses .,,. . Table 1.53-Velocity Equivalents Table 1.54-Linear and Angular Velocities : : : Table 1.55--Pressures Table 1.56-Pressure Eauivalents .. Table 1.57-Energy or Work Equivalents Table 1.58-Energy, Work, Heat Table 1.59-Pow& Equivalents Table 1.60-Power . . , Table 1.61--Density Equivalents Table 1.62-Thermal Conductivity Table 1.63-Thermal Conductance :: Table 1.64-Heat Flow Table 1.65-Relative DensitiesCorrespondtng to OAPI and Weights per U.S. Gallon

: :: :: ::: :: : ::::

l-65 l-66 1-66 l-67

1.7-Circumferences by Hundredths 1.8-Areas by Hundredths 1.9-Circumferences and Areas by Eighths 1 .lO-Areas in Square Feet 1 .ll-Segments, Given h/c ............... 1.12-Segments. Given h/D ................

1-71 I-71 I-72 l-72 I-72 l-73 I-73 I-74 l-74 I-74 l-75 I-75 l-76 I-76 l-76 l-77 l-77 I-78 I-78 l-78 l-79 l-79 I-79 I-79 l-80

1.13-Segments 1-33 ......................... 1,14-Volumes by Hundredths .............. 1-34 1 .I5-Regular Polygons .................. l-36 1.16--Binomial Coefficients ............... 1-37 1,17-Common Logarithms (1.OO to 2.00) 1-38 I .18-Common Loqarithms I-40 1.19-Degrees and-Minutes in Radians ....... l-42 1.20--Radians in Degrees ...... ......... 1-43 1.21-Natural Sines and Cosines l-44 1.22-Natural Tangents and Cotangents l-46 1.23-Natural Secants and Cosecants l-48 1.24-Trigonometric Functions ........... I-50 1.25-Exponentials ........... ........... 1-55 1.26-Natural Logarithms I-56 1.27-Hyperbolic Sines 1-58 1.28-Hyperbolic Cosines : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1-59 1.29-Hyperbolic Tangents I-60 1.30-Multiples of 0.4343 l-60 1.31-Multiples of 2.3026 I-60 1.32-Standard Distribution of Residuals : I-61 1.33-Factors for Computing Probable Error 1-61
was written by Ph,l,p Franklm and Laws

This chapter I the 1962 edMn Judson (both deceased)

l-2

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 1 .I -SQUARES

OF NUMBERS

1 1.000 1.020 1.040 1.081 1.082 1.002 1.022 1.042 1.083 1.084 1.105 1.128 1.147 1.189 1.190 1.212 1.234 1.257 1.279 1.302 1.325 1.348 1.371 1.395 1.418 1.442 1.467 1.491 1.515 1.540 1.585 1.590 1.815 1.641 1.667 1.893 1.719 1.745 1.772 1.798 1.825 1.852 1.880 1.907 1.935 1.963 1.991 2.019 2.048 2.076 2.105 2.135 2.164 2.193 2.223 2.253 2.283 2.313 2.344 2.375 2.406 2.437 2.488 2.500 2.531

2 1.004 1.024 1.044 1.065 1.086 1.107 1.128 1.149 1.171 1.192 1.214 1.237 1.259 1.281 1.304 1.327 1.350 1.374 1.397 1.421 1.445 1.469 1.493 1.518 1.543 1.568 1.593 1.618 1.644 1.669 1.695 1.721 1.748 1.774 1.801

3 1.006 1.026 I.047 1.087 1.088 1.109 1.130 1.151 1.173 1.195 1.217 1.239 1.281 1.284 1.306 1.329 1.353 1.376 1.399 1.423 1.447 1.471 1.496 1.520 1.545 1.570 1.595 1.821 1.648 1.672 1.898 1.724 1.750 1.777 1.804 1.831 1.858 1.885 1.913 1.940 1.968 1.997 2.025 2.053 2.082 2.111 2.140 2.170 2.199 2.229 2.259 2.289 2.320 2.350 2.381 2.412 2.443 2.474 2.506 2.538

4 1.008 1.028 1.049 1.089 1.090 1.111 1.132 1.153 1.175 1.197 1.219 1.241 1.263 1.286 1.309 1.332 1.355 1.378 1.402 1.426 1.450 1.474 1.498 1.523 1.548 1.573 1.596 1.823 1.849 1.874 1.700 1.727 1.753 1.780 1.806 1.833 1.880 1.888 1.915 1.943 1.971 1.999 2.028 2.056 2.085 2.114 2.143 2.173 2.202 2.232 2.282 2.292 2.323 2.353 2.384 2.415 2.448 2.477 2.509 2.541

5 1.010 1.030 1.051 1.071 1.092 1.113 1.134 1.156 1.177 1.199 1.221 1.243 1.266 1.288 1.311 1.334 1.357 1.381 1.404 1.428 1.452 1.476 1.501 1.525 1.550 1.575 1.6OC 1.626 1.651 1.677 1.703 1.729 1.756 1.782 1.809 1.836 1.863 1.891 1.918 1.946 1.974 2.002 2.031 2.059 2.088 2.117 2.146 2.176 2.205 2.235 2.285 2.295 2.326 2.356 2.387 2.418 2.449 2.481 2.512 2.544

6 1.012 1.032 1.053 1.073 1.094 1.115 1.138 1.158 1.179 1.201 1.223 1.245 1.268 1.290 1.313 1.336 1.360 1.383 1.407 1.430 1.454 1.479 1.503 1.528 1.553 1.578 1.803 1.628 1.654 1.680 1.708 1.732 1.758 1.785 1.812 1.839 1.886 1.893 1.921 1.949 1.977 2.005 2.033 2.062 2.091 2.120 2.149 2.179 2.208 2.238 2.268 2.298 2.329 2.359 2.390 2.421 2.452 2.484 2.515 2.547

7 1.014 1.034 1.055 1.075 1.096 1.117 1.138 1.160 1.182 1.203 1.225 1.248 1.270 1.293 1.316 1.339 1.362 1.385 1.409 1.433 1.457 1.481 1.506 1.530 1.555 1.580 1.805 1.831 1.658 1.682 1.708 1.734 1.761 1.788 1.814 1.841 1.889 1.896 1.924 1.952 1.980 2.008 2.036 2.065 2.094 2.123 2.152 2.182 2.211 2.241 2.271 2.301 2.332 2.362 2.393 2.424 2.455 2.487 2.519 2.550

8 1.018 1.036 1.057 1.077 1.098 1.119 1.141 1.162 1.184 1.206 1.228 1.250 1.272 1.295 1.318 1.341 1.364 1.388 1.411 1.435 1.459 1.484 1.508 1.533 1.558 1.583 1.606 1.833 1.659 1.685 1.711 1.737 1.764 1.790 1.617 1.844 1.871 1.899 1.927 1.954 1.982 2.011 2.039 2.068 2.097 2.126 2.15" 2.184 2.214 2.244 2.274 2.304 2.335 2.385 2.396 2.427 2.459 2.490 2.522 2.554

9 1.018 1.038 1.059 1.080 1.100 1.121 1.143 1.184 1.186 1.208 1.230 1.252 1.275 1.297 1.320 1.343 1.387 1.390 1.414 1.438 1.462 1.486 1.510 1.535 1.560 1.585 1.610 1.838 1.862 1.887 1.713 1.74c 1.766 1.793 1.820 1.847 1.874 1.902 1.929 1.957 1.985 2.014 2.042 2.071 2.100 2.129 2.158 2.187 2.217 2.247 2.277 2.307 2.338 2.389 2.399 2.430 2.462 2.493 2.525 2.557

Average Difference 2

1.05
1.08 1.07 1.08 1.09

1.102 1.124 1.145

1.166
1.188 1.210 1.232 1.254 1.277 1.300 1.322 1.346 1.369 1.392 1.416 1.440 1.484 1.488 1.513 1.538 1.582 1.588 1.813 1.638 1.684 1.690 1.716 1.742 1.769 1.796 1.822 1.850 1.877 1.904 1.932 1.960 1.988 2.016 2.045 2.074 2.102 2.132 2.181 2.190 2.220 2.250 2.280 2.310 2.341 2.372 2.402 2.434 2.465 2.496 2.528

1.10
1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14

1.15
1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19

1.20
1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29

1.30
1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34

1.35
1.38 1.37 1.38

1.828
1.855 1.882 1.910 1.938 1.966 1.994 2.022 2.051 2.079 2.108 2.137 2.187 2.198 2.226 2.258 2.286 2.316 2.347 2.378 2.409 2.440 2.471 2.503 2.534

1.39 1.40
1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44

1.45
1.48 1.47 1.48 1.49

1.50
1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54

1.55
1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59

Exolanation of Table of Souares This tablegivesthe value of N2 forvalues of N from 1 to 10, correctto fourfigures. (Interpolated values may be in error by 1 in the fourthfigure.) To findthe square of a number N outside the range from 1 to 10, note that moving the decimal point one place in Column N is equivalent to moving it two places in the body of the table. For example, (3.217)'=10.35, (0.03217)'=0.001035, and (3,217)' =10,035,000. This table also can be used inversely to give square roots.

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS & SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-3

TABLE

l.l-SQUARES

OF NUMBERS(continued)

N 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.83 1.84 1.65 1.88 1.87 1.88 1.89 1.70 1.71 1.72 1.73 1.74 1.75 1.78 1.77 1.78 1.79 1.80 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.84 1.85 1.88 1.87 1.88 1.89 1.90 1.91 1.92 1.93 1.94 1.95 1.98 1.97 1.98 1.99 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.08 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.18 2.17 2.18 2.19

0 2.560 2.592 2.824 2.657 2.690 2.722 2.758 2.789 2.822 2.856 2.890 2.924 2.958 2.993 3.028 3.082 3.098 3.133 3.188 3.204 3.240 3.276 3.312 3.349 3.386 3.422 3.480 3.497 3.534 3.572 3.610 3.648 3.888 3.725 3.784 3.802 3.842 3.881 3.920 3.960 4.000 4.040 4.080 4.121 4.162 4.202 4.244 4.285 4.328 4.388 4.410 4.452 4.494 4.537 4.580 4.622 4.886 4.709 4.752 4.796

1 2.583 2.595 2.828 2.680 2.693 2.726 2.759 2.792 2.828 2.859 2.893 2.928 2.962 2.996 3.031 3.066 3.101 3.138 3.172 3.208 3.244 3.280 3.316 3.353 3.389 3.426 3.463 3.501 3.538 3.578 3.614 3.652 3.890 3.729 3.787 3.806 3.846 3.885 3.924 3.964 4.004 4.044 4.084 4.125 4.186 4.207 4.248 4.289 4.331 4.372 4.414 4.458 4.499 4.541 4.584 4.627 4.670 4.713 4.757 4.800

2 2.566 2.599 2.631 2.683 2.696 2.729 2.762 2.796 2.829 2.863 2.897 2.931 2.965 3.000 3.035 3.070 3.105 3.140 3.176 3.211 3.247 3.283 3.320 3.356 3.393 3.430 3.467 3.504 3.542 3.580 3.618 3.656 3.694 3.733 3.771 3.810 3.849 3.889 3.928 3.968 4.008 4.048 4.088 4.129 4.170 4.211 4.252 4.293 4.335 4.378 4.418 4.461 4.503 4.545 4.588 4.831 4.674 4.716 4.761 4.805

3 2.570 2.602 2.634 2.667 2.899 2.732 2.768 2.799 2.832 2.866 2.900 2.934 2.989 3.003 3.038 3.073 3.108 3.144 3.179 3.215 3.251 3.287 3.323 3.360 3.397 3.434 3.471 3.508 3.546 3.583 3.821 3.680 3.698 3.738 3.775 3.814 3.853 3.893 3.932 3.972 4.012 4.052 4.093 4.133 4.174 4.215 4.258 4.297 4.339 4.381 4.423 4.465 4.507 4.550 4.592 4.635 4.679 4.722 4.765 4.809

4 2.573 2.805 2.637 2.670 2.703 2.738 2.789 2.802 2.836 2.870 2.904 2.938 2.972 3.007 3.042 3.077 3.112 3.147 3.183 3.218 3.254 3.291 3.327 3.364 3.400 3.437 3.474 3.512 3.549 3.587 3.825 3.663 3.702 3.740 3.779 3.818 3.857 3.897 3.936 3.976 4.016 4.056 4.097 4.137 4.178 4.219 4.280 4.301 4.343 4.385 4.427 4.469 4.511 4.554 4.597 4.640 4.683 4.728 4.770 4.814

5 2.576 2.608 2.641 2.673 2.706 2.739 2.772 2.806 2.839 2.873 2.907 2.941 2.978 3.010 3.045 3.080 3.115 3.151 3.186 3.222 3.258 3.294 3.331 3.367 3.404 3.441 3.478 3.516 3.553 3.591 3.829 3.667 3.706 3.744 3.783 3.822 3.861 3.901 3.940 3.960 4.020 4.060 4.101 4.141 4.182 4.223 4.284 4.306 4.347 4.389 4.431 4.473 4.516 4.558 4.801 4.844 4.887 4.731 4.774 4.818

6 2.579 2.811 2.644 2.676 2.709 2.742 2.776 2.809 2.843 2.876 2.910 2.945 2.979 3.014 3.049 3.084 3.119 3.154 3.190 3.226 3.262 3.298 3.334 3.371 3.408 3.445 3.482 3.519 3.557 3.595 3.833 3.671 3.709 3.748 3.787 3.826 3.865 3.905 3.944 3.984 4.024 4.064 4.105 4.145 4.188 4.227 4.268 4.310 4.351 4.393 4.435 4.477 4.520 4.562 4.605 4.648 4.692 4.735 4.779 4.822

7 2.582 2.815 2.647 2.680 2.713 2.748 2.779 2.812 2.848 2.880 2.914 2.948 2.983 3.017 3.052 3.087 3.122 3.158 3.193 3.229 3.285 3.301 3.338 3.375 3.411 3.448 3.486 3.523 3.561 3.599 3.837 3.675 3.713 3.752 3.791 3.830 3.869 3.909 3.948 3.988 4.028 4.068 4.109 4.149 4.190 4.231 4.272 4.314 4.358 4.397 4.439 4.482 4.524 4.587 4.610 4.653 4.696 4.739 4.783 4.827

8 2.586 2.818 2.650 2.883 2.716 2.749 2.782 2.816 2.849 2.883 2.917 2.952 2.986 3.021 3.058 3.091 3.126 3.161 3.197 3.233 3.289 3.305 3.342 3.378 3.415 3.452 3.489 3.527 3.565 3.602 3.640 3.679 3.717 3.758 3.795 3.834 3.873 3.912 3.952 3.992 4.032 4.072 4.113 4.153 4.194 4.235 4.277 4.318 4.360 4.402 4.444 4.486 4.528 4.571 4.814 4.857 4.700 4.744 4.787 4.831

9 2.589 2.621 2.654 2.688 2.719 2.752 2.788 2.819 2.853 2.887 2.921 2.955 2.989 3.024 3.059 3.094 3.129 3.165 3.201 3.236 3.272 3.309 3.345 3.382 3.419 3.458 3.493 3.531 3.566 3.606 3.844 3.683 3.721 3.760 3.799 3.838 3.877 3.916 3.956 3.996 4.036 4.076 4.117 4.158 4.198 4.239 4.281 4.322 4.364 4.406 4.448 4.490 4.533 4.575 4.618 4.661 4.705 4.748 4.792 4.836

Average Difference 3

=9.66960;

l/r2

=0.101321,

e2 =7.38906.

x2 =9.669w;

(T/z)*

=2.46740;

l/n2

=0.101321.

(continued

on next page)

I-4

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLEl.l-SQUARES

OF NUMBERS(continued)

N 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.38 2.37 2.38 2.39 2.40 2.41 2.42 2.43 2.44 2.45 2.48 2.47 2.48 2.49 2.50 2.51 2.52 2.53 2.54 2.55 2.56 2.57 2.58 2.59 2.60 2.61 2.62 2.63 2.64 2.65 2.68 2.87 2.68 2.89 2.70 2.71 2.72 2.73 2.74 2.75 2.76 2.77 2.78 2.79

0 4.840 4.884 4.928 4.973 5.018 5.062 5.108 5.153 5.198 5.244 5.290 5.338 5.382 5.429 5.478 5.522 5.570 5.871 5.884 5.712 5.780 5.808 5.856 5.905 5.954 8.002 8.502 8.101 6.150 6.200 8.250 8.300 6.350 6.401 6.452 8.502 6.554 6.605 6.656 6.708 6.780 6.812 6.884 6.917 6.970 7.022 7.076 7.129 7.182 7.238 7.290 7.344 7.398 7.453 7.508 7.562 7.618 7.673 7.728 7.784

1 4.844 4.889 4.933 4.977 5.022 5.067 5.112 5.157 5.203 5.249 5.295 5.341 5.387 5.434 5.480 5.527 5.574 5.822 5.889 5.717 5.785 5.813 5.861 5.910 5.958 6.007 6.057 6.108 6.155 6.205 6.255 6.305 6.355 6.406 6.457 6.508 8.559 8.810 6.862 8.713 8.765 8.817 8.870 6.922 8.975 7.028 7.081 7.134 7.188 7.241 7.295 7.350 7.404 7.458 7.513 7.588 7.623 7.678 7.734 7.790

2 4.849 4.893 4.937 4.982 5.027 5.072 5.117 5.162 5.208 5.253 5.299 5.345 5.392 5.438 5.485 5.532 5.579 5.626 5.674 5.722 5.770 5.818 5.866 5.915 5.963 6.012 6.061 6.111 6.180 6.210 6.260 6.310 6.380 6.411 6.462 6.513 6.564 6.815 6.667 6.718 6.770 6.323 6.375 6.927 f5.980 7.033 7.086 i.140 7.193 7.247 7.301 7.355 7409 7.484 7.519 7.574 7.629 7.884 7.740 7.795

3 4.853 4.897 4.942 4.986 5.031 5.076 5.121 5.167 5.212 5.258 5.304 5.350 5.396 5.443 5.490 5.537 5.584 5.631 5.879 5.726 5.774 5.823 5.871 5.919 5.988 6.017 6.088 6.116 6.185 6.215 8.265 8.315 8.366 8.416 8.467 8.518 6.569 8.620 8.672 6.724 8.776 8.828 8.880 6.933 8.985 7.038 7.092 7.145 7.198 7.252 7.306 7.360 7.415 7.469 7.524 7.579 7.634 7.690 7.745 7.801

4 4.858 4.902 4.948 4.991 5.036 5.081 5.128 5.171 5.217 5.262 5.308 5.355 5.401 5.448 5.494 5.541 5.588 5.636 5.883 5.731 5.779 5.827 5.876 5.924 5.973 6.022 8.071 6.121 8.170 6.220 6.270 6.320 8.371 8.421 6.472 8.523 8.574 8.625 8.677 8.729 8.781 8.833 8.885 6.938 8.991 7.044 7.097 7.150 7.204 7.258 7.312 7.366 7.420 7.475 7.530 7.585 7.840 7.895 7.751 7.806

5 4.882 4.906 4.951 4.995 5.040 5.085 5.130 5.176 5.221 5.267 5.313 5.359 5.408 5.452 5.499 5.548 5.593 5.641 5.688 5.738 5.784 5.832 5.881 5.929 5.978 6.027 6.078 6.126 8.175 6.225 6.275 6.325 6.378 6.428 6.477 6.528 6.579 6.831 6.882 6.734 6.788 6.838 6.891 6.943 6.996 7.049 7.102 7.158 7.209 7.263 7.317 7.371 7.426 7.480 7.535 7.590 7.645 7.701 7.756 7.812

8 4.888 4.911 4.955 5.000 5.045 5.090 5.135 5.180 5.226 5.272 5.318 5.364 5.410 5.457 5.504 5.551 5.598 5.645 5.693 5.741 5.789 5.837 5.885 5.934 5.983 6.032 8.081 6.131 6.180 6.230 6.280 6.330 8.381 8.431 8.482 8.533 8.584 6.636 6.687 6.739 6.791 6.843 6.896 6.948 7.001 7.054 7.108 7.161 7.215 7.288 7.322 7.377 7.431 7.486 7.541 7.596 7.851 7.708 7.782 7.818

7 4.871 4.915 4.960 5.004 5.049 5.094 5.139 5.185 5.230 5.276 5.322 5.388 5.415 5.482 5.508 5.555 5.603 5.650 5.698 5.746 5.794 5.842 5.890 5.939 5.988 6.037 6.086 6.136 6.185 6.235 6.285 6.335 6.388 8.438 6.487 8.538 6.589 8.641 8.693 8.744 8.798 6.849 6.901 6.954 7.007 7.060 7.113 7.166 7.220 7.274 7.328 7.382 7.437 7.491 7.546 7.801 7.656 7.712 7.767 7.823

8 4.875 4.920 4.964 5.009 5.054 5.099 5.144 5.189 5.235 5.281 5.327 5.373 5.420 5.488 5.513 5.580 5.807 5.855 5.703 5.750 5.798 5.847 5.895 5.944 5.993 6.042 6.091 6.140 6.190 6.240 6.290 8.340 6.391 6.441 8.492 8.543 6.595 8.848 8.698 8.750 8.802 8.854 8.906 6.959 7.012 7.085 7.118 7.172 7.225 7.279 7.333 7.388 7.442 7.497 7.552 7.607 7.662 7.717 7.773 7.829

9 4.880 4.924 4.988 5.013 5.058 5.103 5.148 5.194 5.240 5.285 5.331 5.378 5.424 5.471 5.518 5.565 5.612 5.660 5.707 5.755 5.803 5.852 5.900 5.949 5.998 6.047 6.096 6.145 8.195 6.245 6.295 6.345 6.396 6.447 6.497 6.548 6.600 8.651 8.703 6.755 8.807 8.859 6.912 6.964 7.017 7.070 7.124 7.177 7.231 7.285 7.339 7.393 7.447 7.502 7.557 7.812 7.867 7.723 7.779 7.834

Average Difference 4

r=966960.

-In2

=0.101321,

e2 =7389X

r2=9.86960,

(n/2)*

=2.46740.

l/n2

=0 101321

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

l-5

TABLE l.l-SQUARES

OF NUMBERS (continued)
Average Difference 6

N 2.80 2.81 2.82 2.83 2.84 2.85 2.86 2.87 2.88 2.89 2.90 2.91 2.92 2.93 2.94 2.95 2.96 2.97 2.98 2.99 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

0 7.840 7.896 7.952 8.009 8.066 8.122 8.180 8.237 8.294 8.352 8.410 8.468 8.526 8.585 8.644 8.702 8.762 8.821 8.880 8.940 9.000 9.060 9.120 9.181 9.242 9.302 9.364 9.425 9.486 9.548 9.610 9.672 9.734 9.797 9.860 9.922 9.986 10.24 10.89 11.56 12.25 1296 13.69 1444 15.21 16.00 16.81 17.64 18.49 19.36 20.25 21.16 22.09 23.04 24.01 25.00 26.01 27.04 28.09 29.16

1 7.646 7.902 7.958 8.015 8.071 8.128 8.185 6.243 8.300 8.358 8.416 8.474 8.532 8.591 8.649 8.708 8.768 8.827 8.886 8.946 9.006 9.066 9.126 9.187 9.248 9.309 9.370 9.431 9.493 9.554 9.616 9.678 9.741 9.803 9.866 9.929 9.992 10.30 10.96 11.63 12.32 13.03 13.76 14.52 15.29 16.08 16.89 17.72 18.58 19.45 20.34 21.25 22.18 23.14 24.11 25.10 26.11 27.14 28.20 29.27

2 7.851 7.907 7.964 8.020 8.077 8.134 8.191 8.248 8.306 8.384 8.422 8.480 8.538 8.597 8.655 8.714 8.773 8.833 8.892 8.952 9.012 9.072 9.132 9.193 9.254 9.315 9.376 9.437 9.499 9.560 9.622 9.685 9.747 9.809 9.872 9.935 9.998 10.37 11.02 11.70 12.39 13.10 13.84 14.59 15.37 16.16 16.97 17.81 18.66 19.54 20.43 21.34 22.28 23.23 24.21 25.20 26.21 27.25 28.30 29.38

3 7.857 7.913 7.969 8.026 8.083 8.140

4 7.862 7.919 7.975 8.032 8.088 8.145 8.202 8.260 8.317 8.375 8.433 8.491 8.550 8.606 8.667 8.726 8.785 8.845 8.904 8.964 9.024 9.084 9.145 9.205 9.266 9.327 9.388 9.449 9.511 9.573 9.635 9.697 9.759 9.822 9.885 9.948

5 7.868 7.924 7.981 8.037 8.094 8.151 8.208 8.266 8.323 8.381 8.439 8.497 8.556 8.614 8.673 8.732 8.791 8.851 8.910 8.970 9.030 9.090 9.151 9.211 9.272 9.333 9.394 9.456 9.517 9.579 9.641 9.703 9.766 9.828 9.891 9.954

6 7.874 7.930 7.986 8.043 8.100 8.157 8.214 8.271 8.329 8.387 8.445 8.503 8.561 8.820 8.679 8.738 8.797 8.857 8.916 8.976 9.036 9.096 9.157 9.217 9.278 9.339 9.400 9.462 9.523 9.585 9.647 9.709 9.772 9.834 9.897 9.960 9.99 10.63 11.29 11.97 12.87 13.40 14.14 14.90 15.68 16.48 17.31 18.15 19.01 19.89 20.79 21.72 22.66 23.62 24.60 25.60 26.63 27.67 28.73 29.81

7 7.879 7.935 7.992 8.049 8.105 6.162 8.220 8.277 8.335 8.393 8.451 8.509 8.567 8.626 8.885 8.744 8.803 8.863 8.922 8.982 9.042 9.102 9.163 9.223 9.284 9.345 9.406 9.468 9.530 9.591 9.653 9.716 9.778 9.841 9.904 9.967 10.05 10.69 11.36 12.04 12.74 13.47 14.21 14.98 15.76 16.56 17.39 18.23 19.10 19.98 20.88 21.81 22.75 23.72 24.70 25.70 26.73 27.77 28.84 29.92

8 7.885 7.941 7.998 8.054 8.111 8.168 8.225 8.283 8.341 8.398 8.456 8.515 8.573 8.632 8.691 8.750 8.809 8.868 8.928 8.988 9.048 9.108 9.169 9.229 9.290 9.351 9.413 9.474 9.536 9.598 9.660 9.722 9.784 9.847 9.910 9.973 10.11 10.76 11.42 12.11 12.82 13.54 14.29 15.05 15.84 16.65 17.47 18.32 19.18 20.07 20.98 21.90 22.85 23.81 24.80 2581 26.83 27.88 28.94 30.03

9 7.890 7.947 6.003 8.060 8.117 8.174 8.231 8.289 8.346 8.404 8.462 8.521 8.579 8.638 8.697 8.756 8.815 8.874 8.934 8.994 9.054 9.114 9.175 9.236 9.296 9.357 9.419 9.480 9.542 9.604 9.666 9.728 9.791 9.853 9.916 9.979

8.197
8.254 8.312 8.369 6.427 8.486 8.544 8.602 8.661 8.720 8.779 8.839 8.898 8.958 9.018 9.078 9.139 9.199 9.260 9.321 9.382 9.443 9.505 9.567 9.629 9.691 9.753 9.816 9.878 9.941 10.005 10.43 11.09 11.76 12.46 13.18 13.91 14.67 15.44 16.24 17.06 17.89 18.75 19.62 20.52 21.44 22.37 23.33 24.30 25.30 26.32 27.35 28.41 29.48

10.50 11.16 11.83 12.53 13.25 13.99 14.75 15.52 16.32 17.14 17.98 18.84 19.71 20.61 21.53 22.47 23.43 24.40 25.40 26.42 27.46 28.52 29.59

10.56 11.22 11.90 12.60 13.32 14.06 14.82 15.60 16.40 17.22 18.06 18.92 19.80 20.70 21.62 22.56 23.52 24.50 25.50 26.52 27.56 28.62 29.70

10.18 10.82 11.49 12.18 12.89 13.62 14.36 15.13 15.92 16.73 17.56 18.40 19.27 20.16 21.07 22.00 22.94 23.91 24.90 25.91 26.94 27.98 29.05 30.14

10

11

r2

=986960.

l/r2

=0101321.e2=736906

r2 =9.66960.

(T/Z)~ =2.46740.

l/n2

=o 101321

(contmued

on next page)

l-6

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE l.l-SQUARES

OF NUMBERS (continued)
Average Difference 11

N
5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0

0 30.25 31.36 32.49 33.64 34.81 36.00 37.21 38.44 39.69 40.96 42.25 43.56 44.89 46.24 47.61 49.00 50.41 51.84 53.29 54.76 56.25 57.76 59.29 60.84 62.41 64.00 65.61 67.24 68.89 70.56 72.25 73.96 75.69 77.44 79.21 81.00 82.81 84.64 86.49 88.36 90.25 92.16 94.09 96.04 98.01 100.0

1
30.36 31.47 32.60 33.76 34.93 36.12 37.33 38.56

2 30.47 31.58 32.72 33.87 35.05 36.24 37.45 38.69 39.94 41.22 42.51 43.82 45.16 46.51 47.89 49.28 50.69 52.13 53.58 55.06 56.55 58.06 59.60 61.15 62.73 64.32 65.93 67.57 69.22 70.90 72.59 74.30 76.04 77.79 79.57 81.36 83.17 85.01 86.86 88.74 90.63 92.54 94.48 96.43 98.41

3 30.58 31.70 32.83 33.99 35.16 36.36 37.58 38.81 40.07 41.34 42.64 43.96 45.29 46.65 48.02 49.42 50.84 52.27 53.73 55.20 56.70 58.22 59.75 61.31 62.88 64.48 66.10 67.73 69.39 71.06 72.76 74.48 76.21 77.97 79.74 81.54 83.36 85.19 87.05 88.92 90.82 92.74

4 30.69 31.81 32.95 34.11 35.28 36.48 37.70 38.94 40.20 41.47 42.77 44.09 45.43 46.79 48.16 49.56 50.98 52.42 53.88 55.35 56.85 58.37 59.91 61.47 63.04 64.64 66.26 67.90 69.56 71.23 72.93 74.65 76.39 78.15 79.92 81.72 83.54 85.38 87.24 89.11 91.01 92.93 94.87 96.83 98.80

5 30.80 31.92 33.06 34.22 35.40 36.60 37.82 39.06 40.32 41.60 42.90 44.22 45.56 46.92 48.30 49.70 51.12 52.56 54.02 55.50 57.00 58.52 60.06 61.62 63.20 64.80 66.42 68.06 69.72 71.40 73.'10 74.82 76.56 78.32 80.10 81.90 83.72 85.56 87.42 89.30

6 30.91 32.04 33.18 34.34 35.52 36.72 37.95 39.19 40.45 41.73 43.03 44.36 45.70 47.06 48.44 49.84 51.27 52.71 54.17 55.65 57.15 58.68 60.22 61.78 63.36 64.96 66.59 68.23 69.89 71.57 73.27 75.00 76.74 78.50 80.28 82.08 83.91 85.75 87.61 69.49

7 31.02 32.15 33.29 34.46 35.64 36.84 38.07 39.31 40.58 41.86 43.16 44.49 45.83 47.20 48.58 49.98 51.41 52.85 54.32 55.80 57.30 58.83 60.37 61.94 63.52 65.12 66.75 68.39 70.06 71.74 73.44 75.17 76.91 78.68 80.46 82.26 84.09 85.93 87.80 89.68

8 31.14 32.26 33.41 34.57 35.76 36.97 38.19 39.44 40.70 41.99 43.30 44.62 45.97 47.33 48.72 50.13 51.55 53.00 54.46 55.95 57.46 58.98 60.53 82.09 83.68 65.29 66.91 68.56 70.22 71.91 73.62 75.34 77.09 78.85 80.64 82.45 84.27 86.12 87.98 89.87

9 31.25 32.38 33.52 34.69 35.88 37.09 38.32 39.56 40.83 42.12 43.43 44.76 46.10 47.47 48.86 50.27 51.70 53.14 54.61 56.10 57.61 59.14 60.68 62.25 63.84 65.45 67.08 68.72 70.39 72.08 73.79 75.52 77.26 79.03 80.82 82.63 84.46 86.30 88.17 90.06 91.97 93.90 95.84 97.81 99.80

12

39.82
41.09 42.38 43.69 45.02 46.38 47.75 49.14 50.55 51.98 53.44 54.91 56.40 57.91 59.44 61.00 6257 64.16 65.77 67.40 69.06 70.73 72.42 74.13 75.86 77.62 79.39 81.18 82.99 84.82 86.68 88.55 so.44 92.35 94.28 96.24 98.21

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

94.67
96.63 98.60

91.20 93.12 95.06


97.02 99.00

91.39 93.32
95.28 97.22 99.20

91.58 93.51
95.45 97.42 99.40

91.78
93.70

95.65 97.61 99.60

20

=986960

lh2

=o 101321. e2 =736906

r2=966960.(r12)2=246740.

l/r2

=o 101321

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS & SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-7

TABLE1.2-CUBESOFNUMBERS

N 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59

0 1.000 1.030 1.061 1.093 1.125 1.158 1.191 1.225 1.260 1.295 1.331 1.368 1.405 1.443 1.482 1.521 1.561 1.602 1.643 1.685 1.728 1.772 1.816 1.861 1.907 1.953 2.000 2.048 2.097 2.147 2.197 2.248 2.300 2.353 2.406 2.460 2.515 2.571 2.628 2.686 2.744 2.803 2.863 2.924 2.986 3.049 3.112 3.177 3.242 3.308 3.375 3.443 3.512 3.582 3.652 3.724 3.796 3.870 3.944 4.020

1 1.003 1.033 1.064 1.096 1.128 1.161 1.194 1.228 1.263 1.299 1.335 1.371 1.409 1.447 1.485 1.525 1.565 1.606 1.647 1.689 1.732 1.776 1.820 1.865 1.911 1.958 2.005 2.053 2.102 2.152 2.202 2.253 2.305 2.358 2.411 2.466 2.521 2.577 2.634 2.691 2.750 2.809 2.869 2.930 2.992 3.055 3.119 3.183 3.248 3.315 3.382 3.450 3.519 3.589 3.659 3.731 3.804 3.877 3.952 4.027

2 1.006 1.036 1.067 1.099 1.131 1.164 1.198 1.232 1.267 1.302 1.338 1.375 1.412 1.451 1.489 1.529 1.569 1.610 1.651 1.694 1.737 1.780 1.825 1.870 1.916 1.983 2.010 2.058 2.107 2.157 2.207 2.258 2.310 2.363 2.417 2.471 2.527 2.583 2.640 2.697 2.756 2.815 2.875 2.936 2.998 3.081 3.125 3.190 3.255 3.321 3.389 3.457 3.528 3.596 3.667 3.738 3.811 3.885 3.959 4.035

3 1.009 1.040 1.071 1.102 1.135 1.168 1.201 1.235 1.270 1.306 1.342 1.379 1.416 1.454 1.493 1.533 1.573 1.614 1.656 1.698 1.741 1.785 1.829 1.075 1.920 1.967 2.015 2.063 2.112 2.162 2.212 2.264 2.316 2.369 2.422 2.477 2.532 2.588 2.645 2.703 2.762 2.821 2.881 2.943 3.005 3.068 3.131 3.196 3.262 3.328 3.395 3.464 3.533 3.603 3.674 3.746 3.818 3.892 3.967 4.042

4 1.012 1.043 1.074 1.106 1.138 1.171 1.205 1.239 1.274 1.309 1.346 1.382 1.420 1.458 1.497 1.537 1.577 1.618 1.660 1.702 1.745 1.789 1.834 1.879 1.925 1.972 2.019 2.068 2.117 2.167 2.217 2.269 2.321 2.374 2.428 2.482 2.538 2.594 2.651 2.709 2.768 2.827 2.888 2.949 3.011 3.074 3.138 3.203 3.268 3.335 3.402 3.470 3.540 3.610 3.681 3.753 3.826 3.900 3.974 4.050

5 1.015 1.046 1.077 1.109 1.141 1.174 1.208 1.242 1.277 1.313 1.349 1.386 1.424 1.462 1.501 1.541 1.581 1.622 1.664 1.706 1.750 1.794 1.838 1.884 1.930 1.977 2.024 2.073 2.122 2.172 2.222 2.274 2.326 2.379 2.433 2.480 2.543 2.600 2.657 2.715 2.774 2.833 2.894 2.955 3.017 3.080 3.144 3.209 3.275 3.341 3.409 3.477 3.547 3.617 3.688 3.760 3.833 3.907 3.982 4.058

6 1.018 1.049 1.080 1.112 1.144 1.178 1.211 1.246 1.281 1.317 1.353 1.390 1.428 1.466 1.505 1.545 1.585 1.626 1.668 1.711 1.754 1.798 1.843 1.888 1.934 1.981 2.029 2.078 2.127 2.177 2.228 2.279 2.331 2.385 2.439 2.493 2.549 2.605 2.663 2.721 2.779 2.839 2.900 2.961 3.023 3.087 3.151 3.216 3.281 3.348 3.416 3.484 3.554 3.624 3.695 3.767 3.840 3.914 3.989 4.065

7 1.021 1.052 1.083 1.115 1.148 1.181 1.215 1.249 1.284 1.320 1.357 1.394 1.431 1.470 1.509 1.549 1.589 1.631 1.672 1.715 1.758 1.802 1.847 1.893 1.939 1.986 2.034 2.082 2.132 2.182 2.233 2.284 2.337 2.390 2.444 2.499 2.554 2.611 2.668 2.726 2.785 2.845 2.906 2.967 3.030 3.093 3.157 3.222 3.288 3.355 3.422 3.491 3.561 3.631 3.702 3.775 3.848 3.922 3.997 4.073

8 1.024 1.055 1.086 1.118 1.151 1.184 1.218 1.253 1.288 1.324 1.360 1.397 1.435 1.474 1.513 1.553 1.593 1.635 1.677 1.719 1.763 1.807 1.852 1.897 1.944 1.991 2.039 2.087 2.137 2.187 2.238 2.290 2.342 2.395 2.449 2.504 2.560 2.617 2.674 2.732 2.791 2.851 2.912 2.974 3.036 3.099 3.164 3.229 3.295 3.362 3.429 3.498 3.568 3.638 3.709 3.782 3.855 3.929 4.005 4.081

9 1.027 1.058 1.090 1.122 1.154 1.188 1.222 1.256 1.2Sl 1.327 1.364 1.401 1.439 1.478 1.517 1.557 1.598 1.639 1.681 1.724 1.767 1.811 1.856 1.902 1.948 1.996 2.044 2.092 2.142 2.192 2.243 2.295 2.347 2.401 2.455 2.510 2.566 2.622 2.680 2.738 2.797 2.857 2.918 2.980 3.042 3.106 3.170 3.235 3.301 3.368 3.438 3.505 3.575 3.645 3.717 3.789 3.863 3.937 4.012 4.088

Average Difference 3

Explanationof Table of Cubes This tablegives the value of N3 forvalues of Nfrom 1 to 10, correctto four figures. (Interpolated values may be in error by 1 in the fourthfigure.) To findthe cube of a number Noutsidethe range from 1 to 10, notethatmovingthe decimal pointone place inColumn Nis equivalentto moving it threeplaces in the body ofthelable. For example,(4.852)3 = 114.2,(0.4852)3=0.1142, and (485.2)3 =114,200.000. This table also can be used inversely to give cube roots. (continued on next page)

1-B

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE

1.2-CUBES

OF NUMBERS (continued)

N 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.66 1.67 1.68 1.69 1.70 1.71 1.72 1.73 1.74 1.75 1.76 1.77 1.78 1.79 1.80 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.84

1 4.104 4.181 4.259 4.339 4.419 4.500 4.583 4.666 4.750 4.835 4.922 5.009 5.097 5.187 5.277

2 4.111 4.189 4.267 4.347 4.427 4.508 4.591 4.674 4.759 4.844 4.930 5.018 5.106 5.196 5.286 5.378 5.470 5.564 5.659 5.755 5.851 5.949 6.048 6.149 6.250 6.352 6.456 6.560 6.666 6.773 6.881 6.990 7.100 7.211 7.324 7.438 7.553 7.669 7.786 7.904 8.024 8.145 8.267 8.390 8.515 8.640 8.767 8.895 9.025 9.156 9.287 9.421 9.555 9.691 9.828 9.966 10.94 12.49 14.17

3 4.119 4.197 4.275 4.355 4.435 4.517 4.599 4.683 4.767 4.853 4.939 5.027 5.115 5.205 5.295 5.387 5.480 5.573 5.668 5.764 5.861 5.959 6.058 6.159 6.260 6.362 6.466 6.571 6.677 6.783 6.892 7.001 7.111 7.223 7.335 7.449 7.564 7.680 7.798 7.916 8.036 8.157 8.279 8.403 8.527 8.653 8.780 8.908 9.038 9.169 9.301 9.434 9.569 9.704 9.842 9.980 11.09 12.65 14.35

4 4.127 4.204 4.283 4.363 4.443 4.525 4.607 4.691 4.776 4.861 4.948 5.035 5.124 5.214 5.304 5.396 5.489 5.583 5.678 5.774 5.871 5.969 6.068 6.169 6.270 6.373 6.476 6.581 6.687 6.794 6.902 7.012 7.122 7.234 7.347 7.461 7.576 7.692 7.810 7.928 8.048 8.169 8.291 8.415 8.540 8.666 8.793 8.921 9.051 9.182 9.314 9.447 9.582 9.718 9.855 9.994 11.24 12.81 14.53

5 4.135 4.212 4.291 4.371 4.451 4.533 4.616 4.699 4.784 4.870 4.956 5.044 5.133 5.223 5.314 5.405 5.498

6 4.142 4.220 4.299 4.379 4.460 4.541 4.624 4.708 4.793 4.878 4.965 5.053 5.142 5.232 5.323 5.415 5.508 5.602 5.697 5.793 5.891 5.989 6.088 6.189 6.291 6.393 6.497 6.602 6.708 6.816

7 4.150 4.228 4.307 4.387 4.468 4.550 4.632 4.716 4.801 4.887 4.974 5.062 5.151 5.241 5.332 5.424 5.517 5.611 5.707 5.803 5.900

8 4.158 4.236 4.315 4.395 4.476 4.558 4.641 4.725 4.810 4.896 4.983 5.071 5.160 5.250 5.341 5.433 5.526 5.621 5.716 5.813 5.910

9
4.166 4.244 4.323 4.403 4.484 4.566 4.649 4.733 4.818 4.904 4.991 5.080 5.169 5.259 5.350 5.442 5.536 5.630 5.726 5.822 5.920 6.019 6.118 6.219 6.321 6.424 6.529 6.634 6.741 6.848 6.957 7.067 7.178 7.290 7.403 7.518 7.634 7.751 7.869 7.988 8.108 8.230 8.353 a.477 8.603 8.729 8.857 8.986 9.116 9.248 9.381 9.515

Average Difference 8

4.096
4.173 4.252 4.331 4.411

4.492
4.574 4.657 4.742 4.827 4.913 5.000 5.088 5.178 5.268

5.359
5.452 5.545 5.640 5.735 5.832 5.930 6.029 6.128 6.230 6.332 6.435 6.539 6.645 6.751 6.859 6.968 7.078 7.189 7.301 7.415 7.530 7.645 7.762 7.881 8.000 8.121 8.242 8.365 8.490 8.615 8.742 8.870 8.999 9.129 9.261

5.369
5.461 5.555 5.649 5.745 5.842 5.940 6.039 6.139 6.240 6.342 6.445 6.550 6.655 6.762 6.870 6.979 7.089 7.200 7.313 7.426 7.541 7.657 7.774 7.892 8.012 8.133 8.255 8.378 8.502 8.628 8.755 8.883 9.012 9.142 9.274

5.592
5.687 5.784 5.881

IO

5.979
6.078 6.179 6.280 6.383 6.487

5.999
6.098 6.199 6.301 6.404 6.508 6.613 6.719 6.827 6.935 7.045 7.156 7.268 7.381 7.495 7.610 7.727 7.845 7.964 8.084 8.206 8.328 8.452 8.577 8.704 8.831 8.960 9.090 9.221 9.354 9.488 9.623 9.759 9.897 10.22 11.70 13.31 15.07

6.009
6.108 6.209 6.311 6.414 6.518 6.623 6.730 6.837 6.946 7.056 7.167 7.279 7.392 7.507 7.622 7.739 7.857 7.976 8.096 8.218 8.341 8.465 8.590 8.716 8.844 8.973 9.103 9.235 9.367 9.501 9.636 9.773 9.911 10.36 11.85 13.48 15.25

1.85
1.86 1.87 1.88 1.89

6.592
6.698 6.805 6.913 7.023 7.133 7.245 7.358 7.472 7.587 7.704 7.821 7.940 8.060 8.181 8.304 8.427 8.552 8.678 8.806 8.934 9.064 9.195 9.327 9.461 9.596

11

1.90 1.91
1.92 1.93 1.94

6.924
7.034 7.144 7.256 7.369 7.484 7.599 7.715 7.833 7.952 8.072 8.194 8.316 8.440 8.565 8.691 8.818 8.947 9.077 9.208 9.341 9.474 9.609

1.95
1.96 1.97 1.98 1.99 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

12

13

9.394
9.528

9.664
9.800 9.938 10.65 12.17 13.82

9.407 9.542 9.677


9.814 9.952 10.79 12.33 14.00

9.650
9.787 9.925

14

9.732
9.869 10.008 9.94 11.39 12.98 14.71

9.745
9.883 10.08 11.54 13.14 14.89

14 10.50 12.01 13.65 15.44 14 15 16 18

andl/n3 =0.0322515+ r3= 31.0063

MATHEMATICALTABLES&

UNITS&

SYSTEMSOF

WEIGHTS&

MEASURES

1-9

TABLE1.2-CUEIESOF

NUMBERS(continued)

N 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4

0 15.62 17.58 19.68 21.95 24.39 27.00 29.79 32.77 35.94 39.30 42.88 46.66 50.65 54.87 59.32 64.00 68.92 74.09 79.51 85.18 91.12 97.34 103.8 110.6 117.6 125.0 132.7 140.6 148.9 157.5 166.4 175.6 185.2 195.1 205.4 216.0 227.0 238.3 250.0 262.1 274.6 287.5 300.8 314.4 328.5 343.0 357.9 373.2 389.0 405.2 421.9 439.0 456.5 474.6 493.0 512.0 531.4 551.4 571.8 592.7

1 15.81 17.78 19.90 22.19 24.64 27.27 30.08 33.08 36.26 39.65 43.24 47.05 51.06 55.31 59.78 64.48 69.43 74.62 80.08 85.77 91.73 97.97 104.5 111.3 118.4 125.8 133.4 141.4 149.7 158.3 167.3 176.6 186.2 196.1 206.4 217.1 228.1 239.5 251.2 263.4 275.9 288.8 302.1 315.8 329.9 344.5 359.4 374.8 390.6 406.9 423.8 440.7 458.3 476.4 494.9 513.9 533.4 553.4 573.9 594.8

2 16.00 17.98 20.12 22.43 24.90 27.54 30.37 33.39 36.59 40.00 43.61 47.44 51.48 55.74 60.24 64.96 69.93 75.15 80.62 86.35 92.35 98.61 105.2 112.0 119.1 126.5 134.2 142.2 150.6 159.2 168.2 177.5 187.1 197.1 207.5 218.2 229.2 240.6 252.4 264.6 277.2 290.1 303.5 317.2 331.4 345.9 360.9 376.4 392.2 408.5 425.3 442.5 460.1 478.2 496.8 515.8 535.4 555.4 575.9 596.9

--

3 16.19 18.19 20.35 22.67 25.15 27.82 30.66 33.70 36.93 40.35 43.99 47.83 51.90 56.18 60.70 65.45 70.44 75.69 81.18 86.94 92.96 99.25 105.8 112.7 119.8 127.3 135.0 143.1 151.4 160.1 169.1 178.5 188.1 198.2 208.5 219.3 230.3 241.8 253.6 265.8 278.4 291.4 304.8 318.6 332.8 347.4 362.5 377.9 393.8 410.2 427.0 444.2 461.9 480.0 498.7 517.8 535.4 557.4 578.0 599.1

4 16.39 18.40 20.57 22.91 25.41 28.09 30.96 34.01 37.26 40.71 44.36 48.23 52.31 56.62 61.16 65.94 70.96 76.23 81.75 87.53 93.58 99.90 106.5 113.4 120.6 128.0 135.8 143.9 152.3 161.0 170.0 179.4 189.1 199.2 209.6 220.3 231.5 243.0 254.8 267.1 279.7 292.8 306.2 320.0 334.3 348.9 364.0 379.5 395.4 411.8 428.7 445.9 463.7 481.9 500.6 519.7 539.4 559.5 580.1 601.2

5 16.58 18.61 20.80 23.15 25.67 28.37 31.26 34.33 37.60 41.06 44.74 48.63 52.73 57.07 61.63 66.43 71.47 76.77 82.31 88.12 94.20 100.54 100.5 107.2 114.1 121.3 128.8 136.6 144.7 153.1 161.9 171.0 180.4 190.1 200.2 210.6 221.4 232.6 244.1 256.0 268.3 281.0 294.1 307.5 321.4 335.7 350.4 365.5 381.1 397.1 413.5 430.4 447.7 465.5 483.7 502.5 521.7 541.3 561.5 582.2 603.4

6 16.78 18.82 21.02 23.39 25.93 28.65 31.55 34.65 37.93 41.42 45.12 49.03 53.16 57.51 62.10 66.92 71.99 77.31 82.88 88.72 94.82 101.2 107.9 114.8 122.0 129.6 137.4 145.5 154.0 162.8 171.9 181.3 191.1 201.2 211.7 222.5 233.7 245.3 257.3 269.6 282.3 295.4 308.9 322.8 337.2 351.9 367.1 382.7 398.7 415.2 432.1 449.5 467.3 485.6 504.4 523.6 543.3 583.6 584.3 605.5 16.97 19.03 21.25 23.64 26.20 28.93 31.86 34.97 38.27 41.78 45.50 49.43 53.58 57.96 62.57 67.42 72.51 77.85 83.45 89.31 95.44 101.8 108.5 115.5 122.8 130.3 138.2 146.4 154.9 163.7 172.8 182.3 192.1 202.3 212.8 223.6 234.9 246.5 258.5 270.8 283.6 298.7 310.3 324.2 338.6 353.4 368.6 384.2 400.3 416.8 433.8 451.2 469.1 487.4 506.3 525.6 545.3 565.6 586.4 607.6

8 17.17 19.25 21.48 23.89 26.46 29.22 32.16 35.29 38.61 42.14 45.88 49.84 54.01 58.41 63.04 67.92 73.03 78.40 84.03 89.92 96.07 102.5 109.2 116.2 123.5 131.1 139.0 147.2 155.7 164.6 173.7 183.3 193.1 203.3 213.8 224.8 236.0 247.7 259.7 272.1 284.9 298.1 311.7 325.7 340.1 354.9 370.1 385.8 401.9 418.5 435.5 453.0 470.9 489.3 508.2 527.5 547.3 567.7 588.5 609.8

9 17.37 19.47 21.72 24.14 26.73 29.50 32.46 35.61 38.96 42.51 46.27 50.24 54.44 58.86 63.52 68.42 73.56 78.95 84.60 90.52 96.70 103.2 109.9 116.9 124.3 131.9 139.8 148.0 156.6 165.5 174.7 184.2 194.1 204.3 214.9 225.9 237.2 248.9 260.9 273.4 286.2 299.4 313.0 327.1 341.5 356.4 371.7 387.4 403.6 420.2 437.2 454.8 472.7 491.2 510.1 529.5 549.4 569.7 590.6 612.0

Average Difference 20 21 23 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 39 40 42 44 47 49 52 54 58 59 62 64 7 7 7 7 8

IO

11 12

13 14

15 18 17 18

19 20 21

=310063and

1h3=O0322515+

(continuedon next page)

l-10

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.2-CUBES

OF NUMBERS

(continued)

N
8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0

0 614.1 636.1 658.5 681.5 705.0 729.0 753.6 778.7 804.4 830.6 857.4 884.7 912.7 941.2 970.3 1000.0 616.3 638.3 660.8 683.8 707.3 731.4 756.1 781.2 807.0 833.2 860.1 887.5 915.5 944.1 973.2

2 618.5 640.5 663.1 686.1 709.7 733.9 758.6 783.8 809.6 835.9 862.8 890.3 918.3 947.0 976.2

3 620.7 642.7 665.3 688.5 712.1 736.3 761 .O 786.3 812.2 838.6 865.5 893.1 921.2 949.9 979.1

4 622.8 645.0 667.6 690.8 714.5 738.8 763.6 788.9 814.8 841.2 868.3 895.8 924.0 952.8 982.1

5 625.0 647.2 669.9 693.2 716.9 741.2 766.1 791.5 817.4 043.9 871 .O 898.6 926.9 955.7 985.1

6 627.2 649.5 672.2 695.5 719.3 743.7 768.6 794.0 820.0 846.6 873.7 901.4 929.7 958.6 988.0

7 629.4 651.7 674.5 697.9 721.7 746.1 771.1 796.6 822.7 849.3 876.5 904.2 932.6 961.5 991 .o

8 631.6 654.0 678.8 700.2 724.2 748.6 773.6 799.2 825.3 852.0 879.2 907.0 935.4 964.4 994.0

9 633.8 656.2 679.2 702.6 726.6 751.1 776.2 801.8 827.9 854.7 882.0 909.9 938.3 967.4 997.0

Average Difference 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

=31 0063 and 1/x3 =00322515+

MATHEMATICALTABLES

&UNITS

&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&MEASURES

1-11

TABLE

1.3-SQUARE

ROOTS

OF NUMBERS

N 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9

0 1.000 1.049 1.095 1.140 1.183 1.255 1.265 1.304 1.342 1.378 1.414 1.449 1.483 1.517 1.549 1.581 1.612 1.643 1.673 1.703 1.732 1.761 1.789 1.817 1.844 1.871 1.897 1.924 1.949 1.975 2.000 2.025 2.049 2.074 2.098 2.121 2.145 2.168 2.191 2.214 2.236 2.258 2.280 2.302 2.324 2.345 2.366 2.387 2.408 2.429 2.449 2.470 2.490 2.510 2.530 2.550 2.569 2.588 2.608 2.627

1 1.005 1.054 1.100 1.145 1.187 1.229 1.269 1.308 1.345 1.382 1.418 1.453 1.487 1.520 1.552 1.584 1.616 1.646 1.676 1.706 1.735 1.764 1.792 1.819 1.847 1.873 1.900 1.926 1.952 1.977 2.002 2.027 2.052 2.076 2.100 2.124 2.147 2.170 2.193 2.216 2.238 2.261 2.283 2.304 2.326 2.347 2.369 2.390 2.410 2.431 2.452 2.472 2.492 2.512 2.532 2.551 2.571 2.590 2.610 2.629

2 1.010 1.058 1.105 1.149 1.192 1.233 1.273 1.311 1.349 1.386 1.421 1.456 1.490 1.523 1.556 1.587 1.619 1.649 1.679 1.709 1.738 1.766 1.794 1.822 1.849 1.876 1.903 1.929 1.954 1.980 2.005 2.030 2.054 2.078 2.102 2.126 2.149 2.173 2.195 2.218 2.241 2.263 2.285 2.307 2.328 2.349 2.371 2.392 2.412 2.433 2.454 2.474 2.494 2.514 2.534 2.553 2.573 2.592 2.612 2.631

3 1.015 1.083 1.109 1.153 1.196 1.237 1.277 1.315 1.353 1.389 1.425 1.459 1.493 1.526 1.559 1.591 1.622 1.652 1.682 1.712 1.741 1.769 1.797 1.825 1.852 1.879 1905 1.931 1.957 1.982 2.007 2.032 2.057 2.081 2.105 2.128 2.152 2.175 2.198 2.220 2.243 2.265 2.287 2.309 2.330 2.352 2.373 2.394 2.415 2.435 2.456 2.476 2.496 2.516 2.536 2.555 2.575 2.594 2.613 2.632

4 1.020 1.068 1.114 1.158 1.200 1.241 1.281 1.319 1.356 1.393 1.428 1.463 1.497 1.530 1.562 1.594 1.625 1.655 1.685 1.715 1.744 1.772 1.800 1.828 1.855 1.881 1.908 1.934 1.960 1.985 2.010 2.035 2.059 2.083 2.107 2.131 2.154 2.177 2.200 2.223 2.245 2.267 2.289 2.311 2.332 2.354 2.375 2.398 2.417 2.437 2.458 2.478 2.498 2.518 2.538 2.557 2.577 2.596 2.615 2.634

5 1.025 1.072 1.118 1.162 1.204 1.245 1.285 1.323 1.360 1.396 1.432 1.466 1.500 1.533 1.565 1.597 1.628 1.658 1.688 1.718 1.746 1.775 1.803 1.830 1.857 1.884 1.910 1.936 1.962 1.987 2.012 2.037 2.062 2.086 2.110 2.133 2.156 2.179 2.202 2.225 2.247 2.269 2.291 2.313 2.335 2.356 2.377 2.398 2.419 2.439 2.460 2.480 2.500 2.520 2.540 2.559 2.579 2.598 2.617 2.636

6 1.030 1.077 1.122 1.166 1.208 1.249 1.288 1.327 1.364 1.400 1.435 1.470 1.503 1.536 1.568 1.600 1.631 1.661 1.691 1.720 1.749 1.778 1.806 1.833 1.860 1.887 1.913 1.939 1.965 1.990 2.015 2.040 2.064 2.088 2.112 2.135 2.159 2.182 2.205 2.227 2.249 2.272 2.293 2.315 2.337 2.358 2.379 2.400 2.421 2.441 2.462 2.482 2.502 2.522 2.542 2.561 2.581 2.600 2.619 2.638

7 1.034 1.082 1.127 1.170 1.212 1.253 1.292 1.330 1.367 1.404 1.439 1.473 1.507 1.539 1.572 1.603 1.634 1.664 1.694 1.723 1.752 1.780 1.808 1.836 1.863 1.889 1.916 1.942 1.967 1.992 2.017 2.042 2.066 2.090 2.114 2.138 2.161 2.184 2.207 2.229 2.252 2.274 2.296 2.317 2.339 2.360 2.381 2.402 2.423 2.443 2.464 2.484 2.504 2.524 2.544 2.563 2.583 2.602 2.621 2.640

8 1.039 1.088 1.131 1.175 1.217 1.257 1.296 1.334 1.371 1.407 1.442 1.476 1.510 1.543 1.575 1.606 1.637 1.667 1.697 1.726 1.755 1.783 1.811 1.838 1.885 1.892 1.918 1.944 1.970 1.995 2.020 2.045 2.069 2.093 2.117 2.140 2.163 2.186 2.209 2.232 2.254 2.276 2.298 2.319 2.341 2.382 2.383 2.404 2.425 2.445 2.466 2.486 2.506 2.526 2.546 2.565 2.585 2.604 2.623 2.642

9 1.044 1.091 1.136 1.179 1.221 1.261 1.300 1.338 1.375 1.411 1.446 1.480 1.513 1.546 1.578 1.609 1.640 1.670 1.700 1.729 1.758 1.786 1.814 1.841 1.868 1.895 1.921 1.947 1.972 1.997 2.022 2.047 2.071 2.095 2.119 2.142 2.166 2.189 2.211 2.234 2.256 2.278 2.300 2.322 2.343 2.364 2.385 2.406 2.427 2.447 2.468 2.488 2.508 2.528 2.548 2.567 2.587 2.606 2.625 2.644

Average Difference 5 4

Exolanation of Table of Sauare Roots This table gives the value of fiforvaluesof Nfrom 1 to lOO,correcttofourfigures.(lnterpolated values maybe inerror by 1 in the fourthfigure). To findthe square root of a number N outside the range from 1 to 100, dividethe digits of the number intoblocks oftwo(beginning with thedecimalpoint),and note thatmovingthedecimal ointtwo placesin N isequivalentto moving J--Y= 2718 5213, &%%=18.48, ~@%3=52.13, itone lace in the square root of N. For example, &%-8=1.648, += 00002718 001648, and Jo7oo2718=0.05213. (continuedon next page)

l-12

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.3-SQUARE

ROOTS

OF NUMBERS(continued)

N 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.6 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0 29.0 30.0 31.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 38.0 39.0

0 2.646 2.665 2.683 2.702 2.720 2.739 2.757 2.775 2.793 2.811 2.828 2.846 2.864 2.881 2.898 2.915 2.933 2.950 2.966 2.983 3.000 3.017 3.033 3.050 3.066 3.082 3.098 3.114 3.130 3.146 3.162 3.317 3.464 3.606 3.742 3.873 4.000 4.123 4.243 4.359 4.472 4.583 4.690 4.796 4.899 5.000 5.099 5.196 5.292 5.385 5.477 5.568 5.657 5.745 5.831 5.916 6.000 6.083 6.164 6.245

1 2.648 2.666 2.685 2.704 2.722 2.740 2.759 2.777 2.795 2.812 2.830 2.848 2.865 2.883 2.900 2.917 2.934 2.951 2.968 2.985 3.002 3.018 3.035 3.051 3.068 3.084 3.100 3.116 3.132 3.148 3.178 3.332 3.479 3.619 3.755 3.886 4.012 4.135 4.254 4.370 4.483 4.593 4.701 4.806 4.909 5.010 5.109 5.206 5.301 5.394 5.486 5.577 5.666 5.753 5.840 5.925 6.008 6.091 6.173 6.253

2 2.650 2.668 2.687 2.706 2.724 2.742 2.760 2.778 2.796 2.814 2.832 2.850 2.867 2.884 2.902 2.919 2.936 2.953 2.970 2.987 3.003 3.020 3.036 3.053 3.069 3.085 3.102 3.118 3.134 3.150 3.194 3.347 3.493 3.633 3.768 3.899 4.025 4.147 4.266 4.382 4.494 4.604 4.712 4.817 4.919 5.020 5.119 5.215 5.310 5.404 5.495 5.586 5.675 5.762 5.848 5.933 6.017 6.099 6.181 6.281

3 2.651 2.670 2.689 2.707 2.728 2.744 2.762 2.780 2.798 2.816 2.834 2.851 2.869 2.886 2.903 2.921 2.938 2.955 2.972 2.988 3.005 3.022 3.038 3.055 3.071 3.087 3.103 3.119 3.135 3.151 3.209 3.362 3.507 3.647 3.782 3.912 4.037 4.159 4.278 4.393 4.506 4.615 4.722 4.827 4.930 5.030 5.128 5.225 5.320 5.413 5.505 5.595 5.683 5.771 5.857 5.941 6.025 6.107 6.189 6.269

4 2.653 2.672 2.691 2.709 2.728 2.746 2.764 2.782 2.800 2.818 2.835 2.853 2.871 2.888 2.905 2.922 2.939 2.956 2.973 2.990 3.007 3.023 3.040 3.056 3.072 3.089 3.105 3.121 3.137 3.153 3.225 3.376 3.521 3.661 3.795 3.924 4.050 4.171 4.290 4.405 4.517 4.626 4.733 4.837 4.940 5.040 5.138 5.235 5.329 5.422 5.514 5.604 5.692 5.779 5.865 5.950 6.033 6.116 6.197 6.277

5 2.655 2.674 2.693 2.711 2.729 2.748 2.766 2.784 2.802 2.820 2.837 2.855 2.872 2.890 2.907 2.924 2.941 2.958 2.975 2.992 3.008 3.025 3.041 3.058 3.074 3.090 3.106 3.122 3.138 3.154 3.240 3.391 3.536 3.674 3.808 3.937 4.062 4.183 4.301 4.416 4.528 4.637 4.743 4.848 4.950 5.050 5.148 5.244 5.339 5.431 5.523 5.612 5.701 5.788 5.874 5.958 6.042 6.124 6.205 6.285

6 2.657 2.676 2.694 2.713 2.731 2.750 2.768 2.786 2.804 2.821 2.839 2.857 2.874 2.891 2.909 2.926 2.943 2.960 2.977 2.993 3.010 3.027 3.043 3.059 3.076 3.092 3.108 3.124 3.140 3.156 3.256 3.406 3.550 3.688 3.821 3.950 4.074 4.195 4.313 4.427 4.539 4.648 4.754 4.858 4.960 5.060 5.158 5.254 5.348 5.441 5.532 5.621 5.710 5.797 5.882 5.967 6.050 6.132 6.213 6.293

7 2.659 2.678 2.696 2.715 2.733 2.751 2.769 2.787 2.805 2.823 2.841 2.858 2.876 2.893 2.910 2.927 2.944 2.961 2.978 2.995 3.012 3.028 3.045 3.061 3.077 3.094 3.110 3.126 3.142 3.158 3.271 3.421 3.564 3.701 3.834 3.962 4.087 4.207 4.324 4.438 4.550 4.658 4.764 4.868 4.970 5.070 5.167 5.263 5.357 5.450 5.541 5.630 5.718 5.805 5.891 5.975 6.058 6.140 6.221 6.301

8 2.661 2.680 2.698 2.717 2.735 2.753 2.771 2.789 2.807 2.825 2.843 2.860 2.877 2.895 2.912 2.929 2.946 2.963 2.980 2.997 3.013 3.030 3.046 3.063 3.079 3.095 3.111 3.127 3.143 3.159 3.286 3.435 3.578 3.715 3.847 3.975 4.099 4.219 4.336 4.450 4.561 4.669 4.775 4.879 4.980 5.079 5.177 5.273 5.367 5.459 5.550 5.639 5.727 5.814 5.899 5.983 6.066 6.148 6.229 6.309

9 2.663 2.681 2.700 2.718 2.737 2.755 2.773 2.791 2.809 2.827 2.844 2.862 2.879 2.897 2.914 2.931 2.948 2.965 2.982 2.998 3.015 3.032 3.048 3.064 3.081 3.097 3.113 3.129 3.145 3.161 3.302 3.450 3.592 3.728 3.860 3.987 4.111 4.231 4.347 4.461 4.572 4.680 4.785 4.889 4.990 5.089 5.187 5.282 5.376 5.468 5.559 5.648 5.736 5.822 5.908 5.992 6.075 6.156 6.237 6.317

Average Difference 2

16 15 14 13 12

11

10

Vr=i.77245+.

l/V'*=O.56419,

V,*/Z=l

25331, and ~e=,.64872

MATHEMATICALTABLES&

UNITS&

SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&

MEASURES

1-13

TABLE

1.3-SQUARE

ROOTS

OF NUMBERS(continued)

N 40.0 41 0 42.0 43.0 44.0 45.0 46.0 47.0 48.0 49.0 50.0 51.0 52.0 53.0 54.0 55.0 56.0 57.0 56.0 59.0 60.0 61.0 62.0 63.0 64.0 65.0 66.0 67.0 68.0 69.0 70.0 71.0 72.0 73.0 74.0 75.0 76.0 77.0 78.0 79.0 80.0 81.0 82.0 83.0 84.0 85.0 86.0 67.0 88.0 89.0 90.0 91.0 92.0 93.0 94.0 95.0 96.0 97.0 98.0 99.0

0 6.325 6.403 6.481 6.557 6.633 6.708 6.782 6.856 6.928 7.000 7.071 7.141 7.211 7.280 7.348 7.416 7.483 7.550 7.616 7.681 7.746 7.810 7.874 7.937 8.000 8.062 8.124 8.185 8.246 8.307 8.367 8.426 8.485 8.544 8.602 8.660 8.718 8.775 8.832 8.888 8.944 9.000 9.055 9.110 9.165 9.220 9.274 9.327 9.381 9.434 9.487 9.539 9.592 9.644 9.695 9.747 9.798 9.849 9.899 9.950

1 6.332 6.411 6.488 6.565 6.641 6.716 6.790 6.863 6.935 7.007 7.078 7.148 7.218 7.287 7.355 7.423 7.490 7.556 7.622 7.688 7.752 7.817 7.880 7.944 8.006 8.068 8.130 8.191 8.252 8.313 8.373 8.432 8.491 8.550 8.608 8.666 8.724 8.781 8.837 8.894 8.950 9.006 9.061 9.116 9.171 9.225 9.279 9.333 9.386 9.439 9.492 9.545 9.597 9.649 9.701 9.752 9.803 9.854 9.905 9.955

2 6.340 6.419 6.496 6.573 6.648 6.723 6.797 6.870 6.943 7.014 7.085 7.155 7.225 7.294 7.362 7.430 7.497 7.563 7.629 7.694 7.759 7.823 7.887 7.950 8.012 8.075 8.136 8.198 8.258 8.319 8.379 8.438 8.497 8.556 8.614 8.672 8.729 8.786 8.843 8.899 8.955 9.011 9.066 9.121 9.176 9.230 9.284 9.338 9.391 9.445 9.497 9.550 9.602 9.654 9.706 9.757 9.808 9.859 9.910 9.960

3 6.348 6.427 6.504 6.580 6.656 6.731 6.804 6.877 6.950 7.021 7.092 7.162 7.232 7.301 7.369 7.436 7.503 7.570 7.635 7.701 7.765 7.829 7.893 7.956 8.019 8.081 8.142 8.204 8.264 8.325 8.385 8.444 8.503 8.562 8.620 8.678 8.735 8.792 8.849 8.905 8.961 9.017 9.072 9.127 9.182 9.236 9.290 9.343 9.397 9.450 9.503 9.555 9.607 9.659 9.711 9.762 9.813 9.864 9.915 9.965

4 6.356 6.434 6.512 6.588 6.663 6.738 6.812 6.885 6.957 7.029 7.099 7.169 7.239 7.308 7.376 7.443 7.510 7.576 7.642 7.707 7.772 7.836 7.899 7.962 8.025 8.087 8.149 8.210 8.270 8.331 8.390 8.450 8.509 8.567 8.626 8.683 8.741 8.798 8.854 8.911 8.967 9.022 9.077 9.132 9.187 9.241 9.295 9.349 9.402 9.455 9.508 9.560 9.612 9.664 9.716 9.767 9.818 9.869 9.920 9.970

5 6.364 6.442 6.519 6.595 6.671 6.745 6.819 6.892 6.964 7.036 7.106 7.176 7.246 7.314 7.382 7.450 7.517 7.583 7.649 7.714 7.778 7.842 7.906 7.969 8.031 8.093 8.155 8.216 8.276 8.337 8.396 8.456 8.515 8.573 8.631 8.669 8.746 8.803 8.860 8.916 8.972 9.028 9.083 9.138 9.192 9.247 9.301 9.354 9.407 9.460 9.513 9.566 9.618 9.670 9.721 9.772 9.823 9.874 9.925 9.975

6 6.372 6.450 6.527 6.603 6.678 6.753 6.826 6.899 6.971 7.043 7.113 7.183 7.253 7.321 7.389 7.457 7.523 7.589 7.655 7.720 7.785 7.849 7.912 7.975 8.037 8.099 8.161 8.222 8.283 8.343 8.402 8.462 8.521 8.579 8.637 8.695 8.752 8.809 8.866 8.922 8.978 9.033 9.088 9.143 9.198 9.252 9.306 9.359 9.413 9.466 9.518 9.571 9.623 9.675 9.726 9.778 9.829 9.879 9.930 9.980

7 6.380 6.458 6.535 6.611 6.686 6.760 6.834 6.907 6.979 7.050 7.120 7.190 7.259 7.328 7.396 7.463 7.530 7.596 7.662 7.727 7.791 7.855 7.918 7.981 8.044 8.106 8.167 8.228 8.289 8.349 8.408 8.468 8.526 8.585 8.643 8.701 8.758 8.815 8.871 8.927 8.983 9.039 9.094 9.149 9.203 9.257 9.311 9.365 9.418 9.471 9.524 9.576 9.628

8 6.387 6.465 6.542 6.618 6.693 6.768 6.841 6.914 6.986 7.057 7.127 7.197 7.266 7.335 7.403 7.470 7.537 7.603 7.668 7.733 7.797 7.861 7.925 7.987 8.050 8.112 8.173 8.234 8.295 8.355 8.414 8.473 8.532 8.591 8.649 8.706 8.764 8.820 8.877 8.933 8.989 9.044 9.099 9.154 9.209 9.263 9.317 9.370 9.423 9.476 9.529 9.581 9.633 9.685 9.737 9.788 9.839 9.889 9.940 9.990

9 6.395 6.473 6.550 6.626 6.701 6.775 6.848 6.921 6.993 7.064 7.134 7.204 7.273 7.342 7.409 7.477 7.543 7.609 7.675 7.740 7.804 7.868 7.931 7.994 8.056 8.118 8.179 8.240 8.301 8.361 8.420 8.479 8.538 8.597 8.654 8.712 8.769 8.826 8.883 8.939 8.994 9.050 9.105 9.160 9.214 9.268 9.322 9.375 9.429 9.482 9.534 9.586 9.638 9.690 9.742 9.793 9.844 9.894 9.945 9.995

Average Difference 8

9.680
9.731 9.783 9.834 9.884 9.935 9.985

SQUAREROOTSOFCERTAlNFRACTlONS N &i N % a/5 '/6 5/s '/$ 2/7 3/7 Jii 0.7746 0.8944 0.4082 0.9129 0.3780 0.5345 0.6547 N v% N '/9 2/ % =/g '/g 8/s '/'2 J0.3333 0.4714 0.6667 0.7454 0.8819 0.9428 0.2887 N fi N -J%

'/2 0.7071'/a 0.5774 v3 0.8165 '/4 0.5000 v4 0.8660 '/s 0.4472 75 0.6325

% 0.7559 __ % 0.8452 % 0.9258 '/A 0.3536 % 0.6124 % 0.7906 '/a 0.9354

-0.64559/rss/1* y,p 0.7638 1%~ 0.9574 'h6 0.2500 3/ls 0.4330 %s 0.5590 /,s 0.6614

0.7500 "A6 0.8292 '3/G 0.9014 '5/e 0.9662 '/!32 0.1768 '/6* 0.1250 'ho 0.1414

l-14

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLEl.4-CUBEROOTSOFNUMBERS

N 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9

0 1.000 1.032 1.063 1.091 1.119 1.145 1.170 1.193 1.216 1.239 1.260 1.281 1.301 1.320 1.339 1.357 1.375 1.392 1.409 1.426 1.442 1.458 1.474 1.489 1.504 1.518 1.533 1.547 1.560 1.574 1.567 1.601 1.613 1.626 1.639 1.651 1.663 1.675 1.687 1.698 1.710 1.721 1.732 1.744 1.754 1.765 1.776 1.786 1.797 1.807 1.817 1.827 1.837 1.847 1.857 1.866 1.876 1.885 1.895 1904

1 1.003 1.035 1.066 1.094 1.121 1.147 1.172 1.196 1.219 1.241 1.262 1.283 1.303 1.322 1.341 1.359 1.377 1.394 1.411 1.428 1.444 1.460 1.475 1.490 1.505 1.520 1.534 1.548 1562 1.575 1.589 1.602 1.615 1627 1.640 1.652 1.664 1.676 1.688 1.700 1.711 1.722 1.734 1.745 1.755 1.766 1.777 1.787 1.798 1.808 1.818 1.828 1.838 1.848 1.858 1.867 1.877 1.886 1.895 1.905

2 1.007 1.038 1.069 1.097 1.124 1.150 I.174 1.198 1.221 1.243 1.264 1.285 1.305 1.324 1.343 1.361 1.379 1.396 1.413 1.429 1.445 1.461 1.477 1.492 1.507 1.521 1.535 1.549 1.563 1.577 1.590 1.603 1.616 1.629 1.641 1.653 1.666 1.677 1.689 1.701 1.712 1.724 1.735 1.746 1.757 1.767 1.778 1.788 1.799 1.809 1.819 1.829 1.839 1.849 1.859 1.868 1.878 1.887 1.896 1.906

3 1.010 1.042 1.071 1.100 1.127 1.152 I.177 1.200 1.223 1.245 1.266 1.287 1.306 1.326 1.344 1.363 1.380 1.398 1.414 1.431 1.447 1.463 1.478 1.493 1.508 1.523 1.537 1.551 1.565 1.578 1.591 1.604 1.617 1.630 1.642 1.655 1.667 1.679 1.690 1.702 1.713 1.725 1.736 1.747 1.758 1.768 1.779 1.789 1.800 1.810 1.820 1.830 1.840 1.850 1.860 1.869 1.879 1.888 1.897 1.907

4 1.013 1.045 1.074 1.102 I.129 1.155 1.179 1.203 1.225 1.247 1268 1.289 1.308 1.328 1.346 1.364 1.382 1.399 1.416 1.433 1.449 1.464 1.480 1.495 1.510 1.524 1.538 1.552 1.566 1.579 1.593 1.606 1.619 1.631 1.644 1.656 1.668 1.680 1.692 1.703 1.715 1.726 1.737 1.748 1.759 1.769 1.780 1.790 1.801 1.811 1.821 1.831 1.841 1.851 1.860 1.870 1.880 1.889 1.898 1.907

5 1.016 1.048 1.077 1.105 1.132 1.157 1.182 1.205 1.228 1.249 1.270 1.291 1.310 1.330 1.348 1.366 1.384 1.401 1.418 1.434 1.450 1.466 1.481 1.496 1.511 1.525 1.540 1.554 1.567 1.581 1.594 1.607 1.820 1.632 1.645 1.657 1.669 1.681 1.693 1.704 1.716 1.727 1.738 1.749 1.760 I.771 1.781 1.792 1.802 1.812 1.822 1.832 1.842 1.852 1.861 1.871 1.881 1.890 1.899 1.908

6 1.020 1.051 1.080 1.108 1.134 1.160 1.184 1.207 1.230 1.251 1.272 1.293 1.312 1.331 1.350 1.368 1.386 1.403 1.419 1.436 1.452 1.467 1.483 1.498 1.512 1.527 1.541 1.555 1.569 1.582 1.595 1.608 1.621 1.634 1.646 1.658 1.670 1.682 1.694 1.705 1.717 1.728 1.739 1.750 1.761 1.772 1.782 1.793 1.803 1.813 1.823 1.833 1.843 1.853 1.862 1.872 1.881 1.891 1.900 1.909

7 1.023 1.054 1.083 1.111 1.137 1.162 1.186 1.210 1.232 1.254 1.274 1.295 1.314 1.333 1.352 1.370 1.387 1.404 1.421 1.437 1.453 1.469 1.484 1.499 1.514 1.528 I.542 1.556 1.570 1.583 1.597 1.610 1.622 1.635 1.647 1.659 1.671 1.683 1.695 1.707 1.718 1.729 I.740 1.751 1.762 1.773 1.783 1.794 1.804 1.814 1.824 1.834 1.844 1.854 1.883 1.873 1.882 1.892 1.901 1.910

8 1.026 1.057 1.086 1.113 1.140 1.165 1.189 1.212 1.234 1.256 1.277 1.297 1.316 1.335 1.354 1.372 1.389 1.406 1.423 1.439 1.455 I.471 1.486 1.501 1.515 1.530 1.544 1.558 1.571 1.585 1.598 1.811 1.624 1.636 1.649 1.681 1.673 1.685 1.696 1.708 1.719 1.730 1.741 1.752 1.763 1.774 1.784 1.795 1.805 1.815 1.825 1.835 1.845 1.855 1.864 1.874 1.883 1.893 1.902 1.911

9 1.029 1.060 1.089 1.116 1.142 1.167 1.191 1.214 1.236 1.258 1.279 1.299 1.318 1.337 1.355 1.373 1.391 1.408 1.424 1.441 1.457 1.472 1.487 1.502 1.517 1.531 1.545 I .559 1.573 1.586 1.599 1.612 1.625 1.637 1.650 1.662 1.674 1.686 1.697 1.709 1.720 1.731 1.742 1.753 1.764 1.775 1.785 1.796 1.806 1.816 1.826 1.836 1.846 1.856 1.865 1.875 1.884 1.894 1.903 1.912

Average Difference 3

Explanation of Table of Cube Roots This tablegives the value of fi for values of N from 1 to 1,000,correctto four figures. (interpolated values may be in errorby 1 in the fourthfigure). To findthe square root of a number N outside the range from 1 to 1,000, dividethe digits of the number intoblocks of three (beginning with the decimal point), and note that moving the decimal point fhree laces in column N is equivalentto moving itone lace in the cube root of N. For example, %%%? = 1.396, Kit = 3.007 ?/zix= 6.477 tb-?% =13.96 &iii6 =30.07, m =64.77, ?0.000002718 =0.01396, w =0.03007, and m =0.06477.

MATHEMATlCALTABLES&UNlTS

& SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&

MEASURES

1-15

TABLE

1.4-CUBE

ROOTS

OF NUMBERS

(continued)

N 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0 29.0 30.0 31.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 38.0 39.0

0 1.913 1.922 1.931 1.940 1.949 1.957 1.966 1.975 1.983 1.992 2.000 2.008 2.017 2.025 2.033 2.041 2.049 2.057 2.065 2.072 2.080 2.088 2.095 2.103 2.110 2.118 2.125 2.133 2.140 2.147 2.154 2.224 2.289 2.351 2.410 2.466 2.520 2.571 2.621 2.668 2.714 2.759 2.802 2.844 2.884 2.924 2.962 3.000 3.037 3.072 3.107 3.141 3.175 3.208 3.240 3.271 3.302 3.332 3.362 3.391

1 1.914 1.923 1.932 1.941 1.950 1.958 1.967 1.976 1.984 1.992 2.001 2.009 2.017 2.026 2.034 2.042 2.050 2.057 2.065 2.073 2.081 2.089 2.096 2.104 2.111 2.119 2.126 2.133 2.141 2.148 2.162 2.231 2.296 2.357 2.416 2.472 2.525 2.576 2.626 2.673 2.719 2.763 2.806 2.648 2.888 2.928 2.966 3.004 3.040 3.076 3.111 3.145 3.178 3.211 3.243 3.274 3.305 3.335 3.365 3.394

2 1.915 1.924 1.933 1.942 1.950 1.959 1.968 1.976 1.985 1.993 2.002 2.010 2.018 2.026 2.034 2.042 2.050 2.058 2.066 2.074 2.082 2.089 2.097 2.104 2.112 2.119 2.127 2.134 2.141 2.149 2.169 2.237 2.302 2.363 2.422 2.477 2.530 2.581 2.630 2.678 2.723 2.768 2.811 2.852 2.892 2.932 2.970 3.007 3.044 3.079 3.114 3.148 3.181 3.214 3.246 3.277 3.308 3.338 3.368 3.397

3 1.916 1.925 1.934 1.943 1.951 1.960 1.969 1.977 1.986 1.994 2.002 2.011 2.019 2027 2.035 2.043 2.051 2.059 2.067 2.075 2.082 2.090 2.098 2.105 2.113 2.120 2.128 2.135 2.142 2.149 2.176 2.244 2.308 2.369 2.427 2.483 2.535 2.586 2.635 2.682 2.728 2.772 2.815 2.856 2.896 2.936 2.974 3.011 3.047 3.083 3.118 3.151 3.185 3.217 3.249 3.280 3.311 3.341 3.371 3.400

4 1.917 1.926 1.935 1.943 1.952 1.961 1.970 1.978 1.987 1.995 2.003 2.012 2.020 2.028 2.036 2.044 2.052 2.060 2.068 2.075 2.083 2.091 2.098 2.106 2.113 2.121 2.128 2.136 2.143 2.150 2.183 2.251 2.315 2.375 2.433 2.488 2.541 2.591 2.640 2.687 2.732 2.776 2.819 2.860 2.900 2.940 2.978 3.015 3.051 3.086 3.121 3.155 3.188 3.220 3.252 3.283 3.314 3.344 3.374 3.403

5 1.917 1.926 1.935 1.944 1.953 1.962 1.970 1.979 1.987 1.996 2.004 2.012 2.021 2.029 2.037 2.045 2.053 2.061 2.068 2.076 2.084 2.092 2.099 2.107 2.114 2.122 2.129 2.136 2.144 2.151 2.190 2.257 2.321 2.381 2.438 2.493 2.546 2.596 2.645 2.692 2.737 2.781 2.823 2.864 2.904 2.943 2.981 3.018 3.055 3.090 3.124 3.158 3.191 3.224 3.255 3.287 3.317 3.347 3.377 3.406

6 1.918 1.927 1.936 1.945 1.954 1.963 1.971 1.980 1.988 1.997 2.005 2.013 2.021 2.030 2.038 2.046 2.054 2.061 2.069 2.077 2.085 2.092 2.100 2.107 2.115 2.122 2.130 2.137 2.144 2.152 2.197 2.264 2.327 2.387 2.444 2.499 2.551 2.601 2.650 2.696 2.741 2.785 2.827 2.868 2.908 2.947 2.985 3.022 3.058 3.093 3.128 3.162 3.195 3.227 3.259 3.290 3.320 3.350 3.380 3.409

7 1.919 1.928 1.937 1.946 1.955 1.964 1.972 1.981 1.989 1.997 2.006 2.014 2.022 2.030 2.038 2.046 2.054 2.062 2.070 2.078 2.085 2.093 2.101 2.108 2.116 2.123 2.130 2.138 2.145 2.152 2.204 2.270 2.333 2.393 2.450 2.504 2.556 2.606 2.654 2.701 2.746 2.789 2.831 2.872 2.912 2.951 2.989 3.026 3.062 3.097 3.131 3.165 3.198 3.230 3.262 3.293 3.323 3.353 3.382 3.411

8 1.920 1.929 1.938 1.947 1.956 1.964 1.973 1.981 1.990 1.998 2.007 2.015 2.023 2.031 2.039 2.047 2.055 2.063 2.071 2.079 2.086 2.094 2.101 2.109 2.116 2.124 2.131 2.139 2.146 2.153 2.210 2.277 2.339 2.399 2.455 2.509 2.561 2.611 2.659 2.705 2.750 2.794 2.836 2.876 2.916 2.955 2.993 3.029 3.065 3.100 3.135 3.168 3.201 3.233 3.265 3.296 3.326 3.356 3.385 3.414

9 1.921 1.930 1.939 1.948 1.957 1.965 1.974 1.962 1.991 1.999 2.007 2.016 2.024 2.032 2.040 2.046 2.056 2.064 2.072 2.079 2.087 2.095 2.102 2.110 2.117 2.125 2.132 2.139 2.147 2.154 2.217 2.263 2.345 2.404 2.461 2.515 2.566 2.616 2.664 2.710 2.755 2.798 2.840 2.880 2.920 2.959 2.996 3.033 3.069 3.104 3.138 3.171 3.204 3.236 3.268 3.299 3.329 3.359 3.388 3.417

Average Difference 1

7 6

-=14&%59aI

nd I/ 3- x=0 592794

(continued

on next page)

1-16

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.4-CUBE

ROOTS

OF NUMBERS

(continued)

N 40.0 41.0 42.0 43.0 44.0 45.0 46.0 47.0 48.0 49.0 50.0 51.0 52.0 53.0 54.0 55.0 56.0 57.0 58.0 59.0 60.0 61.0 62.0 63.0 64.0 65.0 66.0 67.0 68.0 69.0 70.0 71.0 72.0 73.0 74.0 75.0 76.0 77.0 78.0 79.0 80.0 81.0 82.0 83.0 84.0 85.0 86.0 87.0 88.0 89.0 90.0 91.0 92.0 93.0 94.0 95.0 96.0 97.0 98.0 99.0

0 3.420 3.448 3.476 3.503 3.530 3.557 3.583 3.609 3.634 3.659 3.684 3.708 3.733 3.756 3.780 3.803 3.826 3.849 3.871 3.893 3.915 3.936 3.958 3.979 4.000 4.021 4.041 4.062 4.082 4.102 4.121 4.141 4.160 4.179 4.198 4.217 4.236 4.254 4.273 4.291 4.309 4.327 4.344 4.362 4.380 4.397 4.414 4.431 4.448 4.465 4.481 4.498 4.514 4.531 4.547 4.563 4.579 4.595 4.610 4.626

1 3.423 3.451 3.479 3.506 3.533 3.560 3.586 3.611 3.637 3.662 3.686 3.711 3.735 3.759 3.782 3.805 3.828 3.851 3.873 3.895 3.917 3.939 3.960 3.981 4.002 4.023 4.043 4.064 4.084 4.104 4.123 4.143 4.162 4.181 4.200 4.219 4.238 4.256 4.274 4.293 4.311 4.329 4.346 4.364 4.381 4.399 4.416 4.433 4.450 4.466 4.483 4.500 4.516 4.532 4.548 4.565 4.580 4.596 4.612 4.628

2 3.426 3.454 3.482 3.509 3.536 3.562 3.566 3.614 3.639 3.664 3.689 3.713 3.737 3.761 3.784 3.808 3.630 3.853 3.875 3.897 3.919 3.941 3.962 3.983 4.004 4.025 4.045 4.066 4.086 4.106 4.125 4.145 4.164 4.183 4.202 4.221 4.240 4.258 4.278 4.294 4.312 4.330 4.348 4.366 4.383 4.400 4.417 4.434 4.451 4.468 4.485 4.501 4.518 4.534 4.550 4.566 4.582 4.598 4.614 4.629

3 3.428 3.457 3.484 3.512 3.538 3.565 3.591 3.616 3.642 3.867 3.691 3.716 3.740 3.763 3.787 3.810 3.833 3.855 3.878 3.900 3.921 3.943 3.964 3.985 4.006 4.027 4.047 4.068 4.088 4.108 4.127 4.147 4.166 4.185 4.204 4.223 4.241 4.260 4.278 4.296 4.314 4.332 4.350 4.367 4.365 4.402 4.419 4.436 4.453 4.470 4.486 4.503 4.519 4.536 4.552 4.568 4.584 4.599 4.615 4.631 3.431 3.459 3.487 3.514 3.541 3.567 3.593 3.619 3.644 3.669 3.694 3.718 3.742 3.766 3.789 3.812 3.835 3.857 3.880 3.902 3.924 3.945 3.966 3.987 4.008 4.029 4.049 4.070 4.090 4.109 4.129 4.149 4.168 4.187 4.206 4.225 4.243 4.262 4.280 4.298 4.316 4.334 4.352 4.369 4.366 4.404 4.421 4.438 4.455 4.471 4.488 4.505 4.521 4.537 4.553 4.569 4.585 4.601 4.617 4.632

5 3.434 3.462 3.490 3.517 3.544 3.570 3.596 3.622 3.647 3.672 3.696 3.721 3.744 3.768 3.791 3.814 3.837 3.860 3.882 3.904 3.926 3.947 3.968 3.990 4.010 4.031 4.051 4.072 4.092 4.111 4.131 4.151 4.170 4.189 4.208 4.227 4.245 4.264 4.282 4.300 4.318 4.336 4.353 4.371 4.388 4.405 4.423 4.440 4.456 4.473 4.490 4.506 4.523 4.539 4.555 4.571 4.587 4.603 4.618 4.634

6 3.437 3.465 3.493 3.520 3.546 3.573 3.599 3.624 3.649 3.674 3.699 3.723 3.747 3.770 3.794 3.817 3.839 3.862 3.884 3.906 3.928 3.949 3.971 3.992 4.012 4.033 4.053 4.074 4.094 4.113 4.133 4.152 4.172 4.191 4.210 4.228 4.247 4.265 4.284 4.302 4.320 4.337 4.355 4.373 4.390 4.407 4.424 4.441 4.458 4.475 4.491 4.508 4.524 4.540 4.556 4.572 4.588 4.604 4.620 4.635

7 3.440 3.468 3.495 3.522 3.549 3.575 3.601 3.627 3.652 3.677 3.701 3.725 3.749 3.773 3.796 3.819 3.842 3.864 3.886 3.908 3.930 3.951 3.973 3.994 4.015 4.035 4.055 4.076 4.096 4.115 4.135 4.154 4.174 4.193 4.212 4.230 4.249 4.267 4.285 4.303 4.321 4.339 4.357 4.374 4.392 4.409 4.426 4.443 4.460 4.476 4.493 4.509 4.526 4.542 4.558 4.574 4.590 4.608 4.621 4.637

8 3.443 3.471 3.498 3.525 3.552 3.578 3.604 3.629 3.654 3.679 3.704 3.728 3.752 3.775 3.798 3.821 3.844 3.866 3.889 3.911 3.932 3.954 3.975 3.996 4.017 4.037 4.058 4.078 4.098 4.117 4.137 4.156 4.176 4.195 4.213 4.232 4.251 4.269 4.287 4.305 4.323 4341 4.359 4.376 4.393 4.411 4.428 4.445 4.461 4.478 4.495 4.511 4.527 4.544 4.560 4.576 4.592 4.607 4.623 4.638

9 3.445 3.473 3.501 3.528 3.554 3.580 3.606 3.632 3.657 3.682 3.706 3.730 3.754 3.777 3.801 3.824 3.846 3.869 3.891 3.913 3.934 3.956 3.977 3.998 4.019 4.039 4.060 4.080 4.100 4.119 4.139 4.158 4.177 4.196 4.215 4.234 4.252 4.271 4.289 4.307 4.325 4.343 4.360 4.370 4.395 4.412 4.429 4.446 4.463 4.480 4.496 4.513 4.529 4.545 4.561 4.577 4.593 4.609 4.625 4.640

Average Difference 3

xc

1 46459 and II a- T = 0 682784

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-17

TABLE 1.4-CUBE

ROOTS OF NUMBERS (continued)


Average Difference 15 14 13 12 11 10

N 10
11 12 13 14

0
4.642 4.791 4.932 5.066 5.192 5.313 5.429 5.540 5.646

1
4.657 4.806 4.946 5.079 5.205 5.325 5.440 5.550 5.657

--

3 4.688 4.835 4.973 5.104 5.229 5.346 5.463 5.572 5.677 5.779 5.877 5.972 6.064 6.153 6.240 6.325 6.407 6.487 6.565 6.642 6.717 6.790 6.861 6.931 7.000 7.067 7.133 7.198 7.262 7.325 7.386 7.447 7.507 7.565 7.623 7.680 7.736

4 4.703

5 4.718 4.863 5.000 5.130 5.254 5.372 5.485

6 4.733 4.877 5.013 5.143 5.266 5.363 5.496 5.604 5.708 5.809 5.906 6.000 6.091 6.180 6.266 6.350 8.431 6.511 8.589 8.664 6.739 6.811 8.882 6.952 7.020 7.087 7.153 7.218 7.281 7.343 7.405 7.465 7.524 7.563 7.640 7.697 7.753 7.808 7.862 7.916

7 4.747 4.891 5.027 5.155 5.278

8 4.762

9 4.777 4.919 5.053 5.180 5.301 5.418 5.529 5.636 5.739 5.838 5.934 8.028 6.118 6.206 6.291 6.374 6.455 6.534 6.611 6.667 6.761 6.833

Cube roots of numbers from 100.0 to 499.0


4.672 4.820 4.960 5.092 5.217 5.337 5.451 5.561 5.667

4.849 4.987
5.117 5.241 5.360 5.474 5.583 5.888

4.905
5.040 5.168 5.290 5.406 5.518 5.625 5.729 5.82( 5.92! 6.Oli 6.109

15 16
17

5.395
5.507

18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 ;i 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

5.749
5.848 5.944 6.037 6.127 6.214 6.300 6.383 6.463 6.542 6.619 6.694 6.768 6.840 6.901 6.980 7.047 7.114 7.179 7.243 7.306 7.368 7.429 7.489 7.548 7.606 7.663 7.719 7.775 7.830 7.884

5.759
5.858 5.953 6.046 6.136 6.223 6.308

5.769
5.867 5.963 8.055 6.145 8.232 6.316

5.789
5.887 5.981 6.073 6.162 6.249 6.333 6.415 6.495 6.573 6.649 6.724 6.797 6.868 6.938 7.007 7.074 7.140 7.205 7.268 7.331

5.593 5.698 5.799 5.896


5.991 6.082 6.171 8.257 6.341 6.423 6.503 6.581 6.657 6.731 6.804 6.875 6.945 7.014 7.081 7.147 7.211 7.275 7.337 7.399 7.459 7.518 7.577 7.635 7.691 7.747 7.802 7.857

5.815 5.718 5.819 5.915 6.009 6.100


6.188 6.274 6.358 6.439 6.519 6.596 6.672 6.746 6.818

6.197
6.283 6.366 6.447 6.527 6.604 6.679 6.753 6.826

6.391
6.471 6.550 6.627 6.702 6.775 6.847 6.917

6.399 6.479
6.558 6.634

6.709
6.782 6.854 6.924 6.993 7.061 7.127 7.192 7.256 7.319 7.380 7.441 7.501 7.560 7.617 7.674 7.731 7.786 7.841

6.889 6.959
7.027 7.094 7.160 7.224 7.287 7.350 7.411 7.471 7.530 7.589 7.646 7.703 7.758 7.813 7.868 7.921

6.896 6.966
7.034 7.101 7.166 7.230 7.294 7.356 7.417 7.477 7.536 7.594 7.652 7.708 7.764 7.819 7.873 7.926

8.903 6.973
7.041 7.107 7.173 7.237 7.300 7.362 7.423 7.463 7.542 7.600 7.657 7.714 7.769 7.824 7.878 7.932 6

6.986
7.054 7.120 7.186 7.250 7.312 7.374 7.435 7.495 7.554 7.612

7.393
7.453 7.513 7.571 7.629 7.686 7.742

7.669
7.725 7.780 7.835

7.791
7.846 7.900

7.797
7.851 7.905

7.889

7.894

7.910

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 6": 65 66 67 68 69

7.937 7.990
8.041 8.093 8.143 8.193 8.243 8.291 8.340 8.387 8.434 8.481 8.527 8.573 8.618 8.662 8.707 8.750 8.794 8.837

7.942 7.995
8.047 8.098 8.148 8.198 8.247 8.296 8.344 8.392 8.439 8.486 8.532 6.577 8.622 8.667 8.711 8.755 8.798 8.841

Cube roots of numbers from 500.0 to 1.000.0 7.958 7.963 7.969 7.974 7.948 7.953
8.000 8.052 8.103 8.153 8.203 8.252 8.301 a.349 8.397 8.444 8.490 8.536 8.582 8.627 8.671 6.715 8.759 8.802 8.845 8.005 8.057 8.108 8.158 8.208 8.257 8.306 8.354 8.401 8.448 8.495 8.541 8.586 8.631 8.676 8.720 8.763 8.607 8.849 8.010 8.062 8.113 8.163 8.213 8.262 8.311 8.359 8.406 8.453 6.499 8.545 8.591 8.636 8.680 8.724 8.768 8.811 8.854 8.016 8.067 8.118 8.168 8.218 8.267 8.316 8.363 8.411 8.458 8.504 8.550 8.595 8.640 8.685 6.729 8.772 8.815 8.858 8.021 8.072 8.123 8.173 8.223 8.272 8.320 8.368 8.416 8.462 8.509 8.554 8.600 8.645 8.689 8.733 8.776 8.819 8.862 8.026 8.077 8.128 8.178 8.228 8.277 8.325 8.373 8.420 8.487 8.513 8.559 8.604 8.649

7.979
8.031 8.082 8.133 8.183 8.233 8.282 8.330 8.378 8.425 8.472 6.518 8.564 8.609 8.853

7.984
8.036 8.088 8.138 8.188 8.238 8.286 8.335 8.382 8.430 8.476 8.522 8.568 8.613 8.658 8.702 8.746 8.789 8.632 8.875

8.693
8.737 8.781 8.824 8.866

8.698
8.742 8.785 8.828 8.871

?-i=

1 46459 and l/x=

0.662764

(contmed

on next page)

1-18

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.4-CUBE

ROOTS

OF NUMBERS

(continued)

N 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 76 79 BO 81 82 83 64 85 86 87 88 69 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 96 99 100

a 8.679 6.921 8.963 9.004 9.045 9.066 9.126 9.166 9.205 9.244 9.283 9.322 9.360 9.396 9.435 9.473 9.510 9.546 9.583 9.619 9.655 9.691 9.726 9.761 9.796 9.630 9.865 9.899 9.933 9.967 10.00

1 8.683 6.925 8.967 9.008 9.049 9.090 9.130 9.170 9.209 9.248 9.267 9.326 9.364 9.402 9.439 9.476 9.513 9.550 9.586 9.623 9.656 9.694 9.729 9.764 9.799 9.634 9.868 9.902 9.936 9.970

2 6.867 6.929 8.971 9.012 9.053 9.094 9.134 9.174 9.213 9.252 9.291 9.329 9.366 9.405 9.443 9.480 9.517 9.554 9.590 9.626 9.662 9.698 9.733 9.766 9.803 9.637 9.872 9.906 9.940 9.973

3 8.892 8.934 6.975 9.016 9.057 9.098 9.138 9.178 9.217 9.256 9.295 9.333 9.371 9.409 9.447 9.484 9.521 9.557 9.594 9.630 9.666 9.701 9.736 9.771 9.806 9.841 9.875 9.909 9.943 9.977

4 8.896 6.938 6.979 9.021 9.061 9.102 9.142 9.182 9.221 9.260 9.299 9.337 9.375 9.413 9.450 9.486 9.524 9.561 9.597 9.633 9.669 9.705 9.740 9.775 9.810 9.844 9.879 9.913 9.946 9.980

5 8.900 8.924 8.984 9.025 9.065 9.106 9.146 9.185 9.225 9.264 9.302 9.341 9.379 9.417 9.454 9.491 9.528 9.565 9.601 9.637 9.673 9.706 9.743 9.776 9.813 9.846 9.882 9.916 9.950 9.983

6 8.904 8.946 8.968 9.029 9.069 9.110 9.150 9.189 9.229 9.268 9.306 9.345 9.383 9.420 9.456 9.495 9.532 9.568 9.605 9.641 9.676 9.712 9.747 9.762 9.617 9.651 9.885 9.919 9.953 9.987

7 8.909 8.950 8.992 9.033 9.073 9.114 9.154 9.193 9.233 9.272 9.310 9.348 9.366 9.424 9.462 9.499 9.535 9.572 9.608 9.644 9.680 9.715 9.750 9.765 9.620 9.655 9.669 9.923 9.956 9.990

6 6.913 6.955 6.996 9.037 9.078 9.118 9.158 9.197 9.237 9.275 9.314 9.352 9.390 9.428 9.465 9.502 9.539 9.576 9.612 9.646 9.683 9.719 9.754 9.789 9.824 9.858 9.892 9.926 9.960 9.993

9 8.917 8.959 9.000 9.041 9.062 9.122 9.162 9.201 9.240 9.279 9.318 9.356 9.394 9.432 9.469 9.506 9.543 9.579 9.615 9.651 9.687 9.722 9.758 9.792 9.627 9.861 9.696 9.930 9.963 9.997

Average Difference 4

CUBE %N% 0.7937 0.6934 0.8736 0.6300 0.9086 0.5648 0.7368 -3/5 % '/, y6 '/, +$ % 0.8434 0.9263 0.5503 0.9410 0.5226 0.6566 0.7539

ROOTS N% % % % '/6 %6
6/S

OF CERTAIN N% '/9 2/9 4/ 79 x3 Y9 'A2

FRACTIONS 0.4807 0.6057 0.7631 0.6221 0.9196 0.9615 0.4368 ~ N % 0.7469 0.6355 0.9714 0.3969 0.5724 0.6786 0.7591 N %6 "/lj '3/16 's6 '/a2
'164

0.8296 0.6939 0.9499 0.5000 0.7211 0.8550 0.9565

% 0.8255 0.6826 0.9331 0.9767 0.3150 0.2500 0.2714

%2 %? .'"A2
%6 %6 %6 %6

X8

%o

K= 146459

and li r ~=0.682764

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

l-19

TABLEl.5-THREE-HALVES

POWERS

OFNUMBERS

0 1.000 2.626 5.196 8.000 11.18 14.70 18.52 22.63 27.00 31.62 36.48 41.57 46.87 52.38 58.09 64.00 70.09 76.37 82.82 89.44 96.23 103.2 110.3 117.6 125.0 132.6 140.3 148.2 156.2 164.3 172.6 181.0 189.6 198.3 207.1 216.0 225.1 234.2 243.6 253.0 262.5 272.2 282.0 291.9 301.9 312.0 322.2 332.6 343.0 353.6 364.2 375.0 365.6 396.8 407.9 419.1 430.3 441.7 453.2

1 1.154 3.043 5.458 8.302 11.52 15.07 16.92 23.05 27.45 32.10 36.98 42.09 47.41 52.95 58.68 64.60 70.71 77.00 83.47 90.11 96.92 103.9 111.0 118.3 125.8 133.3 141.1 149.0 157.0 165.1 173.4 181.9 190.4 199.1 208.0 216.9 226.0 235.2 244.5 253.9 263.5 273.2 283.0 292.9 302.9 313.0 323.2 333.6 344.0 354.6 365.3 376.1 386.9 397.9 409.0 420.2 431.5 442.9 454.3

2 1.315 3.263 5.724 8.607 11.86 15.44 19.32 23.46 27.90 32.56 37.48 42.61 47.96 53.51 59.26 65.20 71.33 77.64 84.13 90.79 97.61 104.6 111.7 119.0 126.5 134.1 141.9 149.8 157.8 166.0 174.3 182.7 191.3 200.0 208.8 217.8 226.9 236.1 245.4 254.9 264.5 274.1 283.9 293.9 303.9 314.0 324.3 334.6 345.1 355.7 366.4 377.1 388.0 399.0 410.1 421.3 432.6 444.0 455.5

3 1.482 3.466 5.995 8.917 12.20 15.61 19.72 23.91 26.36 33.06 37.99 43.14 48.50 54.08 59.85 65.81 71.96 78.26 84.79 91.46 98.30 105.3 112.5 119.8 127.3 134.9 142.6 150.5 158.6 166.8 175.1 183.6 192.2 200.9 209.7 218.7 227.6 237.0 246.4 255.6 265.4 275.1 264.9 294.9 304.9 315.0 325.3 335.7 346.2 356.7 367.4 376.2 389.1 400.1 411.2 422.4 433.7 445.1 456.6

4 1.657 3.718 6.269 9.230 12.55 16.19 20.13 24.35 28.82 33.54 38.49 43.66 49.05 54.64 60.43 66.41 72.58 76.93 85.45 92.14 99.00 106.0 113.2 120.5 128.0 135.6 143.4 151.3 159.4 167.6 176.0 184.4 193.0 201.8 210.6 219.6 226.7 238.0 247.3 256.8 266.4 276.1 285.9 295.9 305.9 316.1 326.3 336.7 347.2 357.8 366.5 379.3 390.2 401.2 412.3 423.6 434.9 446.3 457.8

5 1.837 3.953 6.546 9.546 12.90 16.57 20.54 24.76 29.28 34.02 39.00 44.19 49.60 55.21 61.02 67.02 73.21 79.57 86.11 92.82 99.69 106.7 113.9 121.3 128.8 136.4 144.2 152.1 160.2 168.4 176.8 185.3 193.9 202.6 211.5 220.5 229.6 238.9 246.3 257.7 267.3 277.1 286.9 296.9 306.9 317.1 327.4 337.8 348.3 358.9 369.6 380.4 391.3 402.3 413.5 424.7 436.0 447.4 459.0

6 2.024 4.192 6.831 9.866 13.25 16.96 20.95 25.22 29.74 34.51 39.51 44.73 50.15 55.79 61.62 67.63 73.84 60.22 66.77 93.50 100.38 100.4 107.4 114.6 122.0 129.5 137.2 145.0 153.0 161.9 169.3 177.6 186.1 194.8 203.5 212.4 221.4 230.6 239.8 249.2 258.7 266.3 278.0 267.9 297.9 307.9 318.1 326.4 336.6 349.3 359.9 370.7 381.5 392.4 403.4 414.6 425.8 437.1 446.6 460.1

7 2.217 4.437 7.117 10.190 10.19 13.61 17.34 21.37 25.66 30.21 35.00 40.02 45.26 50.71 56.36 62.21 68.25 74.47 60.87 87.44 94.18 101.1 108.2 115.4 122.8 130.3 138.0 145.8 153.8 161.9 170.1 178.5 187.0 195.6 204.4 213.3 222.3 231.5 240.8 250.1 259.7 269.3 279.0 288.9 298.9 308.9 319.1 329.4 339.9 350.4 361.0 371.7 362.6 393.5 404.6 415.7 426.9 436.3 449.7 461.3

6 2.415 4.685 7.408 10.52 13.97 17.73 21.78 26.11 30.68 35.49 40.53 45.79 51.26 56.94 62.80 66.66 75.10 81.51 88.10 94.86 101.8 108.9 116.1 123.5 131.0 138.7 146.6 154.6 162.7 170.9 179.3 187.9 196.5 205.3 214.2 223.2 232.4 241.7 251.1 260.6 270.2 280.0 269.9 299.9 310.0 320.2 330.5 340.9 351.4 362.1 372.6 383.7 394.6 405.7 416.8 428.1 439.4 450.9 462.4

9 2.619 4.939 7.702 10.85 14.33 16.12 22.20 26.55 31.15 35.99 41.05 46.33 51.82 57.51 63.40 69.48 75.73 82.17 68.77 95.55 102.5 109.6 116.8 124.3 131.8 139.5 147.4 155.4 163.5 171.8 180.2 188.7 197.4 206.2 215.1 224.2 233.3 242.6 252.0 261.6 271.2 281.0 290.9 300.9 311 .o 321.2 331.5 342.0 352.5 363.1 373.9 384.6 395.7 406.8 418.0 429.2 440.6 452.0 463.6

Average Difference 183 237 280 313 33 35 38 41 44 46 49 51 53 55 57 59 :A 65 66 66 69 7 7 7 7

1.0
2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0 29.0 30.0 31.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 38.0 39.0 40.0 41.0 42.0 43.0 44.0 45.0 46.0 47.0 48.0 49.0 50.0 51.0 52.0 53.0 54.0 55.0 56.0 57.0 58.0 59.0

6 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 i 10 IO 10 10 10 IO 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12

Explanationof Table This tablegives N3 from N= 1 to N= 100. Moving the decimal point two places in N requiresmoving itthree places in body of table. For example, (7.23)3 = 19.44, (723.)3= 19,440, (0.0723)32 =0.01944, (72.3)32 =614.8, (7,230)3 =614,800, and (0.723)3'2 =0.6148. Used inversely, thistable gwes M23 from M= 1 to M=l,OOO. For example, (0 6148)z3 =0.7230. (conhnued on next page)

l-20

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE

1.5-THREE-HALVES

POWERS

OF NUMEERS(continued)

--

0
464.8 476.4 488.2 500.0 512.0 524.0 536.2 548.4 560.7 573.2 585.7 598.3 610.9 623.7 636.6 649.5 662.6 6757 688.9 702.2 715.5 729.0 742.5 756.2 769.9 783.7 797.5 811.5 825.5 839.6 853.8 868.1 882.4 896.9 911.4 925.9 940.6 955.3 970.2 985.0 l,ooo.o

1 465.9 477.6 489.4 501.2 513.2 525.3 537.4 549.6 562.0 574.4 586.9 599.5 612.2 625.0 637.9 650.8 663.9 677.0 690.2 703.5 716.9 730.4 743.9 757.5 771.2 785.0 798.9 812.9 826.9 841.0 855.2 869.5 883.9 898.3 912.8 927.4 942.1 956.8 971.6 986.5

2 467.1 478.7 490.6 502.4 514.4 526.5 538.6 550.9 563.2 575.7 588.2 600.8 613.5 626.3 639.2 652.1 665.2 678.3 691.5 704.8 718.2 731.7 745.3 758.9 772.6 786.4 800.3 814.3 828.3 842.5 856.7 870.9 885.3 899.8 914.3 928.9 943.5 958.3 973.1 988.0

3 468.2 479.9 491.7 503.6 515.6 527.7 539.8 552.1 564.5 576.9 589.4 602.1 614.8 627.6 640.4 653.4 686.5 679.6 692.9 706.2 719.6 733.1 746.6 760.3 774.0 787.8 801.7 815.7 829.7 843.9 858.1 872.4 886.8 901.2 915.7 930.3 945.0 959.8 974.6 989.5

5 470.6 482.3 494.1 506.0 518.0 530.1 542.3 554.6 566.9 579.4 591.9 604.6 617.3 630.1 643.0 656.0 669.1 682.3 695.5 708.8 722.3 735.8 749.3 763.0 776.8 790.6 804.5 818.5 832.6 848.7 860.9 875.2 889.6 904.1 918.6 933.3 948.0 962.7 977.6 992.5

6 471.7 483.5 495.3 507.2 519.2 531.3 543.5 555.8 568.2 580.8 593.2 605.9 618.6 631.4 644.3 657.3 670.4 683.6 696.8 710.2 723.6 737.1 750.7 764.4 778.1 792.0 805.9 819.9 834.0 848.1 862.4 876.7 891.1 905.6 920.1 934.7 949.4 964.2 979.1 994.0

8 474.1 485.8 497.7 569.6 521.6 533.8 546.0 558.3 570.7 583.2 595.7 608.4 621.2 634.0 646.9 659.9 673.0 686.2 699.5 712.9 726.3 739.8 753.4 767.1 780.9 794.8 808.7 822.7 836.8 851.0 865.2 879.6 894.0 908.5 923.0 937.7 952.4 967.2 982.1 997.0

9
475.3 487.0 498.9 510.8 522.8 535.0 547.2 559.5 571.9 584.4 597.0 609.7 622.4 635.3 648.2 661.2 674.4 687.6 700.8 714.2 727.7 741.2 754.8 768.5 782.3 796.1 810.1 824.1 838.2 852.4 886.7 881.0 895.4 909.9 924.5 939.1 953.9 968.7 983.5 998.5

Average Difference 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 E 15 15 15

66.0 61.0 62.0 63.0 64.0 65.0 66.0 67.0 68.0

469.4
481.1 492.9 504.8 516.8 528.9 541.1 553.3 565.7 578.1 590.7 603.3 616.0 628.8 641.7 654.7 867.8 680.9 694.2 707.5 720.9 734.4 748.0 761.6 775.4 789.2 803.1 817.1 831.1 845.3 859.5 873.8 888.2 902.7 917.2 931.8 946.5 961.3 976.1 991.0

472.9
484.6 496.5 508.4 520.4 532.5 544.7 557.0 569.4 581.9 594.5 607.1 619.9 632.7 645.6 658.6 671.7 684.9 898.2 711.5 725.0 738.5 752.1 765.8 779.5 793.4 807.3 821.3 835.4 849.5 863.8 878.1 892.5 907.0 921.6 936.2 950.9 985.7 980.6 995.5

69.0
70.0 71.0 72.0 73.0 74.0 75.0 76.0 77.0 78.0 79.0 60.0 81.0 62.0 83.0 84.0 85.0 86.0 87.0 88.0 89.0 90.0 91.0 92.0 93.0 94.0 95.0 96.0 97.0 98.0 99.0 100.0

AUXILIARY TABLE OF TWO-THIRDS POWERS AND THREE-HALVES POWERS

(to assist in locating the decimal point)


For complete table of three-halvespowers, see preceding. That table, used inversely, providesa completetableoftwc-thirds powers. N 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1.0 /J( = G) 0.002154 0.01 0.0464 0.2154 1.0 4.64 21.54 100.0 464.16 N(= d@)

10.0
100.0 l,ooo.o 10,000.0

0.000001 0.00003162 0.001 0.03162278 1.0 31.62278 l,ooo.o 31,622.78 1,000,000.0

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS 8 SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

l-21

1 ABLE 1.6--RECIPR IOCALS 0 IF NUMBE :RS


Average Difference - 10

N
1.00 1 .Ol 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19

0 0.9901 0.9804 0.9709 0.9615 0.9524 0.9434 0.9346 0.9259 0.9174 0.9091 0.9009 0.8929 0.8850 0.8772 0.8696 0.8621 0.8547 0.8475 0.8403 0.8333 0.8264 0.8197 0.8130 0.8065 0.8000 0.7937 0.7874 0.7812 0.7752 0.7692 0.7634 0.7576 0.7519 0.7463 0.7407 0.7353 0.7299 0.7246 0.7194 0.7143

1 0.9990
0.9891

9
0.9911 0.9814 0.9718 0.9625 0.9533 0.9443 0.9355 0.9268 0.9183 0.9099 0.9017

0.9980
0.9881

0.9794 0.9699 0.9606 0.9515 0.9425 0.9337


0.9251 0.9186 0.9083 0.9001 0.8921 0.8842 0.8784 0.8688 0.8613 0.8540 0.8487 0.8398 0.8328 0.8258 0.8190 0.8123 0.8058 0.7994 0.7930 0.7868 0.7806 0.7748 0.7686 0.7628 0.7570 0.7513 0.7457 0.7402 0.7348 0.7294 0.7241 0.7189 0.7138 0.7087 0.7037 0.6988 0.6940 0.6892 0.6845 0.6798 0.6752 0.6707 0.6662 0.6618 0.6575 0.6532

0.9785 0.9690 0.9597 0.9506


0.9416 0.9328 0.9242 0.9158 0.9074 0.8993 0.8913 0.8834 0.8757 0.8681 0.8606 0.8532 0.8460 0.8389 0.8319 0.8251 0.8183 0.8117 0.8052 0.7987 0.7924 0.7862 0.7806 0.7740 0.7680 0.7822 0.7564 0.7508 0.7452 0.7396 0.7342 0.7289 0.7236 0.7184 0.7133 0.7082 0.7032 0.6983 0.6935 0.6887 0.8840 0.6793 0.6748 0.6702 0.6658 0.6614 0.6570 0.6527 0.6485

0.9970 0.9872 0.9775 0.9681 0.9588 0.9497 0.9407 0.9320


0.9234 0.9149 0.9066 0.8985 0.8905 0.8826 0.8749 0.8673 0.8598 0.8525 0.8453 0.8382 0.8313 0.8244 0.8177 0.81IO 0.8045

0.9960 0.9862 0.9786


0.9671 0.9579 0.9488 0.9398 0.9311 0.9225 0.9141 0.9058 0.8977 0.8897 0.8818 0.8741 0.8666 0.8591 0.8518 0.8446 0.8375 0.8306 0.8237 0.8170 0.8104 0.8039 0.7974 0.7911 0.7849 0.7788 0.7728 0.7669 0.7610 0.7553 0.7496 0.7440 0.7386 0.7331 0.7278 0.7225 0.7174 0.7123 0.7072 0.7022 0.6974 0.6925 0.6878 0.8831 0.6784 0.8739 0.6693 0.6649 0.6805 0.6562 0.6519 0.6477

0.9950 0.9852 0.9756 0.9662 0.9569 0.9479 0.9390


0.9302 0.9217 0.9132 0.9050 0.8969 0.8889 0.8811 0.8734 0.8658 0.8584 0.8511 0.8439 0.8388 0.8299 0.8230 0.8163

0.9940 0.9643 0.9747


0.9653 0.9560 0.9470 0.9381 0.9294 0.9208 0.9124 0.9042 0.8961 0.8881 0.8803 0.8726 0.8651 0.8576 0.8503 0.8432 0.8361 0.8292 0.8224 0.8157 0.8091 0.8026 0.7962 0.7899 0.7837 0.7776 0.7716 0.7657 0.7599 0.7541 0.7485 0.7429 0.7375 0.7321 0.7267 0.7215 0.7163 0.7112 0.7062 0.7013 0.6964 0.6916 0.6868 0.6821 0.6775 0.6729 0.6684 0.6640 0.8596 0.6553 0.6510 0.6468

0.9930 0.9833 0.9737 0.9643


0.9551 0.9461 0.9372 0.9285 0.9200 0.9116 0.9033

0.9921 0.9823 0.9728


0.9634 0.9542 0.9452 0.9363 0.9276 0.9191 0.9107 0.9025 0.8945 0.8865 0.8787 0.8711 0.8636 0.8562 0.8489 0.8418 0.8347 0.8278 0.8210 0.8143 0.8078 0.8013

-9

-8

0.8953
0.8873

0.8937
0.8857 0.8780 0.8703 0.8628 0.8554 0.6482 0.8410 0.8340 0.8271 0.8203 0.8137 0.8071 0.8006 0.7943 0.7880 0.7819 0.7758 0.7898 0.7639 0.7582 0.7524 0.7468 0.7413 0.7358 0.7305 0.7252 0.7199 0.7148 0.7097 0.7047 0.6998 0.6949 0.6901 0.6854 0.6807 0.6761 0.6718 0.6671 0.6627 0.6583 0.6540 0.6498 0.6456 -4 -5 -7

0.8795
0.8718 0.8643 0.8569 0.8496 0.8425 0.8354 0.8285 0.8217 0.8150 0.8084 0.8019 0.7955 0.7893 0.7831 0.7770 0.7710 0.7651 0.7593 0.7536 0.7479 0.7424 0.7369 0.7315 0.7262 0.7210 0.7158 0.7107 0.7057 0.7008

1.20
1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24

0.8097
0.8032 0.7968 0.7905 0.7843 0.7782 0.7722 0.7683 0.7605 0.7547 0.7491 0.7435 0.7380 0.7326 0.7273 0.7220 0.7168 0.7117 0.7067 0.7018 0.6969 0.6920 0.6873 0.6826 0.6780 0.8734 0.6689 0.6645 0.8601 0.6557 0.6515 0.6472

-6

1.25
1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29

0.7981 0.7918
0.7855 0.7794 0.7734 0.7675 0.7616

0.7949
0.7886 0.7825 0.7764 0.7704 0.7645 0.7587 0.7530 0.7474 0.7418 0.7364 0.7310 0.7257 0.7205 0.7153 0.7102 0.7052 0.7003 0.6954 0.6906 0.6859 0.6812 0.6766 0.8720 0.6676 0.6631 0.8588 0.6545 0.6502 0.6460

1.30
1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.36 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44

0.7559
0.7502 0.7446 0.7391 0.7337 0.7283 0.7231 0.7179 0.7128 0.7077 0.7027 0.6978 0.6930 0.6882 0.8835 0.6789 0.6743 0.6698 0.6653 0.6609 0.6566 0.6523 0.6481

0.7092
0.7042

0.6993 0.6944 0.6897 0.6849


0.6803 0.6757 0.6711 0.6667 0.6623

0.6959
0.6911 0.6863 0.6817 0.6770 0.6725 0.6680 0.6636 0.6592

1.45
1.48 1.47 1.48 1.49

1 so 1.51 1.52
1.53 1.54

0.6579
0.6536

0.6549 0.6506
0.6464

0.6494

0.6489

Explanation of Table of Reciprocals This table gives the values of i/N forvalues of N from 1 to 10, correctto four figures. (Interpolated values may be in errorby 1 in the fourthfigure.) To findthe reciprocal of a number N outside the range from 1 to 10, note that moving the decimal pointany number of places in either direction in Column N isequivalentto moving it the same number of places in the opposite direction in the body of the table.For example, l/3.217=0.3109, 1/3,217=0.0003109, and 1/0.003217=310.9.

(continuedon next page)

1-22

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.6--RECIPROCALS

OF NUMBERS(continued)

N 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.66 1.67 1.66 1.a9 1.70 1.71 1.72 1.73 1.74 1.75 1.76 1.77 1.78 1.79 1.80 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.84 1.85 1.86 1.87 1.88 1.89 1.90 1.91 1.92 1.93 1.94 1.95 1.98 1.97 1.98 1.99 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

0 0.6452 0.6410 0.8369 0.6329 0.6289 0.6250 0.6211 0.6173 0.6135 0.6098 0.6061 0.6024 0.5988 0.5952 0.5917 0.5882 0.5848 0.5814 0.5780 0.5747 0.5714 0.5682 0.5650 0.5618 0.5587 0.5556 0.5525 0.5495 0.5464 0.5435 0.5405 0.5376 0.5348 0.5319 0.5291 0.5263 0.5236 0.5206 0.5181 0.5155 0.5128 0.5102 0.5076 0.5051 0.5025 0.5000 0.4762 0.4545 0.4348 0.4167 0.4000 0.3846 0.3704 0.3571 0.3448 0.3333 0.3226 0.3125 0.3030 0.2941

1 0.6447 0.6406 0.6365 0.6325 0.6285 0.6246 0.6207 0.6169 0.6131 0.6094 0.6057 0.6020 0.5984 0.5949 0.5914 0.5879 0.5645 0.5811 0.5777 0.5744 0.5711 0.5679 0.5647 0.5615 05583 0.5552 0.5522 0.5491 0.5461 0.5432 0.5402 0.5373 0.5345 0.5316 0.5288 0.5260 0.5233 0.5206 0.5179 0.5152 0.5126 0.5099 0.5074 0.5048 0.5023 0.4975 0.4739 0.4525 0.4329 0.4149 0.3984 0.3831 0.3690 0.3559 0.3438 0.3322 0.3215 0.3115 0.3021 0.2933

2 0.6443 0.6402 0.6361 0.6321 0.6281 0.6242 0.6203 0.6165 0.6127 0.6090 0.6053 0.6017 0.5981 0.5945 0.5910 0.5875 0.5841 0.5807 0.5774 0.5741 0.5708 0.5675 0.5643 0.5612 0.5580 0.5549 0.5519 0.5488 0.5459 0.5429 0.5400 0.5371 0.5342 0.5313 0.5285 0.5256 0.5230 0.5203 0.5176 0.5149 0.5123 0.5097 0.5071 0.5045 0.5020 0.4950 0.4717 0.4505 0.4310 0.4132 0.3966 0.3817 0.3676 0.3546 0.3425 0.3311 0.3205 0.3106 0.3012 0.2924

-- 3 0.6439 0.6396 0.6357 0.6317 0.6277 0.6238 0.6200 0.6161 0.6124 0.6086 0.6050 0.6013 0.5977 0.5942 0.5907 0.5872 0.5638 0.5804 0.5770 0.5737 0.5705 0.5672 0.5640 0.5609 0.5577 0.5546 0.5516 0.5485 0.5456 0.5426 0.5397 0.5368 0.5339 0.5311 0.5263 0.5255 0.5227 0.5200 0.5173 0.5147 0.5120 0.5094 0.5068 0.5043 0.5018 0.4926 0.4695 0.4484 0.4292 0.4115 0.3953 0.3802 0.3663 0.3534 0.3413 0.3300 0.3195 0.3096 0.3003 0.2915

4 0.6435 0.6394 0.6353 0.6313 0.6274 0.6234 0.6196 0.6158 0.6120 0.6083 0.6046 0.6010 0.5974 0.5938 0.5903 0.5669 0.5634 0.5800 0.5767 0.5734 0.5701 0.5669 0.5637 0.5605 0.5574 0.5543 0.5513 0.5482 0.5453 0.5423 0.5394 0.5365 0.5336 0.5308 0.5280 0.5252 0.5225 0.5198 0.5171 0.5144 0.5118 0.5092 0.5066 0.5040 0.5015 0.4902 0.4673 0.4464 0.4274 0.4098 0.3937 0.3788 0.3650 0.3521 0.3401 0.3289 0.3185 0.3086 0.2994 0.2907

5 0.6431 0.6390 0.6349 0.6309 0.6270 0.6231 0.6192 0.6154 0.6116 0.6079 0.6042 0.6006 0.5970 0.5935 0.5900 0.5865 0.5831 0.5797 0.5764 0.5731 0.5698 0.5666 0.5634 0.5602 05571 0.5540 0.5510 0.5479 0.5450 0.5420 0.5391 0.5362 0.5333 0.5305 0.5277 0.5249 0.5222 0.5195 0.5166 0.5141 0.5115 0.5089 0.5063 0.5038 0.5013 0.4878 0.4651 0.4444 0.4255 0.4082 0.3922 0.3774 0.3636 0.3509 0.3390 0.3279 0.3175 0.3077 0.2985 0.2899

6 0.6427 0.6366 0.6345 0.6305 0.6266 0.6227 0.6168 0.6150 0.6112 0.6075 0.6039 0.6002 0.5967 0.5931 0.5896 0.5862 0.5628 0.5794 0.5760 0.5727 0.5695 0.5663 0.5631 0.5599 0.5568 0.5537 0.5507 0.5476 0.5447 0.5417 0.5388 0.5359 0.5330 0.5302 0.5274 0.5247 0.5219 0.5192 0.5165 0.5139 0.5112 0.5086 0.5061 0.5035 0.5010 0.4854 0.4630 0.4425 0.4237 0.4065 0.3906 0.3759 0.3623 0.3497 0.3378 0.3268 0.3165 0.3067 0.2976 0.2890

7 0.6423 0.6362 0.6341 0.6301 0.6262 0.6223 0.6164 0.6146 0.6109 0.6072 0.6035 0.5999 0.5963 0.5926 0.5893 0.5858 0.5824 0.5790 0.5757 0.5724 0.5692 0.5659 0.5627 0.5596 0.5565 0.5534 0.5504 0.5473 0.5444 0.5414 0.5385 0.5356 0.5326 0.5299 0.5271 0.5244 0.5216 0.5169 0.5163 0.5136 0.5110 0.5084 0.5058 0.5033 0.5006 0.4831 0.4808 0.4405 0.4219 0.4049 0.3891 0.3745 0.3610 0.3484 0.3367 0.3257 0.3155 0.3058 0.2967 0.2882

8 0.6418 0.6376 0.6337 0.6297 0.6258 0.6219 0.6180 0.6143 0.6105 0.6068 0.6031 0.5995 0.5959 0.5924 0.5889 0.5855 0.5621 0.5787 0.5754 0.5721 0.5688 0.5656 0.5624 0.5593 0.5562 0.5531 0.5501 0.5470 0.5441 0.5411 0.5382 0.5353 0.5325 0.5297 0.5269 0.5241 0.5214 0.5167 0.5160 0.5133 0.5107 0.5081 0.5056 0.5030 0.5005 0.4808 0.4587 0.4386 0.4202 0.4032 0.3676 0.3731 0.3597 0.3472 0.3356 0.3247 0.3145 0.3049 0.2959 0.2974

9 0.6414 0.6373 0.6333 0.6293 0.6254 0.6215 0.6177 0.6139 0.6101 0.6064 0.6028 0.5992 0.5956 0.5921 0.5886 0.5851 0.5617 0.5784 0.5750 0.5718 0.5685 0.5653 0.5621 0.5590 0.5559 0.5528 0.5496 0.5467 0.5438 0.5408 0.5379 0.5350 0.5322 0.5294 0.5266 0.5238 0.5211 0.5164 0.5157 0.5131 0.5105 0.5079 0.5053 0.5028 0.5003 0.4785 0.4566 0.4367 0.4184 0.4016 0.3861 0.3717 0.3564 0.3460 0.3344 0.3236 0.3135 0.3040 0.2950 0.2865

Average Difference -4

-3

-2

-24 -21 -20 -16 -17 -15 -14 -13 -12 -12 -11 -10 -10 -9 -8

l,*=O

316310 and lk?=0.367679

MATHEMATlCALTABLES&UNlTS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-23

TABLE

1.6-REC :IPROCAI 3

OF NI UMBERS(<

:ontinue 4

N 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 8.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.9 8.0 6.1 a.2 6.3 8.4 9.5 6.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9

0 0.2857 0.2778 0.2703 0.2632 0.2564 0.2500 0.2439 0.2381 0.2326 0.2273 0.2222 0.2174 0.2128 0.2083 0.2041 0.2000 0.1961 0.1923 0.1887 0.1652 0.1818 0.1786 0.1754 0.1724 0.1695 0.1667 0.1639 0.1613 0.1587 0.1563 0.1538 0.1515 0.1493 0.1471 0.1449 0.1429 0.1408 0.1389 0.1370 0.1351 0.1333 0.1316 0.1299 0.1262 0.1266 0.1250 0.1235 0.1220 0.1205 0.1190 0.1176 0.1163 0.1149 0.1136 0.1124 0.1111 0.1099 0.1087 0.1075 0.1064 0.1053 0.1042 0.1031 0.1020 0.1010

1 0.2849 0.2770 0.2695 0.2625 0.2558 0.2494 0.2433 0.2375 0.2320 0.2268 0.2217 0.2169 0.2123 0.2079 0.2037 0.1996 0.1957 0.1919 0.1883 0.1848 0.1815 0.1783 0.1751 0.1721 0.1692 0.1664 0.1637 0.1610 0.1585 0.1560 0.1536 0.1513 0.1490 0.1468 0.1447 0.1427 0.1406 0.1387 0.1368 0.1350 0.1332 0.1314 0.1297 0.1260 0.1264 0.1248 0.1233 0.1216 0.1203 0.1189 0.1175 0.1161 0.1148 0.1135 0.1122 0.1110 0.1098 0.1086 0.1074 0.1063 0.1052 0.1041 0.1030 0.1019 0.1009

2 0.2841 0.2762 0.2688 0.2618 0.2551 0.2488 0.2427 0.2370 0.2315 0.2262 0.2212 0.2165 0.2119 0.2075 0.2033 0.1992 0.1953 0.1916 0.1880 0.1645 a.1812 0.1779 0.1748 0.1718 0.1669 0.1661 0.1634 0.1608 0.1582 0.1558 0.1534 0.1511 0.1488 0.1466 0.1445 0.1425 0.1404 0.1385 0.1366 0.1348 0.1330 0.1312 0.1295 0.1279 0.1263 0.1247 0.1232 0.1217 0.1202 0.1188 0.1174 0.1160 0.1147 0.1134 0.1121 0.1109 0.1096 0.1085 0.1073 0.1062 0.1050 0.1040 0.1029 0.1018 0.1008

3 0.2833 0.2755 0.2681 0.2611 0.2545 0.2461 0.2421 0.2364 0.2309 0.2257 0.2208 0.2160 0.2114 0.2070 0.2026 0.1986 0.1949 0.1912 0.1876 0.1642 0.1808 0.1776 0.1745 0.1715 0.1686 0.1656 0.1631 0.1605 0.1580 0.1555 0.1531 0.1508 0.1486 0.1464 0.1443 0.1422 0.1403 0.1383 0.1364 0.1346 0.1328 0.1311 0.1294 0.1277 0.1261 0.1245 0.1230 0.1215 0.1200 0.1186 0.1172 0.1159 0.1145 0.1133 0.1120 0.1107 0.1095 0.1083 0.1072 0.1060 0.1049 0.1038 0.1028 0.1017 0.1007

4 0.2825 0.2747 0.2674 0.2604 0.2538 0.2475 0.2415 0.2358 0.2304 0.2252 0.2203 0.2155 0.2110 0.2066 0.2024 0.1964 0.1946 0.1906 0.1873 0.1638 0.1805 0.1773 0.1742 0.1712 0.1684 0.1656 0.1629 0.1603 0.1577 0.1553 0.1529 0.1506 0.1484 0.1462 0.1441 0.1420 0.1401 o.t38i 0.1362 0.1344 0.1326 0.1309 0.1292 0.1276 0.1259 0.1244 0.1229 0.1214 0.1199 0.1185 0.1171 0.1157 0.1144 0.1131 0.1119 0.1106 0.1094 0.1082 0.1071 0.1059 0.1048 0.1037 0.1027 0.1016 0.1006

5 0.2817 0.2740 0.2667 0.2597 0.2532 0.2469 0.2410 0.2353 0.2299 0.2247 0.2198 0.2151 0.2105 0.2062 0.2020 0.1980 0.1942 0.1905 0.1869 0.1835 0.1802 0.1770 0.1739 0.1709 0.1681 0.1653 0.1626 0.1600 0.1575 0.1550 0.1527 0.1504 0.1481 0.1460 0.1439 0.1418 0.1399 0.1379 0.1361 0.1342 0.1325 0.1307 0.1290 0.1274 0.1258 0.1242 0.1227 0.1212 0.1196 0.1183 0.1170 0.1156 Q.1143 0.1130 0.1117 0.1105 0.1093 0.1081 0.1070 0.1058 0.1047 0.1036 0.1026 0.1015 0.1005

6 0.2809 0.2732 0.2660 0.2591 0.2525 0.2463 0.2404 0.2347 0.2294 0.2242 0.2193 0.2146 0.2101 0.2058 0.2016 0.1976 0.1938 0.1901 0.1866 0.1632 0.1799 0.1767 0.1736 0.1706 0.1676 0.1650 0.1623 0.1597 0.1572 0.1548 0.1524 0.1502 0.1479 0.1458 0.1437 0.1416 0.1397 0.1377 0.1359 0.1340 0.1323 0.1305 0.1289 0.1272 0.1256 0.1241 0.1225 0.1211 0.1196 0.1182 0.1168 0.1155 0.1142 0.1129 0.1116 0.1104 0.1092 0.1080 0.1068 0.1057 0.1046 0.1035 0.1025 0.1014 0.1004 0.2801 0.2725 0.2653 0.2584 0.2519 0.2457 0.2398 0.2342 0.2288 0.2237 0.2188 0.2141 0.2096 0.2053 0.2012 0.1972 0.1934 0.1696 0.1882 0.1626 0.1795 0.1764 0.1733 0.1704 0.1675 0.1647 0.1621 0.1595 0.1570 0.1546 0.1522 0.1499 0.1477 0.1456 0.1435 0.1414 0.1395 0.1376 0.1357 0.1339 0.1321 0.1304 0.1287 0.1271 0.1255 0.1239 0.1224 0.1209 0.1195 0.1181 0.1167 0.1153 0.1140 0.1127 0.1115 0.1103 0.1091 0.1079 0.1067 0.1056 0.1045 0.1034 0.1024 0.1013 0.1003

a 0.2793 0.2717 0.2646 0.2577 0.2513 0.2451 0.2392 0.2336 0.2283 0.2232 0.2183 0.2137 0.2092 0.2049 0.2008 0.1969 0.1931 0.1894 0.1859 0.1825 0.1792 0.1761 0.1730 0.1701 0.1672 0.1645 0.1618 0.1592 0.1567 0.1543 0.1520 0.1497 0.1475 0.1453 0.1433 0.1412 0.1393 0.1374 0.1355 0.1337 0.1319 0.1302 0.1285 0.1269 0.1253 0.1238 0.1222 0.1208 0.1193 0.1179 0.1166 0.1152 0.1139 0.1126 0.1114 0.1101 0.1089 0.1078 0.1066 0.1055 0.1044 0.1033 0.1022 0.1012 0.1002

9 0.2786 0.2710 0.2639 0.2571 0.2506 0.2445 0.2387 0.2331 0.2278 0.2227 0.2179 0.2132 0.2088 0.2045 0.2004 0.1965 0.1927 0.1890 0.1855 0.1621 0.1769 0.1757 0.1727 0.1698 0.1669 0.1642 0.1616 0.1590 0.1565 0.1541 0.1517 0.1495 0.1473 0.1451 0.1431 0.1410 0.1391 0.1372 0.1353 0.1335 0.1318 0.1300 0.1284 0.1267 0.1252 0.1236 0.1221 0.1206 0.1192 0.1176 0.1164 0.1151 0.1136 0.1125 0.1112 0.1100 0.1088 0.1076 0.1065 0.1054 0.1043 0.1032 0.1021 0.1011 0.1001

Average Difference -8 -6 -7 -7 -6 -6 -6 -6 -5 -5 -5 -5 -4 -4 -4 -4

-3

-2

-1

r=031a310

an* lie=0

367879

1-24

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLEl.7-CIRCUMFERENCESOFCIRCLESSY

HUNDREDTHS

d 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

0 3.142 3.456 3.770 4.084 4.398 4.712 5.027 5.341 5.655 5.969 6.283 6.597 6.912 7.226 7.540 7.854 8.168 6.462 6.796 9.111 9.425 9.739 10.05 10.37 10.68 11.00 11.31 11.62 11.94 12.25 12.57 12.86 13.19 13.51 13.82 14.14 14.45 14.77 15.08 15.39 15.71 16.02 16.34 16.65 16.96

1 3.173 3.487 3.801 4.115 4.430 4.744 5.058 5.372 5.686 6.000 6.315 6.629 6.943 7.257 7.571 7.685 8.200 8.514 8.828 9.142 9.456 9.770 10.08 10.40 10.71 11.03 11.34 11.66 11.97 12.28 12.60 12.91 13.23 13.54 13.85 14.17 14.48 14.80 15.11 15.43 15.74 16.05 16.37 16.68 17.00

2 3.204 3.519 3.633 4.147 4.461 4.775 5.069 5.484 5.718 6.032 6.346 6.680 6.974 7.288 7.683 7.917 6.231 8.545 8.859 9.173 9.466 9.602 10.12 10.43 10.74 11.06 11.37 11.69 12.00 12.32 12.63 12.94 13.26 13.57 13.89 14.20 14.51 14.83 15.14 15.46 15.77 16.06 16.40 16.71 17.03

3 3.236 3.550 3.864 4.178 4.492 4.807 5.121 5.435 5.749 6.063 6.377 6.692 7.006 7.320 7.634 7.948 8.262 6.577 8.891 9.205 9.519 9.833 10.15 10.46 10.78 11.09 11.40 11.72 12.03 12.35 12.66 12.97 13.29 13.60 13.92 14.23 14.55 14.86 15.17 15.49 15.80 16.12 16.43 16.74 17.06

4 3.267 3.581 3.696 4.210 4.524 4.838 5.152 5.466 5.781 6.095 6.409 6.723 7.037 7.351 7.665 7.980 6.294 8.606 8.922 9.236 9.550 9.865 lo.18 10.49 10.81 11.12 11.44 11.75 12.06 12.38 12.69 13.01 13.32 13.63 13.95 14.26 14.58 14.89 15.21 15.52 15.83 16.15 16.46 16.78 17.09

5 3.299 3.613 3.927 4.241 4.555 4.869 5.184 5.498 5.812 6.126 6.440 6.754 7.069 7.383 7.697 8.011 8.325 6.639 8.954 9.266 9.562 9.896 10.21 10.52 10.84 11.15 11.47 11.78 12.10 12.41 12.72 13.04 13.35 13.67 13.98 14.29 14.61 14.92 15.24 15.55 15.87 16.18 16.49 16.81 17.12

6 3.330 3.644 3.958 4.273 4.587 4.901 5.215 5.529 5.843 6.158 6.472 6.786 7.100 7.414 7.728 8.042 8.357 8.671 8.985 9.299 9.613 9.927 10.24 10.56 10.87 11.18 11.50 11.81 12.13 12.44 12.75 13.07 13.38 13.70 14.01 14.33 14.64 14.95 15.27 15.58 15.90 16.21 16.52 16.84 17.15

7 3.362 3.676 3.990 4.304 4.618 4.932 5.246 5.561 5.875 6.189 6.503 6.817 7.131 7.446 7.760 8.074 8.388 8.702 9.016 9.331 9.645 9.959 10.27 10.59 10.90 11.22 11.53 11.84 12.16 12.47 12.79 13.10 13.41 13.73 14.04 14.36 14.67 14.99 15.30 15.61 15.93 16.24 16.56 16.87 17.18

8
3.393 3.707 4.021 4.335 4.650 4.964 5.278 5.592 5.906 6.220 6.535 6.849 7.163 7.477 7.791 8.105 8.419 6.734 9.048 9.362 9.676 9.990 10.30 10.62 10.93 11.25 11.56 11.88 12.19 12.50 12.82 13.13 13.45 13.76 14.07 14.39 14.70 15.02 15.33 15.65 15.96 16.27 16.59 16.90 17.22

9 3.424 3.738 4.053 4.367 4.681 4.995 5.309 5.623 5.938 6.252 6.566 6.660 7.194 7.508 7.823 8.137 8.451 8.765 9.079 9.393 9.708 10.022 10.02 10.34 10.65 10.96 11.28 11.59 11.91 12.22 12.53 12.85 13.16 13.46 13.79 14.11 14.42 14.73 15.05 15.36 15.68 15.99 16.30 16.62 16.93 17.25

Average Difference 31

31 3

Exotanationof Table of Circumferences This table gives the product of % times any number d (diameter)from 1 to 10; i.e., itis a table of multiples01 r. Moving the decimal point one place in Column d is equivalentto moving itone place in the body of the table Circumference=ax d= 3.141593xd. Conversely, d= 1/rrxcircumference=0.31831xcircumference.

MATHEMATICALTABLES&

UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&MEASURES

1-25

TABLE1.7-CIRCUMFERENCESOFCIRCLES

BY HUNDREDTHS(continued)

d 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 0.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 a.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0

0 -17.31 17.28 17.59 17.91 18.22 18.54 18.85 lg.16 19.48 19.79 20.11 20.42 20.73 21.05 21.36 21.68 21.99 22.31 22.62 22.93 23.25 23.56 23.88 24.19 24.50 24.82 25.13 25.45 25.76 26.08 26.39 26.70 27.02 27.33 27.65 27.96 28.27 28.59 28.90 29.22 29.53 29.85 30.16 30.47 30.79 31.10 31.42

1 17.62 17.94 18.25 18.57 18.88 19.20 19.51 19.82 20.14 20.45 20.77 21.08 21.39 21.71 22.02 22.34 22.65 22.97 23.28 23.59 23.91 24.22 24.54 24.85 25.16 25.48 25.79 26.11 26.42 26.73 27.05 27.36 27.68 27.99 28.31 28.62 28.93 29.25 29.56 29.88 30.19 30.50 30.82 31.13

2 17.34 17.66 17.97 18.28 16.60 18.91 19.23 19.54 19.85 20.17 20.48 20.80 21.11 21.43 21.74 22.05 22.37 22.68 23.00 23.31 23.62 23.94 24.25 24.57 24.88 25.20 25.51 25.82 26.14 26.45 26.77 27.08 27.39 27.71 28.02 28.34 28.65 28.97 29.28 29.59 29.91 30.22 30.54 30.85 31.16

3 17.37 17.69 18.00 18.32 18.63 18.94 19.26 19.57 19.89 20.20 20.51 20.83 21.14 21.46 21.77 22.09 22.40 22.71 23.03 23.34 23.66 23.97 24.28 24.60 24.91 25.23 25.54 25.86 26.17 26.48 26.80 27.11 27.43 27.74 28.05 28.37 28.68 29.00 29.31 29.63 29.94 30.25 30.57 30.88 31.20

4 17.40 17.72 18.03 18.35 18.66 18.98 19.29 19.60 19.92 20.23 20.55 20.86 21.17 21.49 21.80 22.12 22.43 22.75 23.06 23.37 23.69 24.00 24.32 24.63 24.94 25.26 25.57 25.89 26.20 26.52 26.83 27.14 27.46 27.77 28.09 28.40 28.71 29.03 29.34 29.66 29.97 30.28 30.60 30.91 31.23

5 17.4417.75 18.06 18.38 18.69 19.01 19.32 19.63 19.95 20.26 20.50 20.89 21.21 21.52 21.83 22.15 22.46 22.78 23.09 23.40 23.72 24.03 24.35 24.66 24.98 25.29 25.60 25.92 26.23 26.55 26.86 27.17 27.49 27.80 28.12 28.43 28.75 29.06 29.37 29.69 30.00 30.32 30.63 30.94 31.26

6 17.53 17.84 18.16 18.47 18.79 19.10 19.42 19.73 20.04 20.36 20.67 20.99 21.30 21.61 21.93 22.24 22.56 22.87 23.18 23.50 23.81 24.13 24.44 24.76 25.07 25.38 25.70 26.01 26.33 26.64 26.95 27.27 27.58 27.90 28.21 28.53 28.84 29.15 29.47 29.78 30.10 30.41 30.72 31.04 31.35

9 17.56 17.88 18.19 18.50 18.82 19.13 19.45 19.76 20.07 20.39 20.70 21.02 21.33 21.65 21.96 22.27 22.59 22.90 23.22 23.53 23.84 24.16 24.47 24.79 25.10 25.42 25.73 26.04 26.36 26.67 26.99 27.30 27.61 27.93 28.24 28.56 28.87 29.19 29.50 29.81 30.13 30.44 30.76 31.07 31.38

Average Difference 3

17.47 17.5017.78 17.81 18.10 18.13 18.41 18.44 18.72 18.76 19.04 19.35 19.67 19.98 20.29 20.61 20.92 21.24 21.55 21.87 22.18 22.49 22.81 23.12 23.44 23.75 24.06 24.38 24.69 25.01 25.32 25.64 25.95 26.26 26.58 26.89 27.21 27.52 27.83 28.15 28.46 28.78 29.09 29.41 29.72 30.03 30.35 30.66 30.98 31.29 19.07 19.38 19.70 20.01 20.33 20.64 20.95 21.27 21.58 21.90 22.21 22.53 22.84 23.15 23.47 23.78 24.10 24.41 24.72 25.04 25.35 25.67 25.98 26.30 26.61 26.92 27.24 27.55 27.87 28.18 28.49 28.81 29.12 29.44 29.75 30.07 30.38 30.69 31.01 31.32

l-26

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLEl.6-AREASOFCIRCLESBY

HUNDREDTHS

0 0.785 0.950 1.131 1.327 1.539 1.767 2.011 2.270 2.545 2.835 3.142 3.464 3.801 4.155 4.524 4.909 5.309 5.726 6.158 6.605 7.069 7.548 8.042 8.553 9.079 9.621 10.18 10.75 11.34 11.95 12.57 13.20 13.85 14.52 15.21 15.90 16.62 17.35 18.10 18.86 19.63 20.43 21.24 22.06 22.90

1 0.801 0.968 1.150 1.348 1.561 1.791 2.036 2.297 2.573 2.865 3.173 3.497 3.836 4.191 4.562 4.948 5.350 5.768 6.202 6.651 7.116 7.596 8.093 8.605 9.133 9.676 10.24 10.81 11.40 12.01 12.63 13.27 13.92 14.59 15.27 15.98 16.69 17.42 18.17 18.93 19.71 20.51 21.32 22.15 22.99

2 0.817 0.985 1.169 1.368 1.584 1.815 2.061 2.324 2.602 2.895 3.205 3.530 3.871 4.227 4.600 4.988 5.391 5.811 6.246 6.697 7.163 7.645 8.143 8.657 9.188 9.731 10.29 10.87 11.46 12.07 12.69 13.33 13.99 14.66 15.34 16.05 16.76 17.50 18.25 19.01 19.79 20.59 21.40 22.23 23.07

3 0.833 1.003 1.188 1.389 1.606 1.839 2.087 2.351 2.630 2.926 3.237 3.563 3.906 4.264 4.638 5.027 5.433 5.853 6.290 6.743 7.211 7.694 8.194 8.709 9.240 9.787 10.35 10.93 11.52 12.13 12.76 13.40 14.05 14.73 15.41 16.12 16.84 17.57 18.32 19.09 19.87 20.67 21.48 22.31 23.16

4 0.849 1.021 1.208 1.410 1.629 1.863 2.112 2.378 2.659 2.956 3.269 3.597 3.941 4.301 4.676 5.067 5.474 5.896 6.335 6.789 7.258 7.744 8.245 8.762 9.294 9.842 10.41 10.99 11.58 12.19 12.82 13.46 14.12 14.79 15.48 16.19 16.91 17.65 18.40 19.17 19.95 20.75 21.57 22.40 23.24

5 0.866 1.039 1.227 1.431 1.651 1.887 2.138 2.405 2.688 2.986 3.301 3.631 3.976 4.337 4.714 5.107 5.515 5.940 6.379 6.835 7.306 7.793 8.298 8.814 9.348 9.898 10.46 11.04 11.64 12.25 12.88 13.53 14.19 14.86 15.55 16.26 16.98 17.72 18.47 19.24 20.03 20.83 21.65 22.48 23.33

6 0.882 1.057 1.247 1.453 1.674 1.911 2.164 2.433 2.717 3.017 3.333 3.664 4.011 4.374 4.753 5.147 5.557 5.983 6.424 6.881 7.354 7.843 8.347 8.867 9.402 9.954 10.52 11.10 11.70 12.32 12.95 13.59 14.25 14.93 15.62 16.33 17.06 17.80 18.55 19.32 20.11 20.91 21.73 22.56 23.41

7 0.899 1.075 1.267 1.474 1.697 1.936 2.190 2.461 2.746 3.048 3.365 3.698 4.047 4.412 4.792 5.187 5.599 6.026 6.469 6.928 7.402 7.892 8.398 8.920 9.457

8 0.916 1.094 1.287 1.496 1.720 1.961 2.217 2.488 2.776 3.079 3.398 3.733 4.083 4.449 4.831 5.228 5.641 6.070 6.514 6.975 7.451 7.942 8.450 8.973 9.511

9 0.933 1.112 1.307 1.517 1.744 1.986 2.243 2.516 2.808 3.110 3.431 3.767 4.119 4.486 4.870 5.269 5.683 6.114 6.560 7.022 7.499 7.992 8.501 9.026 9.566 10.12 10.69 11.28 11.88 12.50 13.14 1379 14.45 15.14 15.83 16.55 17.28 18.02 18.78 19.56 20.35 21.16 21.98 22.82 23.67

Average Difference 16 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 29 31 32 34 35 37 38 40 42 43 45 46 48 49 51 53 54 56

1.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 23 2.4 2.5 26 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

10.010 10.01 10.58 11.16 11.76 12.38 13.01 13.66 14.32 15.00 15.89 16.40 17.13 17.87 18.63 19.40 20.19 20.99 21.81 22.65 23.50

10.07 10.64 11.22 11.82 12.44 13.07 13.72 14.39 15.07 15.76 16.47 17.20 17.95 18.70 19.48 20.27 21.07 21.90 22.73 23.59

Explanation of Table of Areas of Circles Moving the decimal pointone place inColumn d (diameter) ISequivalent to moving it two places in the body of the table. For example, area of circle=R/~XC? =0,785398x(d'). Conversely, diameter of circle=&x &=1.128379x 6.

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

8 SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

l-27

TABLE

1.8-AREAS

OF CIRCLES BY HUNDREDTHS (continued)

d 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 8.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9

0 23.76 24.63 25.52 26.42 27.34 28.27 29.22 30.19 31.17 32.17 33.18 34.21 35.26 36.32 37.39 38.48 39.59 40.72 41.85 43.01 44.18 45.36 46.57 47.78 49.02 50.27 51.53 52.81 54.11 55.42 56.75 58.09 59.45 60.82 62.21 63.62 65.04 66.48 67.93 69.40 70.88 72.38

1 23.84 24.72 25.61 26.51 27.43 28.37 29.32 30.29 31.27 32.27 33.29 34.32 35.36 36.42 37.50 38.59 39.70 40.83 41.97 43.12 44.30 45.48 46.69 47.91 49.14 50.39 51.66 52.94 54.24 55.55 56.88 58.22 59.58 60.96 62.35 63.76 65.18 68.62 68.08 69.55 71.03 72.53 74.05 75.58 77.13

2 23.93 24.81 25.70 26.60 27.53 28.46 29.42

3 24.02 24.89

4 24.11 24.98 25.88 26.79 27.71 28.65 29.61 30.58 31.57 32.57 33.59 34.63 35.68 36.75 37.83 38.93 40.04 41.17 42.31 43.47 44.65 45.84 47.05 48.27 49.51 50.77 52.04 53.33 54.63 55.95 57.28 58.63 59.99 61.38 62.77 64.18 65.61 67.06 68.51 69.99 71.48 72.99 74.51 76.05 77.60

5 24.19 25.07

6 24.28 25.16 26.06 26.97 27.90 28.84 29.80 30.78 31.77 32.78 33.80 34.84 35.89 36.96 38.05 39.15 40.26 41.40 42.54 43.71 44.89 46.08 47.29 48.52 49.76 51.02 52.30 53.59 54.89 56.21 57.55 58.90 60.27 61.65 63.05 64.47 65.90 67.35 68.81 70.29 71.78 73.29 74.82 76.36 77.91

7 24.37 25.25 26.15 27.06 27.99 28.94 29.90 30.88 31.07 32.88 33.90 34.94 36.00 37.07 38.16 39.26 40.38 41.51 42.66 43.83 45.01 46.20 47.42 48.65 49.89 51.15 52.42 53.72 55.02 56.35 57.68 59.04 60.41 61.79 63.19 64.61 66.04 67.49 88.96 70.44 71.93 73.44 74.97 76.51 78.07

8 24.45 25.34 26.24 27.15 28.09 29.03 30.00 30.97 31.97 32.98 34.00 35.05 36.10 37.18 38.26 39.37 40.49 41.62 42.78 43.94 45.13 46.32 47.54 48.77 50.01 51.28 52.55 53.85 55.15 56.48 57.82 59.17 60.55 61.93 63.33 64.75 66.19 67.64 69.10 70.58 72.08 73.59 75.12 76.67 78.23

9 24.54 25.43 26.33 27.25 28.18 29.13 30.09 31.07 32.07 33.08 34.11 34.15 36.21 37.28 38.37 39.48 40.60 41.74 42.89 44.06 45.25 46.45 47.66 48.89 50.14 51.40 52.68 53.98 55.29 56.61 57.95 59.31 60.68 62.07 63.48 64.90 66.33 67.78 69.25 70.73 72.23 73.75 75.28 76.82 78.38

Average Difference 9

25.79
26.69 27.62 28.56 29.51 30.48 31.47 32.47 33.49 34.52 35.57 36.64 37.72 38.82 39.93 41.06 42.20 43.36 44.53 45.72 46.93 48.15 49.39 50.64 51.91 53.20 54.50 55.81 57.15 58.49 59.86 61.24 62.63 64.04 65.47 66.91 68.37 69.84 71.33 72.84 74.36 75.89 77.44

25.97
28.88 27.81 28.75 29.71 30.68 31.67 32.67 33.70 34.73 35.78 36.85 37.94 39.04 40.15 41.28 42.43 43.59 44.77 45.96 47.17 48.40 49.64 50.90 52.17 53.46 54.76 56.08 57.41 58.77 60.13 61.51 82.91 64.33 65.76 67.20 68.66 70.14 71.63 73.14 74.66 76.20 77.76

10

30.39
31.37 32.37 33.39 34.42 35.47 36.53 37.61 38.70 39.82 40.94 42.08 43.24 44.41 45.60 46.81 48.03 49.27 50.52 51.78 53.07 54.37 55.68 57.01 58.36 59.72 61.10 62.49

11

12

13

14

63.90
65.33 66.77 68.22 69.69 71.18 72.68 74.20 75.74

15

73.90
75.43

76.98

77.29

16

l-28

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE I.S-CIRCUMFERENCES

AND AREAS OF CIRCLES BY EIGHTHS

Circumference 0.04909 0.09817 0.1473 0.1963 0.2454 0.2945 0.3436 0.3927 0.4418 0.4909 0.5400 0.5890 0.6381 0.6872 0.7363 0.7854 0.8345 0.8836 0.9327 0.9817 1.031 1.080 1.129 1.178 1.227 1.276 1.325 1.374 1.424 1.473 1.522 1.571 1.620 1.669 1.718 1.767 1.816 1.865 1.914 1.963 2.013 2.062 2.111 2.160 2.209 2.258 2.307 2.356 2.405 2.454 2.503 2.553 2.602 2.651 2.700

Area

Circumference 2.749 2.798 2.847 2.896 2.945 2.994 3.043 3.093 3.142 3.338 3.534 3.731 3.927 4.123 4.320 4.516 4.712 4.909 5.105 5.301 5.498 5.694 5.890 6.087 6.283 6.480 6.676 6.872 7.069 7.265 7.461 7.658 7.854 8.050 8.247 8.443 6.639 8.836 9.032 9.228 9.425 9.621 9.817 10.01 10.21 10.41 10.60 10.80 11.00 11.19 11.39 11.58 il.78 11.98 12.17 12.37

Area 0.6013 0.6230 0.6450 0.6675 0.8903 0.7135 0.7371 0.7610 0.7854 0.8866 0.9940 1.108 1.227 1.353 1.485 1.623 1.767 1.917 2.074 2.237 2.405 2.580 2.761 2.948 3.142 3.341 3.547 3.758 3.976 4.200 4.430 4.666 4.909 5.157 5.412 5.673 5.940 6.213 6.492 6.777 7.069 7.366 7.870 7.980 8.296 8.618 8.946 9.281 9.621 9.968 10.32 10.68 11.04 11.42 11.79 12.18

Circumference 12.57 12.76 12.96 13.16 13.35 13.55 13.74 13.94 14.14 14.33 14.53 14.73 14.92 15.12 15.32 15.51 15.71 15.90 16.10 16.30 16.49 16.69 16.89 17.08 17.28 17.48 17.67 17.87 18.06 18.26 18.46 18.65 18.85 19.24 19.63 20.03 20.42 20.81 21.21 21.60 21.99 22.38 22.78 23.17 23.56 23.95 24.35 24.74 25.13 25.53 25.92 26.31 26.70 27.10 27.49 27.88

Area 12.57 12.96 13.36 13.77 14.19 14.61 15.03 15.47 15.90 16.35 16.80 17.26 17.72 18.19 18.67 19.15 19.63 20.13 20.63 21.14 21.65 22.17 22.69 23.22 23.76 24.30 24.85 25.41 25.97 26.53 27.11 27.69 28.27 29.46 30.68 31.92 33.18 34.47 35.78 37.12 38.48 39.87 41.28 42.72 44.18 45.66 47.17 48.71 50.27 51.85 53.46 55.09 56.75 58.43 60.13 61.86

0.00019
0.00077

0.00173
0.00307 0.00479 0.00690 0.00940 0.01227 0.01553 0.01917 0.02320 0.02761 0.03241 0.03758 0.04314 0.04909 0.05542 0.06213 0.06922 0.07670 0.08456 0.09281 0.1014 0.1104 0.1198 0.1296 0.1398 0.1503 0.1613 0.1726 0.1843 0.1963 0.2088 0.2217 0.2349 0.2485 0.2625 0.2769 0.2916 0.3068 0.3223 0.3382 0.3545 0.3712 0.3883 0.4057 0.4236 0.4418 0.4604 0.4794 0.4987 0.5185 0.5386 0.5591 0.5800

MATHEMATlCALTABLES&

UNITS&

SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-29

TABLE1.9-CIRCUMFERENCES

AND

AREAS

OFCIRCLES

BY ElGHTHS(continued)

Circumference 28.27 28.67 29.06 29.45 29.85 30.24 30.63 31.02 31.42 31.81 32.20 32.59 32.99 33.38 33.77 34.16 34.56 34.95 35.34 35.74 36.13 36.52 36.91 37.31 37.70 38.09 38.48 38.88 39.27 39.66 40.06 40.45 40.84 41.23 41.63 42.02 42.41 42.80 43.20 43.59 43.98 44.37 44.77 45.16 45.55 45.95 46.34 46.73 47.12 47.52 47.91 48.30 48.69 49.09 49.48 49.87 63.62 65.40 67.20 69.03 70.88 72.76 74.66 76.59 78.54 80.52 82.52 84.54 86.59 88.66 90.76 92.89 95.03 97.21 99.40 101.6 103.9 106.1 108.4 110.8 113.1 115.5 117.9 120.3 122.7 125.2 127.7 130.2 132.7 135.3 137.9 140.5 143.1 145.8 148.5 151.2 153.9 156.7 159.5 162.3 165.1 168.0 170.9 173.8 176.7 179.7 182.7 185.7 188.7 191.7 194.8 197.9

Circumference 50.27 50.66 51.05 51.44 51.84 52.23 52.62 53.01 53.41 53.80 54.19 54.59 54.98 55.37 55.76 56.16 56.55 56.94 57.33 57.73 58.12 58.51 58.90 59.30 59.69 60.08 60.48 60.87 61.26 61.65 62.05 62.44 62.83 63.22 63.62 64.01 64.40 64.80 65.19 65.58 65.97 66.37 66.76 67.15 67.54 67.94 68.33 68.72 69.12 69.51 69.90 70.29 70.69 71.08 71.47 71.86 201.1 204.2 207.4 210.6 213.8 217.1 220.4 223.7 227.0 230.3 233.7 237.1 240.5 244.0 247.4 250.9 254.5 258.0 261.6 285.2 268.8 272.4 276.1 279.8 283.5 287.3 291.0 294.8 298.6 302.5 306.4 310.2 314.2 318.1 322.1 326.1 330.1 334.1 338.2 342.2 346.4 350.5 354.7 358.8 363.1 367.3 371.5 375.8 380.1 384.5 388.8 393.2 397.6 402.0 406.5 411.0 23 '/a '/4 '/4
12

Circumference 72.26 72.65 73.04 73.43 7383 74.22 74.61 75.01 75 40 76.18 7697 77.75 78.54 79.33 80.11 80.90 81.68 82.47 83.25 84.04 84.82 85.61 86.39 87.18 87.96 88.75 89.54 90.32 91.11 91.89 92.68 93.46 94.25 95.03 95.82 96.60 97.39 98.17 98.96 99.75 100.5 101.3 102.1 102.9 103.7 104.5 105.2 106.0 106.8 107.6 108.4 109.2 110.0 110.7 111.5 112.3

Area 415.5 420.0 424.6 429.1 433.7 438.4 443.0 447.7 452.4 461.9 471.4 481.1 490.9 500.7 510.7 520.8 530.9 541.2 551.5 562.0 572.6 583.2 594.0 604.8 615.8 626.8 637.9 649.2 660.5 672.0 683.5 695.1 706.9 718.7 730.6 742.6 754.8 767.0 779.3 791.7 804.2 816.9 829.6 842.4 855.3 868.3 881.4 894.6 907.9 921.3 934.8 948.4 962.1 975.9 989.8 1003.8

78 %l 24 % '/4 '12 VI 25 '/4 '12 %l 26 '12


/2 3/i

27 'A
12 3/k

28 'h '/2 v4 '/a '12 Y4 30 l/4 '/2 3/b 31 '/4 'I2 v4 32 '/4
12

29

%I 33 '/4 '12 =/4 34 'I4 % v4 35 '/4 '12

3/i

l-30

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE l.lO-AREAS

OF CIRCLES-DIAMETERS

IN FEET AND INCHES, AREAS IN SQUARE FEET


Inches

Feet 0

0 0.0000
07854 3142 7.069 1257 19.63 2627 3048 50 27 6362 78 54 95.03 113.1 1327 153.9

1 0.0055 09216 3.409 7 467 13.10 20.29 29.07 39.41 51 32 6460 7985 96.48 1147 134.4 1556

2 0.0216 1.069 3687 7676 13.64 20.97 29 67 40.34 5236 66 00 81.16 97 93 1163 1362 1576

3 0.0491 1.227 3976 8.296 14.19 21.65 30.66 41.26 5346 67.20 82.52 99.40 1179 1379 159.5

4 0.0673 1.396 4276 8.727 14.75 2234 31 50 42 24 54 54 6842 83.66 100.9 119.5 139.6 161.4

5 0.1364 1.576 4587 9.168 1532 2304 32 34 43.20 55.64 69.64 85.22 1024 121 1 1414 163.2

6 0.1963 1.767 4909 9.621 15.90 23.76 33.18 44.18 56.75 70.88 8659 103.9 122.7 143.1 165.1

7 0.2673 1.969 5.241 10.08 16.50 24.48 34.04 45.17 57.86 72.13

8
0.3491 2.182 5.585 10.56 17.10 25.22 3491 46.16 58.99 73.39 89.36 106.9 1260 146.7 168.9

9
0.4416 2405 5.940 11.04 17.72 25.97 35.78 47.17 60.13 74.66 90.76 108.4 127.7 148.5 170.9

10 0.5454 2.640 6.305 11.54 18.35 26.73 36.67 48.19 61.28 75.94 92.18 110.0 129.4 150.3 172.8

11 06600 2885 6681 1205 1899 2749 3757 49 22 6244 77 24 9360 111 5 131 0 1521 1748

87.97
105.4 124.4 144.9 167.0

From Inches and Fractions of an Inch to Decimals of a Foot


Inches Feet Inches Feet 1 0.0833 '/a 0.0104 2 0.1667 % 0.0208 3 0.2500 % 0.0313 4 03333 '12 00417 5 0.4167 % 00521 6 0.5000 v4 0.0625 7 0.5833 % 0 0729 6 0.6667 9 0.7500 10 0.8333 11 09167

MATHEMATICALTABLES&

UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&MEASURES

1-31

TABLE 1 .l l-SEGMENTS

OF CIRCLES, GIVEN

h/c

hlc 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

d/c 25.010 12.520 8.363 6.290 5.050 4.227 3.641 3.205 2.868 2.600 2.383 2.203 2.053 1.926 1.617 1.723 1.641 1.569 1.506 1.450 1.400 1.356 1.317 1.282 1.250 1.222 1.196 1.173 1152 1.133 1.116 1.101 1.088 1.075 1.064 1.054 1.046 1.038 1.031 1.025 1.020 1.015 1.011 1.008 1.006 1.003 1.002 1.001 1.000 1.000

Difference

Arc/c 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.004 1.007 1.010 1.013 1.017 1.021 1.026 1.032 1.038 1.044 1.051 1.059 1.067 1.075 1.084 1.094 1.103 1.114 1.124 1.136 1.147 1.159 1.171 1.184 1.197 1.211 1.225 1.239 1.254 1.269 1.284 1.300 1.316 1.332 1.349 1.366 1.383 1.401 1.419 1.437 1.455 1.474 1.493 1.512 1.531 1.551 1.571

Difference

Arealhxc 0.6667 0.6667 0.6669 0.6671 0.6675

Difference

Central Angle, CY (degrees) 0.00 4.58 9.16 13.73 18.30 22.84 27.37 31.88 36.36 40.82 45.24 49.63 53.98 58.30 62.57 66.80 70.98 75.11 79.20 83.23 87.21 91.13 95.00 98.81 102.56 106.26 109.90 113.48 117.00 120.45 123.86 127.20 130.48 133.70 136.86 139.97 143.02 146.01 148.94 151.82 154.64 157.41 160.12 162.78 165.39 167.95 170.46 172.91 175.32 177.69 180.00

Difference 458 458 457 457 454 453 451 448 446 442 439 435 432 427 423 418 413 409 403 399 392 387 381 375 370 364 358 352 345 341 334 328 322 316 311 305 299 293 288 282 277 271 266 261 256 251 245 241 237 231

hld 0.0000 0.0004 0.0016 0.0036 0.0064 0.0099 0.0142 0.0192 0.0250 0.0314 0.0385 0.0462 0.0545 0.0633 0.0727 0.0826 0.0929 0.1036 0.1147 0.1263 0.1379 0.1499 0.1622 0.1746 0.1873 0.2000 0.2128 0.2258 0.2387 0.2517 0.2647 0.2777 0.2906 0.3034 0.3162 0.3289 0.3414 0.3538 0.3661 0.3783 0.3902 0.4021 0.4137 0.4252 0.4364 0.4475 0.4584 0.4691 0.4796 0.4899 0.5000

Difference 4 12 20 28 35 43 50 58 64 71 77 83 88 94 99 103 107 111 116 116 120 123 124 127 127 128 130 129 130 130 130 129 128 128 127 125 124 123 122 119 119 116 115 112 111 109 107 105 103 101

12,490 4.157' 2,073' 1,240' 823' 586" 436. 337' 268' 217' 180' 150" 127" 109' 94" 82' 72' 63' 56 50 44 39 35 32 28 26 23 21 19 17 15 13 13 11 10 8 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 3 1 1 1 0

3 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 8 8 9 10 9 11 10 12 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20

0.6680 0.6686 0.6693 0.6701 0.6710 0.6720 0.6731 0.6743 0.6756 0.6770 0.6785 0.6801 0.6818 0.6836 0.6855 0.6875 0.6896 0.6918 0.6941 0.6965 0.6989 0.7014 0.7041 0.7088 0.7096 0.7125 0.7154 0.7185 0.7216 0.7248 0.7280 0.7314 0.7348 0.7383 0.7419 0.7455 0.7492 0.7530 0.7568 0.7607 0.7647 0.7687 0.7728 0.7769 0.7811 0.7854

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 27 27 28 29 29 31 31 32 32 34 34 35 36 36 37 38 38 39 40 40 41 41 42 43

0.10
0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50

Explanation of Table of Segments

of Circles, Given h/c

Given: h= height of segment and c=chord, to findthe drameter,d, of the circle, the length of the arc, or the area of the segment, form the ratio h/c, and findfrom the tablethe value of d/c, arc/c,or arealhc;then, by a simple multiplication, d= cx (d/c), arc=c x (arc/c), and area= h x c x (arealhc). The table also gives the angle subtended at the center,and the ratio of h to d.

1-32

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.12-SEGMENTS

OF CIRCLES, GIVEN h/d

Cf?ntL4
hid 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 016 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 024 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 036 0.37 038 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 043 044 0.45 046 047 0 48 049 0.50 Arc/d 0.2003 0.2638 0.3482 0.4027 0.4510 0.4949 0.5355 0.5735 0.6094 0.6435 0.6761 0.7075 0.7377 0.7670 0.7954 0.8230 0.8500 0.8763 0.9021 0.9273 0.9521 0.9764 1.0004 1.0239 1.0472 1.0701 1.0928 1.1152 1.1374 1.1593 1.1810 1.2025 1.2239 1.2451 1.2661 12870 1.3078 1.3284 1.3490 1.3694 13898 14101 1.4303 1.4505 14706 1.4907 1.5106 1.5308 1.5508 15708 Difference 2003 835' 644' 545' 483' 439' 406' 380' 359' 341' 326' 314' 302' 293' 284' 276 270 263 256 252 248 243 240 235 233 229 277 224 222 219 217 215 214 212 210 209 208 206 206 204 204 203 202 202 201 201 201 200 200 200 Area/d' D!fference 13 24 32 36 42 45 50 52 56 59 61 64 66 68 71 72 74 76 76 79 81 82 84 64 86 88 88 89 90 92 92 93 93 95 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 98 99 99 100 99 100 100 100 100 Angle, (v (degrees) Difference c/d 0.1990 0.2800 0.3412 0.3919 0.4359 0.4750 0.5103 05426 0.5724 0 6000 0.6258 0.6499 0.6726 0.6940 ,0.7141 0.7332 0.7513 07684 0.7846 0.8000 0.8146 0.8285 0.8417 0.8542 0.8660 0.8773 0.8879 0 8980 0.9075 0.9165 0.9250 0.9330 0.9404 0.9474 0.9539 0 9600 0 9656 0.9708 0.9755 0.9798 0.9837 0.9871 0 9902 0 9928 0.9950 0 9968 0.9982 0 9992 0 9998 10000 Difference 1990 810' 612' 507' 440' 391. 353' 323' 298 * 276' 258' 241' 227' 214' 201' 191' 181' 171' 162 154 146 139 132 125 118 113 106 101 95 90 85 80 74 70 65 61 58 52 47 43 39 34 31 26 22 18 14 10 6 2

Arc Circumference Drfference 638 265' 205' 174' 154' 139. 130' 121 114 108 104 100 96 93 91 88 86 83 82 81 79 77 76 75 74 73 72 72 70 70 69 69 68 67 67 67 66 66 65 65 65 65 64 64 64 64 64 64 63 64

Area Circle Difference 17 31 39 47 53 58 63 67 71 74 78 82 84 87 90 92 94 97 99 101 103 104 107 108 109 111 112 114 115 116 117 119 119 120 121 122 123 123 124 124 125 126 126 126 126 127 127 127 128 127

0.00 0.000

0.0000
0.0013 0.0037 0.0069 0.0105 0.0147 0.0192 0.0242 0.0294 0.0350 0 0409 00470 00534 00600 00666 0 0739 00811 00885 00961 01039 01118 0 1199 01281 01365 0 1449 0 1535 01623 01711 01800 0.1890 0.1982 0.2074 02167 0.2260 0.2355 02450 0.2546 0.2642 0 2739 02836 0 2934 03032 03130 0 3229 0 3328 0.3428 03527 03627 03727 0.3627 0.3927

0.00 22.96
32.52 39.90 46.15 51.68 56.72 61.37 65.72 69.83 7374 77 48 81.07 8454 87 89 91.15 94.31 9740 10042 103.37 106.26 109.10 111 89 114.63 117.34 120.00 122.63 125.23 127.79 130.33 132.84 135.33 13780 140.25 14267 14506 147.46 14986 15223 15458 15693 15926 161 59 16390 16622 16652 17082 17312 17541 17771 18000

2296 956
738' 625' 553' 504' 465' 435' 411' 391' 374, 359 * 347' 335' 326' 316 309 302 295 289 284 279 274 271 266 263 260 256 254 251 249 247 245 242 241 240 238 237 235 235 233 233 231 232 230 230 230 229 230 229

0 0000
0.0638 0.0903 0.1108 0.1282 0.1436 0.1575 0.1705 0.1826 0.1940 0.2048 0.2152 0.2252 0.2348 0.2441 0.2532 0.2820 0.2706 0 2789 0.2871 0.2952 0.3031 0.3108 0.3184 0.3259 0.3333 0.3406 0.3478 0.3550 0.3820 0.3690 0.3759 0.3828 0.3898 0.3963 0.4030 0.4097 0.4163 0.4229 0.4294 0.4359 0.4424 0 4489 0.4553 0.4617 0.4681 04745 0.4809 04873 0.4936 0.5000

0.0000
0.0017 0.0046 0.0087 0.0134 0.0187 0.0245 0.0308 0.0375 0 0446 0.0520 0.0598 0.0680 0.0764 0.0851 0.0941 0.1033 0.1127 0.1224 0 1323 0.1424 0.1527 0.1631 0.1738 01846 01955 02066 02178 0 2292 02407 0.2523 0.2640 0.2759 0.2878 0 2998 0.3119 03241 0.3364 0.3487 0.3611 0.3735 0.3860 0.3986 0.4112 0.4236 0.4364 04491 0.4618 04745 0.4873 0.5000

Explanatcon of Table of Segments Gwen: h=helght of segment

of Circles. Given h/d form the ratloh/d and

and d= dtameter of circle, to find the chord, the length of arc, or the area of the segment, (arc/d), or (area/d*), then by a simple multipllcatlon. c=dx(cld), at the center. the ratloof the arc of the segment

and find from the table the value of (c/d), area=d'x (area/d') The table also gives the angle subtended the area 01 the segment

arc=dx(arc/d),

to the whole circumference. and the ratloof

to the area of the whole cvcle

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

l-33

TABLE 1.13~SEGMENTS
Volume segment h/d 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 d3 0.0000 0.0002 0.0006 0.0014 0.0024 0.0038 0.0054 0.0073 0.0095 0.0120 0.0147 0.0176 0.0208 0.0242 0.0279 0.0318 0.0359 0.0403 0.0448 0.0495 0.0545 0.0596 0.0649 0.0704 0.0760 0.0818 0.0878 0.0939 0.1002 0.1066 0.1131 0.1198 0.1265 0.1334 0.1404 0.1475 0.1547 0.1620 0.1694 0.1768 0.1843 0.1919 0.1995 0.2072 0.2149 0.2227 0.2305 0.2383 0.2461 0.2539 0.2618
segment= 1/6rh2(3c-2h)

OF SPHERES
Volume segment

Difference 2 4 8 10 14 16 19 22 25 27 29 32 34 37 39 41 44 45 47 50 51 53 55 56 58 60 61 63 64 65 67 67 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 78 78 79

Volume sphere 0.0000 0.0003 0.0012 0.0026 0.0047 0.0073 0.0104 0.0140 0.0182 0.0228 0.0260 0.0336 0.0397 0.0463 0.0533 0.0607 0.0686 0.0769 0.0855 0.0946 0.1040 0.1138 0.1239 0.1344 0.1452 0.1562 0.1676 0.1793 0.1913 0.2035 0.2160 0.2287 0.2417 0.2548 0.2682 0.2817 0.2955 0.3094 0.3235 0.3377 0.3520 0.3665 0.3810 0.3957 0.4104 0.4252 0.4401 0.4551 0.4700 0.4850 0.5000

Difference 3 9 14 21 26 31 36 42 46 52 56 61 66 70 74 79 83 86 91 94 98 101 105 108 110 114 117 120 122 125 127 130 131 134 135 138 139 141 142 143 145 145 147 147 148 149 150 149 150 150

0.10
0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50
Volume

Explanation of Table of Segments

of Spheres

Given: h = heightof segment and d = diameter of sphere,to find the volume of the segment, form the ratio h/d and find from the table the value of (volume/d3): then. by a simple multiplication, volume segment= d3 x (volume/d3). The tablealso gives the ratio of the volume of the segment to the entire volume of the sphere. Note that the area of zone= ?TX hx d.

1-34

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.14-VOLUMES

OF SPHERES

BY HUNDREDTHS

d -0.5236 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

0 0.6969 0.9048 1.150 1.437 1.767 2.145 2.572 3.054 3.591 4.189 4.849 5.575 6.371 7.238 8.181 9.203 10.31 11.49 12.77 14.14 15.60 17.16 18.82 20.58 22.45 24.43 26.52 28.73 31.06 33.51 36.09 38.79 41.63 44.60 47.71 50.97 54.36 57.91 61.60 65.45 69.46 73.62 77.95 82.45

1 0.5395 0.7161 0.9276 1.177 1.468 1.803 2.185 2.618 3.105 3.648 4.252 4.919 5.652 6.454 7.329 8.280 9.309 10.42 11.62 12.90 14.28 15.75 17.32 18.99 20.76 22.64 24.63 26.74 28.96 31.30 33.76 36.35 39.07 41.92 44.91 48.03 51.30 54.71 58.27 61.98 65.64 69.87 74.05 78.39 82.91

2 0.5556 0.7356 0.9508 1.204 1.499 1.839 2.226 2.664 3.157 3.706 4.316 4.989 5.729 6.538 7.421 8.379 9.417 10.54 11.74 13.04 14.42 15.90 17.48 19.16 20.94 22.84 24.84 26.95 29.19 31.54 34.02 36.62 39.35 42.21 45.21 48.35 51.63 55.06 58.63 62.36 66.24 70.28 74.47 78.84 83.37

3 0.5722 0.7555 0.9743 1.232 1.531 1.875 2.268 2.711 3.209 3.764 4.380 5.060 5.806 6.623 7.513 8.478 9.525 10.65 11.87 13.17 14.57 16.06 17.64 19.33 21.13 23.03 25.04 27.17 29.42 31.78 34.27 36.88 39.63 42.51 45.52 48.67 51.97 55.41 59.00 62.74 66.64 70.69 74.90 79.28 83.83

4 0.5890 0.7757 0.9983 1.260 1.563 1.912 2.310 2.758 3.262 3.823 4.445 5.131 5.885 6.709 7.606 8.580 9.634 10.77 11.99 13.31 14.71 16.21 17.81 19.51 21.31 23.23 25.25 27.39 29.65 32.02 34.53 37.15 39.91 42.80 45.83 49.00 52.31 55.76 59.37 63.12 67.03 71.10 75.33 79.73 84.29

5 0.6061 0.7963 1.0227 1.023 1.288 1.596 1.950 2.352 2.806 3.315 3.882 4.511 5.204 5.964 6.795 7.700 8.682 9.744 10.89 12.12 13.44 14.86 16.37 17.97 19.68 21.50 23.43 25.46 27.61 29.88 32.27 34.78 37.42 40.19 43.10 46.14 49.32 52.65 56.12 59.73 63.51 67.43 71.52 75.77 80.18 84.76

6 0.6236 0.8173 1.047 1.317 1.630 1.988 2.395 2.855 3.369 3.942 4.577 5.277 6.044 6.882 7.795 8.785 9.855 11.01 12.25 13.58 15.00 16.52 18.14 19.86 21.69 23.62 25.67 27.83 30.11 32.52 35.04 37.69 40.48 43.40 46.45 49.65 52.99 56.47 60.10 63.89 67.83 71.94 76.20 80.63 85.23

7 0.6414 0.8386 1.073 1.346 1.663 2.026 2.439 2.903 3.424 4.003 4.644 5.350 6.125 6.970 7.890 8.888 9.966 11.13 12.38 13.72 15.15 16.68 18.31 20.04 21.88 23.82 25.88 28.06 30.35 32.76 35.30 37.97 40.76 43.70 46.77 49.97 53.33 56.83 60.48 64.28 68.24 72.36 76.64 81.08 85.70

8 0.6596 0.8603 1.098 1.376 1.697 2.065 2.483 2.953 3.479 4.064 4.712 5.425 6.206 7.059 7.986 8.992 10.079 10.08 il.25 12.51 13.86 15.30 16.84 18.48 20.22 22.07 24.02 26.09 28.28 30.58 33.01 35.56 38.24 41.05 44.00 47.08 50.30 53.67 57.19 60.85 64.67 68.64 72.78 77.07 81.54 86.17

9 0.6781 0.8823 1.124 1.406 1.732 2.105 2.527 3.003 3.535 4.126 4.780 5.500 6.288 7.148 8.083 9.097 10.19 11.37 12.64 14.00 15.45 17.00 18.65 20.40 22.26 2423 26.31 2850 30.82 33.26 35.82 38.52 41.34 44.30 47.40 50.63 54.02 57.54 61.22 65.06 69.05 73.20 77.51 81.99 86.64

Difference 173 208 236 25 29 33 38 43 48 :; 66 73 80 87 94 102 110 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 30 31 33 34 35 37 38 40 42 43 45 47

Explanationof Table of Volumes of Spheres Moving the decimal point one place in Column d (diameter)is equivalentto moving itthree places in the body of the table. For example, volume of sphere= ~/6x (d3)=0.523599x(d3). Conversely, d= ?/%x $k%%= 1.240701 x %%r%e.

MATHEMATICALTABLES

& UNITS&

SYSTEMSOFWEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-35

TABLE1.14-VOLUMESOF

SPHERES

BY HUNDREDTHS(continued)

d -~ 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 8.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.6 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0

0 87.11 91.95 96.97 102.2 107.5 113.1 118.8 124.8 130.9 137.3 143.8 150.5 157.5 164.6 172.0 179.6 187.4 195.4 203.7 212.2 220.9 229.8 239.0 248.5 258.2 268.1 278.3 288.7 299.4 310.3 321.6 333.0 344.8 356.8 369.1 381.7 394.6 407.7 421.2 434.9 448.9 463.2 477.9 492.8 508.0 523.6

1 87.59 92.45 97.48 102.7 108.1 113.7 119.4 125.4 131.5 137.9 144.5 151.2 158.2 165.4 172.8 180.4 188.2 196.2 204.5 213.0 221.8 230.8 240.0 249.4 259.1 269.1 279.3 289.8 300.5 311.4 322.7 334.2 346.0 358.0 370.4 383.0 395.9 409.1 422.5 436.3 450.3 464.7 479.4 494.3 509.6

2 88.07 92.94 97.99 103.2 108.6 114.2 120.0 126.0 132.2 138.5 145.1 151.9 158.9 166.1 173.5 181.1 189.0 197.1 205.4 213.9 222.7 231.7 240.9 250.4 260.1 270.1 280.3 290.8 301.6 312.6 323.8 335.4 347.2 359.3 371.6 384.3 397.2 410.4 423.9 437.7 451.8 466.1 480.8 495.8 511.1

3 88.55 93.44 98.51 103.8 109.2 114.8 120.6 126.6 132.8 139.2 145.8 152.6 159.6 166.8 174.3 181.9 189.8 197.9 206.2 214.8 223.6 232.6 241.8 251.4 261.1 271.1 281.4 291.9 302.6 313.7 325.0 336.5 348.4 360.5 372.9 385.5 398.5 411.7 425.2 439.1 453.2 467.6 482.3 497.3 512.7

4 89.03 93.94 99.02 104.3 109.7 115.4 121.2 127.2 133.4 139.8 146.5 153.3 160.3 167.6 175.0 182.7 190.6 198.7 207.1 215.6 224.4 233.5 242.8 252.3 262.1 272.1 282.4 292.9 303.7 314.8 326.1 337.7 349.6 361.7 374.1 386.8 399.8 413.1 426.6 440.5 454.6 469.1 483.8 498.9 514.2

5 89.51 94.44 99.54 104.8 110.3 115.9 121.8 127.8 134.1 140.5 147.1 154.0 161.0 168.3 175.8 183.5 191.4 199.5 207.9 216.5 225.3 234.4 243.7 253.3 263.1 273.1 283.4 294.0 304.8 315.9 327.3 338.9 350.8 362.9 375.4 388.1 401.1 414.4 428.0 441.9 456.0 470.5 485.3 500.4 515.8

6 90.00 94.94 100.06 100.1 105.4 110.9 116.5 122.4 128.4 134.7 141.2 147.8 154.7 161.7 169.0 176.5 184.3 192.2 200.4 208.8 217.4 226.2 235.3 244.7 254.3 264.1 274.2 284.5 295.1 305.9 317.0 328.4 340.1 352.0 364.2 376.6 389.4 402.4 415.7 429.4 443.3 457.5 472.0 486.8 501.9 517.3

7 90.48 95.44 100.6 105.9 111.4 117.7 123.6 129.1 135.3 141.8 148.5 155.4 162.5 169.8 177.3 185.0 193.0 201.2 209.6 218.3 227.1 236.3 245.6 255.2 265.1 275.2 285.5 296.2 307.0 318.2 329.6 341.2 353.2 365.4 377.9 390.7 403.7 417.1 430.7 444.7 458.9 473.5 488.3 503.4 518.9

8 90.97 95.95 101.1 106.4 112.0 117.1 123.0 129.7 136.0 142.5 149.2 156.1 163.2 170.5 178.1 185.8 193.8 202.0 210.5 219.1 228.0 237.2 246.6 256.2 266.1 276.2 286.6 2972 308.1 319.3 330.7 342.4 354.4 366.6 379.2 392.0 405.1 418.4 432.1 446.1 460.4 474.9 489.8 505.0 520.5

9 91.49 96.46 101.6 107.0 112.5 118.3 124.2 130.3 136.6 143.1 149.6 156.8 163.9 171.3 178.8 186.6 194.6 202.9 211.3 220.0 228.9 238.1 247.5 257.2 267.1 277.2 287.6 298.3 309.2 320.4 331.9 343.6 355.6 367.9 380.4 393.3 406.4 419.8 433.5 447.5 461.8 476.4 491.3 506.5 522.0

Difference 48 50 52 5 5 6 6

10

11

12

13

14

15 16

l-36

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE Area n 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 12 15 16 20 24 32 48 64
DI

1.15-REGULAR Area r2 5196 4.000 3633 3464 3.371 3314 3276 3249 3215 3 188 3 ia3 3.168 3160 3152 3146 3144 R L 0.5774 0.7071 0.8507 1.000 1.152 1307 1.462 I.618 1.932 2.405 2.563 3196 3.831 5.101 7.645 10.19

POLYGONS R r 2000 1.414 1.236 1.155 1.110 1.082 1.064 1.052 1.035 1.022 1.020 1.013 1.009 1.005 1.002 1.001 L R 1.732 1.414 1.176 1.000 0.8678 0.7654 0.6840 0.61a0 0.5176 0.4158 0.3902 0.3129 0.2611 0.1960 0.1308 0.0981 L r 3.464 2.000 1 453 1.155 0.9631 0.8284 0.7279 0.6498 0.5359 0.4251 0.3978 0.3168 0.2633 0.1970 0.1311 0.0983 r R 0.5000 0.7071 0.8090 0.8660 0.9010 0.9239 0.9397 0.9511 0.9659 0.9781 0.9808 0.9877 0.9914 0.9952 0.9979 0.9968 r L 0.2887 0.5000 0.6882 0.8660 1.038 1.207 1.374 1.539 1.866 2.352 2.514 3.157 3.798 5.077 7.629 10.18

Area R2 1.299 2.000 2.378 2.598 2.736 2.828 2 a93 2.939 3.000 3.051 3.062 3.090 3.106 3.121 3.133 3.137

L2 0.4330 1.000 1.721 2.598 3.634 4.828 6.182 7.694 11.20 17.64 20.11 31.57 45.58 al.23 183.1 325.7

1200 900 72O 600 510.43 450 400 36" 300 24' 220.50 la0 150 110.25 70.50 5O.625

n = number of sides, N = 3600/n = angle subtended at the center by one side, 1 = length of one side= R (2 sin (~12) = r(2 tan a/2), R = radius of circumscribed circle = L(% csc u/2) =r(sec a/2). r = radius of inscribedcircle = R (cos a/2)= L(% cot ~12).and area = L* (l/4 n cot (u/2) = R2 (% n sin (u) = r2 (n tan 0(/2).

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-37

TABLE
(n), =I. (n), =R. (n)? =[n(n notations
1 cm,

1.16-BINOMIAL

COEFFICIENTS
general, (n), = n(n - l)(n - 2) [n - (rl)]/(l x 2 x 3 xr) Other

l)]/(l x 2). (r~)~ =[n(n

l)(n

2)]/(1 x 2 x 3). etc., m

nCr=(nir) = (nJr
(n). m, w,

bid

ml,

Hi

I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ; 6 10 15 21 1 4 10 20 35 5 15 35 70 126 210 330 495 715

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1
6 21 56 126 252 462 792 1 7

a
9

28
36 45 55 66

9 10
11 12 13 14 I5

56 a4
120 165 220 286 364 455

28
64 210 462 924 1.716 3,003 5.005

21
36 120 330 792 1.716 3,432 6,435

1 9 45 165 495 11 2:: 1 12 1

1
1 1

10
11 12

1
1

13
14

78
91

1,287
2,002 3.003

I ,287
3.003 6,435

78
364 1.365

13
91 455

1 14 105

15

105

1.001 1.365

1 001
3.003

l-38

PETRC ILEUM

E :NGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.17-COMMON

LOGARITHMS

(1.OO TO 2.00) Average Difference 4

Number 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1 06 1.07 1.08 109 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1 14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1 21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49

0 0.0000 0.0043 0.0086 0.0128 00170 0.0212 0.0253 0.0294 0.0334 0.0374 0.0414 0.0453 0.0492 0.0531 0.0569 0.0607 0.0645 00682 0.0719 0.0755 0.0792 0.0828 0.0864 0.0899 0.0934 0.0969 0.1004 0.1038 0.1072 01106 0.1139 0.1173 0.1206 0.1239 0.1271 0.1303 0.1335 0.1367 0.1399 0.1430 0.1461 01492 0.1523 0.1553 0.1584 0.1614 0 1644 0.1673 0.1703 0.1732

1 0.0004 0.0048 0.0090 0.0133 00175 0.0216 0.0257 0.0298 0.0338 0.0378 0.0418 0.0457 0 0496 0.0535 00573 0.0611 0.0648 0.0686 0.0722 0.0759 0 0795 0.0831 0.0867 0.0903 0.0938 0.0973 0.1007 0 1041 01075 0.1109 0.1143 01176 0.1209 0.1242 0.1274 0.1307 0.1339 0.1370 0.1402 0.1433 0.1464 0.1495 0.1526 0.1556 0.1587 0.1617 0.1647 0.1676 0.1706 0.1735

2 0.0009 0.0052 0.0095 0.0137 0.0179 0.0220 0.0261 0.0302 0.0342 0.0382 0.0422 0.0461 0 0500 0.0538 0.0577 0.0615 0.0652 0.0689 0.0726 0.0763 0.0799 0.0835 0.0871 0.0906 0.0941 0.0976 0.1011 0.1045 0.1079 0.1113 0.1146 0.1179 0.1212 0.1245 0.1278 0.1310 0.1342 0.1374 0 1405 0.1436 0.1467 0.1498 0.1529 01559 0.1590 0.1620 0.1649 0.1679 01708 0.1738

3 0.0013 0.0056 a0099 6.0141 0.0183 0.0224 0.0265 0.0306 0.0346 0.0386 00426 00465 00504 0.0542 00580 0.0618 00656 0.0693 0.0730 0.0766 0.0803 0.0839 0.0874 0.0910 0.0945 0.0980 0.1014 0.1048 0.1082 0.1116 0.1149 0.1183 0.1216 0.1248 0.1281 01313 0.1345 0.1377 0.1408 0.1440 0.1471 01501 01532 0.1562 0.1593 0.1623 0.1652 0.1682 01711 0.1741

4 o.0017 0.0060 0.0103 0.0145 0.0187 0.0228 0.0269 0.0310 0.0350 0.0390 00430 0 0469 00508 00546 00584 0.0622 0.0660 0 0697 00734 00770 00806 00842 0.0878 0.0913 0.0948 0 0983 01017 0.1052 01086 01119 01153 01186 0.1219 0 1252 01284 01316 0 1348 0.1380 01411 0 1443 01474 01504 01535 0.1565 01596 0.1626 0 1655 0.1685 01714 0.1744

5 o.0022 0.0065 0.0107 0.0149 0.0191 0.0233 0.0273 0.0314 0.0354 0.0394 0.0434 0.0473 0.0512 0.0550 00588 0.0626 0.0663 0.0700 0.0737 0.0774 0.0810 0.0846 0.0881 0.0917 0.0952 0.0986 0.1021 0.1055 0.1089 0.1123 0.1156 0.1189 0.1222 0.1255 0.1287 0.1319 0.1351 0.1383 0.1414 0.1446 0.1477 01508 0.1538 0.1569 0.1599 0.1629 0.1658 0.1688 01717 0.1746

6 0.0026 0.0069 0.0111 0.0154 0.0195 0.0237 0.0278 0.0318 0.0358 0.0398 0.0438 0.0477 0.0515 0.0554 0.0592 0.0630 0.0667 0.0704 0.0741 0.0777 0.0813 0.0849 0.0885 0.0920 0.0955 0.0990 0.1024 0.1059 0.1092 0.1126 0.1159 0.1193 0.1225 0.1258 0.1290 0.1323 0.1355 0.1386 0.1418 0.1449 0.1480 0.1511 0.1541 0.1572 0.1602 0.1632 0.1661 0.1691 0.1720 0.1749 0.0030 0.0073 0.0116 0.0158 0.0199 0.0241 0.0282 0.0322 0.0362 0.0402 0.0441 0.0481 0.0519 0.0558 0.0596 0.0633 0.0671 0.0708 0.0745 0.0781 0.0817 0.0853 0.0888 0.0924 0.0959 0.0993 0.1028 0.1062 0.1096 0.1129 0.1163 0.1196 0.1229 0.1261 0.1294 0.1326 0.1358 0.1389 0.1421 0.1452 0.1483 0.1514 0.1544 0.1575 0.1605 0.1635 0.1664 0.1694 0.1723 0.1752

8 0.0035 0.0077 00120 0.0162 0.0204 00245 0.0286 0.0326 0.0366 00406 00445 00484 00523 00561 0 0599 00637 00674 00711 0.0748 00785 0.0821 00856 0 0892 0 0927 0 0962 0.0997 01031 01065 0.1099 0.1133 01166 0.1199 01232 01265 01297 01329 01361 01392 01424 01455 01486 01517 01547 01578 01608 01638 01667 0.1697 01726 01755

9 0.0039 0.0082 0.0124 0.0166 0.0208 0.0249 0.0290 0.0330 0.0370 0.0410 0.0449 0.0488 0.0527 0.0565 0.0603 0.0641 0.0678 0.0715 0.0752 0.0788 0.0824 0.0860 0.0896 0.0931 0.0966 0.1000 0.1035 0.1069 0.1103 0.1136 0.1169 0.1202 0.1235 0.1268 0.1300 0.1332 0.1364 0.1396 0.1427 0.1458 0.1489 0.1520 0.1550 01581 0.1611 0.1641 0 1670 01700 0.1729 0.1758

Moving the decimal polntn places to the right (orleft) In the number requiresadding +n (or-n) in the body of the table See Table 1.18.

MATHEMATICALTABLES

& UNITS

&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&

MEASURES

I-39

TABLE 1.17-COMMON

LOGARITHMS (1.00 TO 2.00) (continued)


Average Difference 3

Number

0 0.1761 0.1790 0.1818 0.1847 0.1875 0.1903 01931 0.1959 0.1987 02014 02041 0.2068 0.2095 02122 02148 02175 0.2201 02227 02253 0 2279 02304 02330 0.2355 0.2380 0.2405 02430 0.2455 0.2480 0.2504 0.2529 0.2553 0 2577 0.2601 0.2625 0.2648 0.2672 0 2695 0.2718 0.2742 0.2765 0.2788 0.2810 0.2833 0.2856 0.2878 0.2900 0.2923 0.2945 0.2967 0.2989

1 0.1764 0.1793 0.1821 0.1850 0.1878 0.1906 0.1934 0.1962 0.1989 0.2017 0.2044 0.2071 0.2098 0.2125 0.2151 0.2177 0.2204 0.2230 0.2256 0.2281 0.2307 0.2333 0.2358 0.2383 0.2408 0.2433 0.2458 0.2482 0.2507 0.2531 0.2555 0.2579 0.2603 0.2627 0.2651 0.2674 0.2697 0.2721 0.2744 0.2767 0.2790 0.2813 0.2835 0.2858 0.2880 0.2903 0.2925 0.2947 0.2969 0.2991

2 0.1767 0.1796 0.1824 0.1853 0.1881 0.1909 0.1937 0.1965 0.1992 0.2019 0.2047 0.2074 0.2101 0.2127 0.2154 0.2180 0.2206 0.2232 0.2258 0.2284 0.2310 0.2335 0.2360 0.2385 0.2410 0.2435 0.2460 0.2485 0.2509 0.2533 0.2558 0.2582 0.2605 0.2629 0.2653 0.2676 0.2700 0.2723 0.2746

3 0.1770 0.1798 0.1827 0.1855 0.1884 0.1912 0.1940 0.1967 0.1995 0.2022 0.2049 0.2076 0.2103 0.2130 0.2156 0.2183 0.2209 0.2235 0.2261 0.2287 0.2312 0.2338 0.2363 0.2388 0.2413 0.2438 0.2463 02487 0.2512 0.2536 0.2560 0.2584 02608 0.2632 02655 02679 0.2702 0.2725 0 2749 0.2772 0.2794 0.2817 02840 02862 02885 0 2907 0 2929 0.2951 0.2973 0.2995

4 0.1772 0 1801 0.1830 0.1858 0.1886 0.1915 0.1942 0.1970 0.1998 0.2025 0.2052 0.2079 0.2106 0.2133 0.2159 0.2185 0.2212 0.2238 0.2263 0.2289 0.2315 0.2340 0.2365 0.2390 0.2415 0.2440 0.2465 0.2490 0.2514 0.2538 0.2562 0.2586 0.2610 0.2634 0.2658 0.2681 0.2704 0.2728 0.2751 0.2774 0.2797 0.2819 0.2842 0.2865 0.2887 0.2909 0.2931 0.2953 0.2975 0.2997

5 0.1775 0.1804 0.1833 0.1861 0.1889 0.1917 0.1945 0.1973 0.2000 0.2028 0.2055 0.2082 0.2109 0.2135 0.2162 0.2188 0.2214 0.2240 0.2266 0.2292 0.2317 0.2343 0.2368 0.2393 0.2418 0.2443 0.2467 0.2492 0.2516 0.2541 0.2565 0.2589 0.2613 0.2636 0.2660 0.2683 0.2707 0.2730 0.2753 0.2776 0.2799 0.2822 0.2844 0.2867 0.2889 0.2911 0.2934 0.2956 0.2978 0.2999

6 0.1778 0.1807 0.1836 0.1864 0.1892 0.1920 0.1948 0.1976 0.2003 0.2030 0.2057 0.2084 0.2111 0.2138 0.2164 0.2191 0.2217 0.2243 0.2269 0.2294 0.2320 0.2345 0.2370 0.2395 0.2420 0.2445 0.2470 0.2494 0.2519 0.2543 0.2567 0.2591 0.2615 0.2639 0.2662 0.2686 0.2709 0.2732 0.2755 0.2778 0.2801 0.2824 0.2847 0.2869 0.2891 0.2914 0.2936 0.2958 0.2980 0.3002

7 0.1781 0.1810 0.1838 0.1867 0.1895 0.1923 0.1951 0.1978 0.2006 0.2033 0.2060 0.2087 0.2114 0.2140 0.2167 0.2193 0.2219 0.2245 0.2271 0.2297 0.2322 0.2348 0.2373 0.2398 0.2423 0.2448 0.2472 0.2497 0.2521 0.2545 0.2570 0.2594 0.2617 0.2641 0.2665 0.2688 0.2711 0.2735 0.2758 0.2781 0.2804 0.2826 0.2849 0.2871 0.2894 0.2916 0.2938 0.2960 0.2982 0.3004

8 01784 0 1813 0.1841 0 1870 0.1898 01926 01953 0.1981 0.2009 0.2036 0.2063 0.2090 0.2117 0.2143 0.2170 0.2196 0.2222 02248 02274 0.2299 02325 0.2350 02375 02400 0.2425 0.2450 0.2475 0 2499 02524 0.2548 0.2572 0.2596 0.2620 02643 0.2667 0.2690 0 2714 0.2737 0.2760 0.2783 02806 0.2828 0.2851 0.2874 0.2896 0.2918 0.2940 0.2962 0.2984 0.3006

9 0.1787 0.1816 0.1844 0 1872 0.1901 0.1928 0.1956 0.1984 0.2011 0.2038 0.2066 0.2092 0.2119 0.2146 0.2172 0.2198 0.2225 0.2251 0.2276 0.2302 0.2327 0.2353 0.2378 0.2403 0.2428 0.2453 0.2477 0.2502 0.2526 0.2550 0.2574 0.2598 0.2622 0.2646 0.2669 0.2693 0.2716 0.2739 0.2762 0.2785 0.2808 0 2831 0.2853 0.2876 0.2898 0.2920 0.2942 0.2964 0.2986 0.3008

1 so
1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60 1.61 1 62 1 63 1.64 1.65 1.66 167 1.68 1.69

1.70
1.71 1 72 1 73 1.74 1.75 176 1.77 1.78 1.79 1.80 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.84 1.85 1.86 1.87 1.88 1 89 1.90 1.91 1 92 1 93 194 195 196 197 1 98 1 99

0.2769 0.2792
0.2815 0.2838 0.2860 0.2882 0.2905 0.2927 0.2949 0.2971 0.2993

Mowng the decimal pointn places 10 the right [orleft)in the number requiresadding +n (or-r?) in the body of the table See Table 1.18

I-40

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLEl.lB-COMMON

LOGARITHMS

Number 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 31 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 52 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 59

0 0.0000 0.0414 0.0792 0.1139 0.1461 0.1761 0.2041 0.2304 0.2553 0.2788 0.3010 0.3222 0.3424 03617 0.3802 0.3979 0.4150 04314 04472 0.4624 0.4771 0 4914 0.5051 0.5185 0.5315 0.5441 0.5563 0.5682 0.5798 0.5911 0.6021 0.6128 0.6232 0.6335 0.6435 0.6532 0.6628 0.6721 0.6812 0.6902 0.6990 0.7076 0.7160 0.7243 0.7324 0.7404 0.7482 0.7559 0.7634 0.7709

1 0.0043 0.0453 0.0828 0.1173 0.1492 0.1790 0.2068 0.2330 0.2577 0.2810 0.3032 0.3243 0.3444 0.3636 0.3820 0.3997 0.4166 0.4330 04487 0.4639 0.4786 0.4928 0.5065 0.5198 0.5328 0.5453 0.5575 0.5694 0.5809 0.5922 0.6031 0.6138 0.6243 0.6345 0.6444 0.6542 0.6637 0.6730 0.6812 0.6911 0.6998 0.7084 0.7168 0.7251 0.7332 0.7412 0 7490 0.7566 0.7642 0.7716

2 __ 0.0086 0.0492 0.0864 0.1206 0.1523 0.1818 0.2095 0.2355 0.2601 0.2833 0.3054 0.3263 0.3464 0.3655 0.3838 0.4014 0.4183 0.4346 0.4502 0.4654 0.4800 0.4942 0.5079 0.5211 0.5340 0.5465 0.5587 0.5705 0.5821 0.5933 0.6042 0.6149 0.6253 0.6355 0.6454 0.6551 0.6646 0.6739 0.6830 0.6920 0.7007 0.7093 0.7177 0.7259 0.7340 0.7419 0.7497 0.7574 0.7649 0.7723

3 ~ 0.0128 0.0531 0.0899 0.1239 0.1553 0.1847 0.2122 0.2380 0.2625 0.2856 0.3075 0.3284 0.3483 0.3674 0.3856 0.4031 04200 0.4362 04518 0.4669 0.4814 0.4955 0.5092 0.5224 0.5353 0.5478 0.5599 0.5717 0.5832 0.5944 0.6053 0.6160 0.6263 0.6365 0.6464 0.6561 0.6656 0.6749 0.6839 0 6928 0.7016 0.7101 0.7185 07267 07348 07427 0.7505 07582 07657 07731

4 ~ 0 0170 0.0569 0 0934 0.1271 0.1584 01875 0.2148 0.2405 0.2648 0.2878 0.3096 0.3304 0.3502 0.3692 0.3874 0.4048 04216 0.4378 0.4533 0.4683 0.4829 0.4969 0.5105 0.5237 0.5366 0.5490 0.5611 0.5729 0.5843 0.5955 0.6064 0.6170 0.6274 0.6375 0.6474 06571 0.6665 0.6758 0.6848 0.6937 0.7024 07110 0.7193 0.7275 07356 0.7435 0.7513 0.7589 0.7664 0.7738

5 0.0212 0.0607 0.0969 0.1303 0.1614 0.1903 0.2175 0.2430 0.2672 0.2900 0.3118 0.3324 0.3522 0.3711 0.3892 0.4065 0.4232 0.4393 0.4548 0.4698 0.4843 0.4983 0.5119 0.5250 0.5378 0.5502 0.5623 0.5740 0.5855 0.5966 0.6075 0.6180 0.6284 0.6385 0.6484 0.6580 0.6675 0.6767 0.6857 0.6946 0.7033 0.7118 0.7202 0.7284 0.7364 0.7443 0.7520 0.7597 0.7672 0.7745

6 0.0253 0.0645 0.1004 0.1335 0.1644 0.1931 0.2201 0.2455 0.2695 0.2923 0.3139 0.3345 0.3541 0.3729 0.3909 0.4082 0.4249 0.4409 0.4564 0.4713 0.4857 0.4997 0.5132 0.5263 0.5391 0.5514 0.5635 0.5752 0.5866 0.5977 0.6085 0.6191 0.6294 0.6395 0.6493 0.6590 0.6684 0.6776 0.6866 0.6955 0.7042 0.7126 0.7210 0.7292 0.7372 0.7451 0.7528 0.7604 0.7679 0.7752

7 0.0294 0.0682 0.1038 0.1367 0.1673 0.1959 0.2227 0.2480 0.2718 0.2945 0.3160 0.3365 0.3560 0.3747 0.3927 0.4099 0.4265 0.4425 0.4579 0.4728 0.4871 0.5011 0.5145 0.5276 0.5403 0.5527 0.5647 0.5763 0.5877 0.5988 0.6096 0.6201 0.6304 0.6405 0.6503 0.6599 0.6693 0.6785 0.6875 0.6964 0.7050 0.7135 0.7218 0.7300 0.7380 0.7459 0.7536 0.7612 0.7686 0.7760

8 0.0334 0.0719 0.1072 0.1399 0.1703 0.1987 0.2253 0.2504 0.2742 0.2967 0.3181 0.3385 0.3579 0.3766 0.3945 0.4116 04281 0.4440 0.4594 0.4742 0.4886 0.5024 0.5159 0.5289 0.5416 0.5539 0.5658 0.5775 0.5888 0.5999 0.6107 0.6212 0.6314 0.6415 0.6513 0.6609 0.6702 0.6794 0.6884 0.6972 0.7059 0.7143 0.7226 0.7308 0.7388 0.7466 0.7543 0.7619 0.7694 07767

9 0.0374 0.0755 0.1106 0.1430 0.1732 0.2014 0.2279 0.2529 0.2765 0.2989 0.3201 0.3404 0.3598 0.3784 0.3962 0.4133 0.4298 0.4456 0.4609 0.4757 0.4900 0.5038 0.5172 0.5302 0.5428 0.5551 0.5670 0.5786 0.5899 0.6010 0.6117 0.6222 0.6325 0.6425 0.6522 0.6618 0.6712 0.6803 0.6893 0.6981 0.7067 0.7152 0.7235 0.7316 0.7396 0.7474 0.7551 0.7627 0.7701 0.7774

Average Difference See See See See See See See See See See Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 21 20 19 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 13 12 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 8' 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17

This tablegivesthecommon logarithms of numbers between 1 and 10,correcltofourplaces.Moving the decimalpointn places to the right (or left) in the number is equivalentto adding n (or -n) to the logarithm. Thus, log 0.017453=0.2419-2, which may also be written2.2419 or 8.2419- 10. For example, log(ab)=log a+log b, log (aN)=N log a, log(alb)=loga-log b, and log(?'a)=l/N log a.

MATHEMATlCALTABLES&

UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&

MEASURES

l-41

TABLE

1.18- -COMMON

LOGARITHMS

(continued)

Number 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 76 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 81 82 8.3 8.4 85 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9

0 0.7782 0.7853 0.7924 0.7993 0.8062 0.8129 0.8195 0.8261 0.8325 0.8388 0.8451 0.8513 0.8573 0.8633 0.8692 0.8751 0.8808 0.8865 0.8921 0.8976 0.9031 0.9085 09138 0.9191 0 9243 0 9294 0.9345 0.9395 0.9445 0.9494 0.9542 0.9590 0.9638 0.9685 0.9731 0.9777 0.9823 0.9868 0.9912 0.9956

1 0.7789 0.7860 0.7931 0.8000 0.8069 0.8136 0.8202 0.8267 0.8331 0.8395 0.8457 0.8519 0.8579 0.8639 0.8698 0.8756 0.8814 0.8871 0.8927 0.8982 0.9036 0.9090 09143 0.9196 0 9248 0.9299 0.9350 0.9400 0.9450 0.9499 0.9547 0.9595 0.9643 0.9689 0.9736 0.9782 0.9827 0.9872 0.9917 0.9961

2 07796 07868 0.7938 0.8007 0.8075 0.8142 0.8209 0.8274 0.8338 0.8401 0.8463 0.8525 0.8585 0.8645 0.8704 0.8762 0.8820 0.8876 0.8932 0.8987 0.9042 0.9096 0.9149 0.9201 0.9253 0.9304 0.9355 0.9405 0.9455 0.9504 0.9552 0.9600 0.9647 0.9694 0.9741 0.9786 0.9832 0.9877 0.9921 0.9965

3 0.7803 0.7875 0.7945 0.8014 0.8082 0.8149 0.8215 0.8280 0.8344 0.8407 0.8470 0.8531 0.8591 0.8651 0.8710 0.8768 0.8825 0.8882 0.8938 0.8993 0.9047 0.9101 0.9154 0.9206 0.9258 0.9309 0.9360 0.9410 0.9460 0.9509 0.9557 0.9605 0.9652 0.9699 0.9745 0.9791 0.9836 0.9881 0.9926 0.9969

4 0.7810 0.7882 0.7952 0.8021 0.8089 0.8156 0.8222 0.8287 0.8351 0.8414 0.8476 0.8537 0.8597 0.8657 0.8716 0.8774 0.8831 0.8887 0.8943 0.8998 0 9053 0.9106 09159 0.9212 0.9263 0.9315 0.9365 0.9415 0.9465 0.9513 0.9562 0.9609 0.9657 0.9703 0.9750 0.9795 0.9841 0.9886 0.9930 0.9974

5 0.7818 0.7889 0.7959 0.8028 0.8096 0.8162 0.8228 0.8293 0.8357 0.8420 0.8482 0.8543 0.8603 0.8663 0.8722 0.8779 0.8837 0.8893 0.8949 0.9004 0.9058 0.9112 0.9165 0.9217 0 9269 0.9320 0.9370 0.9420 0.9469 0.9518 0.9566 0.9614 0.9661 0.9708 0.9754 0.9800 0.9845 0.9890 0.9934 0.9978

6 0.7825 0.7896 0.7966 0.8035 0.8102 0.8169 0.8235 0.8299 0.8363 0.8426 0.8488 0.8549 0.8609 0.8669 0.8727 0.8785 0.8842 0.8899 0.8954 0.9009 0.9063 0.9117 0.9170 0.9222 0.9274 0.9325 0.9375 0.9425 0.9474 0.9523 0.9571 0.9619 0.9666 0.9713 0.9759 0.9805 0.9850 0.9894 0.9939 0.9983

7 0.7832 0.7903 0.7973 0.8041 0.8109 0.8176 0.8241 0.8306 0.8370 0.8432 0.8494 0.8555 0.8615 0.8675 0.8733 0.8791 0.8848 0.8904 0.8960 0.9015 0.9069 0.9122 0.9175 0.9227 0.9279 0.9330 0.9380 0.9430 0.9479 0.9528 0.9576 0.9624 0.9671 0.9717 0.9763 0.9809 0.9854 0.9899 0.9943 0.9987

8 0.7839 0.7910 0.7980 0.8048 0.8116 0.8182 0.8248 0.8312 0.8376 0.8439 0.8500 0.8561 0.8621 0.8681 0.8739 0.8797 0.8854 0.8910 0.8965 0.9020 0.9074 0.9128 09180 0.9232 0.9284 0.9335 0.9385 0.9435 0.9484 0.9533 0.9581 0.9628 0.9675 0.9722 0.9768 0.9814 0.9859 0.9903 0.9948 0.9991

9 0.7846 0.7917 0.7987 0.8055 0.8122 0.8189 0.8254 0.8319 0.8382 0.8445 0.8506 0.8567 0.8627 0.8686 0.8745 0.8802 0.8859 0.8915 0.8971 0.9025 0.9079 0.9133 0.9186 0.9238 0.9289 0.9340 0.9390 0.9440 0.9489 0.9538 0.9586 0.9633 0.9680 0.9727 0.9773 0.9818 0.9863 0.9908 0.9952 0.9996

Average Difference

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4

109 v=o

4971 log &2=0

1961, log $t2=09943

log \,<=02466.

log e-04343,

and log (04343)=06378-

1-42

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.19-DEGREES

AND

MINUTES

EXPRESSED

IN RADIANS Minutes 0.0089 0.0091 0.0093 0.0094 0.0096 0.0098 0.0099 0.0101 0.0103 0.0105 0.0106 0.0108 0.0110 0.0112 0.0113 0.0115 0.0117 0.0119 0.0120 0.0122 0.0124 0.0126 0.0127 0.0129 0.0131 0.0133 0.0134 0.0136 0.0138 0.0140 0.0141 0.0143 0.0145 0.0147 0.0148 0.0150 0.0152 0.0154 0.0155 0.0157 0.0159 0.0161 0.0162 0.0164 0.0166 0.0168 0.0169 0.0171 0.0173 0.0175 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 0.0003 0.0006 00009 0.0012 0.0015 0.0017 0.0020 00023 0.0026 0.0029 0.0032 0.0035 0.0038 0.0041 0.0044 00047 0.0049 00052 0.0055 0.0058 0.0061 0.0064 0.0067 0.0070 0.0073 0.0076 0.0079 0.0081 00084 0.0087 0.0090 0.0093 0.0096 0.0099 0.0102 0.0105 00108 0.0111 0.0113 0.0116 0.0119 0.0122 0.0125 0.0128 0.0131 00134 0.0137 0.0140 00143 0.0145 00148 0.0151 00154 00157 00160 0.0163 0.0166 0.0169 0.0172 0.0175

Degrees 1 2 3 4 5 6 L 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 00175 0.0349 0.0524 0.0698 0.0873 0.1047 0.1222 0 1396 01571 0.1745 0.1920 0.2094 0.2269 02443 02618 0 2793 0.2967 0.3142 0.3316 0.3491 0.3665 0.3840 0.4014 0.4189 0.4363 0.4538 0.4712 0.4887 0.5061 0.5236 0.5411 0.5585 0.5760 0.5934 0.6109 0.6283 0.6458 0.6632 0.6807 0.6981 0.7156 0.7330 0.7505 0.7679 0.7854 0.8029 0.8203 0.8378 0.8552 0.8727 0 8901 0.9076 0.9250 0.9425 0 9599 0.9774 0 9948 1.0123 1.0297 1.0472 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 1.0647 1.0821 1.0996 1.1170 1.1345 1.1519 1.1694 1.1868 1.2043 1.2217 1.2392 1.2566 1.2741 12915 1.3090 1.3265 1.3439 1.3614 1.3788 1.3963 1.4137 1.4312 1.4486 1.4661 1.4835 1.5010 1.5184 1.5359 1.5533 1.5708 1.5882 1.6057 1.6232 1.6406 1.6581 1.6755 1.6930 1 7104 1.7279 1.7453 1.7628 1.7802 1.7977 1.8151 18326 18500 1.8675 1.8850 1.9024 1.9199 1.9373 1.9548 1.9722 1.9897 20071 2.0246 2.0420 2.0595 2.0769 2.0944 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 2.1118 2.1293 2.1468 21642 2.1817 21991 2.2166 22340 2.2515 22689 2.2864 23038 2.3213 2.3387 23562 2.3736 2.3911 24086 24260 2.4435 2.4609 2.4784 2.4958 2.5133 25307 25482 2.5656 2.5831 2.6005 2.6180 2.6354 2.6529 2.6704 2.6878 27053 27227 2.7402 2.7576 2.7751 2.7925 2.8100 2.8274 28449 2.8623 28798 2.8972 29147 2.9322 2.9496 2.9671 2.9845 3.0020 3.0194 3.0369 3.0543 3.0718 3.0892 3.1067 3.1241 3.1416 O.Ol 00.02 00 03 00.04 00.05 OO.06 00.07 O" 08 00.09 00.10 00.11 00 12 00.13 00.14 00.15 OO.16 00.17 OO.18 00.19 00.20 00.21 00.22 OO.23 OO.24 OO.25 0".26 00.27 OO.28 00 29 0".30 00.31 0".32 00.33 00.34 00.35 OO.36 00.37 0".38 00.39 OO.40 00.41 OO.42 0043 00.44 00.45 OO.46 00 47 OO.48 00.49 00.50

Hundredths 00002 00003 0.0005 00007 0.0009 0.0010 00012 00014 0.0016 00017 0.0019 00021 0.0023 00024 00026 00028 00030 0.0031 00033 00035 00037 0.0038 0.0040 0.0042 00044 00045 00047 0.0049 0.0051 0.0052 0.0054 00056 0.0058 0.0059 0.0061 0.0063 0.0065 0.0066 0.0068 0.0070 0.0072 0.0073 0.0075 0.0077 0.0079 0.0080 00082 0.0084 0.0086 0.0087 OO.51 OO.52 00.53 00 54 00.55 OO.56 00.57 OO.58 00.59 OO.60 OO.61 OO.62 OO.63 OO.64 0".65 00.66 OO.67 00.68 OO.69 00.70 00.71 OO.72 00.73 00.74 00.75 OO.76 00.77 00.78 00.79 00.80 OO.81 0".82 OO.83 0".84 OO.85 00.86 OO.87 00.88 OO.89 00.90 00.91 00.92 00.93 00.94 00.95 OO.96 00.97 0".98 00.99 10.00

a5
86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

Arc ,=00,74533. Arc ,=0000290888,Arc See aim Table 1 40

1~=000000484814

1 radnn

= 570295780=571707468=57017440806

MATHEMATICALTABLE

!S & UIVlTS&

SYSTEMSOFWEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-43

TABLEl.PO-RADIANSEXPRESSED 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 042 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63 00.57 10.15 I" 72 20.29 20.86 30.44 40.01 4O.58 5O.16 50.73 6O.30 60.88 70.45 8O.02 8O.59 90.17 90.74 100.31 lo".89 II='.46 12O.03 12O.61 13O.18 130.75 14O.32 140.90 150.47 16O.04 16O.62 170.19 17".76 18O.33 18O.91 IgO. 2OO.05 2OO.63 210.20 210.77 22O.35 220.92 230.49 24O.06 24O.64 25O.21 25".78 26O.36 26O.93 27O.50 28".07 28O.65 290.22 290.79 300.37 30".94 310.51 320.09 32O.66 33O.23 33O.80 34O.38 34O.95 35O.52 36O.10 0 64 0.65 066 0 67 0.68 0 69 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80 081 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 36O 67 37".24 37O.82 38O.39 38O .96 39".53 400.11 4OO.68 41O.25 41".83 42O.40 42O.97 430.54 44O.12 44O.69 45O.26 45O.84 46O.41 46O.98 47O.56 480.13 48O.70 49O.27 49O .85 5OO.42 500.99 510.57 52O.14 52O.71 530.29 53O.86 540.43 550.00 55O.58 56O.15 56O.72 570.30 57O.87 58".44 590.01 590.59 600.16 6OO.73 61O.31 610.88 62O.45 63'=.03 63O.60 64O.17 64O.74 65O.32 65O.89 66'=.46 67O.04 67O.61 680.18 68O.75 69".33 69".90 7OO.47 71O.05 71O.62 72O.19 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.66 1.67 1.68 1.69 1.70 171 172 173 1.74 1.75 1.76 1.77 1.78 1.79 1.80 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.84 1.85 1.86 1.87 1.88 1.89 72O.77 730.34 73" 91 74' 48 75O.06 75'63 76O.20 76".78 770.35 770.92 780.50 790.07 79O.64 8OO.21 8OO.79 81O.36 81O.93 82O.51 83O.08 83O.65 84O.22 84O.80 85".37 85O.94 86O.52 87O.09 87O.66 88O.24 880.81 89O.38 89".95 900.53 910.10 91 67 920.25 92O 82 930.39 930 97 940.54 950.11 95O.68 96O.26 96O.83 97O.40 97O.98 98O.55 99O.12 99O.69 lOOO.27 loo='.84 1010.41 1010.99 102O.56 1030.13 1030.71 104O.28 104O.85 105O.42 106.00 106O.57 107O.14 107O.72 108O.29 1.90 1.91 1.92 1.93 1.94 1.95 1.96 1.97 1.98 1.99 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 2.39 2.40 2.41 2.42 2.43 2.44 2.45 2.46 2.47 2.48 2.49 2.50 2.51 2.52 108O.86 1090.43 110~.01 IlOO. 1110.15 1110.73 112O.30 112O.87 1130.45 114O.02 1140.59 115".16 1150.74 116O.31 1160.88 117O.46 118.03 1180.60 119O.18 1190.75 12OO.32 12OO.89 121O.47 1220.04 122O.61 123O.19 123O.76 124O.33 124O.90 125O.48 126O.05 126O.62 127O.20 127O.77 128O.34 128O.92 1290.49 130a.06 13OO.63 131O.21 131O.78 132O.35 132O.93 133O.50 134O.07 134O.65 135O.22 1350.79 136O.36 136O.94 1370.51 138O.08 138O.66 1390.23 139O.80 1400.37 140".95 141O.52 142O.09 142O.67 143O.24 144O.81 144O.39

IN DEGREES 2.53 2.54 2.55 2.56 2.57 2.58 2.59 2.60 2.61 2.62 2.63 2.64 2.65 2.66 2.67 2.68 2.69 2.70 2.71 2.72 2.73 2.74 2.75 2.76 2.77 2.78 2.79 2.80 2.81 2.82 2.83 2.84 2.85 2.86 2.87 2.88 2.89 2.90 2.91 2.92 2.93 2.94 2.95 2.96 2.97 2.98 2.99 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 144O 96 1450 53 146O IO 146O.68 147O 25 147'82 148O.40 148O.97 1490.54 150~11 15069 151 26 151O.83 152O.41 152O.98 1530.55 1540.13 154O.70 155O.27 155O.84 156O.42 156O .99 157O.56 158O.14 158O.71 159O.28 1590.86 16OO.43 161'.00 161O.57 162O.15 162O.72 163O.29 163O87 164O.44 165O 01 165O.58 166O16 166O.73 167O.30 167O.88 168O.45 169O.02 169O.60 170~.17 1700.74 1710.31 71O.89 72O.46 730.03 73O.61 74O.18 740.75 750.33 750.90 76O.47 1770.04 177O.62 178O.19 178O.76 1790.34 1790.91 18OO.48 lnterpolatlon 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010 0.0012 0.0014 0.0016 0.0018 0.0020 0.0022 0.0024 0.0026 0.0028 0.0030 0.0032 0.0034 0.0036 0.0038 0.0040 0.0042 0.0044 0.0046 0.0048 0.0050 0.0052 0.0054 0.0056 0.0058 0.0060 0.0062 0.0064 0.0066 0.0068 00070 0.0072 0.0074 0.0076 0.0078 0.0080 0.0082 0.0084 0.0086 0.0088 0.0090 0.0092 0.0094 0.0096 0.0098 00.01 00.02 00.03 00 05 0".06 00.07 0".08 OO.09 00.10 00.11 00.13 OO.14 00.15 OO.16 00.17 OO.18 00.19 00.21 00.22 0".23 OO.24 OO.25 OO.26 00.28 00.29 00.30 00.31 OO.32 00.33 00.34 OO.36 00.37 OO.38 00.39 00.40 00.41 OO.42 00.44 OO.45 On.46 00.47 OO.48 00.49 00.50 OO.52 00.53 00.54 OO.55 OO.56

Multiplesof r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO 3.1416 6.2832 9.4248 12.5664 15.7080 18.8496 21.9911 25.1327 28.2743 31.4159 180 360 5400 720 9000 1,080 1,260" 1,4400 1,620" 1.800

l-44

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE
Natural Stnes at Intervalsof O0 01 or 6"

1 .Pl-NATURAL

SINES

AND

COSINES

0.9
Degrees 0.0000 0.0175 0.0349 0.0523 0.0698 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 0.0872 0.1045 0.1219 01392 0.1564 0.1736 01908 02079 0 2250 02419 0.2588 02756 0 2924 03090 0.3256 0.3420 0 3584 03746 0.3907 0.4067 0.4226 04384 0 4540 04695 0 4848 05000 0.5150 05299 0 5446 05592 05736 0.5878 06018 06157 06293 06428 0.6561 0.6691 0 6820 0.6947 0 7071 07193 07314 0 7431 07547 0.0017 00192 00366 00541 0.0715 0.0889 01063 01236 01409 01582 0.1754 0.1925 02096 0.2267 02436 02605 0.2773 0.2940 03107 03272 0.3437 0.3600 0.3762 0.3923 04083 04242 0.4399 04555 04710 0.4863 0.5015 0.5165 0.5314 0.5461 05606 05750 0.5892 06032 06170 06307 06441 0.6574 0.6704 0.6833 0.6959 07083 07206 0.7325 0.7443 0.7559 00035 00209 00384 0.0558 00732 00906 0.1080 0.1253 0.1426 0.1599 0.1771 01942 02113 0.2284 02453 0.2622 0.2790 0 2957 0.3123 0.3289 0.3453 0.3616 0.3778 0.3939 04099 04258 0.4415 0.4571 0.4726 0.4879 0.5030 0.5180 0.5329 0.5476 05621 05764 0.5906 0.6046 06184 0.6320 0.6455 0.6587 06717 06845 06972 07096 07218 07337 07455 07570 00052 00227 0.0401 00576 00750 00070 0.0244 00419 0 0593 00767 0.0941 01115 01288 00087 00262 00436 00610 00785 0.0105 0 0279 00454 0 0628 0 0802 0 0976 01149 01323 01495 01668 0.1840 0.2011 0 2181 02351 0 2521 0.2689 02857 0.3024 03190 03355 0.3518 0.3681 03843 0.4003 04163 0.4321 04478 04633 04787 0 4939 0.0122 0 0297 0.0471 0.0645 00819 0 0993 01167 0 1340 01513 01685 0.1857 02028 0 2198 0.2368 0 2538 0.2706 02074 0.3040 0.3206 0.3371 0.3535 0 3697 0.3859 04019 04179 04337 0.4493 04648 0.4802 0 4955 05105 0 5255 0.5402 0 5548 0 5693 0.5835 0.5976 0.6115 0.6252 0.6388 0.6521 0.8652 0.6782 0.6909 0.7034 0.7157 0 7278 0 7396 0.7513 0.7627 (498') 00140 00314 0.0488 00663 00837 0.1011 0 1184 0.1357 0 1530 0 1702 0.1874 0.2045 0.2215 0.2385 0.2554 02723 0.2890 0 3057 0.3223 0.3387 03551 0.3714 0.3875 0 4035 04195 04352 0.4509 0.4664 0.4818 0.4970 0.5120 0.5270 0.5417 0.5563 0.5707 0.5850 0.5990 0.6129 0.6266 0.6401 0.6534 06665 0.6794 06921 0.7046 0.7169 0 7290 0 7408 0 7524 0 7638 154'1 00157 00332 00506 0.0680 00854 0.1028 01201 01374 01547 01719 0.1891 0.2062 0.2233 0.2402 0.2571 0.2740 0.2907 0.3074 0.3239 0.3404 0.3567 0.3730 0.3891 0.4051 04210 0.4368 0.4524 0.4679 0.4833 0.4985 0.5135 0.5284 0.5432 0.5577 0.5721 0.5864 0.6004 0.6143 0.6280 0.6414 0.6547 0 6678 0 6807 0 6934 0.7059 0 7181 0 7302 0 7420 0 7536 0 7649 01

01 0 (60') 0 0000 0.0175 0 0349 0.0523 0.0698 0.0872 0.1045 0.1219 0.1392 0.1564 0.1736 0.1908 0.2079 0.2250 Degrees 90 89 E 86

Average Difference 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 11

a5
84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40

0.0924
0.1097 0.1271 0.1444 0.1616 0.1788 01959 02130 0.2300 02470 0.2639 0.2807 0 2974 0.3140 03305 0 3469 0.3633 0 3795

0 0958
01132 01305 01478 01650 01822 0.1994 02164 0.2334 0.2504 0.2672 0.2840 0.3007 0.3173 0.3338 03502 0.3665 0.3827

01461
01633 01805 01977 02147 02317 02407 0.2656 02823 0 2990 03156 03322 03486 0.3649 03811 0.3971 04131 0 4289 0.4446 04602 04756 0.4909 0.5060 05210 05358 0.5505 05650 0 5793 0 5934 06074 06211 06347 06481 06613 06743 06871 0 6997 0 7120 07242 07361 07478 0 7593

0.2419
0.2588 0.2756 0.2924 0.3090 0.3256 0.3420 0.3584 03746 0.3907 0.4067 0.4226

0.3955
0.4115 04274 0.4431 0.4586 04741 0.4894 0.5045 0.5195 0.5344 0.5490 05635

0.3987
0.4147 04305 0.4462 0.4617 0.4772 0.4924 0.5075 0.5225 0.5373 0.5519 0.5664 0.5807 0.5948 06088 06225 0.6361 0.6494 06626 06756 06884 0 7009 0.7133 07254 07373 0 7490 07604

0.4384
0.4540 0 4695 0.4848 0.5000 0.5150 0.5299 0.5446 0 5592 05736 0.5878 06018 0.6157 0.6293 0.6428 0.6561 06691 0.6820 0.6947 07071 07193 07314 07431 07547 0 7660 0.0 (0')

0 5090
0.5240 0.5388 0.5534 0.5678 05821 0.5962 0.6101 0 6239 0.6374 0.6508 0.6639 0.6769 0.6896 0.7022 0.7145 0.7266 07385 0 7501 0.7615

0 5779 0.5920
0.6060 06198 0.6334 0.6468 0.6600 0.6730 06858 0 6984 07108 07230 0 7349 07466 07581

8
=;5: ) (46')

(6)

Natural Comes

'For IO' mtervals. see Table 1 24

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS & SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

l-45

TABLE
Natural Smes at Intervals 01 O" 01 or 6"

1.21-NATURAL

SINES

AND

COSINES

(continued)

Degrees 07660 07771 07880 0 7986 0 8090 0 8192 08290 0.8387 08480 08572 08660 0.8746 0.8829 08910 0 8988 0 9063 0.9135 0.9205 0.9272 0 9336 0.9397 0.9455 0.9511 0.9563 0.9613 0.9659 0.9703 0.9744 0.9781 0.9816 0.9848 0 9877 0.9903 0 9925 0.9945 0.9962 0 9976 0 9986 0.9994 0 9998 1.0000 0 7672 0 7782 0 7891 0 7997 08100 0 8202 08300 0.8396 0 8490 0.8581 0 8669 0.8755 0.8830 08918 0.8996 0.9070 0.9143 0.9212 0.9278 0.9342 0.9403 09461 09516 0.9568 0.9617 0.9664 0 9707 0 9748 0 9785 0.9820 0.9851 0 9880 0 9905 0 9928 0 9947 0 9963 0 9977 0 9987 0 9995 0 9999 0.7683 07793 0.7902 0.8007 08111 0.8211 0.8310 0.8406 0.8499 0.8590 08678 08763 0.8846 08926 0.9003 0.9078 0.9150 0.9219 0.9285 0.9348 0.9409 0.9466 0.9521 0.9573 0.9622 0.9668 0.9711 09751 0.9789 0 9823 0.9854 0 9882 0 9907 0 9930 0 9949 0 9965 0 9978 0 9988 0 9995 0 9999

(i3) 0 7694
07804 07912 0 8018 0.8121 08221 0.8320 0.8415 0.8508 0.8599 08686 0.8771 0.8854 0 8934 0.9011 0 9085 0.9157 0.9225 0.9291 0.9354 0.9415 0.9472 0.9527 0.9578 0.9627 0.9673 09715 0.9755 0.9792 0.9826 0.9857 0 9885 0.9910 0 9932 09951 0.9966 0 9979 0.9989 0 9996 0 9999

04

"6 (36') 07716 0 7826 0 7934 0 8039 0 8141 0 8241 08339 08434 0 8526 08616 0 8704 0.8788 0.8670 0 8949 0 9026 09100 0.9171 a.9239 0.9304 0 9367 0.9426 0.9483 0.9537 0.9588 0.9636 0 9681 0 9724 0.9763 0.9799 0.9833 0.9863 0 9890 09914 0 9936 0.9954 0.9969 09981 0 9990 0 9997 10000

(24)
0.7705 0 7615 0 7923 0 8028 0.8131 0.8231 0 8329 0.8425 08517 0.8607 0 8695 0.8780 0.8862 0 8942 09018 0 9092 0.9164 0.9232 0.9298 0.9361 0.9421 0.9478 0.9532 0.9583 0.9632 0.9677 0 9720 0.9759 0.9796 0.9829 0.9860 0.9888 09912 0 9934 0.9952 0.9968 0 9980 0 9990 0 9996 0 9999

(2)
07738 07848 0 7955 0 8059 08161 08261 0.8358 0.8453 08545 0.8634 08721 0.8805 0.8886 08965 0.9041 09114 0.9184 0 9252 0.9317 0.9379 0.9438 0.9494 0 9548 0.9598 0 9646 0 9690 0.9732 09770 0.9806 0.9839 0.9869 0.9895 0.9919 0.9940 0.9957 0.9972 0.9983 0.9992 0.9997 10000

01.0 (i88') 0 7749 0 7859 0 7965 08070 08171 0 8271 08368 08462 08554 08643 0 8729 08813 0 8894 0 8973 0 9048 09121 09191 0 9259 09323 0 9385 09444 0.9500 0 9553 09603 0 9650 0 9694 0.9736 0.9774 09810 0.9842 09871 0.9898 09921 0.9942 0.9959 0.9973 0 9984 0 9993 0.9998 10000 0.7760 0.7869 0.7976 0.8080 0.8181 0.8281 08377 08471 08563 0.8652 08738 0.8821 0.8902 0.8980 0.9056 09128 0.9198 0.9265 0.9330 0.9391 0.9449 0.9505 0.9558 0.9608 0.9655 0.9699 0.9740 0.9778 0.9813 0.9845 0.9874 0.9900 0.9923 0.9943 0.9960 0.9974 0 9985 0.9993 0.9998 10000

Average Degrees 39 38 2 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 :, 0 Difference 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 9 9

Wl
07771 0.7880 0.7986 0.8090 0.8192

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

0.7727
07837 0 7944 0 8049 08151 08251 08348 08443 08536 08625 08712 0 8796 0.8678 0 8957 0 9033 0.9107 0.9178 0.9245 0.9311 0 9373 0.9432 0 9489 0.9542 0.9593 09641 0 9686 0.9728 09767 0.9803 0 9836 0 9866 0.9893 0.9917 0.9938 0.9956 0.9971 0 9982 0.9991 0 9997 10000

0.8290
0.8387 0.8480 0.8572 0.8660 0.8746 0.8829 0.8910 0.8988 0.9063 0.9135 0.9205 0.9272 0.9336 0.9397 0.9455 0.9511 0.9563 0.9613 0.9659 0.9703 0.9744 0.9781 0.9816 0.9848 0.9877 0 9903 0.9925 0.9945 0 9962 0.9976 0 9986 0 9994 0.9998 10000

09 =(54 )

03 (18') ,,"%,

01

(6 )
Natural

'For IO intervals see Table 1 24

l-46

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.22-NATURAL
Natural Tangents 0.0 Degrees =(O') (;8') 0.0017 0.0192 00367 0.0542 0.0717 0.0892 01069 0.1246 0.1423 0.1602 0.1761 0.1962 02144 02327 02512 0 2698 0.2886 0.3076 0.3269 0.3463 0 3659 0.3859 0.4061 04265 04473 04664 0 4899 05117 05340 05566 05797 06032 06273 0.6519 06771 07028 07292 07563 07841 08127 08421 08724 0 9036 0.9358 09691 00035 0.0209 0.0384 0 0559 0 0734 00910 0 1086 01263 01441 0.1620 01799 01980 02162 02345 0.2530 0.2717 0 2905 0.3096 03268 0.3462 0 3679 0 3879 04061 0.4266 0.4494 04706 04921 0.5139 0.5362 0.5589 0.5820 06056 0.6297 06544 0.6796 07054 07319 0 7590 0 7869 08156 08451 08754 0.9067 09391 0 9725 0.0052 0.0227 0.0402 0.0577 0.0752 0.0070 00244 0.0419 0.0594 0.0769 0.0945 0.1122 0.1299 0.1477 0.1655 0.1835 0.2016 0.2199 0.2382 02566 0.2754 0.2943 0.3134 03327 03522 0.3719 0.3919 0.4122 04327 04536 0.4746 0 4964 05184 05407 05635 0.5067 06104 06346 0 6594 0.6847 0.7107 0.7373 0.7646 0.0087 00262 0.0437 00612 00787 00963 0.1139 0.1317 01495 01673 01853 02035 0.2217 02401 02586 02773 0 2962 03153 03346 03541 03739 0 3939 04142 04348 04557 04770 0 4986 05206 05430 05658 0 5890 06128 06371 06619 06873 07133 0 7400 07673 0 7954 08243 08541 08847 09163 0.9490 0 9827 at Intervalsof On.1 or 6"

TANGENTS AND COTANGENTS

".6

0.7 (42') 0.0122 0.0297 0.0472 0.0647 0.0822 0.0998 0.1175 0.1352 0.1530 0.1709 01690 0.2071 0.2254 0.2438 02623 0.2811 0 3000 0 3191 03385 0.3561 0 3779 0.3979 0.4163 0.4390 0.4599 0.4813 0 0140 0.0314 0.0489 0.0664 0 0840 0.1016 0.1192 0.1370 01548 0.1727 0.1908 0.2089 0.2272 0.2456 0.2642 0.2630 0.3019 0.3211 0.3404 03600 0.3799 0.4000 0.4204 0.4411 0.4621 0.4834 0.5051 0.5272 0.5498 0.5727 0.5961 0.6200 0.6445

0.9
(54') 0.0157 0.0332 0.0507 0.0682 00857 0.1033 0.1210 0.1388 0 1566 01745 0.1926 0.2107 0.2290 0.2475 0.2661 0.2849 0.3038 0.3230 0.3424 03620 0.3819 0.4020 0.4224 0.4431 0.4642 04856 05073 0.5295 05520 05750 05985 06224 0 6469 06720 06976 0.7239 0.7508 07785 0.8069 08361 0.8662 08972 0.9293 0 9623 0 9965

"1 0

(361
00105 0.0279 00454 00629 00805 00981 0.1157 01334 01512 0 1691 0.1871 02053 02235 02419 0.2605 0 2792 0.2981 03172 0.3365 0.3561

6301
0.0000 00175 0 0349 0.0524 0 0699 0.0675 01051 01228 0.1405 0.1584 01763 01944 0.2126 02309 0 2493 0 2679 0.2867 03057 03249 0.3443 0.3640 0 3839 0.4040 04245 04452 04663 0.4877 0 5095 05317 05543 05774 06009 06249 0.6494 06745 07002 07265 07536 07813 0 8098 06391 0.8693 0 9004 0 9325 0 9657 10000

Degrees

Average Difference 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 28 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

0 0000
00175 0 0349 00524 0 0699 5 6 7 a 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 00875 0 1051 0 1228 01405 0 1584 01763 01944 02126 0 2309 0 2493 0 2679 02867 03057 0 3249 03443 03640 0 3839 04040 04245 04452 04663 04877 0 5095 0.5317 0.5543 0.5774 0.6009 0.6249 0.6494 0.6745 0.7002 0.7265 0.7536 0.7813 0 8098 06391 0.6693 0 9004 0 9325 0 9657

90 89 88
07 86 65 64 63 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 46 47 46 45

0.0928
0.1104 0.1281 01459 01638 01817 0.1996 0.2180 0.2364 0 2549 02736 0 2924 03115 0 3307 0 3502 0 3699 0 3099 04101 04307 04515 0.4727 0 4942 0.5161 0 5364 0 5612 0.5844 0 6080 0 6322 0 6569 0.6822 07080 0 7346 07618 0.7898 0.8185 0.8481 08785 0.9099 0.9424 0.9759

0.3759 0.3959
0.4163 0.4369 0.4578 04791 05008 0.5228 05452 05681 05914 06152 0.6395 0 6644 0 6899 07159 0.7427 07701

0.5029
0.5250 0.5475 0.5704 0.5938 0.6176 0.6420 0.6669 0.6924 0.7186 0.7454 0.7729 08012 0.8302 0.8601 0 8910 0.9228 0 9556 0.9896

0.6694 0.6950
0.7212 0.7481 0.7757 0.8040 0.8332 08632 0.8941

0 7926
08214 08511 08816 09131 0 9457 0 9793

0.7983
08273 0.8571 0.8678 0.9195 09523 0.9661

0.9260 0.9590 0.9930

".8 (48')

07 142')

'.6

136)

(2,

0.4 (24')

0.3

(18)

(6)
Natural Cotangents

'For 10

intervals

see Table I 24

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

I-47

TABLE 1.22-NATURAL
Natural Tanaenls al Intervalsof 0" 1 0' 6 02 16 I 10035 10392 10761 1 1145 1 1544 1.1960 12393 1.2846 1.3319 13814 14335 14882 15458 16066 16709 1739 1811 1889 1 971 2.059 2.154 2.257 2.367 2.488 2.619 2 762 2921 3.096 3.291 3.511 3.758 4.041 4.366 4.745 5.193 5.730 6.386 7.207 8.264 9.677 11.66 14.67 19.74 30.14 63.66 I12 / 1.0070 1.0428 1.0799 1.1184 1.1585 1.2002 12437 1.2892 1.3367 1.3865 1.4388 14938 1.5517 1.6128 1.6775 1746 1819 1.897 1980 2069 2 164 2267 2379 2.500 2 633 2 778 2937 3.115 3312 3534 3.785 4.071 4402 4.787 5.242 5 789 6.460 7300 8386 9 845 11.91 1506 2045 31 82 71 62 ' "3

TANGENTS AND

COTANGENTS

(continued)

00 =(O 1
45 46 47 40 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 ti7 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 10000 10355 10724 11106 11504 11918 12349 1.2799 1.3270 1.3764 14281 14826 1.5399 1.6003 1.6643 1732 1804 1881 1 963 2.050 2.145 2 246 2.356 2 475 2 605 2747 2.904 3078 3271 3.487 3.732 4.011 4331 4705 5.145 5 671 6.314 7.115 8.144 9 514 11.43 1430 19 0.3 2864 57.29 oc

07 (42 I 1.0141 1.0501 10875 1 1263 11667 1.208R 1.2527 12985 13465 13968 1.4496 1.5051 15637 16255 1.6909 1.760 1.834 1.913 1.997 2.087 2.184 2.289 2.402 2.526 2.660 2808 2.971 3152 3354 3582 3839 4 134 4.474 4.872 5.343 5 912 6612 7495 8.643 10.20 1243 15.90 22 02 3580 95 49 10176 10538 10913 1 1303 1 1708 1.2131 12572 13032 1.3514 14019 14550 1.5108 15697 16319 16977 1767 1842 1.921 2006 2097 2194 2.300 2414 10212 10575 10951 1 1343 11750 12174 12617 13079 13564 14071 1.4605 1.5166 1.5757 1.6383 1.7045 1775 1.849 1.929 2.014 2.106 2204 2.311 2.426 2.552 2.689 2.840 3.006 3.191 3 398 3.630 3.895 4.198 4.548 4959 5.449 6.041 6.772 7.700 8.915 10.58 13.00 16.83 2386 40.92 143.2 1.0247 10612 1.0990 1.1383 1.1792 1.2218 1.2662 1.3127 1.3613 1.4124 1.4659 15224 15818 1.6447 1.7113 1.782 1.857 1937 2023 2.116 2.215 2.322 2.438 2.565 2.703 2.856 3.024 3.211 3420 3.655 3.923 4.230 4586 5.005 5.503 6.107 6.855 7806 9.058 1078 13.30 17.34 2490 4407 191.0

8
(48 ) 1.0283 10649 11028 1 1423 11833 1.2261 12708 13175 13663 14176 14715 15282 15880 16512 17182 1789 1865 1946 2 032 2 125 2225 2 333 2450 2578 2 718 2.872 3 042 3 230 3 442 3 681 3952 4 264 4 625 5050 5 558 6174 6 940 7916 9205 1099 1362 1789 2603 4774 2865

9
(54 ) 1.0319 10686 1 1067 I 1463 1 1875 12305 12753 1.3222 13713 14229 14770 1.5340 15941 1.6577 17251 1797 1873 1.954 2.041 2.135 2236 2.344 2.463 2592 2 733 2.888 3.060 3.251 3465 3 706 3.981 4.297 4.665 5.097 5.614 6.243 7.026 8.028 9.357 11.20 13.95 18.46 2727 52.08 573.0

01 0

(181
10105 10464 10837 1 1224 11626 12045 12482 1.2938 13416 13916 14442 14994 1.5577 16191 16842 1753 1827 1905 1988 2078 2174 2278 2391 2513 2646 2793 2.954 3133 3333 3558 3.812 4102 4.437 4.829 5292 5.850 6.535 7396 a513 1002 12.16 15.46 21 20 33.69 81 a5

(60)
1.0355 1.0724 1.1106 1 1504 1.1918 1.2349 12799 13270 1.3764 1.4281 1.4826 15399 16003 16643 17321 1804 1.881 1.963 2.050 2.145 2.246 2356 2475 2605 2747 2.904 3.078 3 271 3487 3.732 4.011 4.331 4.705 5.145 5 671 6.314 7115 8.144 9.514 11.43 1430 1908 2864 5729 m

Degrees 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 16 17 16 15 14 13 12 11

Average Difference 35 37 38 40 41 43 45 47 49 52 55 57 60 64 67 7 a 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 19 22 24 28 32 37 44 53

2.539
2.675 2.824 2.989 3.172 3.376 3606 3.867 4 165 4.511 4915 5396 5 976 6 691 7 596 8777 10.39 12 71 1635 2290 38.19 1146

10 9 a 7
6 5

0.9
=(54')

0.8 (48')

(2,

0.2

01

0.0

(12)

(0) Natural Cotanoents

(6)

l-48

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.23-NATURAL

SECANTS

AND

COSECANTS

0.0 Degrees =(O) (61,

0.2 (12) 10000 1.0002 10007 1.0016 10027 10041 10059 10079 10103 10130 1.0161 1.0194 1.0231 10271 10315 10363 10413 1.0468 10527 10589 10655 1 0726 10801 1 0880 1.0963 1.1052 1.1145 1.1243 1.1347 1.1456 1.1570 1.1691 1.1818 1.1951 1.2091 12238 12392 12554 1.2725 1.2904 1.3093 13291 1.3499 1.3718 13949 a.0 ) (48') 10000 1.0003 1.0008 1.0017 1.0028 1.0043 1.0061 1.0082 1.0106 10133 1.0164 1.0198 1.0235 10276 10320 1.0367 1.0419 1.0474 1.0533 1.0595 1.0662 1.0733 10808 1.0888 10972 1.1061 1.1155 1.1253 1.1357 1 1467 1.1582 11703 11831 1 1964 12105 1.2253 1.2408 12571 1.2742 12923 13112 13311 13520 13741 13972 07 10000 1.0003 10009 1.0018 10030 10045 10063 10084 1.0108 1.0136 10167 10201 10239 1.0280 10324 10372 10424 10480 10539 10602 10669 10740 10816 10896 10981 1 1070 1 1164 11264 1.1368 1.1478 11594 1.1716 1.1844 1.1978 1.2120 12268 12424 12588 12760 1.2941 1.3131 13331 13542 13763 13996 06 (36 I 10000 1.0003 10010 10019 10031 10046 10065 10086 10111 10139 1.0170 1.0205 1.0243 1.0284 1.0329 10377 1.0429 1.0485 1.0545 10608 10676 1.0748 10824 10904 1.0989 1.1079 1.1174 1 1274 11379 1 1490 11606 1 1728 1 1857 1 1992 12134 1.2283 12440 12605 12778 1.2960 1.3151 1.3352 1.3563 1.3786 14020 a.5 (30')

".6

0.7 (42') 1.0001 10004 10011 10021 10034 10050 10069 1.0091 1.0116 1.0145 10177 1.0212 10251 10293 1.0338 1.0388 1.0440 1.0497 1.0557 1.0622 1.0690 1.0763 10840 1.0921 1.1007 1.1098 1 1194 1.1294 1.1401 1.1512 1.1630 1.1753 1.1883 12020 1.2163 1.2314 12472 1.2639 1.2813 12997 1.3190 13393 13607 13832 1.4069 03 (18')

".8 (48') 10001 1.0005 1.0012 1.0022 10035 10051 1.0071 10093 1.0119 1.0148 10180 10216 10255 1.0297 10343 1.0393 1.0446 1.0503 1.0564 1.0628 1.0697 1.0770 1.0848 1.0929 1.1016 1.1107 .1203 .I305 .1412 1524 1 1642 1766 1897 .2034 2178 1.2329 12489 1.2656 1.2831 13016 1.3210 1.3414 13629 13855 1.4093 02

9 (54') 10001 1.0006 1.0013 10023 10037 10053 10073 10096 10122 10151 10184 10220 1.0259 10302 10348 10398 1.0451 10509 1.0570 1.0635 1.0704 1.0778 1.0856 1.0938 1.1025 1.1117 1 .1213 1 .I315 1 .1423 1 1535 1 1654 1 1779 1 .1910 1 2048 1 2193 12345 12505 12673 1.2849 13035 1.3230 13435 13651 13878 14118

01 0

Average Degrees 90 89 88 87 86 85 04 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Difference

(361
10001 10004 10010 10020 10032 10048 10067 10089 10114 10142 10174 10209 10247 10288 10334 10382 1.0435 10491 10551 10615 10683 1.0755 10832 10913 10998 1 1089 11184 1 1284 1 1390 1 1501 1 1618 1.1741 1 1870 12006 12149 12299 12456 12622 12796 1.2978 1.3171 13373 1.3585 13809 14044 04 (24')

(60I
10000 10002 10006 10014 10024 10038 10055 10075 10098 10125 10154 10187 10223 10263 10306 10353 10403 10457 10515 10576 10642 10711 10785 10864 10946 1 1034 1 1126 1 1223 1 1326 1 1434 11547 1 1666 1 1792 1 1924 12062 12208 12361 12521 1 2690 12868 13054 13250 13456 1.3673 13902 14142 00 (0')

10000 10002 10006 10014 10024 10038 1.0055 1.0075 1 0098 1.0125 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1.0154 1.0187 1.0223 1.0263 10306 10353 10403 10457 10515 10576 10642 10711 t 0785 10864 10946 1 1034 1 1126 11223 1 1326 1 1434 11547 1.1666 1.1792 1.1924 1.2062 1.2208 1.2361 12521 12690 1.2868 1.3054 13250 13456 13673 1 3902

1 0000 10002 10007 1.0015 10026 1.0040 10057 10077 10101 10127 1.0157 1.0191 1.0227 1.0267 1.0311 10358 1.0408 1.0463 10521 1.0583 1.0649 10719 10793 1.0872 1.0955 1.1043 11136 11233 1 1336 1 1445 11559 1 1679 11805 1 1937 12076 12223 1.2376 1.2538 12708 1.2886 1.3073 13270 1.3478 13696 13925 0.9 =(54

(42)

(12)

Natural Cotanoents

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS & SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

I-49

TABLE 1.23-NATURAL
Natural Secants at Intervalsof OO.1 or 6" "0 Deqrees 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 :: 84 85 66 a7 88 89 90 =10 ) 14142 1.4396 14663 14945 15243 15557 15890 16243 16616 17013 17434 17883 18361 18871 19416 2 000 2063 2 130 2 203 2.261 2366 2459 2 559 2669 2 790 2924 3072 3 236 3420 3 628 3.864 4134 4445 4 810 5 241 5759 6 392 7 185 8 206 9567 11.47 14.34 1911 2865 5730
m

SECANTS AND COSECANTS (continued)

0 1 (6 ) 1.4167 1.4422 1.4690 1.4974 1.5273 1.5590 1.5925 16279 16655 17054 1.7476 1.7929 18410 1.8924 1.9473 2006 2069 2.137 2.210 2.289 2375 2468 2570 2661 2.603 2938 3087 3.254 3.440 3650 3.889 4163 4.479 4.850 5.288 5.816 6.464 7.276 a.324 9.728 11.71 14.70 19.77 30.16 6366

02

"3

04 (24 I 14242 14501 14774 15062 15366 1.5686 1.6029 16390 1.6772 1.7179 17610 18070 1.8561 19064 19645 2025 2089 2 158 2233 2314 2402 2498 2602 2716 2842 2 981 3135 3307 3500 3 719 3967 4253 4584 4973 5436 5996 6687 7561 8 700 1025 1247 1593 22 04 35 81 95 49

05 (30 I 14267 14527 1.4802 15092 15398 15721 16064 16427 1.6812 17221 17655 18118 1.8612 19139 19703 2031 2096 2166 2.241 2323 2.411 2.508 2.613 2.729 2.855 2.996 3152 3.326 3521 3742 3994 4284 4.620 5016 5487 6.059 6765 7661 8.834 1043 1275 1636 2293 3820 114 6

6
(36 J 1.4293 1.4554 1.4830 15121 1.5429 1.5755 1.6099 1.6464 16852 17263 1.7700 18166 18663 1.9194 1.9762 2037 2.103 2.173 2249 2331 2.421 2 518 2.624 2.741 2669 3.011 3.168 3.344 3542 3.766 4.021 4315 4.657 5059 5540 6.123 6.845 7 764 8.971 10.63 13.03 16.86 2368 4093 143.2

07 (42 ) 1.4318 1.4561 14659 1.5151 1.5461 1.5788 1.6135 1.6502 16892 17305 1.7745 1.6214 18714 19249 1.9821 2.043 2 109 2.180 2.257 2.340 2.430 2 528 2.635 2 753 2.682 3.026 3.185 3.363 3.563 3.790 4.049 4347 4.694 5.103 5.593 6.188 6.927 7670 9.113 10.83 13.34 17.37 24.92 4408 191.0

00
(48 1 14344 1.4608 1.4867 1.5182 15493 1.5822 1.6171 1.6540 1.6932 1.7348 17791 18263 18766 19304 19880 2.050 2.116 2.188 2.265 2.349 2439 2.536 2.647 2.765 2.896 3.041 3.202 3.382 3.564 3.814 4.077 4.379 4.732 5.148 5647 6255 7.011 7.979 9 259 11 03 1365 1791 26.05 47.75 2865

09 (54 I 1.4370 14635 14916 1.5212 1.5525 15856 1.6207 1.6578 1.6972 1.7391 1.7637 1.8312 18618 1.9360 1.9940 2.056 2 123 2 195 2 273 2.357 2.449 2 549 2.658 2.778 2.910 3.056 3.219 3.401 3.606 3.839 4.105 4.412 4.771 5.194 5.702 6.323 7.097 8091 9.411 11.25 1399 18.49 2729 5209 573.0

"10

I12 1
14192 1.4440 1.4718 15003 1.5304 1.5622 1.5959 16316 16694 1 7095 1.7522 1.7976 1.9460 18977 1 9530 2.012 2.076 2.144 2.218 2.298 2.364 2.478 2.581 2693 2.816 2.952 3.103 3.271 3.460 3 673 3.915 4 192 4.514 4 890 5337 5875 6.537 7 368 8 446 9 895 11 95 15.09 20 47 31 84 71 62

(181
14217 1.4474 1.4746 1.5032 1.5335 1.5655 1.5994 16353 1.6733 1.7137 1.7566 1.8023 1.8510 1.9031 19587 2016 2082 2.151 2.226 2306 2 393 2488 2591 2 705 2.829 2967 3 119 3.289 3.480 3 695 3.941 4222 4549 4931 5386 5935 6611 7.463 8571 1007 12.20 1550 21 23 33 71 81 85

(601
1 4396 1.4663 1.4945 1.5243 15557 1.5890 1.6243 16616 1.7013 1.7434 17863 1.6361 18871 1.9416 20000 2.063 2.130 2.203 2.261 2.366 2.459 2.559 2.669 2.790 2.924 3.072 3.236 3.420 3.628 3.864 '4.134 4.445 4.610 5.241 5.759 6.392 7.185 8.206 9.567 1147 1434 19.11 28.65 57.30 m

Deqrees 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

Average Difference 25 27 28 30 31 33 35 37 40 42 45 48 51 54 58 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 16 21 24 27 31 36 43 52

09 =154')

04 124'1

02 112'1 Natural Cotangents

'For 10' intervals see Table 1 24

I-50

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC Cosines Natural


1 .oooo

FUNCTIONS(ATINTERVALS Tangents Natural 0.0000 0.0029 0.0058 0.0087 0.0116 0.0145 0.0175 0.0204 0.0233 0.0262 0.0291 0.0320 0.0349 0.0378 0.0407 0.0437 0.0466 0.0495 0.0524 0.0553 0.0582 0.0612 0.0641 0.0670 0.0699 0.0729 0.0758 0.0787 0.0816 0.0846 0.0875 0.0904 0.0934 0.0963 0.0992 0.1022 0.1051 0.1080 0.1110 0.1139 0.1169 0.1198 0.1228 0.1257 0.1287 0.1317 0.1346 0.1376 0.1405 0.1435 0.1465 0.1495 0.1524 0.1554 0.1584 0.1614 0.1644 0.1673 0.1703 0.1733 Natural Log"

OF 10')' Cotangents

Sines Degrees 00 00 00 00 00 00 10 10 10 10 1" IO 20 20 20 29 20 2" 3" 30 3" 30 3" 3" 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 5" 50 50 50 50 6O 6O 6" 6' 6" 6O 70 70 70 70 70 70 8" 8O 8" 8O 80 8O 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' Radians 0.0000 0.0029 0.0058 0.0087 0.0116 0.0145 0.0175 0.0204 0.0233 0.0262 0.0291 0.0320 0.0349 0.0378 0.0407 0.0436 0.0465 0.0495 0.0524 0.0553 0.0582 0.0611 0.0640 0.0669 0.0698 0.0727 0.0756 0.0785 0.0814 0.0844 0.0873 0.0902 0.0931 0.0960 0.0989 0.1018 0.1047 0.1076 0.1105 0.1134 0.1164 0.1193 0.1222 0.1251 0.1280 0.1309 0.1338 0.1367 0.1396 0.1425 0.1454 01484 0.1513 0.1542 01571 0.1600 0.1629 0.1658 0.1687 0.1716 Natural 0.0000 0.0029 0.0058 0.0087 0.0116 0.0145 0.0175 0.0204 0.0233 0.0262 0.0291 0.0320 0.0349 0.0378 0.0407 0.0436 0.0465 0.0494 0.0523 0.0552 0.0581 0.0610 0.0640 0.0669 0.0698 0.0727 0.0756 0.0785 0.0814 0.0843 0.0872 0.0901 0.0929 0.0958 0.0987 0.1016 0.1045 0.1074 0.1103 0.1132 0.1161 0.1190 0.1219 0.1248 0.1276 0.1305 0.1334 0.1363 0.1392 0.1421 0.1449 0.1478 0.1507 0.1536 0.1564 0.1593 0.1622 0.1650 0.1679 0.1708 Natural Log" 03 7.4637 7.7648 7.9408 8.0658 8.1627 8.2419 8.3088 8.3668 8.4179 8.4637 8.5050 8.5428 8.5776 8.6097 8.6397 8.6677 8.6940 8.7188 8.7423 8.7645 8.7857 8.8059 8.8251 8.8436 8.8613 8.8783 8.8946 8.9104 8.9256 8.9403 8.9545 8.9682 8.9816 8.9945 9.0070 9.0192 9.0311 9.0426 9.0539 9.0648 9.0755 9.0859 9.0961 9.1060 9.1157 9.1252 9 1345 9.1436 9.1525 9.1612 9.1697 9.1781 91863 91943 9.2022 9.2100 92176 9.2251 9.2324 Log"

Log'*
0.0000

Natural ~_____

Log'* 2.5:63 2.2352 2.0591 1.9342 1.8373 1.7581 1.6911 1.6331 1.5819 1.5362 1.4947 1.4569 1.4221 13899 1.3599 1.3318 1.3055 1.2806 12571 1.2348 12135 1.1933 1.1739 1.1554 1.1376 1.1205 1.1040 1.0882 1.0728 1.0580 1.0437 1.0299 1.0164 1.0034 0.9907 0.9784 0.9664 0.9547 0 9433 0.9322 0.9214 0.9109 0.9005 0.8904 0.8806 08709 0.8615 0.8522 08431 08342 08255 0.8169 08085 08003 0.7922 07842 0.7764 0.7687 07611 Loa" Radians Degrees 1.5708 1.5679 1.5650 1.5621 1.5592 1.5563 1.5533 1.5504 1.5475 1.5446 1.5417 1.5388 1.5359 1.5330 1.5301 1.5272 1.5243 1.5213 1.5184 1.5155 1.5126 1.5097 1.5068 1.5039 1.5010 1.4981 1.4952 1.4923 1.4893 1.4864 1.4835 1.4806 1.4777 1.4748 1.4719 1.4690 1.4661 1.4632 1.4603 1.4574 1.4544 1.4515 1.4486 1.4457 1.4428 1.4399 1.4370 1.4341 1.4312 1.4283 1.4254 1.4224 1.4195 1.4166 14137 1.4108 14079 1.4050 1.4021 1.3992 900 900 900 90" 900 90" 89" 89O 89" 890 890 89O 880 880 88O 880 880 880 87" 870 870 870 870 87O 860 86" 860 86O 860 860 850 85O 850 85' 85O 850 840 84O 84" 840 840 84' 83O 83O 830 83" 83O 830 820 82O 82" 82O 820 820 810 81' 810 810 81 810 00 50 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10'

1.0000
1 .oooo

0.0000
0.0000

1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998 0.9997 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9994 0.9993 0.9992 0.9990 0.9989 0.9988 0.9986 0.9985 0.9983 09981 0.9980 0.9978 0.9976 0.9974 0.9971 0.9969 0.9967 0.9964 0.9962 0.9959 0.9957 0.9954 0.9951 0.9948 0.9945 0.9942 0.9939 0.9936 0.9932 0.9929 0.9925 0.9922 0.9918 0.9914 0.9911 0.9907 0 9903 0.9899 0.9894 0.9890 0.9886 09881 0 9877 0.9872 0.9868 0 9863 0.9858 0.9853 Natural

0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 9.9999 9.9999 9.9999 9.9999 9.9998 9.9998 9.9997 9.9997 9.9996 9.9996 9.9995 9.9995 9.9994 9 9993 9.9993 9 9992 9.9991 9.9990 9.9989 9.9989 9.9988 9.9987 9.9986 9.9985 9.9983 9.9982 9.9981 9.9980 9.9979 9.9977 9.9976 9.9975 9.9973 9.9972 9.9971 9.9969 9.9968 9.9966 9.9964 9.9963 9.9961 9.9959 9.9958 9.9956 9.9954 9.9952 9.9950 9 9948 9.9946 9.9944 9.9942 9.9940 9.9938 9.9936 Log"

7.400637 343po77 7.7648 171.89 7.9409 114.59 85.940 8.0658 68.750 8.1627 8.2419 8.3089 8.3669 8.4181 8.4638 8.5053 8.5431 8.5779 8.6101 8.6401 8.6682 8.6945 8.7194 8.7429 8.7652 8.7865 8.8067 8.8261 8.8446 8.8624 8.8795 8.8960 8.9118 8.9272 8.9420 8.9563 8.9701 8.9836 8.9966 9.0093 9.0216 9.0336 9.0453 9.0567 9.0678 9.0786 9.0891 9.0995 9.1096 9.1194 9.1291 9.1385 9.1478 9.1569 9.1658 9.1745 9.1831 9.1915 9.1997 9.2078 9.2158 9.2236 9.2313 9.2389 Loo** 57.290 49.104 42.964 38.188 34.368 31.242 28.636 26.432 24.542 22.904 21.470 20.206 19.081 18075 17.169 16350 15.605 14.924 14.301 13.727 13.197 12.706 12251 11.826 11.430 11.059 10.712 10.385 10078 9.7882 9.5144 9.2553 9.0098 8.7769 8.5555 8.3450 8.1443 7.9530 7.7704 7.5958 7.4287 7.2687 7.1154 6.9682 6.8269 66912 6.5606 64348 63138 6.1970 60844 5.9758 5.8708 5.7694 Natural

90 00' 9" 10' 9'120' 90 30' 90 40' 90 50'

Cosines

Sines

Cotangents

Tangents

'Far OD 1 mtervals, see Tables 1 21. 1 22. and 1 23 'Add 10 I" ,h?se columns

MATHEMATICALTABLES&

UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS

&MEASURES

I-51

TABLE 1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC
Sil nes Degrees 100 100 IO" 100 10" 100 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' Radians 0.1745 0.1774 0.1804 0.1833 0.1862 0.1891 0.1920 0.1949 0.1978 0.2007 0.2036 0.2065 0.2094 02123 0.2153 0.2182 0.2211 0.2240 0.2269 0.2298 0.2327 0.2356 0.2385 0.2414 0.2443 0.2473 0.2502 0.2531 0.2560 0.2589 0.2618 0.2647 0.2676 0.2705 0.2734 0.2763 0.2793 0.2822 0.2851 0.2880 0.2909 0.2938 0.2967 0.2996 0.3025 0.3054 0.3083 0.3113 0.3142 0.3171 0.3200 0.3229 0.3258 0.3287 0.3316 0.3345 0.3374 0.3403 0.3432 0.3462 Natural 0.1736 0.1765 0.1794 0.1822 0.1851 0.1880 0.1908 0.1937 0.1965 0.1994 0.2022 0.2051 0.2079 0.2108 0.2136 0.2164 0.2193 0.2221 0.2250 0.2278 0.2306 0.2334 0.2363 0.2391 0.2419 0.2447 0.2476 0.2504 0.2532 0.2560 0.2588 0.2616 0.2644 0.2672 0.2700 0.2728 0.2756 0.2784 0.2812 0.2840 0.2868 0.2896 0.2924 0.2952 0.2979 0.3007 0.3035 0.3062 0.3090 0.3118 0.3145 0.3173 0.3201 0.3228 0.3256 0.3283 0.3311 0.3338 0.3365 0.3393 Natural Loo" 9.2397 92468 9.2538 92606 9.2674 92740 92806 92870 9.2934 9.2997 93058 93119 9.3179 9.3238 0 3296 93353 9.3410 9.3466 93521 93575 9.3629 9.3682 9.3734 93786 9.3837 9.3887 9.3937 9.3986 94035 9.4083 9.4130 9.4177 9.4223 9 4269 9.4314 9 4359 94403 9.4447 94491 94533 94576 9.4618 9.4659 9.4700 9.4741 9.4781 9.4821 9.4861 9.4900 9.4939 9.4977 9.5015 9.5052 9.5090 9.5126 9.5163 9.5199 9.5235 9.5270 9.5306 Log" Natural 0.9848 0.9843 0.9838 0.9833 0.9827 0.9822 09816 0.9811 0.9805 0.9799 0.9793 0.9787 0.9781 0.9775 0.9769 0.9763 0.9757 0.9750 0.9744 0.9737 0.9730 0.9724 0.9717 0.9710 0.9703 0.9696 0.9689 0.9681 0.9674 0.9667 0.9659 0.9652 0.9644 0.9636 0.9628 0.9621 0.9613 0.9605 0.9596 0.9588 0.9580 0.9572 0.9563 0.9555 0.9546 0.9537 0.9528 0.9520 0.9511 0.9502 0.9492 0.9483 0.9474 0.9465 0.9455 0.9446 0.9436 0.9426 0.9417 0.9407 Natural

FUNCTIONS (AT INTERVALS OF 10)


Tange nts Natural 0.1763 0.1793 0.1823 0.1853 0.1883 0.1914 99919 9.9917 9.9914 9.9912 9.9909 9.9907 9.9904 9.9901 9.9899 9.9896 9.9893 9.9890 9.9887 9.9884 9.9881 9.9878 9.9875 9.9872 9.9869 9.9866 9.9863 9.9859 9.9856 9.9853 9.9849 9.9846 9.9843 9.9839 9.9836 9.9832 9.9828 9.9825 9.9821 9.9817 9.9814 9.9810 9.9806 9.9802 9.9798 9.9794 9.9790 9.9786 9.9782 9.9778 9.9774 9.9770 9.9765 9.9761 9.9757 9.9752 9.9748 9.9743 9.9739 9.9734 Log" 0.1944 0.1974 0.2004 0.2035 0.2065 0.2095 0.2126 0.2156 0.2186 0.2217 0.2247 0.2278 0.2309 0.2339 0.2370 0.2401 0.2432 0.2462 0.2493 0.2524 0.2555 0.2586 0.2617 0.2648 0.2679 0.2711 0.2742 0.2773 0.2805 0.2836 0.2867 0.2899 0 2931 0.2962 0 2994 0.3026 0.3057 0.3089 0.3121 0.3153 0.3185 0.3217 0.3249 0.3281 0.3314 0.3346 0.3378 03411 0.3443 0.3476 0.3508 0.3541 0.3574 0.3607 Natural Log" 9.2463 92536 9.2609 92680 9.2750 92819 9.2887 9.2953 9.3020 9.3085 9.3149 9.3212 9.3275 9.3336 9.3397 9.3458 9.3517 9.3576 9.3634 9.3691 9.3748 9.3804 9.3859 9.3914 9.3968 9.4021 9.4074 9.4127 9.4178 9.4230 9.4281 9.4331 9.4381 9.4430 9.4479 9.4527 9.4575 9.4622 9.4669 9.4716 9.4762 9.4808 9.4853 9.4898 9.4943 9.4987 9.5031 9.5075 9.5118 9.5161 9.5203 9.5245 9.5287 9.5329 9.5370 9.5411 9.5451 9.5491 9.5531 9.5571 Log'*

(continued)

Cotangents Natural ~~ 5.6713 5.5764 5.4845 5.3955 5.3093 5.2257 5.1446 5.0658 Log" 0.7537 0.7464 0.7391 0.7320 0.7250 0.7181 0.7113 0.7047 1.3963 1.3934 1.3904 1.3875 1.3846 1.3817 1.3788 1.3759 1.3730 1.3701 1.3672 1.3643 1.3614 1.3584 1.3555 1.3526 1.3497 1.3468 1.3439 1.3410 1.3381 1.3352 1.3323 1.3294 1.3265 1.3235 1.3206 1.3177 1.3148 1.3119 1.3090 1.3061 1.3032 1.3003 1.2974 1.2945 1.2915 1.2886 1.2857 1.2828 1.2799 1.2770 1.2741 1.2712 1.2683 1.2654 1.2625 1.2595 1.2566 1.2537 1.2508 1.2479 1.2450 1.2421 1.2392 1.2363 1.2334 1.2305 1.2275 1.2246 80" 80 80' 80 80' 80 790 790 790 790 790 790 78O 78' 78O 7%" 78O 78" 770 770 77" 770 770 770 76O 76" 76O 76' 76O 76" 75" 750 75" 750 75" 750 740 740 740 740 740 74" 730 730 730 730 730 730 72' 72' 72O 72O 72O 72O 710 710 710 710 710 710 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10'

11~00' 110 IO' 110 20' 110 30' 11" 40' 110 50' 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 150 150 150 150 150 16O 16" 16O 16' 16O 16O 170 170 170 170 170 170 18O 18' 18O 18' la0 18O 190 190 190 19" 190 19" 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50'

4.9894
4.9152 4.8430 4.7729 4.7046 4.6382 4.5736 4.5107 4.4494 4.3897 4.3315 4.2747 4.2193 4.1653 4.1126 4.0611 4.0108 3.9617 3.9136 3.8667 3.8208 3.7760 3.7321 3.6891 3.6470 3.6059 3.5656 3.5261 3.4874 3.4495 3.4124 3.3759 3.3402 3.3052 3.2709 3.2371 3.2041 3.1716 3.1397 3.1084 3.0777 3.0475 3.0178 2.9887 2.9600 2.9319 2.9042 2.8770 2.8502 2.8239 2.7980 2.7725 Natural

0.6980
0.6915 0.6851 0.6788 0.6725 0.6664 0.6603 0.6542 0.6483 0.6424 0.6366 0.6309 0.6252 0.6196 0.6141 0.6086 0.6032 0.5979 0.5926 0.5873 0.5822 0.5770 0.5719 0.5669 0.5619 0.5570 0.5521 0.5473 0.5425 0.5378 0.5331 0.5284 0.5238 0.5192 0.5147 0.5102 0.5057 0.5013 0.4969 0.4925 0.4882 0.4839 0.4797 0.4755 0.4713 0.4671 0.4630 0.4589 0.4549 0.4509 0.4469 0.4429 Log**

Cosines 'For 0' 1 ~nlervals. see Tables 1 21. 1 22. and 1 23


"Add 10 I" these columns

Sines

Cotangents

Tangents

Radians

Degrees

(continuedon next page)

1-52

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.24--TRIGONOMETRIC Sines

FUNCTIONS Cow ies

(AT INTERVALS Tang{fnts Natural 0.3640 0.3673 0.3706 0.3739 0.3772 0.3805 0.3839 0.3872 0.3906 0.3939 0.3973 0.4006 0.4040 0.4074 0.4108 0.4142 0.4176 0.4210 0.4245 0.4279 0.4314 0.4348 0.4383 0.4417 0.4452 0.4487 0.4522 0.4557 0.4592 0.4628 0.4663 0.4699 0.4734 0.4770 04806 04841 04877 0.4913 0.4950 0 4986 0.5022 0 5059 0 5095 0.5132 05169 05206 0.5243 0.5280 0.5317 0.5354 0.5392 0 5430 0.5467 0.5505 0.5543 0.5581 0.5619 0.5658 0.5696 0.5735 Natural Log" 9.5611 9.5650 9.5689 9.5727 9.5766 9.5804 9.5842 9.5879 9.5917 9.5954 9.5991 9.6028 9.6064 9.6100 9.6136 9.6172 9.6208 9.6243 9.6279 9.6314 9.6348 9.6383 9.6417 9.6452 9.6486 9.6520 9.6553 9.6587 9.6620 9.6654 9.6687 9.6720 9.6752 9.6785 9.6817 9.6850 9.6882 9.6914 9.6946 9.6977 9.7009 9.7040 9.7072 9.7103 9.7134 9.7165 9.7196 9.7226 9.7257 9.7287 9.7317 9.7348 9.7378 9.7408 9.7438 9.7467 9.7497 9.7526 9.7556 9.7585 Log* *

OF 10) (continued) CotangE!rlts Natural 2.7475 2.7228 2.6985 2.6746 2.6511 2.6279 2.6051 2.5826 2.5605 2.5386 2.5172 2.4960 2.4751 2.4545 2.4342 2.4142 2.3945 2.3750 2.3559 2.3369 2.3183 2.2998 2.2817 2.2637 2.2460 2.2286 2.2113 2.1943 2.1775 2.1609 2.1445 2.1283 2.1123 2.0965 2.0809 2.0655 2.0503 2.0353 2.0204 2.0057 1.9912 1.9768 1.9626 1.9486 1.9347 1.9210 1.9074 1.8940 1.8807 1.8676 1.8546 1.8418 1.8291 1.8165 1.8040 1.7917 1.7796 1.7675 1.7556 1.7437 Natural Log" 0.4389 0.4350 0.4311 0.4273 0.4234 0.4196 0.4158 0.4121 0.4083 0.4046 0.4009 0.3972 0.3936 0.3900 0.3864 0.3828 0.3792 0.3757 0.3721 0.3686 0.3652 0.3617 0.3583 0.3548 0.3514 0.3480 0.3447 0.3413 0.3380 0.3346 0.3313 0.3280 0.3248 0.3215 0.3183 0.3150 0.3118 0.3086 0.3054 0.3023 0.2991 0.2960 0.2928 0.2897 0.2866 0.2835 0.2804 0.2774 0.2743 0.2713 0.2683 0.2652 0.2622 0.2592 0.2562 0.2533 0.2503 0.2474 0.2444 0.2415 Log" Radians Degrees 1.2217 1.2188 12159 1.2130 12101 1.2072 1.2043 12014 1.1985 1.1956 1 1926 1.1897 1.1868 1.1839 1.1810 1 1781 1 1752 1.1723 1.1694 1.1665 1 1636 1 1606 1.1577 1.1548 1.1519 1 1490 1 1461 1 1432 1.1403 1.1374 1.1345 1 1316 1.1286 1.1257 1.1228 1.1199 1.1170 1.1141 1.1112 1.1083 1.1054 1.1025 1.0996 1.0966 1.0937 1.0908 1.0879 1.0850 1.0821 1.0792 1.0763 1.0734 1.0705 1.0676 1.0647 1.0617 1.0588 1.0559 1.0530 1.0501 700 70" 700 7o" 700 700 69" 69O 69O 69O 69O 69O 680 680 68O 680 680 680 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10'

Dearees 200 200 200 20" 200 200 210 210 21" 210 210 21" 220 220 220 220 220 220 23O 23O 23O 23' 23O 23" 24" 24O 24O 24' 24" 24' 250 25' 25O 25' 25O 25' 26' 26O 26' 26O 260 26O 270 27' 270 27" 27O 27O 280 280 28" 28O 28O 28O 290 290 290 290 290 290 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50'

Radians 0.3491 0.3520 0.3549 0.3578 0.3607 0.3636 0.3665 0.3694 0.3723 0.3752 0.3782 0.3811 0.3840 0.3869 0.3898 0.3927 0.3956 0.3985 0.4014 0.4043 0.4072 0.4102 0.4131 0.4160 0.4189 0.4218 0.4247 0.4276 0.4305 0.4334 0.4363 0.4392 0.4422 0.4451 0.4480 0.4509 0.4538 04567 0.4596 04625 0.4654 04683 0.4712 0.4741 0.4771 0.4800 0.4829 0.4858 04887 0.4916 0.4945 0.4974 0.5003 05032 05061 0.5091 0.5120 05149 0.5178 0.5207

Natural ~ 0.3420 0.3448 0.3475 0.3502 0.3529 0.3557 0.3584 0.3611 0.3638 0.3665 0.3692 0.3719 0.3746 0.3773 0.3800 0.3827 0.3854 0.3881 0.3907 0.3934 0.3961 0.3987 0.4014 0.4041 0.4067 0.4094 0.4120 0.4147 0.4173 0.4200 0.4226 0.4253 0.4279 04305 0.4331 0.4358 0.4384 04410 0.4436 04462 04488 04514 04540 04566 0 4592 0.4617 0.4643 0 4669 0 4695 04720 04746 0.4772 0 4797 0.4823 04848 04874 0.4899 0.4924 0.4950 0.4975 Natural

Log" ~ 9.5341 9.5375 9.5409 9.5443 9.5477 9.5510 9.5543 9.5576 9.5609 9.5641 9.5673 9.5704 9.5736 9.5767 9.5798 9.5828 9.5859 9.5889 9.5919 9.5948 9.5978 9.6007 9.6036 9.6065 9.6093 9.6121 9.6149 9.6177 9.6205 9.6232 9.6259 9.6286 9.6313 9.6340 9.6366 9.6392 9.6418 9.6444 9.6470 9.6495 9.6521 9.6546 9.6570 9.6595 9.6620 9.6644 9.6668 9.6692 9.6716 9.6740 9.6763 9.6787 9.6810 9.6833 9.6856 9.6878 9.6901 9.6923 9.6946 9.6968 Log"

Natural 0.9397 0.9387 0.9377 0.9367 0.9356 0.9346 0.9336 0.9325 0.9315 0.9304 0.9293 0.9283 0.9272 0.9261 0.9250 0.9239 0.9228 0.9216 0.9205 0.9194 0.9182 0.9171 0.9159 0.9147 0.9135 0.9124 0.9112 0.9100 0.9088 0.9075 0.9063 0.9051 0.9038 0.9026 0.9013 0.9001 0.8988 0.8975 0.8962 0 8949 0.8936 0.8923 0.8910 0.8897 0.8884 0.8870 0.8857 0.8843 0.8829 0.8816 0.8802 0.8788 0.8774 0.8760 0.8746 0 8732 0.8718 0.8704 0.8689 0.8675 Natural

Log'* 9.9730 9.9725 9.9721 9.9716 9.9711 9.9706 9.9702 9.9697 9.9692 9.9687 9.9682 9.9677 9.9672 9.9667 9.9661 9.9656 9.9651 9.9646 9.9640 9.9635 9.9629 9.9624 9.9618 9.9613 9.9607 9.9602 9.9596 9.9590 9.9584 9.9579 9.9573 9.9567 9.9561 9.9555 9.9549 9.9543 9.9537 9.9530 9.9524 9.9518 9.9512 9.9505 0.9499 9.9492 9.9486 9.9479 9.9473 9.9466 9.9459 9.9453 9.9446 9.9439 9.9432 9 9425 9.9418 9.9411 9.9404 9.9397 9.9390 9.9383 Log'*

67O 00' 67" 50' 67O 40' 67O 30' 67'=20' 67O 10' 660 660 66" 66" 66" 660 65O 65O 65O 65O 65O 65O 64O 64O 64" 64O 64O 64O 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10'

63O 00' 63O 50' 63O 40' 63O 30' 63'=20' 63O IO' 62O 00' 62'=50' 62O 40' 62O 30' 62O 20' 62O 10' 61 00' 61 50' 61' 40' 61 30' 61'=20' 61 10'

Cosines

Sines

Cotangents

Tangents

For 0 1 intervals. see Tables 1 21 Add 10 I these columns

1.22. and I 23

MATHEMATlCALTABLES&

UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS

& MEASURES

1-53

TABLE

1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC Sines

FUNCTIONS Comes

(AT INTERVALS Tangents

OF 10')' (continued) Cotangents Natural 1.7321 1.7205 1.7090 1.6977 1.6864 1.6753 1.6643 1.6534 1.6426 1.6319 1.6212 1.6107 1.6003 1.5900 1.5798 1.5697 1.5597 1.5497 1.5399 1.5301 1.5204 1.5108 1.5013 1.4919 1.4826 1.4733 1.4641 1.4550 1.4460 1.4370 1.4281 1.4193 1.4106 1.4019 1.3934 1.3848 1.3764 1.3680 1.3597 1.3514 1.3432 1.3351 1.3270 1.3190 1.3111 1.3032 1.2954 1.2876 1.2799 1.2723 1.2647 1.2572 1.2497 1.2423 1.2349 1.2276 1.2203 1.2131 1.2059 1.1988 Natural Log" 0.2386 0.2356 0.2327 0.2299 0.2270 0.2241 0.2212 0.2184 0.2155 0.2127 0.2098 0.2070 0.2042 0.2014 0.1986 0.1958 0.1930 0.1903 0.1875 0.1847 0.1820 0.1792 0.1765 0.1737 0.1710 0.1683 0.1656 0.1629 0.1602 0.1575 0.1548 0.1521 0.1494 0.1467 0.1441 0.1414 0.1387 0.1361 0.1334 0.1308 0.1282 0.1255 0.1229 0.1203 0.1176 0.1150 0.1124 0.1098 0.1072 0.1046 0.1020 0.0994 0.0968 0.0942 0.0916 0.0890 0.0865 0.0839 0.0813 0.0788 Log"' Radians Degrees 1.0472 1.0443 1.0414 1.0385 1.0356 1.0327 1.0297 1.0268 1.0239 1.0210 1.0181 1.0152 1.0123 .I.0094 1.0065 1.0036 1.0007 0.9977 0.9948 0.9919 0.9890 0.9861 0.9832 0.9803 0.9774 0.9745 0.9716 0.9687 0.9657 0.9628 0.9599 0.9570 0.9541 0.9512 0.9483 0.9454 0.9425 0.9396 0.9367 0.9338 0.9308 0.9279 0.9250 0.9221 0.9192 0.9163 0.9134 0.9105 0.9076 0.9047 0.9018 0.8988 0.8959 0.8930 0.8901 0.8872 0.8843 0.8814 0.8785 0.8756 60a 60 60 60 60 60' 590 590 59" 590 590 590 58O 58" 58O 58' 58O 58' 57" 570 570 570 570 570 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO'

Degrees 300 30" 300 30" 300 300 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50'

Radians 0.5236 0.5265 0.5294 0.5323 0.5352 0.5381 0.5411 0.5440 0.5469 0.5498 0.5527 0.5556 0.5585 0.5614 0.5643 0.5672 0.5701 0.5730 0.5760 0.5789 0.5818 0.5847 0.5876 0.5905 0.5934 0.5963 0.5992 0.6021 0.6050 0.6080 0.6109 0.6138 0.6167 0.6196 0.6225 0.6254 0.6283 0.6312 0.6341 0.6370 0.6400 0.6429 0.6458 0.6487 0.6516 0.6545 0.6574 0.6603 0.6632 0.6661 0.6690 0.6720 0.6749 0.6778 0.6807 0.6836 0.6865 0.6894 0.6923 0.6952

Natural 0.5000 0.5025 0.5050 0.5075 0.5100 0.5125 0.5150 0.5175 0.5200 0.5225 0.5250 0.5275 0.5299 0.5324 0.5348 0.5373 0.5398 0.5422 0.5446 0.5471 0.5495 0.5519 0.5544 0.5568 0.5592 0.5616 0.5640 0.5664 0.5688 0.5712 0.5736 0.5760 0.5783 0.5807 0.5831 0.5854 0.5878 0.5901 0.5925 0.5948 0.5972 0.5995 0.6018 0.6041 0.6065 0.6088 0.6111 0.6134 0.6157 0.6180 0.6202 0.6225 0.6248 0.6271 0.6293 0.6316 0.6338 0.6361 0.6383 0.6406 Natural

Log" 9.6990 9.7012 9.7033 9.7055 9.7076 9.7097 9.7118 9.7139 9.7160 9.7181 9.7201 9.7222 9.7742 9.7262 9.7282 9.7302 9.7322 9.7342 9.7361 9.7380 9.7400 9.7419 9.7438 9.7457 9.7476 9.7494 9.7513 9.7531 9.7550 9.7568 9.7586 9.7604 9.7622 9.7640 9.7657 9.7675 9.7692 9.7710 9.7727 9.7744 9.7761 9.7778 9.7795 9.7811 9.7828 9.7844 9.7861 9.7877 9.7893 9.7910 9.7926 9.7941 9.7957 9.7973 9.7989 9.8004 9.8020 9.8035 9.8050 9.8066 Log*'

Natural 0.8660 0.8646 0.8631 0.8616 0.8601 0.8587 08572 0.8557 0.8542 0.8526 0.8511 0.8496 0.8480 0.8465 0 8450 0.8434 0 8418 0.8403 0.8387 0.8371 0.8355 0.8339 0.8323 0.8307 0.8290 0.8274 0.8258 0.8241 0.8225 0.8208 0.8192 0.8175 0.8158 0.8141 0.8124 0.8107 0.8090 0.8073 0.8056 0.8039 0.8021 0.8004 0.7986 0.7969 0.7951 0.7934 0.7916 0.7898 0.7880 0.7862 0.7844 0.7826 0.7808 0.7790 0.7771 0.7753 0.7735 0.7716 0.7698 0.7679 Natural Smes

Log" 9.9375 9.9368 9.9361 9.9353 9.9346 9.9338 9.9331 9.9323 9.9315 9.9308 9.9300 9.9292 9.9284 9.9276 9.9268 9.9260 9.9252 9.9244 9.9236 9.9228 9.9219 9.9211 9.9203 9.9194 9.9186 9.9177 9.9169 9.9160 9.9151 9.9142 9.9134 9.9125 9.9116 9.9107 9.9098 9.9089 9.9080 9.9070 9.9061 9.9052 9.9042 9.9033 9.9023 9.9014 9.9004 9.8995 9.8985 9.8975 9.8965 9.8955 9.8945 9.8935 9.8925 9.8915 9.8905 9.8895 9.8884 9.8874 9.8864 9.8853 Log**

Natural 0.5774 0.5812 0.5851 0.5890 0.5930 0.5969 0.6009 0.6048 0.6088 0.6128 0.6168 0.6208 0.6249 0.6289 0.6330 0.6371 0.6412 0.6453 0.6494 0.6536 0.6577 0.6619 0.6661 0.6703 0.6745 0.6787 0.6830 0.6873 0.6916 0.6959 0.7002 0.7046 0.7089 0.7133 0.7177 0.7221 0.7265 0.7310 0.7355 0.7400 0.7445 0.7490 0.7536 0.7581 0.7627 0.7673 0.7720 0.7766 0.7813 0.7860 0.7907 0.7954 0.8002 0.8050 0.8098 0.8146 0.8195 0.8243 0.8292 0.8342 Natural

Log*' 9.7614 9.7644 9.7673 9.7701 9.7730 9.7759 9.7788 9.7816 9.7845 9.7873 9.7902 9.7930 9.7958 9.7986 9.8014 9.8042 9.8070 9.8097 9.8125 9.8153 9.8180 9.8208 9.8235 9.8263 9.8290 9.8317 9.8344 9.8371 9.8398 9.8425 9.8452 9.8479 9.8506 0.8533 9.8559 9.8586 9.8613 9.8639 9.8666 9.8692 9.8718 9.8745 9.8771 9.8797 9.8824 9.8850 9.8876 9.8902 9.8928 9.8954 9.8980 9.9006 9.9032 9.9058 9.9084 9.9110 9.9135 9.9161 9.9187 9.9212 Log"'

310 00' 310 IO' 31" 20' 31'130' 31" 40' 310 50' 32O 32" 32O 32" 32O 32' 330 330 33" 339 330 330 340 34" 340 340 340 340 350 350 350 350 350 35" 36" 36O 36' 36O 36" 36O 370 37" 370 370 370 370 38O 38O 38O 38O 38O 38O 390 390 39" 390 390 390 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00 10' 20' 30' 40' 50'

56O 00' 56O 50' 56'=40' 56O 30' 56" 20' 56O IO' 559 550 550 550 550 550 540 540 540 540 54" 540 530 530 530 53" 530 53" 52O 52O 52' 52O 52" 52O 510 51" 510 510 51" 510 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO'

Cosines

Cotangents

Tangents

(contmued

on next page)

l-54

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC Sines

FUNCTIONS(AT

INTERVALS Tangents

OF 10')' (continued) Cotangents Natural 1.1918 1.1847 1.1778 1.1708 1.1640 1.1571 1.1504 1.1436 1.1369 1.1303 1.1237 1.1171 1.1106 1.1041 1.0977 1.0913 1.0850 1.0786 1.0724 1.0661 1.0599 1.0538 1.0477 1.0416 1.0355 1.0295 1.0235 1.0176 1.0117 1.0058 1 .oooo Natural Log*' 0.0762 0.0736 00711 0.0685 0.0659 0.0634 0.0608 0.0583 0.0557 0.0532 0.0506 0.0481 00456 0.0430 00405 0.0379 0.0354 0.0329 0.0303 0.0278 0.0253 0.0228 0.0202 0.0177 0.0152 0.0126 0.0101 0.0076 0.0051 0.0025 0.0000 Log" Radians Degrees 0.8727 0.8698 0.8668 0.8639 0.8610 0.8581 0.8552 0.8523 0.8494 0.8465 0.8436 0.8407 0.8378 0.8348 0.8319 0.8290 0.8261 0.8232 0.8203 0.8174 0.8145 0.8116 0.8087 0.8058 0.8029 0.7999 0.7970 0.7941 0.7912 0.7883 0.7854 500 50" 500 50" 500 500 490 490 49" 490 49" 490 48O 48" 48O 480 48O 48" 47" 470 470 470 470 470 46O 46O 46' 46O 46' 46O 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' 10' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO' 00' 50' 40' 30' 20' IO'

Degrees 400 400 400 400 400 400 410 410 41" 410 410 410 42O 42' 42O 42O 42O 420 430 430 430 430 430 43" 44" 440 44" 440 44" 440 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50' 00' 10' 20' 30' 40' 50' DO' IO' 20' 30' 40' 50'

Radtans 0.6981 0.7010 0.7039 0.7069 0.7098 0.7127 0.7156 0.7185 0.7214 0.7243 0.7272 0.7301 0.7330 0.7359 0.7389 0.7418 0.7447 0.7476 0.7505 0.7534 0.7563 0.7592 0.7621 0.7650 0.7679 0.7709 0.7738 0.7767 0.7796 0.7825 0.7854

Natural 0.6428 0.6450 0.6472 0.6494 0.6517 0.6539 0.6561 0.6583 0.6604 0.6626 0.6648 0.6670 0.6691 0.6713 0.6734 0.6756 0.6777 0.6799 0.6820 0.6841 0.6862 0.6884 0.6905 0.6926 0.6947 0.6967 0.6988 0.7009 0.7030 0.7050 0.7071 Natural

Log** 9.8081 9.8096 9.8111 9.8125 9.8140 9.8155 9.8169 9.8184 9.8198 9.8213 9.8227 9.8241 9.8255 9.8269 9.8283 9.8297 9.8311 9.8324 9.8338 9.8351 9.8365 9.8378 9.8391 9.8405 9.8418 9.8431 9.8444 9.8457 9.8469 9.8482 9.8495 Loq"

Natural 0.7660 07642 0.7623 0.7604 0.7585 0.7566 0.7547 07528 0.7509 0 7490 0.7470 074.51 0 7431 07412 0.7392 0.7373 0.7353 0.7333 0.7314 0.7294 0.7274 0.7254 0.7234 07214 0.7193 0.7173 0.7153 0.7133 0.7112 0.7092 0.7071 Natural

Log" 9.8843 9.8832 9.8821 9.8810 9.8800 9.8789 9.8778 9.8767 9.8756 9.8745 9.8733 9.8722 9.8711 9.8699 9.8688 9.8676 9.8665 9.8653 9.8641 9.8629 9.8618 9.8606 9.8594 9.8582 9.8569 9.8557 9.8545 9.8532 9.8520 9.8507 9.8495 LOCI"

Natural 0.8391 0.8441 0.8491 0.8541 0.8591 0.8642 0.8693 0.8744 0.8796 0.8847 0.8899 0 8952 0.9004 0.9057 0.9110 0.9163 0.9217 0.9271 0.9325 0.9380 0.9435 0.9490 0.9545 0.9601 0.9657 0.9713 0.9770 0.9827 0.9884 0.9942 1.0000 Natural

Log** 9.9238 9.9264 9.9289 9.9315 9.9341 9.9366 9.9392 9.9417 9.9443 9.9468 9.9494 9.9519 9.9544 9.9570 9.9595 9.9621 9.9646 9.9671 9.9697 9.9722 9.9747 9.9772 9.9798 9.9823 9.9848 9.9874 9.9899 9.9924 9.9949 9.9975 0.0000 Log'*

450 00'

450 00'

Sines

Cotangents

Tangents

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

I-55

TABLE * 0.00 0 01
0.02 003 0 04 005 0 06 007 0 08 0 09

1.25-EXPONENTIALS
1.0 11 12 13 14 15 16 1

(e and em) e
1000 0 990 0980 0970 0 961 0951 0.942 0932 0 923 0914 -10 D~iierence _n - I -10 -10 9 -10
0 J

e
1000

Dlllerence 10 10 10 11 10 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 12 11 12 12 11 12 12 12 13 12 13 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 13 14 14 14 14 14 15 14 15 14 15 15 15 16 15 16 16 16 16 17

n
0.50 051

e
1649 1 665 1682 1699 1716 1733 1751 1 768 1786 1804 1822 1840 1859 i a78 1896 1916 1935 1954 1974 1994 2 014 2034 2054

Otfferenc~ 16 17 17 17 17 18 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 18 20 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 21 22 23 22 22 23 23 24 23 24 24 24 25 24 25 26 25 26 26 26 26 27 27

e
2 718'

r> 0.50 051 052 053 054 055 0 56 057 058 059 0.60 061 062 063 064

e 0 607 0600 0595 0 589 0583 0577 0 571 0566 0560 0554 0 549 0543 0538 0533 0 527

n 1.0 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2.0 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3.0 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

e 0368" 0333 0301 0213 0247 0223 0202 0183 0165 0150 0135 0122 0111 0100 00907 00821 00743 00672 00608 00550 0 0498 00450 00408 0 0369 00334 00302 00273 00247 00224 00202 00183 00166 00150 00136 00123 00111 000674 000248 0000912 0000335 0.000123

0.00 0 01 002 003 0 04 005 0 06 007 0 08 009

1010
1020 1030 1041 1051 1062 1073 1083 1094 1 105 1116 1127 1139 1150 1 162 1 174 i 185 1197 1209 1221 1234 1 246 1259 1.271 1284 1 297 1310 1323 1 336 1.350 1.363 1377 1391 1405 1419 1433 i 448 1 462 1477 1492 1 507 1522 1537 1553 1 568 i 584 1600 1616 1632 1649

0 52
0 53 0 54 0 55 0 56 0 57 0 58 0 59 0.60 061 0 62 0 63 064

3 004 3 320
3669 4055 4 482 4 953 5 474 6050 6 686 7389 8 166 9025 9 974 11 02 1218 1346 1488 1644 1817

18 19 2.0 21 22 23 24 25 26

I ;
9 9 n 3

0.10
0 11 0 12 0 13 014 0 15 0 16 017 0 18 0 19 0.20 0 21 0 22 023 0 24 025 0 26 027 028 0 29 0.30 0 31 032 0 33 034 035 0 36 0 37 0.38 0 39 0.40 0 41 042 043 044 0 45 0 46 047 048 049 0.50

0.10
0 11 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 0.20 0 21 022 023 0 24 025 026 027 028 029 0.30 0 31 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 0 39 0.40 0 41 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 0.50

0 905
0 896 0887 0878 0869 0861 0852 0844 0835 0827 0 819 0 811 0803 0795 0 787 0779 0771 0763 0756 0748 0 741 0 733 0726 0719 0712 0705 0698 0691 0684 0 677 0 670 0 664 0657 0651 0644 0638 0631 0625 0619

9
9 8

0 65
066 067 0 68 0 69 0.70 0 71 0 72 0 73

27
28 29 3.0 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4.0 41 42 43 44 45 5.0 60 70 80 90

20 09
2220 24 53 27 11 2996 3312 3660 4045 44 70 4940 5460 60 34 6669 7370 81 45 9002 1484 4034 1097 2.981 8 103 22 026 4 810 23 14 111 3 5355 2.576 0 12.392 0 59.610 0 286.751 0

0 74 0 75
0 76 0 77 0 78 0 79 0.80 081 082

075 2 096
2

2 117
2 138 2 160 2181 2203 2226 2248

-8 7 7

0.80 081 082 083 084 085 7 7 7 6 _ 6 7 6 086 087 088 089 0.90 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 l.oo

0 449 0445 0440 0436 0432 0427 0423 0419 0415 0411 0 407 0403 0399 0 395 0391 0387 0383 0379 0375 0372 0368

4.0 4 1 42 4.3 44 45 5.0 60 70 8 0 90

0 83 0 64
085 0 86 087 088 0 89 0.90 091 0 92 0 93 0 94 0 95 0 96 0 97 0 98 0 99 1.00

270 2 293
2 2 316 2340 2363 2 387 2411 2 435 2460 2484 2 509 2535 2560 2 586 2612 2638 2664 2691 2718

- 7 -7 -7 -7 -

10.0
;I2 2si2 3r/2 4ri2 5ii2 6ri2

10.0
r;/2 2712 3~12 4~12 5~12 6ni2 7~12 8~12

0000045
0 208 00432 000898 000187 0000388 0000081 0000017 0000003

7 6 ^ ^ b

7~12
7112

0613
0 607

1;

*e=pjy828, I,~=o.s~~Ts, lag,,e=04343. l/(04343)=2.3026. log,,(O 4343)=1.6378. log,,e"=n(O4343). For tables of multiples of 0.4343,see Table 1 30 "Do not ~nterpcdate m this column

l-56

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE " 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1.26-NATUI n(2 3026) 2.3026 4.6052 6.9078 9.2103 11.5129 13.8155 16.1181 18.4207 20.7233

RALLOGARITHMS' n(0.6974-3) 0 6974-3 0 3948-5 0.0922 -7 0.7897-10 0.4871-12 0.1845-14 0.8819-17 0.5793-19 0 2767-21 Average Difference 95 87 80 74 69 65 61 57 54 51 49 47 44 43 41 39 38 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 25 24 23 23 22 22 ;1 20 20 20 19 19 18 18

Number 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

0 0.0000 0.0953 0.1823 0.2624 0.3365 0.4055 0.4700 0.5306 0.5878 0.6419 0.6931 0.7419 0.7885 0.8329 0.8755 0.9163 0.9555 0.9933 1.0296 1.0647 1.0986 1.1314 1.1632 1.1939 1.2238 1.2528 1.2809 1.3083 1.3350 13610 1.3863 1.4110 1.4351 1.4586 1.4816 1.5041 1.5261 1.5476 1.5686 1.5892 1.6094 1.6292 1.6487 1.6677 1.6864

1 0.0100 01044 0.1906 02700 0.3436 0.4121 0.4762 0.5365 0.5933 0.6471 0.6981 0.7467 0.7930 0.8372 0.8796 0.9203 0.9594 0.9969 1.0332 1.0682 1.1019 1.1346 1.1663 1 .I969 1.2267 1.2556 1.2837 13110 1.3376 13635 1.3888 1.4134 1.4375 1.4609 1.4839 1.5063 1.5282 1.5497 1.5707 1.5913 1.6114 1.6312 1.6506 1.6696 1.6882

2 0.0198 0.1133 0.1989 0.2776 0.3507 0.4187 0.4824 0.5423 0.5988 0.6523 0.7031 0.7514 0.7975 0.8416 0.8838 0.9243 0.9632 1.0006 1.0367 1.0716 1.1053 1.1378 1.1694 1.2000 1.2296 1.2585 1.2865 1.3137 1.3403 1.3661 1.3913 1.4159 1.4398 1.4633 1.4861 1.5085 1.5304 1.5518 1.5728 1.5933 1.6134 1.6332 1.6525 1.6715 1.6901

3 0.0296 01222 0.2070 0.2852 0.3577 0.4253 0.4886 0.5481 0.6043 06575 07080 0.7561 0.8020 0.8459 0.8879 0.9282 0.9670 1.0043 1.0403 1.0750 1.1086 1.1410 1.1725 1.2030 1.2326 1.2613 1.2892 13164 1.3429 13686 13938 1.4183 1.4422 1.4656 1.4884 1.5107 1.5326 1.5539 1.5748 15953 1.6154 1.6351 1.6544 1.6734 1.6919

4 0.0392 01310 0.2151 0.2927 0.3646 0.4318 0.4947 0.5539 0.6098 0.6627 0.7129 0.7608 0.8065 0.8502 0.8920 0.9322 0.9708 1.0080 1.0438 1.0784 1.1119 1.1442 1.1756 1.2060 1.2355 1.2641 1.2920 1.3191 1.3455 1.3712 1.3962 1.4207 1.4446 1.4679 1.4907 1.5129 1.5347 1.5560 1.5769 1.5974 1.6174 1.6371 1.6563 1.6752 1.6938

5 0.0488 01398 0.2231 0.3001 0.3716 0.4383 0.5008 0.5596 0.6152 0.6678 0.7178 07655 0.8109 0.8544 0.8961 0.9361 0.9746 1.0116 1.0473 1.0818 1.1151 1.1474 1.1787 1.2090 1.2384 1.2669 1.2947 13218 1.3481 13737 13987 1.4231 1.4469 1.4702 1.4929 1.5151 1.5369 1.5581 1.5790 1.5994 1.6194 1.6390 1.6582 1.6771 1.6956

6 0.0583 0.1484 0.2311 0.3075 0.3784 0.4447 0.5068 0.5653 0.6206 0.6729 0.7227 0.7701 0.8154 0.8587 0.9002 0.9400 0.9783 1.0152 1.0508 1.0852 1.1184 1.1506 1.1817 1.2119 1.2413 1.2698 1.2975 1.3244 1.3507 1.3762 1.4012 1.4255 1.4493 1.4725 1.4951 1.5173 1.5390 1.5602 1.5810 1.6014 1.6214 1.6409 1.6601 1.6790 1.6974

7 0.0677 0.1570 0.2390 0.3148 0.3853 0.4511 0.5128 0.5710 0.6259 0.6780 0.7275 0.7747 0.8198 0.8629 0.9042 0.9439 0.9821 1.0188 1.0543 1.0886 1.1217 1.1537 1.1848 1.2149 1.2442 1.2726 1.3002 1.3271 1.3533 1.3788 1.4036 1.4279 1.4516 1.4748 1.4974 1.5195 1.5412 1.5623 1.5831 1.6034 1.6233 1.6429 1.6620 1.6808 1.6993

8 0.0770 0.1655 0.2469 0.3221 0.3920 0.4574 0.5188 0.5766 0.6313 0.6831 0.7324 0.7793 0.8242 0.8671 0.9083 0.9478 0.9858 1.0225 1.0578 1.0919 1 .I249 1.1569 1.1878 1.2179 1.2470 1.2754 1.3029 1.3297 1.3558 1.3813 1.4061 1.4303 1.4540 1.4770 1.4996 1.5217 1.5433 1.5644 1.5851 1.6054 1.6253 1.6448 1.6639 1.6827 1.7011

9 0.0862 0.1740 0.2546 0.3293 0.3988 0.4637 0.5247 0.5822 0.6366 0.6881 0.7372 0 7839 0.8286 0.8713 0.9123 09517 0 9895 1.0260 10613 1.0953 1.1282 1 1600 1.1909 1.2208 1.2499 1.2782 1.3056 1.3324 1.3584 1.3838 1.4085 1.4327 14563 1.4793 15019 15239 1.5454 1.5665 1.5872 1.6074 1.6273 1.6467 1.6658 1.6845 1.7029

This table gives the naturalor Napierian logarithms(In) of numbers between 1 and 10, correctto four places. Moving the decimal pointn places to the right (or left) in the number isequivalentto adding R times 2 3026 (orn times 3.6974) to the logarithm.Base e=2.71828+.
,nw=(2.3026,,og,,x, ,og,,x=(O4343),nx, whete23026=ln 10 andO4343=log,:e

MATHEMATlCALTABLES&UNlTS&

SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&MEASURES

1-57

TABLE

1.26 -NATURAL n nf2.30261 2.3026 4.6052 6.9078 9.2103 11.5129 13.8155 16.1181 18.4207 20.7233

LOGARITHMS' n(0.6974-31 0.6974-3 0.3948-5 0.0922- 7 0.7897-10 0.4871-12 0.1845-14 0.8819-17 0.5793-19 0.2767-21

(continued)

Number 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 77 78 79 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0

0 1.7047 1.7228 1.7405 1.7579 1.7750 1.7918 1.8083 1.8245 1.8405 1.8563 1.8718 1.8871 1.9021 1.9169 1.9315 1.9459 1.9601 1.9741 1.9879 2.0015 2.0149 2.0281 2.0412 2.0541 2.0669 2.0794 2.0919 2.1041 2.1163 2.1282 2.1401 2.1518 2.1633 2.1748 2.1861 2.1972 2.2083 2.2192 2.2300 2.2407 2.2513 2.2618 2.2721 2.2824 2.2925 2.3026

1 1.7066 1.7246 1.7422 1.7596 1.7766 1.7934 1.8099 1.8262 1.8421 1.8579 1.8733 1.8886 1.9036 1.9184 1.9330 1.9473 1.9615 1.9755 1.9892 2.0028 2.0162 2.0295 2.0425 2.0554 2.0681 2.0807 2.0931 2.1054 2.1175 2.1294 2.1412 2.1529 2.1645 2.1759 2.1872 2.1983 2.2094 2.2203 2.2311 2.2418 2.2523 2.2628 2.2732 2.2834 2.2935

2 1.7084 1.7263 1.7440 1.7613 1.7783 1.7951 1.8116 1.8278 1.8437 1.8594 1.8749 1.8901 1.9051 1.9199 1.9344 1.9488 1.9629 1.9769 1.9906 2.0042 2.0176 2.0308 2.0438 2.0567 2.0694 2.0819 2.0943 2.1066 2.1187 2.1306 2.1424 2.1541 2.1656 2.1770 2.1883 2.1994 2.2105 2.2214 2.2322 2.2428 2.2534 2.2638 2.2742 2.2844 2.2946

3 1.7102 1.7281 1.7457 1.7630 1.7800 1.7967 1.8132 1.8294 1.8453 1.8610 1.8764 1.8916 1.9066 1.9213 1.9359 1.9502 1.9643 1.9782 1.9920 20055 2.0189 2.0321 2.0451 2.0580 2.0707 2.0832 2.0956 2.1078 2.1199 2.1318 2.1436 2.1552 2.1668 2.1782 2.1894 2.2006 2.2116 2.2225 2.2332 2.2439 2.2544 2.2649 2.2752 2.2854 2.2956

4 1.7120 1.7299 1.7475 1.7647 1.7817 1.7984 1.8148 1.8310 1.8469 1.8625 1.8779 1.8931 1.9081 1.9228 1.9373 1.9516 1.9657 1.9796 1.9933 2.0069 2.0202 2.0334 2.0464 2.0592 2.0719 2.0844 2.0966 2.1090 2.1211 2.1330 2.1448 2.1564 2.1679 2.1793 2.1905 2.2017 2.2127 2.2235 2.2343 2.2450 2.2555 2.2659 2.2762 2.2865 2.2966

5 1.7138 1.7317 1.7492 1.7664 1.7834 1.8001 1.8165 1.8326 1.8485 1.8641 1.8795 1.8946 1.9095 1.9242 1.9387 1.9530 1.9671 1.9810 1.9947 2.0082 2.0215 2.0347 2.0477 2.0605 2.0732 2.0857 2.0980 2.1102 2.1223 2.1342 2.1459 2.1576 2.1691 2.1804 2.1917 2.2028 2.2138 2.2246 2.2354 2.2460 2.2565 2.2670 2.2773 2.2875 2.2976

6 1.7156 1.7334 1.7509 1.7681 1.7851 1.8017 1.8181 1.8342 1.8500 1.8656 1.8810 1.8961 1.9110 1.9257 1.9402 1.9544 1.9685 1.9824 1.9961 2.0096 2.0229 2.0360 2.0490 2.0618 2.0744 2.0869 2.0992 2.1114 2.1235 2.1353 2.1471 2.1587 2.1702 2.1815 2.1928 2.2039 2.2148 2.2257 2.2364 2.2471 2.2576 2.2680 2.2783 2.2885 2.2986

7 1.7174 1.7352 1.7527 1.7699 1.7867 1.8034 1.8197 1.8358 1.8516 1.8672 1.8825 1.8976 1.9125 1.9272 1.9416 1.9559 1.9699 19838 1.9974 20109 20242 2.0373 2.0503 2.0631 2.0757 2.0882 2.1005 2.1126 2.1247 2.1365 2.1483 2.1599 2.1713 2.1827 2.1939 2.2050 2.2159 2.2268 2.2375 2.2481 2.2586 2.2690 2.2793 2.2895 2.2996

8 ____ 1.7192 1.7370 1.7544 1.7716 1.7884 1.8050 1.8213 1.8374 1.8532 1.8687 1.8840 1.8991 1.9140 1.9286 1.9430 1.9573 1.9713 1.9851 1.9988 2.0122 2.0255 2.0386 2.0516 2.0643 2.0769 2.0894 2.1017 2.1138 2.1258 2.1377 2.1494 2.1610 2.1725 2.1838 2.1950 2.2061 2.2170 2.2279 2.2386 2.2492 2.2597 2.2701 2.2803 2.2905 2.3006

9 1.7210 1.7387 1.7561 1.7733 1.7901 1.8066 1.8229 1.8390 1.8547 1.8703 1.8856 1.9006 1.9155 1.9301 1.9445 1.9587 1.9727 1 9865 2.0001 2.0136 2.0268 2.0399 2.0528 2.0656 2.0782 2.0906 2.1029 2.1150 2.1270 2.1389 2.1506 2.1622 2.1736 2.1849 2.1961 2.2072 2.2181 2.2289 2.2396 2.2502 2.2607 2.2711 2.2814 2.2915 2.3016

Average Difference 18 18 17 17 17 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 II 11 11 11 11 IO IO 10 IO 10

Thts table gives the naturalor Naprerian logarithms(In) of numbers between 1 and 10, correctto four places. Moving the decimal porntn places to the right (or left) In the number isequivalentto adding n times 2.3026 (orn times 3.6974) to the logarithm. Base e=2 71828+
-In x=/2 3026) log .>x bg ,,x=(O 4343)ln x. where 2 3026=In 10 and 0 4343=log,,e

1-58

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.27-HYPERBOLIC

SINES

[sinh x = Xte -e -)I Average Difference 100 101 103 106 110 116 122 130 138 15 16 17 19 21 22 25 27 30 33 36 39 44 48 53 58 64 71 79 87 96 11 12 13 14 16 17 19 21 24 26 29 32 35 39 43 47 52 58 64 71

x 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 04 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 .o 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3 4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3 8 3.9 4.0 4.1 42 43 4.4 4.5 4 6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0

0 0.0000 0 1002 0.2013 0.3045 0.4108 0.5211 0.6367 0.7586 0.8881 1.027 1.175 1.336 1.509 1.698 1.904 2.129 2.376 2 646 2 942 3 268 3 627 4.022 4457 4.937 5.466 6.050 6.695 7.406 8.192 9.060 10.02 11.08 12.25 13.54 14.97 16.54 18.29 20.21 22.34 24.69 27.29 30.16 33.34 36.84 40.72 45.00 49.74 54.97 60.75 67.14 74.20

1 0.0100 0.1102 0.2115 0.3150 0.4216 0.5324 0.6485 0.7712 0.9015 1.041 1.191 1.352 1.528 1.718 1.926 2.153 2401 2.674 2973 3303 3665 4.064 4.503 4.988 5.522 6.112 6.763 7.481 8.275 9.151 10.12 11.19 12.37 13.67 15.12 16.71 18.47 20.41 22.56 24.94 27.56 30.47 33.67 37.21 41 13 45.46 50.24 55.52 61.36 67.82

2 0.0200 0.1203 0.2218 0.3255 0.4325 05438 0.6605 0.7838 0.9150 1055 1206 1369 1546 1.738 1948 2 177 2428 2 703 3.005 3 337 3 703 4.106 4549 5.039 5 578 6.174 6.831 7.557 8.359 9.244 10.22 11.30 12.49 13 81 15.27 16.88 18.66 20.62 22.79 2519 27.64 30.77 34.01 3759 41.54 45.91 50.74 5608 61 98 68.50

3 0.0300 0.1304 0.2320 0.3360 0.4434 0.5552 0.6725 0.7966 0.9286 1.070 1.222 1.386 1.564 1.758 1.970 2.201 2.454 2 732 3.037 3372 3741 4.148 4.596 5.090 5.635 6.237 6.901 7.634 8.443 9.337 10.32 11.42 12.62 13.95 15.42 17.05 18.84 20.83 2302 25.44 28.12 31.08 34.35 37.97 41.96 4637 51.25 56.64 62.60 69.19

4 0.0400 0.1405 0.2423 0.3466 0.4543 0.5666 0.6846 0.8094 0.9423 1.085 1.238 1.403 1.583 1.779 1992 2.225 2.481 2 761 3069 3.408 3.780 4 191 4643 5.142 5.693 6.300 6.971 7.711 8.529 9 431 10.43 11.53 12.75 14.09 15.58 17.22 19.03 21.04 23.25 25.70 28.40 31.39 34.70 38.35 42 30 46.84 51.77 57.21 63.23 69.88

5 0.0500 0.1506 0.2526 0.3572 0.4653 0.5782 0.6967 0.8223 0.9561 1.099 1.254 1.421 1.602 1.799 2.014 2.250 2.507 2.790 3.101 3.443 3.820 4.234 4.691 5.195 5.751 6.365 7.042 7.789 8.615 9.527 10.53 1165 12.88 14.23 15.73 17.39 19.22 21 25 23.49 25.96 28.69 31.71 35.05 38.73 42.81 47.31 52.29 57.79 63.87 70.58

6 0.0600 0.1607 0.2629 0.3678 0.4764 0.5897 0.7090 0.8353 0.9700 1.114 1.270 1.438 1.621 1.820 2.037 2.274 2.535 2820 3.134 3479 3.859 4.278 4739 5.248 5810 6.429 7.113 7.868 8.702 9623 1064 11 76 13.01 14.38 15.89 17.57 19.42 21 46 2372 26.22 28.98 32.03 3540 39.12 43.24 47.79 52.81 58.37 64 51 71 29

7 0.0701 0.1708 0.2733 0.3785 0.4875 0.6014 0.7213 0.8484 0.9840 1.129 1.286 1.456 1.640 1.841 2.060 2.299 2.562 2.850 3.167 3.516 3.899 4.322 4.780 5.302 5.869 6.495 7.185 7.940 8.790 9.720 10.75 11.88 13.14 14.52 16.05 17.74 19.61 21.68 23.96 26.48 29.27 32.35 35.75 39.52 43.67 48.27 53.34 58.96 65.16 72.01

8 0.0801 0.1810 0.2837 0.3892 0.4986 0.6131 0.7336 0.8615 0.9981 1.145 1.303 1.474 1.659 1.862 2.083 2.324 2.590 2.881 3.200 3.552 3.940 4.367 4.837 5.356 5.929 6.561 7.258 8.028 8.879 9.819 10.86 12.00 13.27 14.67 16.21 17.92 19.81 21.90 24.20 26.75 29.56 32.68 36.11 39.91 44.11 40.75 53.88 59.55 65.81 72.73

9 0.0901 0.1911 0.2941 0.4000 0.5098 0.6248 0.7461 0.8748 1.012 1.160 1.319 1.491 1.679 1.883 2.106 2.350 2.617 2.911 3.234 3.589 3.981 4.412 4.887 5.411 5.989 6.627 7.332 8.110 8.969 9.918 10.97 12.12 13.40 14.82 1638 18.10 20.01 22.12 24.45 27.02 29.86 33.00 36.48 4031 44.56 49.24 54.42 60.15 67.47 73.46

MATHEMATIC

:AL TAB1 -ES&UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&

MEASURES

I-59

TABLE

1.28-HYPERBOLIC

COSINES

[cash x,=M(e*

+e-)I Average Difference

x 0.0 01 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 .o 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0

0 1.000 1.005 1.020 1.045 1.081 1.128 1.185 1.255 1.337 1.433 1.543 1.669 1.811 1.971 2.151 2.352 2.577 2.828 3.107 3.418 3.762 4.144 4.568 5.037 5.557 6.132 6.769 7.473 8.253 9.115 10.07 11.12 12.29 13.57 15.00 16.57 18.31 20.24 22.36 24.71 27.31 30.18 33.35 36.86 40.73 45.01 49.75 54.98 60 76 67.15 74.21

1 1.000 1.006 1.022 1.048 1.085 1.133 1.192 1.263 1.346 1.443 1.555 1.682 1.826 1.988 2.170 2 374 2.601 2.855 3.137 3.451 3.799 4.185 4.613 5.087 5.612 6.193 6.836 7.548 8.335 9.206 10.17 11.23 12.41 13.71 15.15 16.74 18.50 20.44 22.59 24.96 27.58 30.48 33.69 37.23 41.14 45.47 50.25 55.53 61 37 67.82

2 1 .ooo 1.007 1.024 1.052 1.090 1.138 1.198 1.271 1.355 1.454 1.567 1.696 1.841 2.005 2.189 2.395 2.625 2.882 3.167 3.484 3.835 4.226 4.658 5.137 5.667 6.255 6.904 7.623 8.418 9.298 10.27 11.35 12.53 13.85 15.30 16.91 18.68 2064 22.81 2521 27.86 30.79 3402 3760 41 55 4592 5075 56.09 61 99 68.50

3 1.000 1.008 1.027 1.055 1 094 1.144 1.205 1.278 1.365 1.465 1.579 1.709 1.857 2.023 2.209 2.417 2.650 2.909 3.197 3.517 3.873 4.267 4.704 5.188 5.723 6.317 6.973 7.699 8.502 9.391 10.37 11.46 12.66 13.99 15.45 17.08 18.87 20.85 23.04 25.46 28.14 31.10 34.37 3798 41.97 46.38 51.26 56.65 62.61 69.19

4 1.0011.010 1.029 1.058 1.098 1.149 1.212 1.287 1.374 1.475 1.591 1.723 1.872 2.040 2.229 2.439 2.675 2.936 3.228 3.551 3.910 4.309 4.750 5.239 5.780 6.379 7.042 7.776 8.587 9.484 10.48 11.57 12.79 14.13 15.61 17.25 19.06 21.06 23.27 25.72 28.42 31 41 34 71 3836 4239 46.85 51 78 57.22 63.24 69 a9

5 1.001 1.011 1.031 1.062 1.103 1.155 1.219 1.295 1.384 1.486 1.604 1.737 1.888 2.058 2.249 2.462 2.700 2.964 3.259 3.585 3.948 4.351 4.797 5.290 5.837 6.443 7.112 7.853 8.673 9.579 10.58 11.69 12.91 14.27 15.77 17.42 19.25 21.27 23.51 25.98 28.71 31.72 35.06 38.75 42.82 47.32 52.30 57.80 63.87 70.59

6 1.002 1.013 1.034 1.066 1.108 1.161 1.226 1.303 1.393 1.497 1.616 1.752 1.905 2.076 2.269 2.484 2.725 2.992 3.290 3.620 3.987 4.393 4.844 5.343 5.895 6.507 7.183 7.932 8.759 9.675 10.69 11.81 13.04 14.41 15.92 17.60 19.44 21.49 23.74 26.24 29.00 3204 3541 39.13 4325 4780 5282 58.38 64.52 71.30

7 1.002 1.014 1.037 1.069 1.112 1.167 1.233 1.311 1.403 1.509 1.629 1.766 1.921 2.095 2.290 2.507 2.750 3.021 3.321 3.655 4.026 4.436 4.891 5.395 5.954 6.571 7.255 8.011 8.847 9.772 10.79 11.92 13.17 14.56 16.08 17.77 19.64 21.70 23.98 26.50 29.29 32.37 35.77 39.53 43.68 48.28 57.35 58.96 65.16 72.02

8 1.003 1.016 1.039 1.073 1.117 1.173 1.240 1.320 1.413 1.520 1.642 1.781 1.937 2.113 2.310 2.530 2.776 3.049 3.353 3.690 4.065 4.480 4.939 5.449 6.013 6.636 7.327 a.091 8.935 9.869 10.90 12.04 13.31 14.70 16.25 17.95 19.84 21.92 24.22 26.77 29.58 32.69 36.13 39.93 44.12 48.76 57.89 59.56 65.82 72.74

9 1.004 1.018 1.042 1.077 1.122 1.179 1.248 1.329 1.423 1.531 1.655 1.796 1.954 2.132 2.331 2.554 2.802 3.078 3.385 3.726 4.104 4.524 4.988 5.503 6.072 6.702 7.400 a.171 9.024 9.968 11.01 12.16 13.44 14.85 16.41 la.13 20.03 22.14 24.47 27.04 29.88 33.02 36.49 40.33 44.57 49.25 54.43 60.15 66.48 73.47

6 ; 10 11 13 14 16 18 20 23 25 28 31 34 38 42 47 52 58 64 70 78 86 95 11 12 13 14 16 17 19 21 23 26 29 32 35 39 43 47 52 58 64 71

I-60

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.29-HYPERBOLIC

TANGENTS

[tanh x = (e - e -)/(e+ e -) = sinh xkosh

x] Average Difference 100 98 94 89 82 75 67 60 52 45 39 33 28 24 20 17 14 11 9 8

x 0.0 0.1 0 2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0 9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 28 2.9

0 0.0000 0.0997 0.1974 0.2913 0.3800 0.4621 0.5370 0.6044 0.6640 0.7163 07616 0.8005 0.8337 0.8617 0.8854 0.9052 0.9217 0.9354 0.9468 09562 0.9640 0.9705 0 9757 0 9801 0 9837 0 9866 0 9890 0 9910 09926 0.9940 0.0100 0.1096 0.2070 0.3004 0.3885 0.4700 0.5441 0.6107 0.6696 0.7211 0.7658 0.8041 0.8367 0.8643 0.8875 0.9069 0.9232 0.9367 0.9478 0.9571 0.9647 0.9710 0.9762 0.9805 0.9840 0.9869 0.9892 0.9912 0.9928 0.9941 0.9959 0.9995

2 0.0200 0.1194 0.2165 0.3095 0.3969 0.4777 0.5511 0.6169 0.6751 0 7259 0.7699 0.8076 0.8397 0.8668 0.8896 0.9087 0.9246 0.9379 0.9488 0.9579 0.9654 0.9716 0.9767 0.9809 0.9843 0.9871 0.9895 0.9914 0.9929 0.9942 0.9967 0.9996

3 0.0300 0.1293 0.2260 0.3185 0.4053 0.4854 0.5581 0.6231 0.6805 0.7306 0.7739 0.8110 0.8426 0.8693 0.8917 0.9104 0.9261 0.9391 0.9498 0.9587 0.9661 0.9722 0.9771 0.9812 0.9846 0.9874 0.9897 0.9915 0.9931 0.9943 0.9973 0.9996

4 0.0400 0.1391 0.2355 03275 04137 0 4930 0.5649 0.6291 0.6858 0.7352 0.7779 0.8144 0.8455 0.8717 0.8937 0.9121 0 9275 0.9402 0.9508 0.9595 0 9668 0.9727 0.9776 0.9816 0 9849 09876 09899 0.9917 0.9932 0.9944 0.9978 0.9997

5 0.0500 0.1489 0.2449 0.3364 0.4219 0.5005 0.5717 0.6352 0.6911 0.7398 0.7818 0.8178 0.8483 0.8741 0.8957 0.9138 0.9289 0.9414 0.9518 0.9603 0.9674 0.9732 0.9780 0.9820 0.9852 0.9879 0.9901 0.9919 0.9933 0.9945 0.9982 0.9998

6 0.0599 0.1587 0.2543 0.3452 0.4301 0.5080 0.5784 0.6411 0.6963 0.7443 0.7857 0.8210 0.8511 0.8764 0.8977 0.9154 0.9302 0.9425 0.9527 0.9611 0.9680 0.9738 0.9785 0.9823 0.9855 0.9881 0.9903 0.9920 0.9935 0.9946 0.9985 0.9998 0.0699 0.1684 0.2636 0.3540 0.4382 0.5154 0.5850 0.6469 0.7014 0.7487 0.7895 0.8243 0.8538 0.8787 0.8996 0.9170 0.9316 0.9436 0.9536 0.9619 0.9687 0.9743 0.9789 0.9827 0.9858 0.9884 0.9905 0.9922 0.9936 0.9947 0.9988 0.9998

a 0.0798 01781 0.2729 0.3827 0.4462 05227 0.5915 0.6527 0.7064 0.7531 0.7932 0.8275 0.8565 0.8810 0.9015 0.9186 0.9329 0.9447 0.9545 0.9626 0.9693 0.9748 0.9793 0.9830 0.9861 0.9886 0.9906 0.9923 0.9937 0.9949 0.9990 0.9999

9 0.0898 0.1878 0.2821 0.3714 0.4542 0.5299 0.5980 0.6584 0.7114 0.7574 0.7969 0.8306 0.8591 0.8832 0.9033 0.9202 0.9342 0.9458 0.9554 0.9633 0.9699 0.9753 0.9797 0.9834 0.9863 0.9888 0.9908 0.9925 0.9938 0.9950 0.9992 0.9999

3.0 0.9951 4.0 0.9993 5.0 0.9999

TABLE

1 JO-MULTIPLES 2 3 0.1303 0.5646 0.9989 14332 1.8675 2.3018 2.7361 3.1703 3.6046 40389

OF 0.4343 (0.43429448 = 4 0.1737 0.6080 1.0423 1.4766 1.9109 2.3452 2.7795 3.2138 3.6481 4.0824 5 0.2171 0.6514 1.0857 1.5200 1.9543 2.3886 2.8229 3.2572 3.6915 4.1258 6 0.2606 0.6949 1.1292 1.5635 1.9978 2.4320 2.8663 3.3006 3.7349 4.1692

109 roe)
8 0.3040 0.7383 1.1726 1.6069 2.0412 2.4755 2.9098 33441 3.7784 4.2127 0.3474 0.7817 1.2160 1.6503 2.0846 2.51a9 2.9532 3.3875 3.8218 4.2561 9 0.3909 0.8252 1.2595 1.6937 2.1280 2.5623 2.9966 3.4309 3.8652 4.2995

0.0 1 .o 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 70 80 9.0

0.0000 0.4343 0.8686 1.3029 1.7372 2.1715 2.6058 3.0401 3.4744 3.9087

0.0434 0.4777 0.9120 1.3463 1.7806 2.2149 2.6492 3.0835 3.5178 3.9521

0.0869 0.5212 0.9554 1.3897 1.8240 2.2583 2.6926 3.1269 3.5612 3.9955

TABLE
Y

1.31-MULTIPLES 2 0.4605 2.7631 5.0657 7.3683 9.6709 11.973 14.276 16.579 la.881 21.184 3 0.6908 2.9934 5.2959 75985 9 9011 12.204 14.506 16 809 19111 21 414

OF 2.3026 (2.3025851 =In,, = 110.4343) 4 0.9210 3.2236 5.5262 7.8288 10.131 12.434 14.737 17039 19342 21.644 5 1.1513 3.4539 5.7565 8.0590 10.362 12.664 14967 17269 19572 21 875 6 1.3816 3.6841 59867 8.2893 10.592 12.894 15.197 17.500 19.802 22.105 7 1.6118 3.9144 6.2170 8.5196 10.822 13.125 15.427 17.730 20.032 22.335 8 1.8421 4.1447 6.4472 8.7498 11.052 13.355 15.658 17.960 20.263 22.565
9

0 0.0000 23026 4.6052 6.9078 9.2103 11 513 13.816 16.118 18421 20.723

1 0.2303 2.5328 4.8354 7.1380 9.4406 11.743 14046 16.348 18651 20.954

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 90

2.0723 4.3749 6.6775 8.9801 11 283 13585 15.888 18.190 20.493 22.796

MATHEMATlCALTABLES&

UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&

MEASURES

I-61

TABLE

1.32-STANDARD OFRESIDUALS a/r 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 36 3.7 38 3.9 4.0 5.0 yin 0.000 0.054 0.107 0.160 0.213 0264 0.314 0 363 0.411 0 456 0.500 0.542 0.582 0.619 0.655 0.688 0.719 0748 0.775 0.800 0823 0.843 0 862 0.879 0.895 0.908 0 921 0.931 0.941 0.950 0.957 0.963 0 969 0.974 0 978 0 982 0985 0 987 0990 0991 0993 0.999

DISTRIBUTION

TABLE1.33-FACTORS FORCOMPUTING PROBABLEERROR Bessel 0.6745 n/2 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 IO 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ia 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 z: 35 36 37 38 39 W) 0.6745 0.4769 0.3894 0.3372 0.3016 0.2754 0.2549 0.2385 0.2248 0.2133 0.2034 0.1947 o.la7l 0.1803 0.1742 0.1686 0.1636 0.1590 0.1547 0.1508 0.1472 0.1438 0.1406 0.1377 0.1349 0.1323 0.1298 0.1275 0.1252 0.1231 0.1211 0.1192 0.1174 01157 0.1140 0.1124 0.1109 0.1094 0.1080 0.1017 0.0964 0.0918 0.0878 0.0843 0.0812 0.0784 0.0759 0.0736 0.0715 0.0696 0.0678 0.6745 \l;r(n-1) 0.4769 0.2754 0.1947 0.1508 0.1231 0.1041 0.0901 0.0795 0.0711 0.0643 0.0587 0.0540 0.0500 0.0465 0.0435 0.0409 0.0386 0.0365 0.0346 0.0329 0.0314 0.0300 0.0287 0.0275 0.0265 0.0255 0.0245 0.0237 0.0229 0.0221 0.0214 0.0208 0.0201 0.0196 0.0190 0.0185 0.0180 0.0175 0.0171 0.0152 0.0136 0.0124 0.0113 0.0105 0.0097 0.0091 0.0085 0.0080 0.0075 0.0071 0.0068 Peters 0.8453 ~~) 0.5978 0.3451 0.2440 0.1890 0.1543 0.1304 0.1130 0.0996 0.0891 0.0806 0.0736 0.0677 0.0627 0.0583 0.0546 0.0513 0.0483 0.0457 0.0434 0.0412 0.0393 0.0376 0.0360 0.0345 0.0332 0.0319 0.0307 0.0297 0.0287 0.0277 0.0268 0.0260 0.0252 0.0245 0.0238 0.0232 0.0225 0.0220 0.0214 0.0190 0.0171 0.0155 0.0142 0.0131 0.0122 0.0113 0.0106 0.0100 0.0094 0.0089 0.0085 0.8453

Difference 54 53 53 53 51 50 49 48 45 44 42 40 37 36 33 31 29 27 25 23 20 19 17 16 13 13 10 IO 9 7

nm
04227 01993 0.1220 0.0845 00630 0 0493 0 0399 00332 00282 00243 0.0212 00188 00167 00151 00136 00124 00114 00105 0 0097 0 0090 00084 00078 0.0073 0 0069 00065 00061 00058 00055 00052 00050 00047 00045 0.0043 00041 00040 00038 00037 00035 00034 00028 0.0024 0.0021 00018 0.0016 00015 0.0013 0.0012 0.0011 0.0010 0.0009 0.0008

40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 a0 a5 90 95 100

a = any positive quantity, y = number of residualsthat are numericallysmaller than 1, r = probable errorof a single observation. and n = number of observations.

1-62

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE1.34-COMPOUND INTEREST-AMOUNTOFAGIVEN

PRINCIPAL

The amount A at the end of n years of a given principal P placed at compound Interest today isA = Px xor A = Px yorA = P xz,according asiheinterest(attherateofipercentperannum) iscompounded annually, semtannually,or quarterly; the factorx or yorz being taken from the following tables. Values of x-Interest Compounded Years 1.0200 1.0404 1.0612 1.0824 1.1041 1.1262 1.1487 1.1717 11951 1.2190 1.2434 1.2682 1.2936 1.3195 1.3459 1.3728 1.4002 1.4282 1.4568 1.4859 1.6406 1.8114 2.2080 2.6916 3.2810 2'/2 1.0250 1.0506 1.0769 1.1038 1.1314 1.1597 1.1887 1.2184 1.2489 1.2801 1.3121 1.3449 1.3785 1.4130 1.4483 1.4845 1.5216 1.5597 1.5987 1.6386 1.8539 2.0976 2.6851 3.4371 4.3998 3 1.0300 1.0609 1.0927 11255 1.1593 1.1941 1.2299 12668 13048 13439 1.3842 14258 14685 15126 15580 1.6047 1.6528 1.7024 1.7535 1.8061 20938 2.4273 32620 43839 5.8916 Annually:A=Pxx 3'12 1.0350 1.0712 1.1087 1.1475 1.1877 1.2293 1.2723 1.3168 1.3629 1.4106 1.4600 1.5111 1.5640 1.6187 1.6753 1.7340 1.7947 18575 1.9225 1.9898 2.3632 2.8068 3.9593 5.5849 7.8781 4 1.0400 1.0816 1.1249 1.1699 1.2167 1.2653 1.3159 1.3686 1.4233 1.4802 1.5395 1.6010 1.6651 1.7317 1.8009 1.8730 1.9479 2.0258 2.1068 2.1911 2.6658 3.2434 4.8010 7.1067 10.520 4'12 10450 1.0920 1.1412 1.1925 1.2462 1.3023 1.3609 1.4221 14861 1.5530 1.6229 1.6959 1.7722 1.8519 1.9353 2.0224 2.1134 2.2085 2.3079 2.4117 3.0054 3.7453 5.8164 9.0326 14.027 5 1.0500 1.1025 1.1576 1.2155 1.2763 1.3401 1.4071 1.4775 1.5513 1.6289 1.7103 1.7959 1.8856 1.9799 2.0789 2.1829 2.2920 2.4066 2.5270 2.6533 3.3864 4.3219 7.0400 11.467 18.679 6 1.0600 1.1236 1.1910 1.2625 1.3382 1.4185 1.5036 1.5938 1.6895 1.7908 1.8983 2.0122 2.1329 2.2609 2.3966 2.5404 2.6928 2.8543 3.0256 3.2071 4.2919 5.7435 10.286 18.420 32.988 7 1.0700 1.1449 12250 1.3108 1.4026 1.5007 1.6058 1.7182 1.8385 1.9672 2.1049 22522 2.4098 2.5785 2.7590 2.9522 3.1588 3.3799 3.6165 3.8697 5.4274 7.6123 14.974 29.457 57.946

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60

This table IS computed

from the formula

Y= 1 +(!/lClO)

Values of y-interest Compounded Years ~ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60 i=2 1.0201 1.0406 1.0615 1.0829 1.1046 1.1268 1.1495 1.1728 1.1961 1.2202 1.2447 2.2697 1.2953 1.3213 1.3478 1.3749 1.4026 1.4308 1.4595 1.4889 1.6446 1.8167 2.2167 2.7048 3.3004 2'/2 1.0252 1.0509 1.0774 1.1045 1.1323 1.1608 1.1900 1.2199 1.2506 1.2820 1.3143 1.3474 1.3812 1.4160 1.4516 1.4881 1.5256 1.5639 1.6033 1.6436 1.8610 2.1072 2.7015 3.4634 4.4402 3 1.0302 1.0614 1.0934 1.1265 1.1605 1.1956 1.2318 1.2690 1.3073 1.3469 1.3876 1.4295 1.4727 1.5172 1.5631 1.6103 1.6590 1.7091 1.7608 1.8140 2.1052 2.4432 3.2907 4.4320 5.9693

Semiannually: A = Pxy 3% 1.0353 1.0719 1.1097 1.1489 1.1894 1.2314 1.2749 1.3199 1.3665 1.4148 1.4647 1.5164 1.5700 1.6254 1.6828 1.7422 1.8037 1.8674 1.9333 2.0016 2.3808 2.8318 4.0064 5.6682 8.0192 4 1.0404 1.0824 1.1282 1.1717 1.2190 1.2682 1.3195 1.3728 1.4282 1.4859 1.5480 1.6084 1.6734 1.7410 1.8114 1.8845 1.9607 2.0399 2.1223 2.2080 2.6916 3.2810 4.8754 7.2446 10.765

4%
1.0455 1.0931 1.1428 1.1948 1.2492 1.3060 1.3655 1.4276 1.4926 1.5605 1.6315 1.7058 1.7834 1.8645 1.9494 2.0381 2.1308 2.2278 2.3292 2.4352 3.0420 3.8001 5.9301 9.2540 14.441

5 1.0506 1.1038 1.1597 12184 1.2801 1.3449 1.4130 1.4845 1.5597 16386 1.7216 18087 1.9003 1.9965 2.0976 2.2038 2.3153 2.4325 2.5557 2.6851 3.4371 4.3998 7.2096 11.814 19.358

6 1.0609 I.1255 1.1941 1.2668 1.3439 1.4258 1.5126 1.6047 17024 1.8061 1.9161 2.0328 2.1566 2.2879 2.4273 2.5751 2.7319 2.8983 3.0748 3.2620 4.3839 5.8916 10.641 19.219 34.711

7 1.0712 1.1475 1.2293 1.3168 1.4106 1.5111 1.6187 1.7340 1.8575 1.9898 2.1315 2.2833 2.4460 2.6202 2.8068 3.0067 3.2209 3.4503 3.6960 3.9593 5.5849 7.8781 15.676 31.191 62.064

This table IS computed

from the formula y = t + (WOO)

MATHEMATlCALTABLES8,

UNITS&

SYSTEMSOF

WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-63

TABLE

1.34-COMPOUND

INTEREST-AMOUNT

OF

A GIVEN

PRINCIPAL

(continued)

Values of z--Interest Compounded Years 2 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60 1=2 1.0202 1.0407 1.0617 1.0831 1.1049 1.1272 1.1499 1 1730 1.1967 1.2208 1.2454 1.2705 1.2961 1.3222 1.3489 1.3760 1.4038 1.4320 1.4609 1.4903 1.6467 18194 2.2211 27115 3.3102 2112 1.0252 1.0511 1.0776 1.1048 1.1327 1 1613 1.1906 12206 12514 1.2830 13154 1.3486 1.3826 14175 1.4533 1.4900 1.5276 1.5661 1.6056 1.6462 1.8646 2.1121 2.7098 3.4768 44608 3 10303 1.0616 10938 1 1270 1.1612 11964 1.2327 12701 1.3086 1.3483 13893 14314 14748 1.5196 1.5657 1.6132 1.6621 17126 17645 1 8180 2.1111 2.4514 3.3053 4.4567 6.0092

Quarterly: A=Pxz' 3% 1.0355 1.0722 1.1102 1.1496 1.1903 12326 1.2763 1.3215 1.3684 1.4169 14672 1.5192 1.5731 1.6288 1.6866 1.7464 1.8063 1.8725 1.9389 2.0076 23898 28446 4.0306 5.7110 8.0919 4 1.0406 1.0829 1.1268 1.1726 12202 1.2697 1.3213 1.3749 1.4308 1.4889 1.5493 1.6122 16777 1.7458 1.8167 1.8905 1.9672 2.0471 2.1302 2.2167 2.7048 3.3004 49138 7.3160 10893 4% 1.0458 1.0936 1.1437 1.1960 1.2508 1.3080 1.3679 14305 1.4959 1.5644 1.6360 1.7108 1.7891 1.8710 1.9566 2.0462 2.1398 22378 2.3402 2.4473 3.0609 3.8285 5.9892 9.3693 14.657 5 1.0509 1.1045 1.1608 1.2199 1.2820 1.3474 1.4160 1.4881 1.5639 1.6436 1.7274 1.8154 1.9078 2.0050 2.1072 22145 2.3274 2.4459 2.5705 2.7015 3 4634 4.4402 7.2980 11.995 19.715 6 1.0614 1.1265 1.1956 1.2690 1.3469 1.4295 1.5172 1.6103 1.7091 1.8140 1.9253 2.0435 2.1689 2.3020 2.4432 2.5931 2.7523 2.9212 3.1004 3.2907 4.4320 5.9693 10.828 19.643 35.633 7 1.0719 1.1489 1.2314 1.3199 1.4146 1.5164 1.6254 1.7422 1.8674 2.0016 2.1454 2.2996 2.4648 2.6420 2.8318 3.0353 3.2534 3.4872 3.7378 4.0064 5.6682 8.0192 16051 32.128 64.307

'Th,s table IS compuled

from ,he formula z= 1 +(,,400)111

TABLE

1.35-AMOUNT

OF AN ANNUITY

The amount S accumulated at the end of n years by a given annual payment Y set aside at the end of each year is S= Yx v. where the factor\Iis taken from the following table.(Interest at i percent per annum, compounded annually) Values of V* Years r=2 10000 20200 30604 41216 52040 63081 74343 85830 9.7546 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60 10.950 12169 13.412 14.680 15974 17293 18639 20012 21 412 22.841 24297 32030 40568 60.402 84.579 11405 2% 10000 20250 3.0756 4.1525 5.2563 6.3877 7.5474 87361 9 9545 11.203 12.483 13.796 15.140 16519 17.932 19.380 20.865 22386 23.946 25545 34.158 43.903 67403 97484 135.99 3 1.0000 2.0300 3.0909 41836 5.3091 64684 7.6625 8.8923 10.159 11.464 12808 14192 15.618 17086 18599 20157 21 762 23.414 25.117 26 870 36.459 47.575 75.401 112.80 163.05 3% 1.0000 2.0350 3 1062 4.2149 53625 65502 7.7794 90517 10368 11 731 13.142 14602 16113 17677 19296 20971 22705 24500 26357 28280 38950 51 623 84.550 131 00 19652 4 10000 2 0400 3.1216 4.2465 5.4163 66330 7.8983 9.2142 10.583 12006 13.486 15026 16627 18 292 20024 21.825 23 698 25.645 27.671 29.778 41.646 56.085 95.026 152.67 237.99 4'h 10000 20450 3.1370 4.2782 5.4707 6.7169 8.0192 9.3800 10.802 12.288 13.841 15.464 17.160 18.932 20.784 22.719 24.742 26.855 29.064 31 371 44.565 61.007 107.03 17850 289 50 5 1 0000 20500 3.1525 4.3101 55256 6.8019 8.1420 9.5491 11.027 12.578 14.207 15.917 17.713 19.599 21 579 23.657 25840 28.132 30.539 33.066 47.727 66.439 120.80 209.35 353.58 A 1.0000 2.0600 3.1836 4.3746 5.6371 6.9753 8.3938 9 8975 11.491 13.181 14972 16870 18882 21 015 23276 25673 28213 30906 33 760 36786 54865 79058 154.76 290.34 533.13 7. 1.0000 2.0700 3.2149 4.4399 5.7507 7.1533 8.6540 10260 11.978 13.816 15784 17888 20.141 22550 25129 27.668 30840 33.999 37.379 40.995 63249 94461 19964 406.53 81352

1-64

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.36-PRINCIPAL

AMOUNTING

TO A GIVEN

SUM

The pnncipal P whrch. tfplaced at compound interest today, will amount to a given sum A at the end ofn years ISP=A xx'or P=A xy'or P= A xz', according as the interest (atthe rateof i percent per annum)is compounded annually, semiannually,orquarterly; thefactorx'or y'orz'beingtaken from the following tables. Values of x,-InterestCompounded Years i=2 0.98039 0.96117 0 94232 0.92385 0 90573 0.88797 0.87056 0.85349 0.83676 0.82035 0.80426 0.78849 0.77303 0.75788 0.74301 0.72845 0.71416 0.70016 0.68643 0.67297 0.60953 0.55207 0.45289 0.37153 0 30478 2% 0.97561 0.95181 0.92860 0.90595 0.88385 0.86230 0.84127 0.82075 0.80073 0.78120 076214 0.74356 0.72542 0.70773 0.69047 0.67362 0.65720 0.64117 0.62553 0 61027 0.53939 0.47674 0.37243 0.29094 0.22728 3 0 97087 0 94260 091514 0 88849 0.86261 083748 0 81309 0.78941 0.76642 0.74409 0.72242 0.70138 0.68095 0.66112 0.64186 0.62317 0.60502 0.58739 0.57029 0.55368 0.47761 0.41199 0.30656 0.22811 0.16973 Annually:P=A 3% 0.96618 0.93351 0.90194 0.87144 0.84197 0.81350 0.78599 0.75941 0.73373 0.70892 068495 0.66178 0.63940 0.61778 0.59689 0.57671 0.55720 0.53839 0.52016 0.50257 0.42315 0.35628 0.25257 0.17905 0.12693 xx 4 0.96154 0.92456 0.88900 0.85480 0.82193 0.79031 0.75992 0.73069 0.70259 0.67556 0.64958 0.62460 0.60057 0.57748 0.55526 0.53391 0.51337 0.49363 0.47464 0.45639 0.37512 0.30832 0.20829 0.14071 0.09506 4% 0.95694 0.91573 0.87630 0.83856 0.80245 0.76790 0.73483 0.70319 0.67290 0.64393 0.61620 0.58966 0.56427 0.53997 0.51672 0.49447 0.47318 0.45280 0.43330 0.41464 0.33273 0.26700 0.17193 0.11071 0.07129 5 0.95238 0.90703 0.86384 0.82270 0.78353 074622 0.71068 067684 0.64461 0.61391 0.58468 0.55684 0.53032 0.50507 0.48102 0.45811 0.43630 0.41552 0.39573 0.37689 0 29530 0.23138 0.14205 0.08720 0.05354 6 0.94340 0.89000 0.83962 0.79209 0.74726 0.70496 0.66506 0.62741 0.59190 0.55839 0.52679 0.49697 0.46884 0.44230 0.41727 0.39365 0.37136 0.35034 0.33051 0.31180 0.23300 0.17411 0.09722 0.05429 0.03031 7 0.93458 0.87344 0.81630 0.76290 0.71299 0.66634 0.62275 0.58201 0.54393 0.50835 0.47509 0.44401 0.41496 0.38783 0.36245 0.33873 0.31657 0.29586 0.27651 0.25842 0.18425 0.13137 0.06678 0.03395 0.01726

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60

Values of y'-InterestCompounded Years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60 i=2 0.98030 0.96098 0.94205 0.92348 0.90529 0.88745 0.86996 0.85282 0.83602 0.81954 0.80340 0.78757 077205 0.75684 0.74192 0.72730 0.71297 069892 0.68515 0.67165 060804 055045 0.45112 0.36971 0.30299 2% 0.97546 0.95152 0.92817 0.90540 0.88318 0.86151 0.84037 0.81975 0.79963 0.78001 0.76087 0.74220 0.72398 0.70622 0.68889 0.67198 0.65549 0.63941 0.62372 0.60841 0.53734 0.47457 0.37017 0.28873 0.22521 3

Semiannually: P=Axy 3% 0.96590 0.93296 0 90114 0 87041 0 84073 0 81206 0 78436 0.75762 0 73178 0.70682 0.68272 0.65944 0 63695 061523 0 59425 0 57398 0 55441 0.53550 051724 0.49960 042003 035313 0.24960 0.17642 0.12470 4 0.96117 0.92385 0.88797 0.85349 0.82035 0.77849 0.75788 0.72845 0.70016 0.67297 0.64684 0.62172 0.59758 0.57437 0.55207 0.53063 0.51003 0.49022 0.47119 0.45289 0.37153 030478 0.20511 0.13803 0.09289 4% 0.95647 0.91484 0.87502 0.83694 0.80051 0.76567 0.73234 0.70047 0.66998 0.64082 0.61292 0.58625 0.56073 0.53632 0.51298 0.49065 0.46930 0.44887 0.42933 0.41065 032873 0.26315 0.16863 0.10806 0.06925 5 0.95181 0.90595 0.86230 0.82075 0.78120 0.74356 0.70773 0.67362 0.64117 0.61027 0.58086 0.55288 0.52623 0.50088 0.47674 045377 0.43191 0.41109 0.39128 0.37243 0.29094 0.22728 0.13870 0.08465 005166 6 0.94260 0.88849 0.83748 0.78941 0.74409 0.70138 0.66112 062317 0 58739 055368 052189 049193 0 46369 043708 041199 038834 0.36604 0.34503 0.32523 0.30656 0.22811 0.16973 0.09398 0.05203 002881 7 0.93351 0.87144 0.81350 0.75941 0.70892 0.66178 0.61778 0.57671 0.53836 0.50257 0.46915 0.43796 0.40884 0.38165 0.35628 0 33259 0.31048 0.28983 0.27056 0.25257 0.17905 0.12693 0.06379 0.03206 001611

097066 094218 0.91454 0.88771 0.86167 0.83639 0.81185 0.78803 0.76491 0.74247 0.72069 0.69954 0.67902 0.65910 0.63976 0.62099 0.60277 058509 056792 0 55126 047500 040930 0 30389 0 22563 016752

MATHEMATICALTABLES

& UNITS

&SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-65

TABLE

1.36-PRINCIPAL

AMOUNTING

TO A GIVEN

SUM

(continued)

Values of z-InterestComoounded Years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60 i=2 0.98025 0.96089 0.94191 0.92330 0.90506 0.88719 0.86966 0.85248 0.83564 0.81914 0.80296 0.78710 0.77155 0.75631 0.74137 0.72673 0.71237 0.69830 0.68451 0.67099 0.60729 0.54963 0.45023 0.36880 0.30210 2% 0.97539 0.95138 0.92796 0.90512 0.88284 0.86111 0.83991 0.81924 0.79908 0.77941 0.76022 0.74151 0.72326 0.70546 0.68809 0.67115 0.65464 0.63852 0.62281 0.60748 0.53630 0.47347 0.36903 0.28762 0.22417 3

Quarterlv: P=A 3% 0.96575 0.93266 0.90074 0.86989 0.84010 0.81132 0 78354 0 75670 0 73079 070576 068159 065825 0.63570 0.61393 0.59291 0.57260 0 55299 0.53405 0.51576 0.49810 041845 035154 0.24810 0.17510 012358
= l/z

xz* 4 4% 0.95624 0.91439 0.87437 0.83611 0.79952 0.78453 0.73107 0.89908 0.66849 0.63923 0.61126 0.58451 0.55893 0.53447 0.51108 0.48871 0.46733 0.44687 0.42732 0.40862 0.32670 0.26120 0.16697 0.10673 0.06823 5 0.95152 0.90540 0.86151 0.81975 0.78001 0.74220 0.70622 0.87198 0.63941 0.60841 0.57892 0.55086 0.52415 0.49874 0.47457 0.45156 0.42967 0.40884 0.38903 0.37017 0.28873 0.22521 0.13702 0.08337 0.05072 6 0.94218 0.88771 0.83639 0.78803 074247 0.69954 0.65910 0.62099 0.58509 0.55126 0.51939 0 48936 046107 0.43441 0.40930 0.38563 0.36334 0.34233 032254 0.30389 0.22563 0.16752 0.09235 0.05091 0.02806 7 0.93296 0.87041 0.81206 0.75762 0.70682 0.65944 0.61523 0.57390 0.53550 0.49960 0.46611 0.43486 0.40570 0.37851 0.35313 0.32946 0.30737 0.28676 0.26754 0.24960 0.17642 0.12470 0.06230 0.03113 0.01555

0.97055 0.94198 0.91424 0.88732 086119 0.83583 0.81122 0.78733 0.76415 0.74165 0.71981 0.69861 0.67804 0.65808 0.63870 0.61989 0.60164 0.58392 0.56673 0.55004 0.47369 0.40794 0.30255 0.22438 0.16641

0.96098 0.92348 0.88745 0.85282 0.81954 0.78757 0.75684 0.72730 0.69892 0.67165 0.64545 0.62026 0.59606 0.57280 0.55045 0.52897 0.50833 0.48850 0.46944 0.45112 0.36971 0.30299 0.20351 0.13669 0.09181

'The formula used for this lable IS L'= [l +(1/100)]

TABLE

1.37-ANNUITY

AMOUNTING

TO A GIVEN

SUM

(SINKING FUND)

The annual payment, V, which, if set aside at the end of each year, will amount with accumulated interesttoagivensum Sattheendofnyearsis Y=Sxv', wherethefactorv'isgiven below. Interest is i percent per annum, compounded annually.)

Values of v" Years 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60 i=2 0.49505 0.32675 024262 019216 015853 013451 0.11651 010252 009133 0.08218 0 07456 006812 0.06260 0.05783 0.05365 0 04997 0.04670 0.04378 0.04116 003122 0.02465 0.01656 0.01182 0.00877 2% 0.49383 0.32514 0.24082 0.19025 0.15655 013250 0.11447 0.10046 0.08926 0.08011 0.07249 0.06605 0.06054 0.05577 0.05160 0.04793 0.04467 0.04176 0.03915 0.02928 0.02278 0.01484 0.01026 0.00735 3 0.49261 0.32353 0.23903 0.18835 0.15460 013051 0.11246 0.09843 0.08723 0.07808 0.07046 0.06403 0.05853 0.05377 0.04961 0.04595 0.04271 0.03981 0.03722 0.02743 0.02102 0.01326 0.00887 0.00613 3% 0.49140 0.32193 0.23725 0.18648 0.15267 0.12854 0.11048 0.09645 0.08524 0.07609 0.06848 0.06206 0.05657 0.05183 0.04768 0.04404 0.04082 0.03794 0.03536 0.02567 0.01937 0.01183 0.00763 0.00509 4 0.49020 0.32035 0.23549 0 18463 0.15076 012661 0.10853 0.09449 008329 0.07415 0.06655 0.06014 005467 0.04994 0.04582 0.04220 0.03899 003614 003358 002401 001783 0.01052 000655 0.00420 4% 0.48900 0.31877 0.23374 0.18279 0.14888 0.12470 0.10661 0.09257 0.08138 0.07225 0.06467 0.05828 0.05282 0.04811 0.04402 0.04042 0.03724 0.03441 0.03188 0.02244 0.01639 0.00934 0.00560 0.00345 5 0.48780 0.31721 0.23201 0.18097 0.14702 0.12282 0.10472 0.09069 0.07950 0.07039 0.06283 0.05646 0.05102 0.04634 0.04227 0.03870 0.03555 0.03275 0.03024 0.02095 0.01505 0.00828 0.00478 0.00283 6 0.48544 0.31411 0.22859 0.17740 0.14336 011914 0.10104 0.08702 0.07587 0.06679 0.05928 0.05296 0.04758 0.04296 0.03895 0.03544 0.03236 0.02962 0.02718 0.01823 0.01265 0.00646 0.00344 0.00188 7 0 48309 031105 022523 017389 0 13980 011555 0 09747 0 08349 007238 0.06336 0.05590 004965 0.04434 0.03979 0.03586 003243 0.02941 0.02675 0.02439 0.01581 0.01059 0.00467 000238 0.00121

'The fctmula

used for this table IS v'=(1/100111~[1 +(r/IOOJ]

- 1 I = II"

l-66

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

1.38-PRESENT

WORTHOFAN

ANNUITY

Thecaprtal C, which. tf placed al interesttoday,wrllprovide fora given annual payment Yfor a term of "years before it ISexhausted isC= YX w,wherethefactor w ISgiven below (Interestatipercent per annum, compounded annually.) Values of w* Years 1 2 3 4 5 6 i 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60 /=2 0.9804 1.9416 2.8839 3.8077 4.7135 5.6014 6.4720 7.3255 8.1622 8.9826 9.7868 10.575 11.348 12.106 12.849 13.578 14.292 14992 15.678 16.351 19.523 22.396 27.355 31.424 34.761 2% 0.9756 1.9274 2.8560 3.7620 4.6458 5.5081 6.3494 7.1701 7.9709 8.7521 9.5142 10.258 10983 11.691 12.381 13.055 13.712 14.353 14.979 15.589 18.424 20.930 25.103 28.362 30.909 3 0.9709 1.9135 2.8286 3.7171 4.5797 5.4172 6.2303 7.0197 7.7861 8.5302 9.2526 9.9540 10.635 11.296 11.938 12.561 13.166 13.754 14.324 14.877 17.413 19.600 23.115 25.730 27.676 3% 0.9662 1.8997 2.8016 3.6731 4.5151 5.3286 6.1145 6.8740 7.6077 8.3166 9.0016 9 6633 10303 10921 11.517 12.094 12.651 13190 13.710 14.212 16.482 18.392 21 355 23.456 24.945 4 0.9615 1.8861 2.7751 3.6299 4.4518 5.2421 6.0021 6.7327 7.4353 8.1109 8.7605 9 3851 9.9856 10.563 11.118 11.652 12.166 12.659 13.134 13.590 1562'2 17.292 19.793 21.482 22.623 4% 0.9569 1.8727 2.7490 3.5875 4.3900 5.1579 5.8927 6.5959 7.2688 7.9127 8.5289 9.1186 9.6829 10.223 10.740 11.234 11.707 12.160 12.593 13.008 14.828 16.289 18.402 19.762 20.638 5 0.9524 1.8594 2.7232 3.5460 4.3295 5.0757 5.7864 6.4632 7.1078 7.7217 8.3064 8.8633 9.3936 9.8986 10.380 10.838 il.274 11.690 12065 12.462 14093 15.372 17.159 18.256 18.929 6 0.9434 1.8334 2.6730 3.4651 4.2124 4.9173 5.5824 6.2098 6.8017 7.3601 7.8869 8.383% 8.8527 9.2950 9.7122 10 106 10.477 10.828 11.158 11.470 12.783 13.765 15.046 15.762 16.161 7 0.9346 1.8080 2.6243 3.3872 4.1002 4.7665 5.3893 5.9713 6.5152 7.0236 7.4987 7.9427 8.3577 8.7455 9 1079 9.4466 9.7632 10.059 10.336 10.594 11.654 12.409 13.332 13 801 14.039

The formula

used lor thls table IS w = :1 -[1 + (l/l OO)]

I/(r/loo, = "ix

TABLEl.39-ANNUITY

PROVIDED

FOR

BYAGIVENCAPITAL

The annual payment Yprovided forfora term ofn years by agiven capitalcplaced atinteresttoday is Y=Cx w'. Interest at i percent per annum, compounded annually;the fund is supposed lo be exhausted at the end of the term. Values of w" Years ~ 2 3 4 E 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 40 50 60 i=2 0.51505 0.34675 0.26262 0.21216 0.17853 0.15451 0.13651 0.12252 0.11133 0.10218 0.09456 0.08812 0.08260 0.07783 0.07365 0.06997 0.06670 0.06378 0.06116 0.05122 0.04465 0.03656 0.03182 0.02877 2% 0.51883 0.35014 0.26582 0.21525 0.18155 0.15750 0.13947 0.12546 0.11426 0.10511 0.09749 0.09105 0.08554 0.08077 0.07660 0.07293 0.06967 0.06676 0.06415 0.05428 0.04778 0.03984 0.03526 0.03235 3 0.52261 0.35353 0.26903 021835 018460 0 16051 0.14246 0.12843 0.11723 0.10808 0.10046 0.09403 0.08853 0.08377 0.07961 0.07595 0.07271 0.06981 0.06722 0.05743 0.05102 0.04326 0.03887 0.03613 3% 0.52640 035693 0.27225 0.22148 0.18767 0.16354 0.14548 0.13145 0.12024 0.11109 0.10348 0.09706 0.09157 0.08683 0.08268 0.07904 0.07582 0.07294 0.07036 0.06067 0.05437 0.04683 0.04263 0.04009 4 0.53020 0.36035 0.27549 0.22463 0.19076 0.16661 0.14853 0.13449 0.12329 0.11415 0.10655 0.10014 0.09467 0.08994 0.08582 0.08220 0.07899 0.07614 0.07358 0.06401 0.05783 0.05052 0.04655 0.04420 4% 0.53400 0.36377 0.27874 0.22779 0.19388 0.16970 0.15161 0.13757 0.12638 0.11725 0.10967 0.10328 0.09782 0.09311 0.08902 0.08542 0.08224 0 07941 0.07688 0.06744 0.06139 0.05434 0.05060 0.04845 5 0.53780 0.36721 0.28201 0.23097 019702 0.17282 0 15472 0.14069 0.12950 0.12039 0.11283 0.10646 0.10102 0.09634 0.09227 008870 0.08555 0.08275 0.08024 0.07095 0.06505 0.05828 0.05478 0.05283 6 0.54544 0.37411 0.28859 0.23740 0.20336 0.17914 0.16104 0.14702 0.13587 0.12679 0.11928 0.11296 0.10758 0.10296 0.09895 0.09544 0.09236 0.08962 0.08718 0.07823 0.07265 0.06646 0.06344 0.06188 7 0.55309 0.38105 0.29523 0.24389 0.20980 0.18555 0.16747 0.15349 0.14238 0.13336 0.12590 0.11965 0.11434 0.10979 0.10586 0.10243 0.09941 0.09675 0.09439 0.08581 0.08059 0.07467 0.07238 0.07121

MATHEMATlCALTABLES&UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&

MEASURES

1-67

TABLE

1.40-DECIMAL

EQUIVALENTS Common Fractrons Exact Decrmal Values 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.07 009 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.15 017 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.25 026 0.28 0.29 031 0.32 0.34 035 0.37 0.39 0.40 0.42 0.43 0.45 0.46 0.48 0.50 051 0.53 0.54 0.56 0.57 059 060 0.62 0.64 0.65 0.67 068 0.70 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.76 0.78 0.79 0.81 0.82 0.84 0.85 0.87 0.89 0.90 0.92 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 5625 125 6875 25 8125 375 9375 5 0625 625 1875 75 3125 875 4375 5625 125 6875 25 8125 375 9375 5 0625 625 1875 75 3125 875 4375 5625 125 6875 25 8125 375 9375 5 0625 625 1875 75 3125 a75 4375 5625 125 6875 25 8125 375 9375 5 0625 625 1875 75 3125 875 4375

From Mrnutes and Seconds intoDecimal Parts of a Degree 0 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' IO' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15' 16' 17' 18' 19' 20' 21' 22' 23' 24' 25' 26' 27' 20' 29' 30' 31' 32' 33' 34' 35' 36' 37' 30' 39' 40' 41' 42' 43' 44' 45' 46' 47' 40' 49' 50' 51' 52' 53' 54' 55' 56' 57' 58' 59' 60' 0~.0000 0' 1" 0~0167 00.0333 2" 00.05 3" 00.0667 4" 00.0833 5" 00.10 6" 7" O".1167 00.1333 8" 0".15 9" 00 1667 10" OO.1833 11" 00 20 12" OO.2167 13" OO.2333 14" 15" OO.25 OO.2667 16" O" 2833 17" 00.30 18" 00.3167 19" 00.3333 20" 00.35 21" 0".3667 22" OO.3833 23" 00.40 24" 0.4167 25" OO.4333 26" 00.45 27" OO.4667 28" OO.4833 29" 00.50 30" OO.5167 31" OO.5333 32" 00.55 33" OO.5667 34" OO.5833 35" OO.60 36" OO.6167 37" OO.6333 38" OO.65 39" OO.6667 40" OO.6833 41" 00.70 42 " OO.7167 43" 44" 00.7333 45 I' 00.75 46" OO.7667 47" O" 7833 48" O".l30 0'=.8167 49 " OO.8333 50" 51 " OO.85 52" OO.8667 OO.8833 53" 0".90 54 VI OO.9167 55 'I 00 9333 56" 57" 00 95 58" OO.9667 OO.9833 59" 10.00 60" 00 .oooo 0?0003 0.0006 0" 0008 0~.0011 0~.0014 0~.0017 0".0019 000022 0".0025 0" 0028 0~.0031 000033 On.0036 00.0039 0'.0042 00.0044 00 0047 00.005 00.0053 0'.0056 O".0058 0".0061 0?0064 0".0067 0~.0069 0".0072 00.0075 0'.0078 00081 O".0083 OO.0086 0" 0089 00 0092 0" 0094 0?0097 O".Ol 0?0103 0".0106 O".0108 O?Olll 0~.0114 00.0117 0?0119 00.0122 OO.0125 OO.0128 0?0131 00.0133 0?0136 0".0139 0.0142 oa.0144 000147 0".015 00.0153 OO.0156 0'.0158 O".0161 OYO164 00.0167

From Decrmal Parts of a Degree intoMinutes and Seconds (exact valuesi 30.00 IO.01 IO.02 IO.03 IO.04 IO.05 IO.06 30.07 IO.08 Y.09 30.10 IO.11 30.12 Y.13 IO.14 IO.15 IO.16 IO.17 IO.18 IO.19 IO.20 10 21 IO.22 IO.23 I" 24 IO.25 IO.26 IO.27 IO.28 10 29 IO.30 IO.31 I" 32 IO.83 IO.34 IO.35 IO.36 IO.37 IO.38 IO.39 30.40 IF.41 IO.42 IO.43 IO.44 IO.45 IO.46 IO.47 IO.48 30 49 I".50 0 0' 36" 1' 12" 1' 48" 2' 24" 3' 3' 36" 4' 12" 4' 48" 5' 24" 6' 6' 36" 7' 12" 7' 48" 8' 24" 9' 9' 36" IO' 12" 10' 48" 11' 24" 12' 12' 36" 13' 12" 13' 48" 14' 24" 15' 15' 36" 16' 12" 16' 48" 17' 24" 18' 18' 36" 19' 12" 19' 48" 20' 24" 21' 21' 36" 22' 12" 22' 48" 23' 24" 24' 24' 36" 25' 12" 25' 48" 26' 24" 27' 27' 36" 28' 12" 28' 48" 29' 24" 30' 0.000 O%OOl 0".002 00.003 00.004 0?005 O".006 00.007 0.008 00.009 O".OIO 00.50 00 51 OO.52 00.53 00.54 00.55 O" 56 00.57 OO.58 00.59 OO.60 OO.61 00 62 OO.63 OO.64 0".65 00 66 OO.67 00.68 O" 69 OO.70 00.71 O" 72 00 73 0" 74 00.75 0" 76 00 77 0".78 00.79 00.80 OO.81 0".82 OO.83 0".84 OO.85 00.86 0' 87 00 88 O" 89 00.9c 00 91 00.92 00 93 00.94 00 95 0".96 00.97 0".98 00.99 I".00 0 3" 7" 10" 14" 18" 21" 25" 28" 32" 36" .o 6 2 .8 .4 .6 .2 8 4 30 30' 36" 31' 12" 31' 48" 32' 24" 33' 33' 36" 34' 12" 34' 48" 35' 24" 36' 36' 36" 37' 12" 37' 48" 38' 24" 39' 39' 36" 40' 12" 40' 48" 41' 24" 42' 42' 36" 43' 12" 43' 48" 44' 24" 45' 45' 36" 46' 12" 46' 48" 47' 24" 48' 48' 36" 49' 12" 49' 48" 50' 24" 51' 51' 36" 52' 12" 52' 48" 53' 24" 54' 54' 36" 55' 12" 55' 48" 56' 24" 57' 57' 36" 58' 12" 58' 48" 59' 24" 60'

16ths

32nds 1

64ths 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

2 3

4 5

6 7

8 9

10 11

12 13

14 15

16 17

18 19

10

20 21

11

22 23

12

24 25

13

26 27

14

28 29

15

30 31

Units and Systems of Weights and Measures


L.E. Barbrow.
U.S. N,itl Bureau of Standards

The U.S. Natl. act of congress laboratory damental

Bureau of Standards was established by in 1901 to serve as a national scientific sciences and to provide funstandards for science and indus-

A unit

is a value,

quantity,

or magnitude

in terms of

in the physical measurement

which other values, pressed. In general, independent Examples include

quantities, or magnitudes are exa unit is fixed by definition and is conditions the pound. as temperature. the gallon, the

of such physical the yard.

try. In carrying out these related functions the bureau conducts research and development in many fields of physics, mathemstics, chemistry, and engineering. At the time of its founding, primary standards-the the bureau had custody of two meter bar for length and the kilo-

meter, the liter, the gram. A .stumlurd is a physical embodiment al it is not independent a true embodiment of physical of the unit only

of a unit. In generconditions, and it is con-

under specified

gram cylinder for mass (or weight). With the phenomenal growth of science and technology over the past half century, the bureau has become a major research institution concerned not only with everyday weights and measures but also with hundreds of other scientific and engineering industrial standards progress that have become necessary to the of the U.S. Nevertheless, the U.S.

ditions. For example, a yard standard has a length of one yard when at some definite temperature and supported in a certain manner. If supported might have to be at a different have a length of I yard. in a different temperature manner, it in order to

The Metric System


Definition, Origin, and Development
The metric system* is the international system of weights and measures based on the meter and the kilogram. The essential features of the system were embodied made to the French Natl. Assembly in a report by the Paris Acade-

still looks to the bureau for information weights and measures. particularly their

on the units of definitions and

equivalents. The subject of weights and measures can be treated from several different standpoints. interested in the methods urements measures, are made. the present general Scientists by which knowledge and engineers are precision measof weights and and

status of units and standards,

my of Sciences in 1791. The definitive action taken in 1791 was the outgrowth of recommendations along similar lines dating back to 1670. The adoption of the system in France was slow, but its desirability as an international system was recognized by geodesists and others. On May 20, 1875. an international treaty known as the Intl, Metric Convention was signed providing for an Intl. Bureau of Weights and Measures, thus ensuring the international unification and improvement of the metric system. The metric system is now either obligatory or permissible Although throughout the metric the world. system is a decimal system, the

miscellaneous facts that will be useful in their everyday professional life. The expression weights and measures is used here in its basic sense of referring to measurements of length, mass, and capacity, thus excluding such topics as electrical and time measurements and thermometry. This section on units and systems of weights and measures presents some fundamental information to clarify thinking on this use of subject and to eliminate terms. erroneous and misleading

Unit and Standard Definitions


It is essential the distinction of weights that there be established between the terms units and kept in mind and standards

words *metric and decimal are not synonymous, and care should be taken not to confuse the two terms.

and measures.

See also Chap

58

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

l-69

Units and Standards of the Metric System


In the metric system, the fundumcntai units of length and The other units of mass arc the tneter and the kilogram.

From

1893 until

1959. the yard was defined 111. In 1959 a small

as being change

equal exactly

to 360013937

length and mass. as well as all units ofarea. volume. and compound units such as density. are derived from thcxc two fundamental units. From I960 to 1983. the meter was defined as the length equal to I 650 763.73 ation corresponding vvavelengths in vacuum of the radibetween the levels to the transition

was tnade in the definition of the yard to resolve discrepancies both in the U.S. and abroad. Since 1959. the yard is defined as being equal exactly to 0.9144 m; the new yard is shorter than the old vard by exactly two parts in a million. At the same time,*it was decided that anv data expressed the U.S. in feet derived would continue from geodetic survey within as dcto bear the relationship

21?tn and 5d5 of the krypton 86 atom. Since 1983. the meter has been defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval previously of dcI1299 792 458 of a second. The kilogram

fined in 1893 (I ft equals 1200/3937 the U.S. survey foot, called the international statute miles, survey squares thereof, while foot. feet,

m). This foot is called

the foot defined in 1959 is Measurements expressed in rods, chains, links. or the be contherefore

fined as the mass of I cubic decimeter of water at the tempcraturc of maximum density was known as the Kilogram of the Archives. It was replaced after the Intl. Metric Convention in 1875 by the Intl. Prototype Kilogram. which became the unit of mass vvithout reference to the mass of a cubic decimeter of water or to the Kilogram of the Archives. The liter is a unit of capacity. In 1964 the 12th General Conference on Weights and Measures redefined the liter as being I cubic decimeter. By its previous definitionthe volume quantity occupied. under standard conditions. by a of pure water having a mass of I kilogram-the

and also acres should

vcrted to the corresponding metric values by using pre-1959 conversion factors whet-c more than tivcsignificant-figure accuracy is involved. In 1971 the Natl. Bureau of Standards completed a 3-year study of the impact of increasing worldwide metric use on the U.S. The study ended with a report to the Congress entitled A MmYc Auwrictr-A Dwi.sio~t W/MN Ti/irc Hus Cornc. In the last few years metric USChas been increasing rapidly in the U.S., principally facturing and educational sectors. Public in the tnanuLaw 93-380.

liter was larger than the cubic decimeter by 28 parts in I 000 000; except for determinations of high precision, this difference is so small as to be of no consequence. The tnodernized metric system includes base units such as units of temperature and time. as well as many derived units such as units of force and work. For details, see Chap. 58.

enacted Aug. 2 I, 1974, states that It IS the policy of the U.S. to encourage educational agencies and institutions to prepare students to use the tnetric system of mcasuretnent with ease and facility as a part ofthe regular education program. signed Public On Dec. 23. 1975. President Gerald Law 94-168. the Metric Conversion Ford Act

of 1975. This act declares a national policy of coordinating the increasing use of the metric system in the U.S. It established a U.S. Metric Board. whose functions
as

The Intl. Bureau of Weights and Measures


The lntl. Bureau of Weights and Measures was established at Scvres, a suburb of Paris, in accordance with the Intl. Metric Convention of May 20. 1875. At the bureau are kept the Intl. Prototype kilogram, many secondary standards of all sorts. and equipment for comparing standards and making precision measurements. The Bureau, maingovcrntained by assessed contributions of the signatory

of Oct.

I.

1982 were transferred

to the Dept.

of Conthe

mercc, Office of Metric Progratns, to coordinate voluntary conversion to the tnetric system.

British and U.S. Systems


The implication is sometimes made that the inch/pound system of weights and measures in the British Commonwealth countries and the U.S. system are identical. It is identitrue that the U.S. and the British cally for scientific cal in commercial inch are defined

merits, is truly international. In recent years the scope of the work at the Intl. Bureau has been considerably broadened. It now carries on restarch in the fields of electricity and photometry in addition to its former work in weights and measures, which included such allied fields as thermometry and the measurement of barometric pressures.

work. that they are practically identiusage, that a similar situation exists for pound, and that many tables. such

the U.S. and the British

as 12 in. = I ft, 3 ft= I yd, and 1,760 yd= I international mile, arc the same in both countries; but there are some very important differences. First. divisions the U.S. differ bushel. the U.S. gallon. and their subunits. Also. from the corresponding British

Present Status of the Metric System in the U.S.


The use of the metric ized by act of congress system in this country was legalin 1866. but was not made obKiloof

the British ton is 2,240 Ibm. whereas the ton generally used in the U.S. is the short ton of 2,000 Ibm. The American colonists adopted the English wine gallon of 23 I cu in. The English of that period used this wine gallon. but they also had another gallon. the ale gallon of 282 cu in. In 1824 these two gallons were abandoned by the British when they adopted the British imperial gallon. which is defined as the volume ture of 62F. which, 277.42 as 8 gal, In the British of IO Ibtn of water. at a temperaby calculation, is equivalent to system. the units of dry mcasurc muasurc. In the U.S. these being

ligatory. The speed of light in a vacuum and U.S. Prototype gram No. 20 are recognized length as the primary and mass for both the metric

standards

and the inch-pound

(customary) systems of measurement in this country because these standards are the most precise and reliable standards available. Since I893 in the U.S. the yard has been defined in terms of the meter and the pound in tertns

cu in. At the same time, the bushel was rcdcfined

of the kilogram. There is in the U.S. no primary standard either of length or mass in the inch-pound system.

are the sdtne as those of liquid

two are not the same. the gallon and its subdivisions

I-70

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

used in the measurement

of liquids,

while the hushcl,

with

One yard is defined exactly equal to 25.4

as 0.9144 mm.

m. The inch is thcrcfore

its subdivisions. is used in the measurement commodities. The U.S. gallon is divided

of certain dry into 4 liquid

quarts and the U.S. bushel into 32 dry quarts. All the units of capacity mentioned thus far are larger in the British system than in the U.S. system. But the British fluid ounce is smaller than the U.S. fluid ounce. because the British quart is divided into 40 fluid ounces. whereas the the U.S. quart is dlvlded into 32 fluid ounces. From the foregoing an avoirdupois it is seen that in the British at 62F system of ounce of water has a volume

Mass
The primary standard of mass for this country is U.S. Prototype Kilogram 20, which is a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the Natl. Bureau of Standards. The value of this Prototype mass standard Kilogram, is known in terms of the Intl. which a platinum-iridium Bureau of Weights standard,

is kept at the Intl.

and Measures.

I fluid oz. because 10 Ibm is equivalent to I60 avoirdupois oz. and I gal is equivalent to 4 quarts, or 160 fluid oz. This convenient relation does not exist in the U.S. of water at 62F system because a U.S. gallon weighs about

The avoirdupois pound is defined in terms of the kilogram by the relation I avoirdupois lbm=0.453 592 37 kg.

Mass vs. Weight. The mass of a body is a measure of


its inertial property. The ,t~i#r of a body has in the past been used at times to designate its mass and at other times to designate a force that is related to gravitational attraction. Because these two concepts of weight are incornpatible, and have therefore resulted in confusion, the term weight should be avoided in technical practice except under circumstances in which its meaning is completely clear. When the term is used, it is important to know whether mx~ orfbrw is intended and to use SI units properly by using kilograms for mass and newtons for force. See also Chapter As weighing 58. are important factors in our and measuring

8% Ibm, or 133% avoirdupois oz, and the U.S. gallon is cquivalcnt to 4 X 32, or 128 fluid oz. In comparison. I U.S. fluid oz=1.041 British fluid oz; I British fluid oz=O.961 U.S. fluid oz; 1 U.S. gal=0.833 British inpcrial gal: and I British imperial gal= I.201 U.S. gal.

Subdivision of Units
units are subdivided by one of three systems: into tenths; (2) duodecimal, into (I) decimal, i.e., twelfths; or (3) binary, into halves. Usually the subdivision is continued by use of the same system. Each method has advantages for certain purposes, and it cannot properly be said that any one method is best unless the use to which the unit and its subdivisions are to be put is known. For example, if we are concerned only with measurements of length to moderate precision, it is convenient to measure and to express these lengths in feet, inches, and binary fractions of an inch, thus 9 ft 4% in. If, howlengths are to be used subsequently ever. these measured In general,

everyday lives, it is quite natural that questions arise about the use of various units and terms and about the magnitude of quantities involved. in two distinct and (2) as a unit of capacmeans: (I) the shorr. or The ton is used as a unit of measure senses: (I) as a unit of weight. ity or volume. In the weight sense the term

in calculations of area or volume, that method of subdivision at once becomes extremely inconvenient. For that reason, engineers, instead of dividing the foot into inches and binary subdivisions of the inch, divide it decimally: that is. into tenths, hundredths, and thousandths of a foot. The method of subdivision of a unit is thus made largely on the basis of convenience to the user. The fact that units have commonly been subdivided into certain subunits for centuries does not preclude their also having another mode of subdivision in some frequently used cases where convenience the gallon indicates is usually the value of such other method. subdivided Thus into quarts and pints, but

rzet ton of 2,000 Ibm; (2) the long, ~KLKY, or .shipprr.r ton of 2240 Ibm; (3) the n?~vic ton of 1000 kg, or 2204.6 Ibm. In the capacity sense ton is restricted to uses related to ships. In the U.S. and Canada the ton (weight) most commonly

used is the short ton, in Great Britain it is the /orzg ton, and in countries using the metric system it is the metric, ton.

Effect of Air Buoyancy. Another point to consider in the calibration and use of standards of mass is the buoyancy or lifting effect of the air. A body immersed in any fluid
is buoyed up by a force equal to the force of gravity on the displaced fluid. Two bodies of equal mass. if placed one on each pan of an equal-arm balance. will balance each other in a vacuum. a known mass standard A comparison gives true in a vacuum against mass. If compared

the majority of gasoline-measuring pumps of the pricecomputing type are graduated to show tenths of a gallon. Although the mile has for centuries been divided into rods, yards, feet, and inches. the odometer part of an automobile speedometer indicates tenths of a mile. Although our dollar is divided into 100 parts, we habitually use and speak of halves and quarters.

in air, however, they will not balance each other unless they are of equal volume. If of unequal volume, the larger body smaller will body, displace the greater force volume than will will of air and will than will the appear to be of be buoyed up by a greater

and the larger

body

Standards
Length
A specified international spectral standard line emitted on which by krypton 86 is the all length measurements

less mass than the smaller body. The greater the difference in volume, and the greater the density of the air in which the comparison weighing is made, the greater will be the apparent difference in mass. For that reason. in assigning a precise numerical value of mass to a standard, it is necessary the air density reference. to base this value on definite values for and the density of the mass standard of

are based. To obtain a constant and uniform wavelength, krypton lamps are operated at the temperature of the triple point of nitrogen.

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-71

TABLE 1.41-LENGTH

EGUIVALENTS
Yards Chains 0.04971 2.69644 Kilometers Miles 0.0,6214 6.79335 0.0,6214 4.79335 0.0,1578 5.19818 0.0,1894 4.27736 0.0,5682 4.75449

Meters
1

Centimeters

Inches 39.37 i.59517

Feet

100
2.00000

3.261 0.51598
0.03281 2.51598 0.08333 2.92082

1.0936
0.03886 0.01094 2.03886 0.02770 2.44370 (1.3333 1.52288

0.001 3.00000 10-5 5.00000


0.0,254 5.40483 Q.Q,3048 4.48402

0.01
2.00000 0.0254 2.40483 0.3048 1.48402 0.9144 1.96114 20.12 1.30356

0.3937
1.59517

0.0,4971 4.69644
0.001263 3.10127 6.01515 2.18046 0.04545 2.65758

2.540 0.40483 30.46 1.48402

12 1.07918 36 1.55630 792 2.89873 39,370 4.59517 63,360 4.80182 3 0.47712 66 1.81954 3,281 3.51598 5,280 3.72263

91.44
1.96114 2012 3.30356

0.0,9144
4.96114 0.02012 2.30356

22 1.34242 1,093.6 3.03886

0.0125 2.09691 0.6214 i.79335

1000
3.00000

100 000 5.00000 160 935


5.20665

49.71
1.69644 80 1.90309

1609
3.20665

1,760
3.24551

1.609 0.20665

The equivalents are given in the bold-faced type. Logarithms of the equivalents are given immediatelybelow withthe characteristic of the logarithm (i.e., 1.59517 = 0.59517). Insome cases, theequivalentshave been rounded off, whtlethe logarithm corresponds to the equivalent carried to a greater number of decimal places. Subscripts afterany figure-O,, 9,-mean that that figureIS to be repeated the indicatednumber of times.

TABLE 1.42-CONVERSION
Millimeters Feet Inches to to to Meters Inches Millimeters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9

OF LENGTHS
Yards to Meters 0.9144 1.829 2.743 3.658 4.572 5.486 6.401 7.315 8.230 Meters to Yards 1.094 2.187 3.281 4.374 5.468 6.562 7.655 8.749 9.842 Miles to Kilometers 1.609 3.219 4.828 6.437 8.047 9.656 11.27 12.87 14.48 Kilometers to Miles 0.6214 1.243 1.864 2.485 3.107 3.728 4.350 4.971

Meters to Feet 3.281 6.562 9.842 13.12 16.40 19.68

25.40 50.80 76.20 101.60 127.00 152.40 177.80 203.20 228.60

0.03937
0.07874 0.1181 0.1575 0.1968 0.2362 0.2756 0.3150 0.3543

0.3048 0.6096 0.9144 1.219 1.524 1.829 2.134 2.438 2.743

22.97
26.25 29.53

5.592

For ewample,

1 I = 25 40 mm

The corrections Standards (NBS)

furnished

by the U.S.

Natl.

Bureau of are

A full discussion graph (Nat]. Road,

of this topic

is given

in NBS Mono-

for the more precise mass standards in vacuum

given on two bases: comparison

and compari-

133, Mass and Mass Values, by Paul E. Pontius Technical Information Service, 528.5 Port Royal Springfield, VA 22161; COM 7450309).

son against normal brass standards in air under standard conditions. with no correction applied for the buoyant effect of the air. density of 8400 By definition, brass standards have a of kg per m3 at 0C and a coefficient

Capacity
Units of capacity. being derived units, are defined in the U.S. in terms of linear units and are not represented by fundamental constructed lidity only or indirectly standards. Laboratory standards have been and are maintained at NBS. These have vaby calibration to the linear with reference either directly standards.

cubical thermal expansion of 0.000 054 per C. Standard conditions are defined as air of I .2 kg per m3 and temperature of 20C. The corrections are ordinarily normal to be used with brass standards. precise analytical of apparent weights given only in terms

mass against

l-72

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.43-COMMON
64ths 1 Millimeters 64ths 0.397

FRACTIONS OF AN INCH TO MILLIMETERS (FROM ye4 to 1 in.)


Millimeters 64ths 9.922 10.319 10.716 11.113 11.509 11.906 12.303 12.700 13.097 13.494 13.891 14.288 37 38 39 40 Millimeters 64ths 14.684 15.081 15.478 i5.875 16.272 16.669 17.066 17.463 17.859 18.256 18.653 19.050 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Millimeters 64ths Millimeters 22.622 23.019 23.416 23.813

Millimeters 64ths 5.159 5.556 5.953 6.350 6.747 7.144 7.541 7.938 8.334 8.731 9.I28 9.525 25 26 27 28

2
3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 11 12

0.794
1.191 1.588 I ,984 2.381 2.770 3.175 3.572 3.969 4.366 4.763

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

19.447
19.844 20.241 20.638 21.034 21.431 21.828 22.225

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

29
30 31 32 33 34 35 36

41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48

24.209
24.606 25.003 25.400

TABLE 1.44-DECIMALS 0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 2.540 5.080 7.620 10.160 12.700 15.240 17.780 20.320 22.860

OF AN INCH TO MILLIMETERS (FROM 0.01 in. TO 0.99 in.)


3 0.762 3.302 5.842 8.382 10.922 13.462 16.002 18.542 21.082 23.622 4 1.016 3.556 6.096 8.636 11.176 13.716 16.256 18.796 21.336 23.876 5 1.270 3.810 6.350 a.890 11.430 13.970 16.510 19.050 21.590 24.130 6 1.524 4.064 6.604 9.144 7 i ,778 4.318 6.858 9.398 ii ,938 14.478 17.018 19.558 22.098 24.638 8 2.032 4.572 7.112 9.652 12.192 14.732 17.272 19.812 22.352 24.892 9 2.286 4.626 7.366 9.906 12.446 14.986

1
0.254 2.794 5.334 7.874 10.414 12.954 15.494 18.034 20.574 23.114

2 0.508 3.048 5.588 8.128 10.668 13.208 15.748 18.288 20.828 23.368

11.684
14.224 16.764 19.304 21 .a44 24.384

17.526
20.066 22.606 25.146

TABLE 1.4% -MILLIMETERS


0. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 0.3937 0.7874 l.tatt 1.5748 1.9685 2.3622 2.7559 3.1496 3.5433 1. 0.0394 0.4331 0.8268 1.2205 1.6142 2.0079 24016 2.7953 3 la90 3 5827 2. 0.0787 0.4724 0.8661 1.2598 1.6535 2.0472 2.4409 2.8346 3.2283 3.6220 3.

TO DECIMALS OF AN INCH (FROM 1 TO 99 mm)


4. 0.1575 0.5512 0.9449 1.3386 1.7323 2.1260 2.5197 2.9134 3.3071 3.7008 5. 0.1968 0.5906 0.9842 1.3780 1.7716 2.1654 2.5590 2.9528 3.3464 3.7402 6. 0.2362 0.6299 1.0236 1.4173 1.8110 2.2047 2.5984 2.9921 3.3858 3.7795 7. 0.2756 0.6693 1.0630 1.4567 1.8504 2.2441 2.6378 3.0315 3.4252 3.8189 8. 0.3150 0.7087 1.1024 1.4961 1.8898 2.2835 2.6772 3.0709 3.4646 3.8583

9.
0.3543 0.7480 1.1417 1.5354 1.9291 2.3228 2.7165 3.1102 3.5039 3.8976

0.1181 0.5118 0.9055 1.2992 1.6929 2.0866 2.4803 2.8740 3.2677 3.6614

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

l-73

TABLE1.46-AREAEQUIVALENTS'
Square Meters Square Inches Square Feet Square Yards Square Rods Square Chains Square Mrles or Sections

Roods

Acres

1,550
3.19033

10.76
1.03197

1.196 0.07773
0.0,7716 4.88740

0.0395 2.59699
0.0,2551

0.002471
3.39288 0.0,1594

0.0,9884
4.99494 0.0,6377

0.0,2471
4.39288 0.0,1594

0.0,3861
7.58670

0.0,6452 4.80967
g.09290 2.96803

0.006944
3.84164

0.0,2491
10.39637

5.40667 0.003673 3.56503 0.03306


2.51927

6.20255 0.0,2296
4.36091

7.80461
0:0,9184 5.96297

7.20255
0.0,2296 5.36091

144
2.15836

0.1111
1.04576

0.0,3587 8.55473 0.0,3228


7.50898

0.8361
1.92227 25.29 1.40300

1,296
3.11260 39,204 4.59333

9
0.95424

0.002066
3.31515

0.0,8264
4.91721

0.0002066
4.31515

272.25
2.43497

30.25
1.48072

0.0625
2.79588

g.02500
2.39794

0.00625
3.79588

0.0,9766
6.98970

404.7 2.60712 1012


3.00506 4047 3.60712 2 589 998 6.41330

627,264 5.79745 1,568,160


6.19539 6,272,640

4,356 3.63909 10,890


4.03703 43,560

484 2.68484 1,210


3.08278 4,840

16
1.20412

0.4
1.60206

0.1
1 .ooooo 0.25 1.39794

0.0001562
4.19382 0.0,3906 4.59176

40
1.60206 160 2.20412 102,400 5.01030

2.5
0.39794

IO
1 .ooooo 6,400 3.80618

6.79745

4.63909
27,878,400 7.44527

3.68484
3,097,600 6.49102

4 0.60206 2,560 3.40824

0.001562
3.19382

640 2.80618

The equivalentsare given in the bold-facedtype Logarithms of the equivalentsare given immediately below with the characteristic of the logarithm(i.e., 2.59699 = 0.059699). In some cases, the equivalentshave been rounded off, whrfe the logarithm corresponds to the equivalent carried to a greaternumber of decimal places.Subscriptsafter any figure-O,, 9,, etc.-mean that the figureis to be repeated the Indicatednumber of times.
'1 heclare= 100 acres=10 000 mp

TABLEl.47-VOLUME

AND CAPACITY EQUIVALENTS


U.S. Apothecary Fluid Ounces

Liters 1

Cubic Inches 61.03 1.78551

Cubic Feet 0.03532 2.54796 0.0,5787 4.76246

Cubic Yards 0.001308 3.11659 0.0,2143 5.33109 0.03704 2.56864

U.S. Quarts Liquid Drv 0.9081 i .95812 0.01488 2.17263

U.S. Gallons 0.2642 1.42188 0.0 24329 3.63639

u.s Bushels 0.02838 2.45297 0.0,4650 4.66746 0.8036 1.90502 21.70 1.33638 0.0,8392 4.92388 0.02686 2.42903 0.03125 2.49485 0.1074 1.03109

33.81
1.52909 0.5541 1.74360 957.5

1.057 0.02394 0.01732


2.23845 29.92 1.47599 807.9 2.90736 0.03125 2.49485 1

0.01639 2.21450 28.32 1.45205 764.5 2.88340 0.02957 2.47091 0.9463 1.97604 1728 3.23754 46656 4.66891

25.71
1.41017 694.3

7.481
0.87393 202.2 2.30530 0.007812 3.89279 0.25 1.39794 0.2909 1.46376

2.98114
25853 4.41251

27 1.43136

2.84153
6.02686 2.42903 0.8594 i .9341a

1.805
0.25640 67.75 1.76155 67.20 1.82737 231 2.36361 2150 3.33252

0.001044
3.01886 0.03342 2.52401 0.03889

0.0,3868
5.58749 0.001238 3.09264 0.001440

32 1.50515 37.24 1.57097

1.101 0.04188
3.785 0.57812 35.24 1.54703

2.58983 0.1337
1.12607

3.15847 0.004951
3.69470

1.164 0.06582 4 0.60206 37.24


1.57097 3.437 0.53624 32 1.50515

128 2.10721 1192


3.07612

1.244
0.09498

0.04609
2.66362

9.309 0.96891

The equivalentsare given in the bold-faced type. Logarithms of the equivalentsare given immediately below with the characteristic of the logarithm(i.e., 2.54796 =0.054796). In some cases, the equivalentshave been rounded off, while the logarithmcorresponds to the equivalentcarriedto a greater number of decimal places, Subscriptsafterany figure-O,, 9,, etc.-mean that the figureis to be repeated the indicatednumber of times.

l-74

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE sq In.
t0

1.48-CONVERSION

OF AREAS* km hectares sq miles acres to to to to km acres sq miles hectares 0.4047 0.8094 1.214 1.619 2.023 2.428 2.833 3.237 3.642 2.471 4.942 7.413 9.884 12.355 14.826 17.297 19.768 22.239 2.590 5.180 7.770 10.360 12.950 15.540 18.130 20.720 23.310 0.3861 0.7722 1.158 1.544 1.931 2.317 2.703 3.089 3.475

cm
t0

sq ft j.yz 0.0929 0.1858 0.2787 0.3716 0.4645 0.5574 0.6503 0.7432 0.8361

cm2 6.452 12.90 19.35 25.81 32.26 38.71 45.16 51.61 58.06
For example.

so tn. 0.1550 0.3100 0.4650 0.6200 0.7750 0.9300 1.085 1.240 1.395

mL to sa ft 10.76 21.53 32.29 43.06 53.82 64.58 75.35 86.11 96.87

sq Yd 3
0.8361 1.672 2.508 3.345 4 181 5.017 5.853 6 689 7 525

m to sq yd 1.196 2.392 3.588 4.784 5.980 7.176 8.372 9.568 10.764

1 sq in =6 452 cm2

TABLE C I. to cm3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16.39 32.77 49.16 65.55 81.94 98.32 114.7 131.1 147.5

1.49-CONVERSION cm3 to cu tn. cu ft ;a 0.02832 0.05663 0.08495 0.1133 0.1416 0 1699 0 1982 0 2265 0.2549

OF VOLUMES m3 to cu ft 35 31 70.63 105.9 141.3 176.6 211.9 247.2 282.5 317.8 cu yd ;3 0.7646 1.529 2.294 3.058 3.823 4.587 5.352 6.116 6.881

OR

CUBIC m3 to cu vd 1.308 2.616 3.924 5.232 6.540 7.848 9.156 10.46 11.77

MEASURES

gal to
cu ft 0.1337 0 2674 0.4010 0 5347 0.6684 0.8021 0.9358 1.069 1.203

cu ft to gal 7.481 14.96 22.44 29.92 37.40 44 88 52.36 59.84 67.32

0.06102 0.1220 0.1831 0.2441 0.3051 0.3661 0.4272 0.4882 0.5492

TABLE

1.50-CONVERSION

OF VOLUMES

OR

CAPACITIES

Fluid oz to cm3 29.57 59.15 88.72 118.3 147.9 177.4 207.0 236.6 266.2

cm3 to fluid oz 0.03381 0.06763 0.1014 0.1353 0.1691 0.2092 0.2367 0.2705 0.3043

liquid pints to liters 0.4732 0.9463 1.420 1.893 2.366 2.839 3.312 3.765

liters lrqurd liters to quarts to liquid liqurd to pints liters quarts 2.113 4.227 6.340 8.454 10.57 12.68 14.79 16.91 19.02 0 9463 1.893 2.839 3.785 4.732 5.678 6.624 7.571 8.517

gal to
liters

liters to gal 0.2642 0.5284 0.7925 1.057 1.321 1.585 i .a49 2.113 2.378

bushels hectoliters to to hectoliters bushels 0.3524 0.7048 1.057 1.410 1.762 2.114 2.467 2.819 3.171 2.838 5.676 8.513 11.35 14.19 17.03 19.86 22.70 25.54

4.259

1.0573.785 2.113 7.571 3.170 11.36 4.227 15.14 5.284 la93 6.340 22.71 7.397 26.50 8.454 30.28 9.510 34.07

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

8 UNITS 8 SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

I-75

TABLE
OZ

1.51--MASS

EQUIVALENTS
Ibm

tons
avoirdupots 2.205 0.34333 0.0,1102 3.04230 0.0,7143 a.85387 0.0,3429 5.53511 0.0,3125 5.49485 0.0,4114 long 0.0,9842 4.99309 0.0,6378 8.80465 0.0,3061 5.48590 0.0,2790 5 44563 0.0,3673 4.56508 0.0,4464 4.64975 0.8929 1.95078 metric 0.001 3.00000 0.0,6480 8.81157 0.0,3110 5.49281 0.0,2835 5.45255 0.0,3732 4.57199 0.0,4536 4.65667 0.9072 1.95770

ka 1

grains 15,432 4.18843

troy and apothecary 32.15 1.50719 0.0,2083 3.31876

avoirdupois 35.27 1.54745 0.0,2286 3.35902 1.09714 0.04026 1

troy and apothecary 2.6792 0.42801 0.0,1736

0.0,6480 581157 0.03110 2.49281 0.02835 2.45255 0.3732 1.57199 0.4536 1.65667 907.2 2.95770 1016 3.00691
1000

0.0,1429
4.15490 0.06857 2.83614 0.0625 2.79588 0.8229 1.91532 1

4.23958
0.08333 2.92082 0.07595 2.88056 1

480 2.68124 437.5 2.64098 5,760 3.76042 7,000 3.84510

0.9115
1.95974

12
1 07918 14.58 1 .I6386

13.17
1.11944 16 1.20412 320, 4.50515 35,840 4.55437 35,274 4.54745

4.61429
0.0005 4.69897 1

1.215 0.08468

140,
7.14613 15680, 7.19535

29,167
4.46489 32,667 4.51411 32,151 4.50719

2431
3.38571 2722 3.43492 2679 3.42801

2,000 3.30103 2,240 3.35025 2,205 3.34333

1.12 0.04922 1.102


0.04230 0.9842

1.016 0.00691 1

15,432,356
7.18843

3.00000

1.99309

The equivalentsare given in the bold-facedtype. Logarithms of the equivalentsare given immediately below with the characteristic of the logarithm(i.e., 3.04230 =0.0004230). In some cases, the equivalentshave been rounded off, while the logarithm corresponds to the equivalent carried to a greaternumber of decimal places.Subscripts after any figure-O,, 9,, etc.-mean that the figureis to be repeated the indicatednumber of times.

TABLE

1.52-CONVERSION

OF MASSES
short tons metric tons (1000 kg) t0

Ibm (avordupots) to kg 04536 0 9072 1361 1814 2 268 2 722 3 175 3 629 a

kg
10

lbm (avo~rdupo!sj 2 205 4409 6614 8818 11 02 1323 1533 1764

gmns 10 grams 0 06480 0 1296 0 1944 0 2592 0 3240

grams to gram

oz grams lavorrdupois) IO to oz grams (avoirdupois) 28 35


5670 003527 007055

(2.000lbn1)
to metric tons 0 907 1 a14

ionq tons
(2 240lbm) to metric tons 1 016 2032

short tons
1 102

long tons 0 984 1968

1543 3086 4630 61 73 77 16 92 59 10803 12346 13889

2 205 3 307 4409 5 512 6614 7 716 8 818 9921

a5 05
11340 141 75 17010 19845 22680 255 15

0 1058
01411 0 1764 02116 0 2469 0 2822 0 3175

2 722
3629 4536 5443 6350 7257

3 048
4 064 5 080 6 096 7 112 8 128 9 144

2 953
3937 4921 5 905 6889 7874 8858

0 3888
04536 0 5184 0 5832

082

19 84

8 165

l-76

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLEl.53-VELOCITY
mimin kmlhr cm/set

EQUIVALENTS
ft/sec ftlmin

mph
2.237 0.34965 0.03728 2.57150 0.6214
1.79335

knots

60
1.77815

3.6 0.55630 0.06 2.77815 1

100 2.00000 1.667 0.22184 27.78 1.44370 1

3.281
0.51598

196.85
2.29414

1.943 0.28836 0.03238 2.51022 0.53959


1.73205 0.01943

0.01667 2.22104 0.2778 1.44370 0.01

0.05468 2.73783 0.9113


I .95908

3.281 0.51598 54.68 1.73783 1.9685


0.29414

16.67
1.22184

0.6 1.77815 18.29 1.26217 0.3048 1.48402 26.82


1.42850

0.036 2.55630 1.097 0.04032 0.01629 2.26217 1.609 0.20670 1.8532 0.26793

0.03281 2.51598 I

0.02237 2.34965 0.8818 1.63367 0.01136 2.05553 1

2.28836 0.59209
1.77238 0.00987 3.99423 0.86839 1.93871

0.3048 1.46402 0.005080 3.70586 0.4470 1.65035 0.51479


1.71163

30.48 1.48402 0.5080 1.70586 44.70 1.65035 51.479 1.71163

60 1.77815
1

0.01887

2.22185 1.467
0.16633

88
1.94446

30.887
1.48978

1.68894 0.22761

101.337 2.00577

1.15155 0.06128

TABLE1.54-CONVERSIONOFLlNEARANDANGULARVELOClTlES
revimin to radslsec 0.1047 0.2094 0.3142 0.4189 rads/sec
t0

revlmin 9.55 19.10

ftlmin to ftlmin cm/s cm/s


10

cmls to mph

mph
t0

ftls to mph

mph to
ft/s 1.47 2.93

cm/s

0.5236 0.6283 0.7330 0.8378 0.9425

28.65 38.20 47.75 57.30 66.84 76.39 85.94

1.97 3.94 5.91

7.87 9.84
II.81

13.78 15.75 17.72

0.508 1.016 1.524 2.032 2.540 3.048 3.556 4.064 4.572

0.0224 0.0447 0.0671 0.0895


0.1118 0.1342 0.1566 0.1790 0.2013

44.70
89.41 134.1 178.8

0.682
1.364

223.5 268.2
312.9

2.045 2.727 3.409


4.091

4.40 5.87 7.33 8.80


10.27 11.73

357.6 402.3

4.773 5.455 6.136

13.20

TABLEl.55-CONVERSION
kilopascals atmospheres Ibm per to Ibm to Ibm sq in to oer sa in. kilopascals oer sa in. 1

OF PRESSURES'
Ibm per sq in.to atmospheres atmospheres to kilopascals 101.3 kilopascals
IO

atmospheres 0.00987 0.01974 0.02961 0.03947 0.04935 0.05922 0.06908 0.07895

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

6.8948 13789

0.1450
0.2901 0.4351

20684 27.579 34.474 41.369 48.263 55.158 62.053

0.5802 0.7252 0.8702 1.0153 1.1603 1.3053

14.70 29.39 44.09 58.78 73.48 88.18 102.9


117.6

132.3

0.0680 0.1361 0.2041 0.2722 0.3402 0.4083 0.4763 0.5444 0.6124

202.6 304.0 405.3 506.6 608.0 709.3 810.6


911.9

0.08882

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS

& SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-77

TABLE1.56-PRESSURE

EQUIVALENTS
columns of mercury at temperature 0% and g=9.80665 m/s2

kg/cm (metric kilopascals atmospheres)

short tons lbmlsq in. 0.14504 1.16148 per sq ft 0.010443 2.01882 atmospheres 0.009869 3.87510 0.9678 1.98579 0.06805 2.83280

columns of water at temperature 15% and g = 9.80665 m/s* (in.)

(fU
0.3349
1.52485

0.010197
2.00848

OOb:'sOl i.99427

o(lndl3 1.47025 .

(m) 1.00886 0.1021

0.60402 4.018

98.066
1.99152 6.8948 0.83852 95.760 1.98119

14.22
1.15300

1.024
0.01034 0.072 2.85733

0.7356 1.86662 0.05171 2.71360

28.96 1.46177 2.036 0.30876 28.28 1.45143

10.01 1.00038 0.7037 1.84738 9.774 0.99006 10.34 1.01459 13.61 113378 0.3456 1.53861

394.1 2.59556 27.70 1.44254 384.8 2.58521 407.1 2.60975 535.7 2 72894 13.61 1.13378 39.37 1.59517

32.84 1.51636 2.309 0.36336 32.07 1.50604 33.93 1.53058 44.64 1.64976 1.134 0.05460 3.281 0.51598 0.08333 2.92082

0.07031
2.84700 0.9765 1.98966

13.89
1.14267

0.9451 1.97547 1

0.7183
1.85628 0.76 1.88081

101.325
2.00573 133.322 2.12490 3.386 0.52975 9.798 0.99114 0.2489 1.39598 2.926 0.47516

1.0332
0.01420

14.70
1.16722

1.058
0.02453

29.92
1.47598 39.37 1.59517

1.3595 0.13338
0.03453 2.53823

19.34
1.28640

1.392
0.14373 0.03536 2.51857 0.1023 1.00996 0.002599 3.41479

1.316
0.11919 0.03342 2.52402 0.09670 2.98541 0.002456 3.39024 0.02947 2.46942 0.02540 2.40484

0.4912
1.69124 1.421 0.15262 0.03609 2.55745 0.4331 1.63663

0.09991 2.99962
0.002538 3.40446 0.03045 2.48364

0.07349
2.86622 0.001867 3.27106 0.02240 2.35024

2.893
0.46139 0.07349 2.86622 0.8819 1.94540 0.02540 2.40484 0.3048 1.48402

0.03119
2.49397

12 1.07918

TABLE 1.57-ENERGY
kW hours 0.0,2778 7.44370 0.0,2724 6.43521 0.0,3766 7.57590

OR WORK metric

EQUIVALENTS

J 1

kg-m

ft-lbf 0.7376 1.86760 7.233 0.85932

hp hours 0.0,3777 7.57711 0.0,37037 6.56863 0.0,51208 7.70932

hours 0.0,3725 7.57113 0.0,3653 6.56265 0.0,50505 7.70333 1.341 0.12743 0.9863 1.99401

hp

L-atm

kilocalories 0.0,2388 4.37809 0.002342 3.36961 0.0,3238 4.51029 859.9 2.93443 632.4 2.80098 641.2 2.80699 0.02420 2.38382

Btu's 0.0,9478 4.97670 0.009295 3.96825 0.001285 3.10890

0.10197
1.00848

0.009869 3.99427 0.09678 2.98579 0.01338


2.12647 35 526 4.55057 26 131 4.41715 26 493 4.42314 1

9.80665 0.9915207 1.356 0.13220 3.600~10~ 6.55630 2.648x lo6 6.42288 2.8845~ lo6 6.42887 101.33 2.00573 4187 3 62191

0.1383 1.14068 3.671 x lo5 5.56478 270 000 5.43136 2.7375~10~ 5.43735 10.333 1 .01421 426.9 2.63036 107.6 2.03178

2.655~10' 6.42410 1.9529x10~ 6.29068 1.98x106 6.29667


74.74 1.87353 3,088 3.48971 778.2 2.89110 0.7355 1.86658 0.7457 1 87356

1.3598
0.13342

3,412
3.53303 2,510 3.39961 2,544 3.40557 0.09604 2.98246 3.988 0.59861

1.0139 0.00598
0.0,3827 5.58284 0.001581 3.19902 0.0,3985 4.60042

0.0,2815 5.44952 0.001163


3.06558 0.0,2931 446697

0.0,3775 5.57686 0.001560 3.19304

41.32 1.61618 10.41 1.01757

1055
3.02360

0.0,3930 4.59444

0.25200 1.40139

The equivalentsare given in bold-facedtype.Logarrthms of the equivalentsare given immediately below with the characteristrc of the logarithm (1.e , 1.00848 = 0.00848). In some cases,the equivalents have been rounded off, althoughthe logarithm corresponds to the equivalentcarriedto a greaternumber of dectmal places.Subscriptsafter any figure-O 3, 9,, etc.-mean thatthe figure IS to be repeated the Indicatednumber of times.

l-70

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.58-CONVERSION
calories to 4.187 6.374 12.56 16.75 20.93 25.12 29.31 33.49 37.68 ft-lbf to calories kg-m 0.1383 0.2388 0.2765 0.4777 0.4148 0.7165 0.9554 0.5530 1.194 06913 0.8295 1.433 1.672 09678 1.911 1.106 2.150 1.244 kg-m IO ft-lbf ~ 7.233 14.47 21.70 26.93 36.16 43.40 50.63 57.86 65.10

OF ENERGY, WORK, HEAT


ft-lbf to Btu 0.001285 0.002570 0.003855 0.005140 0.006425 0.007710 0.008995 0.01028 0.01156 Btu to ft-lbf 778.2 1,556. 2,334. 3,113. 3,891. 4,669. 5,447. 6,225. 7,003. kilocalorles kg-m IO to kg-m kilocalories 0.002342 0.004685 0.007027 0.009369 0.01172 0.01405 0.01640 0.01874 0.02108 4269 8539 1,281. 1,708. 2,135. 2,562. 2,989. 3,415. 3,642.

to

: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

TABLE 1.59-POWER
kW hD metric hp poncelets

EQUIVALENTS
kg-m/s 102.0 2.00848 76.04 188105 75 1.87506 100 2.00000 ft-lbflsec kilocalories/s Btulsec 737.6 2.86780 550 2.74036 542.5 2.73438 723.3 2.85932 7.233 0.85932 0.2388 1.37813 0.9478 1.97673 0.7068 1.84936

1.341
0.12743

1.360 0.13343 1.014 0.00599 1

1.020
0.00848 0.7604 1.88105 0.75 1.87506

0.7457 1.87256 0.7355 1.86658

0.1781
1.25066 0.1757 1.24467 0.2342 1.36961 0.002342 3.36961 0.0,3238 4.51029

0.9863
1.99402

0.6971
1.84328 0.9295 1.96825 0.009295 3.96825 0.001285 3.10890

0.9807
1.99152

1.315
0.11896

1.333 0.12493

0.009807
3.99152 0.001356 3.13220 4.187 0.62187

0.01315
2.11896

0.01333
2.12493

0.01
2.00000 0.00136 3.14067 4.269 0.63036 1.076 0.03178

0.00182
3.25946 5.615 0.74934 1.415 0.15074
1 hp=07457 k\ni

0.00164
3.26562 5.692 0.75530

0.1383
1.14067

426.9
2.63036

3,088 3.48971 778.2 2.89110 0.2520 1.40138

3.968
0.59861

1.055
0.02320
For example

1.434
0.15668

107.6
2.03178

TABLE 1.60-CONVERSION

OF POWER kW hp

kW

hp to

kW to hp 1.341 2.682 4.023 5.384 6.705 8.046 9.387 10.73 12.07

metric hp to kW 0.7355 1.471 2.206 2.942 3.677 4.412 5.147 5.883 6.618

to metw b 1360 2.719 4.079 5.438 6.798 8.158 9.520 10.88 12.24

to metric hp 1.014 2.028 3.042 4.055 5.069 6.083 7.097 8.111 9.125

metric hp to hp 0.9863 1.973 2.959 3.945 4.932 5.918 6.904 7.891 8.877

4 5 6 7 8 9

1.491 2.237 2.983 3.729 4.474 5.220 5.966 6711

MATHEMATICAL

TABLES

& UNITS & SYSTEMS

OF WEIGHTS

& MEASURES

1-79

TABLE 1.61-DENSITY
Equivalents

EQUIVALENTS

AND CONVERSION FACTORS


Conversion Factors Ibm/cu ft to kg/m 3 kg/m 3 to Ibm/cu 11 0.0624 0.1249 0.1873 0.2497 0.3121 0.3746 0.4370 0.4994 g/cm 3 to kg/m 3 kg/m 3 to g/cm 3 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010

kg/m 3

g/cm3

lbmlcu in.

lbmlcu ft 0.0624 2.79539 62.43 1.79539

IbmilJS. gal 0.00835 3.92143 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.001

0.0,3613
5.55787

16.019
32.037 48.055 64.074 80.092 96.111 112.129 128.148 144.166 160.185

1000
2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10 000

1000

0.03613
2.55787

8.345
0.92143 231 2.36361

27680
4.44217

27.60 1.44217

1,728
3.23754

16.019
1.20466

0.01602
2.20466 0.1198 1.07055
1 kg/m

0.0,5787 4.76245 0.004329 3.63639

0.1337
1.12613

119.83
2.07855
For example,

7.481 0.87396

0.5619
0.6243

= 0 0624 Ibmlcu ft.

TABLE 1.62-THERMAL
W/m.% Cal/[s(cm/cm)C] 0.002388 1 0.2388 0.0002778 0.004134 Wl[(cmlcm)C] 0 0100 4.187 1 0001163 0.01731

CONDUCTIVITY
Call[h(cm2/cm)aC] 8.598 3600. 860 1 14.88 Btu/[hr(sq ft/ft)OF] 0.5778 241.9 57.78 0 0672 1

1
418.7 100.0 0 1163 1.731

TABLE 1.63-THERMAL
W/m.% 1 41868 10000 11.63 5.678 Cal/(s.cm*~ C) 0.0,2388 1 0.2388 0.0,2778 0.0,1355 W/cm.% 0.0001 4.187 1 0.001163 0.0,5678

CONDUCTANCE
Cal/(h.cm2.%) 0.08598 3600 860 1 0.4882 Btu(hr-sqft-OF) 0.1761 7373 1761 2.048

TABLE 1.64-HEAT
Wlm 1 41868 10000 11.63 3.155 Cal/s.cm* 0.0,2388 1 0.2388 0.0,2778 0.0,7535 Wlcm 2 0.0001 4 187 1 0 001163 0.0,3154

FLOW
Cal/h cm 0.08598 3600 860 1 0.2712 Btulhr-sqft 0.3170 13272 3170 3.687 1

I-80

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.65~-RELATIVE

DENSITIES CORRESPONDING TO OAPI AND WEIGHTS PER U.S. GALLON


Relative Density 0.7547 0.7507 0.7467 0.7428 0.7389 0.7351 0.7313 0.7275 0.7238 0.7201 0.7165 0.7128 0.7093 0.7057 0.7022 0.6988 0.6953 0.6919 0.6886 0.6852 0.6819 0.6787 0.6754 Relative Density 0.6722 0.6690 0.6659 0.6628 0.6597 0.6566 0.6536 0.6506 0.6476 0.6446 0.6417 0.6388 06360 0.6331 0.6303 0.6275 0.6247 0.6220 0.6193 0.6166 0.6139 0.6112

OAPI 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Relative Density 1.0000 0.9930 0.9861 0.9792 0.9725 0.9659 0.9593

Ibm1U.S. gal 8.328 8.270 8.212 8.155 8.099 8.044 7.989

OAPI 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Relative Densitv 0.8602 0.8550 0.8498 0.8448 0.8398 0.8348 0.8299 0.8251 0.8203 0.8155 0.8109 0.8063 0.8017 0.7972 0.7927 0.7883 0.7839 0.7796 0.7753 0.7711

Ibm/U.S. gal 7.163 7119 7076 7.034 6.993 6.951 6.910 6.870 6.830 6.790 6752 6.713 6.675 6.637 6 600 6.563 6526 6.490 6.455 6.420 6.385 6.350 6.316

OAPI 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78

Ibm0J.S. gal 6.283 6.249 6.216 6.184 6.151 6.119 6.087 6.056 6.025

='APl 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93

1bmlU.S. gal 5.595 5.568 5.542 5.516 5.491 5.465 5.440 5.415 5.390 5.365 5.341 5.316 5.293 5.269 5.246 5.222 5.199 5.176 5.154 5.131 5.109 5.086

0.9529 0.9465 0.9402 0.9340 0.9279 0.9218


0.9159 0.9100 0.9042 0 8984 0.8927 0.8871 0.8816 0.8762 0.8708 0.8654

7.935
7.882 7.830 7.778 7.727 7.676 7.627 7.578 7.529 7.481 7.434 7.387 7.341 7.296 7.251 7.206

5.994 5.964 5.934 5.904


5.874 5.845 5.817 5.788 5.759 5.731 5.703 5.676 5.649 5.622

94
95

96
97 98 99 100

0.7669
0.7628 0.7587

*Calculated from the formula relatw 50% and pressure 760 mm fig

densely= (141 5)/(131 5+ -, hp,) The wghls

I this table are wghts

I air at 60F wth humldtty

Relative Density and Density


The relative density of a solid or liquid is the ratio of the of water scales are used in various common trades and industries. The most mass of the body to the mass of an equal volume at some standard temperature. perature of4C but the engineer of these are the API and BaumC. The API scale

At the present time, a tem-

[39F] is commonly used by physicists, uses 60F. The relative density of gases If

is approved by the American Petroleum Inst., the ASTM, the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the Natl. Bureau of Standards and is recommended for exclusive use in the U.S. petroleum industry, superseding the Baume scale for liquids lighter than water. and relative density equation. The relation between API degrees is expressed by the followmg

is usually expressed in terms of hydrogen or air. The density of a body is its mass per unit volume. the gram is used as the unit of mass and the millimeter or if the kilogram as the unit of volume,

is used as the

unit of mass and the liter as the unit of volume, the figures representing the density are the same as the relative density of the body. foot. The relative a hydrometer, The inch-pound density of liquids unit is pounds per cubic is usually measured by The weights relative per U.S. densities gallon corresponding are given to API 1.65. and

and different

special arbitrary

hydrometer

in Table

Chapter

Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe


William 0. Clinedinst, Consultant

Casing
The successful production of oil and gas depends on the proper performance of casing, which serves as a structural retainer in the well, excludes undesirable fluids, and confines and conducts oil or gas from subsurface strata to ground level. Casing must be capable of withstanding external collapsing pressure from fluid surrounding the casing, internal pressure encountered in conducting oil or gas from the producing formation, and tension loads resulting from its own suspended weight. It also must be equipped with threaded joints that can be made up easily and that provide leakproof connections.

Special Casing Joints


A number of special casing joints are available that are useful where higher strength, leak resistance, or clearance is needed than that provided by the standard API roundthread, buttress-thread, or extreme-line casing joints. These special joints obtain their improved properties by various means, such as (1) couplings or box ends with seal rings of teflon, etc.; (2) special thread profiles, such as Acme; (3) torque shoulders; (4) metal-to-metal seals; (5) internal upsets; (6) external upsets; (7) integral joints; and (8) flush joints.

API Casing
API developed specifications for casing that meet the major needs of the oil and gas industry and published these in API specifications and bulletins. I-6 These provide standard dimensions, strength and performance properties, and the required thread-gauging practice to ensure complete interchangeability. In addition to the API strength grades, the following tables include information on higher-strength casing developed to meet the needs of unusually deep wells. Tables 2.1 and 2.2 give the tensile requirements and range lengths of API casing and liner casing. Table 2.3 lists the minimum performance properties of casing. Table 2.4 lists the minimum collapse resistance under axial loads for various API casing grades. Tables 2.5 through 2.7 give the dimensions, weights, and tolerances of round-thread and buttress-thread coupling and length of upset for extremeline API casing (see also Figs. 2.1 through 2.3). Factors for conversion of gross linear footage to net footage of API short-thread, long-thread, buttress-thread. and extreme-line casings are shown in Tables 2.8 through 2. I 11 respectively. Equations for calculating performance properties of casing are given in a later section.

API Liner Casing


Table 2.12 shows the minimum performance properties of API Grade J-55 plain-end liner casing. Table 2.13 shows the minimum collapse resistance under axial loads of API Grade J-55 liner casing.

Design of Casing Strings Oil, Water, and Mud-Weight Factors. Table 2.14 gives
the oil, water, and mud weight factors used in casing string design. Safety factors commonly used in the design of casing strings are the following: collapse strength, 1.125; joint strength, 1.80; plain-end yield strength, 1.25; and internal yield pressure, 1.OO. These safety factors will be used in the following casing string designs. However, it is the responsibility of the designer to select safety factors to suit particular needs.

Single Weight and Grade Casing String. Collapse Safety Factor. The collapse pressure for a single weight and grade casing string is determined by multiplying the height of the head of mud by the factor for the mud weight found

2-2

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.1-API CASING AND LINER CASING TENSILE REQUIREMENTS


Minimum Tensile Strength ~ (Psi) 60,000 75,000 95,000 95,000 95,000 100,000 100,000 105,000 110,000 125,000 135,000 160,000 75,000 Maximum Hardness HRC BHN Minimum Elongation in 2 in.** WI

Casing Grade H-40 J-55 K-55 c-75 + L-80

Yield Strength (psi) Minimum 40,000 55,000 55,000 75,000 80.000 Maximum 80,000 80,000 80,000 90,000 95,000

23 25.4

241 255

N-80 c-90 c-95+


HC-95* P-110 Q-125* v-150* Liner J-55

8o;ooo 90,000 95,000


95.000 110,000 125,000 150,000 Casing 55,000

110,000
105,000 110,000 140,000 150,000 180,000 80,000

A O2
AL = 625,000+ 01 and I metr,c utvts,

O2

AL=194257+ 'J i
where

AL
A j

= mmimum

elongation area

in 2 I

I percent

to nearest

/z%. I,. square tfvckness ,nches rounded based on speclf,ed OD

= cross-sectional or nom~naf

of the tens,le width

test specimen wall

specimen

and speclfled and strength,

to the nearest

0 01 or

0 75 sq
O, + Restncted t Non-API Speaal = speclfled yeld

m.. whichever m~nmwm

IS smaller, tenslIe

ultimate

psi

strength

Inlended

for se

I sour

gas service and mill testing

requwnents

an toughness.

uniform

hardness,

in Table 2.14. Thus the collapse pressure for an 1 1,OOO-ft head of mud with a weight of 9.625 lbm/gal is 5,500 PSI (ll,OOOft~0.5psi/ft=5,5OOpsi).Tomeetthe 1.125col lapse safety factor, a collapse resistance of at least 6,188 psi (1.125 x 5,500) is required. In Table 2.3, the lightest weight of 7-in. casing with a collapse resistance of at least 6,188 psi is 29-lbm N-80 with a collapse resistance of 7,020 psi. (The designer should select the most economical weight and grade that meets the performance property requirements.) By dividing the 7,020-psi collapse resistance by the 5,500-psi collapse pressure, the collapse safety factor is found to be 1.276 (see Table 2.15). Joint Sfrengfh Safety Factor. For the same string, the total load on the joint at the top of the well (ignoring buoyancy effects) is the product of the length of the string (11,000 ft) and the 29-lbm/ft weight of the casing or 319,000 lbm. Dividing the 597,000-lbm minimum joint strength of 7-in., 29-lbm, N-80 long-thread casing given in Table 2.3 on minimum performance properties by the 319,000-lbm weight of casing yields a 1.87 safety factor for joint strength. Pipe Body Yield Safety Factor. In Table 2.3, the pipe body yield strength is found to be 676.000 lbm. The 676,000-lbm pipe body yield strength divided by the 319,000-lbm weight of the casing string yields the 2.12 safety factor.

Internal Yield Pressure Safety Factor. The bottomhole pressure (BHP) given is 5,500 psi. The internal yield pressure (pressure resistance) for 7-in., 29-lbm, N-80 longthread casing is 8,160 psi (Table 2.3). The 8,160-psi internal yield pressure divided by the 5,500-psi BHP yields a 1.48 safety factor.

Combination

Casing Strings

Collapse Safety Factors. In designing a combination casing string, first determine the casing required to resist the collapse pressure at the bottom of the well (Table 2.16). Then, determine how far this weight and grade must be run before a weight and grade with a lower collapse resistance can be used. The procedure is repeated until the weight with the lowest possible collapse resistance has been used, or until a higher-weight casing is chosen because the advantages of a lower-cost material are offset by increased identification and handling problems. The collapse resistance of casing is affected by any axial load applied to it. Only the bottom section is not affected by axial loading. Sections above the bottom section will have their collapse resistance reduced by the weight of the casing below. Because the axial load acting on the casing and the collapse pressure are both dependent on the depth at which the new casing item is introduced, the changeover point must be determined by

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-3

successive approximation or trial-and-error calculations. When design calculations are made with a computer, the collapse resistance under axial loading can be calculated by use of the method described in the section on equations. Take the depth to which the weight and grade being considered will set with the desired safety factor without axial load as a starting point. Then decrease the depth by suitable increments (perhaps 50 ft), calculating the axial load, the collapse resistance, the collapse pressure, and the safety factor for each increment until the desired safety factor value is obtained. When design calculations are made without a computer, collapse resistance values can be obtained from Table 2.4 (minimum collapse resistance under axial loading). This table lists collapse resistance under axial stress increments of 5.000 psi. For stresses intermediate to the 5.000-psi increments, collapse resistance can be determined by interpolation. The following collapse calculations for the design of the 7-in., I 1,OOO-ft string were made from Table 2.4. 29-lbm N-SO Bottom-Section Collapse Safety Factor. The method for selection of 29-lbm N-SO for the bottom section and the determination of the 1.276 collapse safety factor is identical to that shown for the 11 ,OOO-ft single weight and grade string. 26lbm N-80 Intermediate-Section Collapse Safety Factor. Determination of the length of the bottom section and the changeover point to 26 Ibm, the next lower weight, is facilitated by constructing Table 2.17. In this table, starting with the tabulated values of axial stress and the corresponding collapse resistance for 26-lbm N-80 casing, the lengths of the 29-lbm casing required to cause the stress and the corresponding collapse safety factors are calculated. Co]. 1 gives the axial stress values in 5,00@psi increments. Col. 3 gives collapse resistance under axial load for the cross-sectional area obtained from Table 2.4 for Grades L-80 and N-80. Co]. 2 is the product of Col. 1 and the cross-sectional area. Col. 4 is determined by calculating the weight of casing below the section for which the length is being determined. (This is the general format of the table for use with all sections. In this case, the weight of casing below the section is zero because there is no casing below the 29-lbm N-80.) Co]. 5 is the difference between Cols. 2 and 4. Co]. 6 is Col. 5 divided by 29. Co]. 7 is the depth to the bottom of the 26-lbm section-the changeover point-in this case 11 .OOOft minus Co]. 6. Co]. 8 is Co]. 7 multiplied by the mud factor (0.5), and Col. 9 is Col. 3 divided by Co]. 8. The 1,600-i? length of the 29-lbm section found in Co]. 6 and the 1.126 safety factor for the 26-lbm section at the changeover point were determined by interpolation according to the following method. The length of the 29-lbm section found in Co]. 6 was estimated by calculating 1,302+[(1.125-1.095)/(1.23X-1.095)] x(2,6051,302)= 1,575 ft,

TABLE 2.2-API CASING AND LINER CASING RANGE LENGTHS


Casing Total range length, inclusive Range length for 95% or more of carload Permissiblevariation, maximum Permissible length, minimum Loners Same

16to25

25to34

34to48

6 18

5 28

6 36

requirements as for casing in Ranges 2 and 3

The collapse resistance responds to the 6,147-psi culating

for the 26-lbm section that coraxial stress is estimated by cal-

5,310-[(6,147-5,000)/(10,000-5,000)] x(5,310-5,200)=5,285 psi,

which is rounded to the nearest 10 psi according to API procedures to yield 5,290 psi. The collapse safety factor at the 26-lbm section bottom that is shown in Col. 9 is obtained by dividing Col. 3 by Co]. 8. 23-lbm N-80 Top Section Collapse Safety Factor. The length of the 26-lbm intermediate section and the changeover point to the next lower weight are calculated with Table 2.18. In Table 2.18, Cols. 5 through 9 cannot be calculated until Col. 2 exceeds Col. 4. The 2,900-Ii length of the 26-lbm section that is shown in Co]. 6 and the 1.120 safety factor of the 23-lbm section at the changeover point were determined by interpolation. The length of the 26-lbm section listed in Col. 6 was estimated by calculating 2,055+[(1.125-1.005)/(1.194-1.005)] x(3,335-2,055)=2,868 ft,

which is rounded to the next 50-ft multiple to yield 2,900 ft. Cols. 1, 2,5, 7, and 8 were back-calculated from Co]. 6. The collapse resistance of the 23.lbm section that corresponds to the l&299-psi axial stress is estimated by calculating 3,690-[(18,299-15,000)1(20,000-15,000)] x(3,690-3,620)=3,644 psi,

which is rounded to the next 50-ft multiple to yield 1,600 ft. Cols. 1, 2, 5. 7. and 8 were back-calculated from Co]. 6. For instance, the axial stress found in Col. 1 equals (1,600~ 29)/7.549, which equals 6,147 psi.

which is rounded to the nearest 10 psi according to API procedures to yield 3,640 psi. The 1.120 collapse safety factor at the 23-lbm section bottom that is listed in Co]. 9 is obtained by dividing Col. 3 by Col. 8. By increasing the length of the 29-lbm intermediate section to 2,950 ft and by repeating the calculations for collapse resistance, we obtain a safety factor of 1.129.
(continuedon page 32)

2-4

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.3~MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING

10

11

12

Nomrnal Weight, Threads and OD Coupling (in.) (Ibmlft) Grade 4% 9.50 9.50 10.50 11.60 9.50 10.50 11.60 11.60 13.50 11.60 13.50 11.60 13.50 11.60 13.50 11.60 13.50 1 * 11.60 13.50 15.10 11.60 13.50 15.10 1 1 * f t 5 15.10 16.60 19.10 15.10 16.60 1910 11.50 13.00 15.00 11.50 1300 15.00 15.00 18.00 21.40 23.20 24.10 15.00 18.00 21.40 23.20 24.10 15.00 18.00 21.40 23.20 24.10 15.00 18.00 21.40 23.20 24.10
Non-API we~ghls and

Threaded and Coupled OD OD Special of Clearance Coupling Coupling (in.) (in.) 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5 000 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 Extreme Line Drift Drameter (in.) Pipe-Body OD of Box Yield Collapse Powertight Resistance Strength (in.) (1,000 Ibf) (psi) 2,760 3,310 4,010 4,960 3,310 4,010 4,960 6,100 8,140 111 152 165 184 152 165 184 250 288 267 307 267 307 300 345 317 364 317 364 419 367 422 485 551 608 697 661 729 837 182 208 241 182 208 241 328 396 470 509 530 350 422 501 543 566 350 422 501 543 566 394 475 564 611 636

Wall Thrckness (in.) 0.205 0.205 0.224 0.250 0.205 0.224 0.250 0.250 0.290 0.250 0.290 0.250 0.290 0.250 0.290 0.250 0.290 0.250 0.290 0.337 0.250 0.290 0.337 0.337 0.375 0.437 0.337 0.375 0.437 0.220 0.253 0 296 0.220 0.253 0.296 0.296 0.362 0.437 0.478 0.500 0.296 0.362 0.437 0.478 0.500 0.296 0.362 0437 0.478 0.500 0.296 0362 0437 0.478 0.500

Drift ID Diameter (in.) (in.) 4.090 4.090 4.052 4.000 4.090 4.052 4.000 4.000 3.920 4.000 3.920 4.000 3.920 4.000 3.920 4.000 3.920 4.000 3.920 3.826 4.000 3.920 3.826 3.826 3.750 3.626 3.826 3.750 3.626 4.560 4.494 4.408 4.560 4.494 4.408 4.408 4.276 4.126 4.044 4.000 4.408 4.276 4.126 4.044 4.000 4.408 4.276 4.126 4.044 4.000 4.408 4.276 4.126 4.044 4.000 3.965 3.965 3.927 3.875 3.965 3.927 3.875 3.875 3795 3.875 3.795 3.875 3.795 3.875 3.795 3.875 3.795 3.875 3.795 3.701 3.875 3.795 3.701 3.701 3.625 3.501 3.701 3.625 3501 4.435 4.369 4.283 4.435 4.369 4.283 4.283 4.151 4.001 3.919 3.875 4.283 4.151 4.001 3.919 3.875 4.283 4.151 4.001 3.919 3.875 4.283 4.151 4.001 3.919 3.875

H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 N-80 N-80 c-90 C-90 C-95 c-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 v-150 v-150 J-55 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 c-90 c-90 c-90 C-90 c-90
grades

4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.675 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.075 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875 4.875

6.350 8,540 6.350 8,540

6,820 9.300 7,030 9.660 8,650 10,380 12,330 7,580 10,680 14,350 15,840 19,100 21,920

4.151 4.151 4.151 4.151 -

5.360 5.360 5.360 5.360 -

18,110 22,330 26.300 3,060 4.140 5,560 3,060 4.140 5,560 6,940 9,960 11,970 12,970 13,500 7.250 10,500 12,760 13,830 14,400 7,250 10,500 12,760 13,830 14,400 7,840 11,530 14,360 15.560 16.200

5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375

4.151 4.151 4.151 4.151 4.151 4.151

5.360 5.360 5.360 5.360

5.366 5.366 -

CASING.

TUBING.

AND

LINE

PIPE

2-5

TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 (1.000 Ibl)

26

27

Joint Strength"

Internal Pressure
Plain End or Extreme Lfne 3.190 4.380 4 790 5350 4 380 4 790 5.350 7290 0460 7 780 9 020 7 780 9 020 8 750 10.150 9.240 10710 9240 10710 12,450 10690 12410 14420 16 380 16230 21 240 19660 21.880 25490 4240 4.870 5,700 4,240 4.870 5.700 7.770 9,500 11,470 12,550 13.130 8.290 10.140 12.240 13.380 14.000 8.290 10.140 12.240 13.380 14.000 9,320 11.400 13.770 15.060 15.750 Round Thread Short 3.190 4380 4.790 5.350 4 380 4 790 5.350 5 350 7290 8.460 7 780 9020 7 780 9020 8 750 10150 9240 10710 9240 10 710 12.450 10690 12410 14420 16380 16.650 16650 19660 19980 19.980 Lono

Reslstancet

(PSI)

Threaded

and Coupled Buttress Thread Special

Bullress Thread Special Regular Coupling Same Grade Hlaher Gkde ClEiranCe Coupling Same Grade Maher G&de Round Thread Short 77 4.790 5.350 4.790 5.350 7.290 8.460 7.760 9.020 7.760 9.020 8.750 10150 9.240 10.710 9 240 10.710 11.630 10.690 12.410 13.460 15,300 15 300 15.300 18.360 18.360 18.360 4.870 5.700 4.870 5.700 7.770 9.290 9.290 9.290 9,290 8.290 9.910 9,910 9.910 9.910 8.290 9.910 9.910 9.910 9.910 9.320 11,150 11.150 11.150 11.150 4.790 5.350 4.790 5350 ~ 7.780 9020 7.780 9.020 ~ ~ 9.240 10.710 12.450 10.690 12,410 14.420 ~ 18.230 18.370 4 790 5350 4 790 5350 7.290 7.490 7 780 7990 7 780 7990 8750 9 000 9.240 9 490 9 240 9500 9 500 10690 10990 10990 12490 12490 12.490 14980 14980 14980 4.870 5.700 4.870 5.700 7.770 9.500 10.140 10.140 10,140 8.290 10,140 10.810 10.810 10.810 8.290 10.140 10.810 10.810 10.810 9.320 11.400 12.170 12.170 12.170 4,870 5 700 ~ ~ 8.290 10.140 8,290 10.140 12.240 13.380 13.620 ~ 4.870 5,700 4,870 5.130 4.870 5.130 6.990 6.990 6.990 7.000 6,990 7.460 7.460 7,460 7.460 7.460 7.460 7460 7.460 7.460 7.460 8.400 8.400 8.400 8.400 8.400 ~ 4.790 5.350 4.790 5.350 ~ 7.780 9.020 7.780 9020 ~ ~ ~ 9.240 10.710 11.000 10.690 12.410 13.910 ~ 14.980 14.980 ~ ~ 4.870 5.700 4,870 5.700 8.290 10.140 8.290 10.140 10.250 10.250 10.250 ~ ~ 133 169 207 147 186 228 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 201 246 295 376 466 513 538 295 376 466 513 538 311 396 490 540 567 311 396 490 540 567 182 223 252 293 309 359 375 452 510 510 510 379 457 510 510 510 396 477 537 537 537 404 487 537 537 537 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -~ ~ 101 132 154 112 146 170 180 212 257 212 257 223 270 223 270 234 284 245 297 357 279 338 406 438 496 588 519 588 697 I .ong Reaular Coupling

Regular Couollna Higher Grade'

SCJl3Xl Clearance Coupling

Clearance Coupling Higher Grade'

Extreme Standard Joint -

Line OptIonal

5.350

162 -

203 225 249 277 288 331 291 334 304 349 309 355 325 374 338 388 446 385 443 509 554 579 579 658 686 686 325 374 338 388 446 385 443 509 611 686 454 454 539 539 539 252 287 309 359 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 396 477 566 614 639 383 383 383 383 383 383 383 383 383 383 396 477 479 479 479 252 293 309 359 309 359 304 349 249 277 249 277 288 320 291 320 304 337 309 337 325 353 338 370 370 385 421 421 338 388 421 385 443 509 539 539 304 349 249 277 203 225 203 225 203 225

4 240 4.870 5,700 4.240 4.870 5 700 -

252 293

328

416 416 446 -

416 446 437 469 430 469 -

2-6

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

OF CASING

(continued)

8 OD Special Clearance Coupling (in.) 5.375 5.375 5.375 5375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375 5.375

10

11

12

Nominal Weight. Threads and OD Coupling (in.) (Ibmlft) Grade _~~ 5 15.00 18.00 21 40 23.20 2410 t II + 1500 1800 23.20 15.00 18.00 21 40 2320 24.10 15.00 1800 23 20 24.10 * II f 5% 15.00 18.00 23.20 14.00 14.00 15.50 17.00 14.00 15.50 17.00 17.00 20.00 23.00 17.00 20.00 23.00 17.00 20.00 23.00 17.00 20.00 23.00 26.00 35.00 17.00 20.00 23.00 * t f 17.00 20.00 23.00 17.00 20.00 23.00 . t * f 1 .
Non-API

Threaded and Coupled Extreme Line Drift Diameter (in.) 4151 4151 4151 4.151 OD Pipe-Body .Yield of Box Collapse Powertight Resistance Strength (in.) (1,000 Ibf) (psi) 5.360 5.360 5.360 5.360 8,110 12,030 15,160 16,430 17,100 9,380 11,880 15,820 8,850 13,470 17,550 19,020 19,800 9,480 14,830 21,620 22,500 10,250 16,860 25,940 2,620 3.120 4,040 4,910 3,120 4.040 4,910 6,040 8,410 10,470 6,280 8,830 11,160 6,280 8,830 11,160 6,740 9,630 12.380 14,240 18,760 6,940 10,010 12,940 8,580 10,630 12,450 7,480 11,100 14,540 7,890 12,080 16,070 20,660 13,460 18,390 24.790 416 501 595 645 672 416 501 645 481 580 689 747 778 547 659 849 884 656 791 1,019 161 222 248 273 222 248 273 372 437 497 397 466 530 397 466 530 447 525 597 676 891 471 554 630 471 554 630 546 641 729 620 729 829 982 874 995 1.178 00 of Couplmg (In.) 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050 6.050

Wall Thickness (in) 0.296 0.362 0.437 0.478 0.500 0.296 0.362 0.478 0.296 0 362 0.437 0.478 0.500 0.296 0.362 0.478 0.500 0.296 0.362 0.478 0.244 0.244 0.275 0.304 0.244 0.275 0.304 0.304 0.361 0.415 0.304 0.361 0.415 0.304 0.361 0.415 0.304 0.361 0.415 0.476 0.650 0.304 0.361 0.415 0.304 0.361 0.415 0.304 0.361 0.415 0.304 0.360 0.415 0.500 0.361 0.415 0.500

Drift Diameter ID (in.) (in.) 4408 4276 4126 4044 4.000 4.408 4276 4044 4408 4276 4.126 4.044 4.000 4408 4276 4.044 4.000 4.408 4.276 4.044 5.012 5.012 4.950 4.892 5.012 4.950 4.892 4.892 4.778 4.670 4.892 4.778 4.670 4.892 4.778 4.670 4.892 4.778 4.670 4.548 4.200 4.892 4.778 4.670 4.892 4.778 4.670 4.892 4.778 4.670 4.892 4.778 4.670 4.500 4.778 4.670 4.500 4.283 4.151 4.001 3.919 3.875 4 283 4151 3919 4283 4.151 4.001 3919 3875 4.283 4151 3.919 3.875 4.283 4151 3919 4.887 4.887 4.825 4.767 4.887 4.825 4.767 4.767 4.653 4.545 4.767 4.653 4.545 4.767 4.653 4.545 4.767 4.653 4.545 4.423 4.075 4.767 4.653 4.545 4.767 4653 4.545 4.767 4.653 4.545 4.767 4.653 4.545 4.375 4.653 4.545 4.375

c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 P-110 P-110 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 v-150 v-150 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 L-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-95 c-95 c-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 v-150 v-150

4.653 4.653 4.653 4.653 4.653 4.653 4.545 4.653 4.653 4.545 4.653 4.653 4.545 4.653 4.653 4.545 4.653 4.653 4.545 -

5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.860

5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875 5.875

4.653 4.653 4.545 5.860 5860 5.860

17.00 20.00 23.00 26.80 20.00 23.00 26.80


weights

or grades

CASING, TUBING, AND LINE PIPE

2-7

TABLE

2.3~MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

13

14

15

16

17

16

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 (1 000 lbf)

26

27

Joint Strenath"

Internal Pressure

Reslstancet

(PSI)

Threaded

and Coupled Buttress Thread Special

Buttress Thread Plain End or Extreme Lfne 9.840 12.040 14.530 15 890 16630 9.840 12.040 15.890 11 400 13940 16.820 18,400 19.250 12.950 15840 20.910 21.880 15.540 19010 25 090 3.110 4.270 4.610 5.320 4.270 4.810 5.320 7 250 8.610 9.900 7 740 9 190 10:560 7 740 9190 10.560 6.710 10.340 11.880 13.630 18.610 9.190 10.910 12.540 9.190 10.910 12.540 10.640 12.640 14520 12.090 14.360 16.510 19890 17.230 19.810 23.860 3,110 4.270 4.610 5.320 4.270 4.810 5.320 4.810 5.320 7 250 8.610 9.260 7.740 9 190 9.880 7.740 9.190 9.880 8.710 10.340 11 110 11.110 11 110 9190 10.910 11.730 9.190 10,910 11.730 10.640 12.640 13,160 12.090 14.360 16.510 19.890 17.230 18.250 18.250 Round Thread -Long Short Special Regular Couphng same Grade 9.840 12.040 12.840 12850 12.850 9.840 12.040 12.850 11.400 13.940 14.870 14.880 14870 12,950 15.840 16.000 16 000 15.540 16.000 16.000 9.840 11,770 11.770 11 770 11 770 9.840 11,770 11,770 11.400 13.620 13.620 13.630 13.620 12950 15490 15490 15.490 15540 18.590 18.590 9840 12.040 13,630 11,400 13.940 16,820 18.400 16.560 Higher Grade
ClC331aWX

Coupling -<her Grade 8,850 8,850 8,650 8.860 8.850 8.860 8.660 8.660 10,250 10.250 10.250 10.260 10.250 9840 10,260 10.260 11.400 13.940 13.980 13.990 13.980 Grade

Round Th?! Short Long 326 416 515 567 595 342 436 594 386 495 613 675 708 420 535 729 765 497 634 864 Regular Coupling 424 512 563 563 563 441 532 591 503 606 671 671 671 548 661 725 725 651 785 859

Regular Coupling Higher Grade'

Special Clearance Couphng 402 402 402 402 402 422 422 422 479 479 479 479 479 -

Clearance Coupling Higher Grade'

Exlreme Standard Joint 459 493 -

Line Optlonal Joint

441 532 671 503 606 720 760 812 -

441 479 479 503 606 613 613 613 547 587 -

13.990 13.990 13.990

613 613 613 -

~ ~

130 172 202 229 189 222 252

4.810 5.320

4.810 5.320 4.610 5.320 7250 8.430 6.430 7.740 a 990 8.990 7.740 8,990 8.990 8.710 10,120 10,120 10.120 10.120 9,190 10.680 10.680 9,190 10.680 10.680 10.640 12.360 12.360 12 090 14.360 15.210 15 210 16.680 16.880 16.880

4.810 5,320 4.810 5.320 4,730 4.730 6.450 6.450 6 450 6.860 6 880 6.860 6.860 6,680 6.680 7,740 7,740 7.740 7,740 7.740 6.170 8.170 8.i70 9.190 10.910 12370 10640 12640 14.520 12090 14070 14070 14070 8.170 8.170 8.170 9.460 9.460 9.460 10770 10.770 10770 10 770 12.920 12920 12920 4.730 4.730

217 247 239 272 327 403 473 336 416 489 348 428 502 356 436 514 598 614 374 460 540

300 329 366 402 423 497 550 426 503 550 446 524 579 456 536 580 560 560 460 563 608 438 585 636 568 667 724 620 728 783 783 865 928 928

300 329 366 402 -

300 318 366 402 403 403 403 403 403 403 424 424 424 424 424 424 424 446 524 530 366 402 300 329

339 372 429 471 471 497 549 471 497 549 496 523 577 496 523 577 521 549 606 498 530 530 568 667 668 620 679 679 679 620 654 722 521 530 530 620 630 630 429 471 471 479 479 471 479 479 496 504 504 496 504 504 339 372

4810 5.320 ~ 4.810 5.320

7740 9.190 10,560 7 740 9,190 10560 -

7.740 9.190 9,460 7.740 9.190 9,460

446 524 596 -

424 445 445 445 466 466 466 530 530 530 573 573 573 573 678 678 676

9.190 9.460 9.460 10.640 11880 11.880 12 090 12 920 12 920 12 920

392

498 585 665 568 667 759 620 726 626 928 -

482 566 445 546 643 481 592 694 842 701 623 998

2-8

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

IO

11

12

Nominal Weraht. Threads and OD Coupling (In.) (Ibm/ft) Grade

Threaded and Coupled OD OD Special of Clearance Coupling Coupling (in.) (In.) 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7390 7390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7390 7390 7390 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7375 7.375 ' 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 6.151 6.151 6.151 6.151 6.151 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.151 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.151 6.151 6059 5.969 5.879 5.795 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.530 7.530 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.530 7.530 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.530 7.530 7.390 7.390 5.730 5.730 5.730 5.666 5.550 5.730 5.666 5.550 5.730 5.666 5.550 5.730 5.666 5.550 5.730 5.666 5.550 5.730 5.666 5.550 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 Extreme Line Drift Diameter (in.) OD Pipe-Body of Box Collapse Yield Powertight Resistance Strength (1,000 Ibf) (In.1 (Psi) 2,520 2,970 4,560 2,970 4,560 5,550 7,790 9,800 5,760 8,170 10,320 5,760 8,170 10,320 6,140 8.880 11,330 6,310 9,220 11,810 6,730 10,160 13,220 7,020 10,990 14,530 7,340 12,120 16,500 1,420 1,970 2,270 3,270 4.320 2.270 3,270 4,320 3,750 5,220 6,730 8,200 9,670 10,680 3,830 5,410 7,020 8,610 10,180 11,390 3,830 5,410 7,020 8,610 10,180 11.390

Wall Thickness (in.) 0288 0.288 0.352 0.288 0.352 0.352 0.417 0.475 0.352 0.417 0.475 0.352 0.417 0.475 0.352 0.417 0.475 0.352 0.417 0.475 0.352 0.417 0.475 0.352 0.417 0.475 0.352 0.417 0.475 0.231 0.272 0.272 0317 0.362 0.272 0.317 0362 0.317 0.362 0.408 0.453 0.498 0540 0.317 0.362 0408 0.453 0.498 0.540 0.317 0.362 0.408 0.453 0.498 0.540

ID On.) 6.049

Draft Diameter (in.) 5.924

6%

20.00 20.00 24 00 20 00 24.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 24 00 28.00 32.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 24.00 28.00 32.00

H-40 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 L-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 C-90 C-90 C-90 C-95 c-95 C-95 P-110 P-110 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 v-150 v-150 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80

229
315 382 315 382 520 610 688 555 651 734 555 651 734 624 732 826 659 773 872 763 895 1,009 867 1,017 1,147 1,041 1,220 1,317 196 230 316 366 415 316 366 415 499 566 634 699 763 822 532 604 676 745 814 877 532 604 676 745 814 877

6.049
5.921

5.924
5.796 5.924 5.796 5.796 5.666 5.550 5.796 5.666 5.550 5.796 5.666 5.550 5.796 5.666 5.550 5.796 5.666 5.550 5.796 5.666 5.550 5.796 5.666 5.550 5.796 5.666 5 550 6.413 6.331 6.331 6.241 6151 6.331 6.241 6 151 6.241 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5 795 6.241 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.241 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795

6.049
5.921 5.921 5.791 5.675 5.921 5.791 5.675 5.921 5.791 5.675 5 921 5.791 5.675 5.921 5.791 5.675 5.921 5.791 5.675 5.921 5.791 5.675 5.921 5.791 5.675 6.538 6.456 6.456 6.366 6.276 6.456 6.366 6 276 6.366 6.276 6.184 6.094 6.004 5.920 6.366 6.276 6 184 6.094 6.004 5.920 6.366 6 276 6.184 6.094 6.004 5.920

* * * * * . 7

24.00 28.00 32.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 17.00 20.00 20.00 23.00 26 00 20.00 23.00 26.00 23.00 26.00 29.00 32.00 3500 38 00 23.00 26.00

29 00
32.00 35.00 38.00 23.00 26.00 29.00 32.00 35 00 3800

'NO"APIwqhls orgrades

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-9

TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

13

14

15

16

17

18-

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 (1.000 Ibf)

26

27

Jolnt Strength" Internal Pressure Reslstancet (PSI) Threaded and Coupled Buttress Thread

Buttress Thread PIaNn End or Extreme Line Round Thread Short 3.040 4 180 5.1 10 4180 5.1 10 6 970 8 260 9.410 7.440 8 810 10.040 7440 8810 10040 8 370 9910 11290 8.830 10.460 11.920 10.230 12.120 13.800 11.620 13.770 15.680 13.950 16.520 18.820 2.310 2 720 3.740 4.360 4.980 3.740 4.360 4.980 5.940 6.790 7.650 8.490 9.340 10.120 6.340 7.240 8.160 9 060 9.960 10.800 6.340 7.240 8 160 9060 9 960 10.800 2.310 2.720 3.740 4.360 4.980 3.740 4.360 4.980 4.180 5.110 4.180 5.110 Long 4.180 5.110 4.180 5.110
6.970

Special Regular Coupling Same Grade 4.180 5 110 4 180 5110


6.970 Clearance

Special Round -T!r!!ad ~ Short 184 245 314 267 342 266 340 290 372 453 552 638 473 576 666 374 453 453 548 583 683 771 592 693 783 615 721 814 633 742 037 665 780 880 786 992 1040 860 1.008 1 138 1023 1 199 1,353 786 922 1.040 432 490 522 592 557 631 707 779 833 833 565 641 718 791 833 833 588 667 746 823 876 876 588 667 746 823 898
968

Couplmg Same Grade Higher Grade ~

Regular Coupling Regular Coipllng

Special Clearance Couplmg

Clearance Couplmg Higher Grade' -

Extreme Standard Jomt -

Line Opf~onai joint

Higher Grade

Long

/ Grade'
374 453 453 548 -

Htgher

4.180 5.110 4.180 5110

4.060 4.060 4 060 4.060 5 540 5540 5540 5910 5 910 5910 5 910 5910 9 910 6650 6.650 6650 7.020 7020 7.020 8.120 8.120 8.120 8.310 8.310 8310 8.310 8.310 8.310

4180 5 110 4180 5110

374 390 453 494 494 494 494

374 453 453 520 615 650 650 786 832 832 605 605 648 717 605 648 717 637 682 755 637 682 755 668 716 793 796 852 944 477 477 605 605 644 644 605 644 644 637 678 678 637 678 678 668 712 712 796 848 848 499 506 632 641 632 641 674 674 761 761 632 641 674 674 761 761 666 675 709 709 801 801

~ ~ ~ ~ 7440 8810 10.040 ~ 10.230 12.120 13.800 -

8.260 9.410 7.440 8.810 10040 7.440 8.810 10040 8370 9910 11.290 8.830 10.460 11.830 10.230 11,830 11.830 11.620 11.830 11.830 11.830 11.830 11.830

8 260 9200 7,440 8.810 9 820 7440 8810 9 820 8370 9910 11.050 8830 10.460 11.660 10.230 12,120 13.500 11.620 13 770 14,780 13950 14780 14 780

615 721 814 -

494 494 494 520 520 520 520 520 520 546 546 546 650 650 650 702 702 832 832 832

7440 6120 8120

481 586 677 520 633 732 546 665 769

8.310 8.310 8.310

641 781 904 702 855 989 831 1.013 1172

4360 4.980 4.360 4980 4360 4.980 5.940 6.790 7.650 7930 7930 7930 6 340 7240 8 160 8460 8460 8.460 6340 7240 8.160 8.460 8.460 8460 6340 7240 al60 9060 9.960 10800 6340 7.240 8.160 9.060 9.960 10.800 4.360 4.980 3.950 3.950 5.380 5380 5380 5.380 5 380 5380 5 740 5 740 5 740 5 740 5.740 5.740 5 740 5 740 5 740 5 740 5.740 5 740 4.360 4.980

122 176

3.950
3950

4 360 4 980

234 284 334 254 309 364

432 490 522 592 -

421 421 522 533 533 533 533 533 533 533 533 533 533 533 533 533 561 561 561 561 561 561

499 506 632 641 632 641 685 761 850 917 632 641 685 761 850 917 666 675 721 801 895 965

4.360 4.980 5940 6 790 7.650 8.490 8.660 8.660 6.340 7240 8160 9060 9240
9.240

4 360 4.980

6 340 7.240 7.890 7.890 7.890 7 890 6.340 7 240 7890 7.890 7.890 7.890

6.340 7.240 8.160 9060 9240 9240

2-10

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

OF CASING

(continued)

8 OD Special Clearance Couplinq (in.) 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375 7.375

10

11

12

Nominal Weight, Threads and OD Couolino (in.) (Ibmlft) Grade 23.00 26.00 29.00 32.00 35.00 38.00 23.00 26.00 29.00 32.00 35.00 38.00 23.00 26.00 29.00 32.00 35.00 38.00 26.00 29.00 32.00 35.00 38.00 29.00 32.00 35.00 38.00 42 70 29.00 32.00 35.00 38.00 42.70 24.00 26.40 26.40 26.40 29.70 33.70 39.00 42 80 45.30 47.10 26.40 29.70 33.70 39.00 42.80 45.30 47.10 26.40 29.70 33.70 39.00 42.80 45.30 47.10
Non-API weights

Threaded and Coupled Extreme Line Drift Diameter (in.) 6.151 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.151 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 OD Pipe-Body of Box Collapse Yield Powertiaht Resistance Strength (in.) (1,000~lbf) (Psi) 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.530 7.530 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.530 7.530 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.530 7.530 8.010 8.010 8.010 8.010 8.010 8.010 4,030 5,740 7,580 9,380 11,170 12,820 4,140 5,880 7,830 9,750 11,650 13,440 5,650 7,800 9,200 10,400 11,600 12,700 6,230 8,530 i0,780 13,020 15,140 9,100 11,720 14,310 16,750 20,330 9,790 13,020 16,220 19,240 24.390 2,030 2,890 2,890 3,280 4,650 6,300 8,400 10,240 10,790 11,290 3,400 4,790 6,560 8,820 io.aio 11,510 12,040 3,400 4,790 6,560 8,820 10,810 11,510 12,040 599 679 760 839 915 986 632 717 803 885 966 1,041 632 717 803 885 966 1,041 830 929 1,025 1,119 1,205 1,056 1,165 1,272 1,370 1,565 1,267 1,388 1,526 1,644 1,878 276 414 414 564 641 729 839 935 986 1,031 602 683 778 895 998 1,051 1,100 602 683 778 895 998 1,051 1,100 OD Wall Thickness (in.) 0.317 0.362 0.408 0.453 0.498 0.540 0.317 0.362 0.408 0.453 0.498 0.540 0.317 0 362 0.408 0.453 0.498 0.540 0.362 0.408 0.453 0.498 0.540 0.408 0.453 0.498 0.540 0 625 0 408 0.453 0 498 0.540 0.625 0.300 0.328 0.328 0 328 0.375 0 430 0.500 0 562 0.595 0.625 0 328 0.375 0.430 0.500 0 562 0.595 0.625 0.328 0 375 0.430 0.500 0.562 0.595 0.625 Drift ID Diameter (in.) (in.) 6.366 6.276 6.184 6.094 6.004 5.920 6.366 6.276 6.184 6.094 6.004 5.920 6.366 6.276 6.184 6.094 6.004 5.920 6.276 6.184 6.094 6.004 5.920 6.184 6.094 6.004 5.920 5.750 6.184 6.094 6.004 5.920 5.750 7.025 6.969 6.969 6.969 6.875 6.765 6.625 6.501 6.435 6.375 6.969 6.875 6.765 6.625 6.501 6.435 6.375 6.969 6.875 6.765 6.625 6.501 6.435 6.375 6.241 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.241 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.241 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.151 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 5.625 6.059 5.969 5.879 5.795 5.625 6.900 6.844 6.844 6.844 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.376 6.310 6.250 6.844 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.376 6.310 6.250 6.844 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.376 6.310 6.250
01

Couplinq (in.) 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 7.656 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 a.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500

c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 HC-95 l-c-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 P-110 P-110 P-110 O-l 25 O-l 25 O-1 25 O-125 O-l 25 v-150 v-150 v-150 v-150 v-150 H-40 J-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80

7%

8.125 a.125 a.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 a.125 8.125 a.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 a.125 a.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.750 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.750 6.750 6.640 6.500 -

8.010 8.010 8.010 8.010 8.010 8.010 a.010 8.010 -

or grades

CASING.

TUBING.

AND

LINE PIPE

Z-11

TABLE

2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

OF CASING

(continued)

13

I4

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 (1 000 Ibf)

26

27

Joint Strength" Internal Pressure Reslstancet (PSI) Threaded and Coupled Buttress Thread

Buttress Thread Plain End or Extreme Line 7130 8 150 9.180 10.190 11.210 12150 7.530 8.600 9.690 10.760 11 830 12.820 7.530 8.600 9.690 IO 760 11.830 12830 9.960 11.220 12460 13700 14850 12.750 14.160 15.560 16880 19530 15300 16 990 18680 20250 23440 2750 4,140 4.140 5650 6450 7,400 8,610 9.670 10.240 10,760 6.020 6.890 7.900 9,180 10,320 10.920 11.480 6,020 6,890 7.900 9.180 10.320 10,920 11,480 2750 4,140 4.140 4140 4.140 5,650 6.450 7.400 8610 9.670 9,840 9,840 6.020 6.890 7,900 9.180 10.320 10,500 10.490 6.020 6,890 7.900 9,180 10.320 10,500 10,490 4,140 4,140 5,650 6.450 7.400 8.610 9.190 9.180 9.190 6.020 6,890 7,900 9.180 9,790 9.790 9,790 6.020 6.890 7.900 9.180 9,790 9.790 9,790 6,020 6.890 7.900 9.180 10,320 10,920 11.480 6,020 6,890 7,900 9,180 4.140 4.140 .Round Thread Short -~ Long 7.130 8.150 9.180 9.520 9 520 9.520 7.530 8.600 9.520 9 520 9 520 9.520 7.530 8 600 s 520 9 520 9 520 3 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 3 520 3 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 9 520 Special Regular Couphng Same Grade 7 130 8.150 9.180 9.520 9.520 9520 7.530 8.600 9.690 10050 10050 10.050 7.530 a 600 9 690 10 050 10 050 10.050 9.960 11.220 11640 11 640 11 640 11 790 11.790 11 790 11.790 11 790 11.790 11 790 11 790 11 790 11 790 Higher Grade ClfZIGXlCe Coupling Same Grade 6.450 Higher Grade Round Thread Short Long 447 563 648 729 809 883 505 593 683 768 853 931 7480 7480 7480 7480 7480 7480 7480 7480 7480 7480 7480 512 602 692 779 865 344 693 797 897 996 1087 885 996 t 106 1207 1277 I 049 1 180 1310 1430 1514 212 4.140 4.140 315 342 346 377 461 542 635 751 852 6.020 6.890 7,900 9.000 905 953 482 566 664 786 a92 947 997 490 575 674 798 905 962 1013 Regular Coupling 605 687 768 847 876 876 636 722 808 891 920 920 659 747 836 922 964 964 853 955 1053 1096 1096 1045 1183 1183 1183 1183 1.243 1402 1402 1402 1402 483 581 624 709 806 929 1,035 1.090 1.140 635 721 820 945

Special

Regular
Coupling Higher Grade' SpeClal Clearance Coupling 561 561 561 561 561 561 589 589 589 589 589 589 659 747 836 922 1007 1085 a53 955 1053 1 150 1239 617 617 617 617 617 617 702 702 702 702 702 757 757 757 757 757 898 898 898 898 898

ClfXSaflCe Coupling thgher Grade' -

Extreme Standard Jolnt 666 675 721 801 a95 965 699 709 757 841 940 1013 -

Line Optional Joml 666 675 709 709 801 801 699 709 744 744 841 841 -

6.450 6450 6 450 6 450 6 450 6810 6 810 6 810 6 810 6 810 6810 6 810 6 810 6 810 6910 6 810 6810 7 480 7480 7 480 7 480 7480 7480 7480 7 480 7 480 7 480 7480 7 480 7 480 7 480 7 480 4.140 4,140 5.650 6.140 6,140 6.140 6.140 6.140 6.140 6,020 6,550 6,550 6,550 6,550 6.550 6.550 6,020 6,550 6.550 6,550 6.550 6.550 6.550

659 701 701 701 701 701 853 898 898 898 898 -

7.530 8.600 9.690 10 760 11.630 11 630 9.960 11220 11 790 11 790 11 790

844 902 1.002 1.118 1.207 -

844 886 886 1.002 1.002 -

483 581 -

483 581 624 709 735 735 735 764 735 635

483 581

553 700 700 700 766

553 700 700 700 744 744

851

700 700 766 851 -

700 700 744 744 737 737 784 784

721 735 735 735 764 735

1,053
1,109 1,160 659 749 852 981 1,093 1,152 1.205 659 749 852 981 1,093 1.152 1,204

6.020 6.890 7,900 9.000 9,000 8.030 9.000

659 749 773 773 773 804 773

659 749 852 967 967 1.005 967

737 737 806 896 -

2-12

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE

2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

OF CASlNG(continued)

6.

10

11

12

Nomlnal Weight, Threads and OD Coupling (in.) (Ibm/ft) Grade 7% 26.40 29 70 33.70 39 00 42.80 45.30 47.10 26.40 29.70 33 70 39.00 42.80 45.30 47.10 I .
II

Threaded and Coupled OD OD Special of Clearance Coupling Coupling (in.) (in.) 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 8.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 Extreme Line Drift Diameter (In.) 6.750 6.750 6.640 6.500 OD Pipe-Body of Box Collapse Yield PowertIght Resistance Strenoth (in.) (l.OOO-lbf) (PSI) 8.010 8.010 8.010 8.010 3,610 5,040 7,050 9,620 11,890 12.950 13.540 3,710 5,140 7,280 10,000 12,410 13,660 14.300 4,850 7,150 8,800 10,600 12,900 5,350 7,870 11,080 13,920 15,430 16,550 5,670 8,350 12,060 15,350 17,090 18,700 6,060 8,850 13,440 19,660 677 769 875 1.007 1.122 1.183 1,237 714 811 923 1,063 1,185 1,248 1,306 714 811 923 1,063 1,248 940 1,069 1,231 1,372 1,446 1,512 1,068 1,215 1,399 1,559 1,643 1,718 1,282 1,458 1.679 1,971 318 366 381 503 568 381 503 568 775 867 957 1,059 827 925 1,021 1,129

Wall Thickness (in.) 0.328 0375 0.430 0.500 0.562 0.595 0.625 0.328 0.375 0.430 0.500 0 562 0.595 0.625 0.328 0.375 0.430 0.500 0.595 0.375 0.430 0.500 0.562 0.595 0.625 0.375 0.430 0.500 0.562 0.595 0.625 0.375 0.430 0.500 0.595 0.304 0.352 0.264 0.352 0.400 0.264 0.352 0.400 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.557 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.557

ID (In.1 6.969 6.875 6.765 6.625 6 501 6.435 6.375 6.969 6.875 6.765 6.625 6.501 6.435 6.375 6.969 6.875 6.765 6.625 6.435 6.875 6.765 6.625 6.501 6.435 6.375 6.875 6.765 6.625 6.501 6.435 6.375 6.875 6.765 6.625 6.435 8.017 7.921 8.097 7.921 7.825 8.097 7.921 7.825 7.825 7.725 7.625 7.511 7.825 7.725 7.625 7.511

Drift Diameter (In.) 6.844 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.376 6.310 6.250 6.844 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.376 6.310 6.250 6.844 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.310 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.376 6.310 6.250 6.750 6.640 6.500 6.376 6.310 6.250 6.750 6.640 6 500 6.310 7.892 7.796 7.972 7.796 7.700 7972 7.796 7.700 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386

c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 P-110 P-110 P-110 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 v-150 v-150 v-150 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80
or grades

6.750 6.750 6.640 6.500 -

8.010 8.010 8.010 8.010

*
I

26.40 29.70 33.70 39.00 45.30 29.70 33.70 39.00 42.80 45.30 47.10

6.750 6.640 6.500 8.010 8.010 8.010 -

29.70 33.70 39.00 42.80 45.30 47.10 29.70 33.70 39.00 45.30 28.00 32.00 24.00 32.00 36.00 24.00 32.00 36.00 36.00 40.00 44.00 49.00 36.00 40.00 44.00 49.00

f . f f

8%

9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9,120 9.120 9.120 9.120

1,610 2,200 1,370 2,530 3,450 1,370 2,530 3,450 4,000 5,330 6,660 8,180 4,100 5,520 6,950 8,580

Non-API

wetghls

CASING.

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-13

TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 (1.000 Ibf)

26

27

Joint Strength" Internal Pressure Resistancef (PSI) Threaded and Coupled Buttress Thread

Buttress Thread Platn End 01 Extreme Line 6.760 7.750 8.880 10.330 11,610 12,290 12.910 7.150 8.180 9.380 10,900 12.250 12.970 13.630 7 150 8.180 9.380 10.900 12.970 9.470 10.860 12,620 14.190 15.020 15.780 10.760 12,340 14.340 16.120 17.070 17.930 12,910 14.600 17,210 20.480 2.470 2.860 2950 3.930 4.460 2.950 3,930 4.460 6.090 6.850 7.610 8.480 6 490 7 300 8.120 9.040 6.490 7.300 8.120 9.040 2,470 2.860 2,950 3,930 4.460 2.950 3.930 4.460 3.930 4,460 6090 6.850 7.610 8480 6.490 7.300 8120 9.040 3.930 4.460 6.090 6.850 7.610 8 480 6.490 7.300 6.120 9.040 6.490 7,300 6.120 9.040 6.490 7,300 8,120 9.040 6.490 7,300 8.120 9.040 3,930 4.460 3,930 4,060 5.530 5.530 5.530 5.530 5.900 5.900 5.900 5.900 5.900 5.900 5.900 5.900 6.490 7 300 8.110 8.110 6.340 6,340 6.340 6.340 3,930 4,460 3.930 4.460 3.930 4,460 3.930 4,060 3.930 4.460 Round Thread Short Long 6.780 7.750 8.880 10.330 11.610 11.800 11.600 7,150 8.180 9.380 10,900 11,600 11.600 11.600 7.150 8.180 9.380 10.900 11.800 9.470 10.860 11.800 11,800 11.800 11.800 10.760 11,800 11.800 11.800 11.800 11.600 11,800 11.600 11.800 11.800 Spew Regular Couptlng Same Grade 6.780 7.750 8.680 10.330 11,020 11,020 11.020 7.150 6,160 9.380 10.900 11,620 11.630 11,620 7 150 8.180 9,380 10,900 11 630 9.470 10,860 12,620 12.680 12 680 12.680 10,760 12.340 12.680 12.680 12680 12.680 12.660 12.680 12,680 12,680 Htgher Grade Clearance Coupttng Same Grade 6.760 7.370 7,370 7.370 7.370 7.370 7,370 7.150 7.780 7.780 7.780 7.780 7.780 7.780 7.150 7.780 7.780 7.780 7.780 9.000 9.000 6.030 6.030 8.030 8,030 8,030 8,030 8.030 6.030 8.030 8.030 8.030 8.030 Higher Grade ~ ~ ~ 7.150 8,030 8.030 8.030 8.030 9.470 10.860 8,030 8,030 8.030 8.030 ~ ~ ~ Round Thread Short ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 233 279 244 372 434 263 402 468 ~ Long 532 625 733 867 984 1.045 1,100 560 659 772 914 1,037 1,101 1,159 568 668 763 926 1.116 769 901 1.066 1.210 1.285 1.353 861 1.009 1,194 1.355 1,439 1,515 1,030 1,207 1.428 1.721 ~ 417 486 452 526 646 742 834 939 678 776 874 983 688 788 887 997 690 780 647 947 1.046 1.157 864 966 1.066 1.160 895 1.001 1.105 1.222 579 654 Regular Couphng 681 773 880 1.013 1,129 1.169 1.239 716 813 925 1.065 1.187 1.251 1,300 740 641 957 1.101 1.293 960 1,093 1.258 1.402 1,477 1.545 1,052 1,197 1.379 1,536 1,619 1.673 1,252 1,424 1.640 1.926

Specfal Regular Coupling Hqher Grade' Special Clearance Couplmg 681 773 804 804 804 804 604 716 812 812 812 812 854 812 740 841 957 101 293 960 ,093 ,258 402 ,477 1,545 740 841 885 885 885 960 967 967 967 1.005 967 1.052 1.086 1.066 1,066 1,252 1,287 1,287 1,287 579 654 690 780 579 654 690 780 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 740 841 957 1.005 1.005 960 1,093 1,237 1,237 1.287 1.237 922 1.008 1,120 922 979 979 774 774 846 941 774 774 823 623 Clearance Coupling Htgher Grade' Extreme Standard Jofnt 737 737 806 896 Lfne Opttonal Jofnt 737 737 784 784 -

7,150 8.160 9.380 10.900 12.680 9.470 10860 12.620 12.680 12.680 12.680

579
654 690 780

686 686 869 871 871 942 1.007 1.007 871 942 1.007 1.007 686 688 869 871 871 886 886 886 871 886 866 686 917 932 932 932

3,930
4.460

6.490 7.300 8.120 9.040

895
1.001 1.105 1.222

683 a03 883 883

895 1.001 1.103 1.103

917 992 1.060 1.060

2-14

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

OF CASING

(continued)

10

11

12

Nominal Weight, Threads and OD Coupling (In.) (Ibmlft) Grade

Threaded and Coupled nn Wall Thickness (In1 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.557 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.557 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.557 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.557 0.450 0.500 0.557 0.450 0.500 0.557 0.500 0.557 0.312 0.352 0.352 0 395 0352 0.395 0.395 0.435 0472 0.545 0.395 0.435 0 472 0.545 0.395 0.435 0 472 0 545 0.395 0.435 0.472 0.545 0.395 0.435 0.472 0.545 0.395 0.435 0.472 0545 Drift Drameter (In.) 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.500 7.386 8.845 8.765 8.765 8679 8765 8.679 8.679 a.599 8.525 a.379 8.679 a.599 a525 a.379 8.679 a 599 8.525 a.379 8.679 8.599 a.525 a.379 8.679 8.599 a.525 8.379 8.679 a.599 a.525 a.379 a 279 a.219 a.599 a.525 a.379 OD SpZial of Clearance Coupling Coupling (in.) On ) 9 625

Extreme Lfne Drift Diameter (in.) 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 7.700 7.600 7.500 7.386 OD Pipe-Body of Box Collapse Yield Powertight Resistance Strength (1,000 Ibf) (in) (Psi)

ID (in) 7.825 7.725 7.625 7.511 7.025 7725 7.625 7.511 7.825 7.725 7.625 7.511 7.825 7.725 7.625 7.511 7.725 7.625 7.511 7.725 7.625 7.511 7.625 7.511 9.001 a.921 a.921 a835 8921 8.835 8.835 a.755 8.681 a.535 a.835 a.755 a.681 a.535 a.835 a.755 a.681 a.535 a.835 a.755 8.681 a.535 8.835 a.755 a.681 8535 8.835 a755 a.681 8.535 a435 8.375 8 755 8681 a535

as/a

36.00 40.00 44.00

49 00
36.00 40.00 44.00 49.00 36.00 40.00 44.00 49.00 36.00 40.00 44.00 49.00 40.00 44.00 49.00 * * * 40.00 44.00 49.00 44.00 49 00 3230 36.00 3600 4000 36.00 40.00 4000 43.50 47.00 5350 40.00 43.50 4700 53.50 40.00 43.50 4700 53.50 4000 43.50 47.00 5350 40.00 43.50 47.00 53.50 * * * f * * 40.00 43.50 4700 53.50 5840 61.10 43.50 47.00 53.50

N-B0 N-80 N-80 N-80 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 HC-95 tic-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 v-150 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 L-80 L-80 N-B0 N-80 N-80 N-80 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-95 c-95 c-95 c-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 P-110

9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625 9.625
10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625

9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125 9.125

9.120
9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 9.120 -

4,100 5.520 6,950 8.580 4.250 5,870 7.490 9,340 4,350 6,020 7.740 9,710 6,060

a27 925 1,021 1,129 930 1,040 1,149 1,271 982 1,098 1,212 1,341 982 1,098 1.212 1,341 1,271 1,404 1,553 1,445 1,595 1,765 1,914 2,118 365 410 564 630 564 630 859 942 1.018 1.166 916 1.005 1,086 1,244 916 1,005 1,086 1,244 1,031 1,130 1,221 1,399 1,088 1,193 1,289 1,477 1,088 1,193 1,289 1,477 1,604 1,679 1,381 1,493 1,710

7,900
9,100 10,400 7.600 7.500 7.386 9.120 9.120 9.120 6,390 8,420 10,740 6,630 8,980 11,660 9,640 12,950 1,370 1.720 2,020 2,570 2,020 2.570 2,990 3.730 4,610 6,350 3.090 3.810 4.760 6.620 3.090 3.810 4.760 6,620 3,250 4.010 5.000 7.120 3.320 4,120 5,090 7,340 4.230 5,600 7,100 8,850 9,950 10,500 4.420 5,300 7,950

9.125
9.125

9%

10.125 10.125 10125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125

a.599 a.599 8.599 8 599 8.525 8.379 a.599 8.599 a.525 8.379 a.599 8.599 a.525 a.379 a.599 8.599 a.525 a.379 8.599 a.599 a.525 a.379 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 IO.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 8.599 8525 8.379 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100

0.595
0.625 0435 0.472 0545

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE

PIPE

2-15

TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 (1,000 Ibf)

26

27

Joint Strength" Internal Pressure Reslstancet (PSI) Threaded and Couoled Buttress Thread

Buttress Thread Plain End or Extreme Ltne 7.300 8.220 9.130 10170 7.710 8.670 9.640 10.740 7.710 8.670 9 640 I0740 10.040 11 160 12430 11.410 12.680 14130 15220 16.950 2.270 2.560 3.520 3.950 3.520 3,950 5,390 5,930 6,440 7,430 5.750 6,330 6,870 7,930 5,750 6,330 6,870 7,930 6,460 7,120 7,720 8.920 6,820 7,510 8,150 9,410 6820 7,510 8,150 9,410 10,280 10,800 8 700 9,440 10,900 Round Thread Short Lona 7.300 8.220 9.130 10.170 7,710 8.670 9.640 10.380 7,710 8.670 9640 10.380 10.040 10.380 10.380 10.380 10.380 10.380 10.380 10.380 Special Regular Coupling Same Grade 7 300 8.220 9.130 10.170 7,710 8.670 9.640 10.740 7.710 8.670 9.640 10.740 10.040 11.160 11.230 11.230 11.230 11.230 11.230 11.230 Higher Grade Cll?XaWe Coupling Same Grade 6.340 Htghet Grade ~ 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 ~ 254 294 3.520 3.950 3.520 3.950 5,390 5.930 6,440 7,430 5,750 6,330 6,870 7,930 5,750 6.330 6.870 7.930 6.460 7,120 7.720 8.460 6.820 7.510 8.150 8.460 6 820 7,510 8,150 8.460 8,460 8.460 8.700 9,440 9.670 3,520 3,950 3,520 3,950 5.390 5,930 6,440 7.430 5,750 6.330 6,870 7,930 5.750 6,330 6.870 7.930 6.460 7.120 7,720 8,920 6.820 7.510 8,150 8.460 6.820 7,510 8.150 9160 9.160 9,160 8.700 9.160 9.160 6,820 7,510 8,150 9,160 9,160 9.160 8.700 9.160 9,160 3,520 3.950 3,520 3.950 5,750 6,330 6.870 7.930 3,520 3.660 3.520 3.660 4.990 4.990 4.990 4.990 5.140 5140 5,140 5.140 5,140 5.140 5.140 5.140 5.140 5.140 5.140 5,140 5,140 5.140 5.140 5.140 5,140 5,140 5.140 5.140 5.140 5.140 5.140 5,140 5.140 3.520 3.950 3.520 3.950 5.140 5.140 5140 5.140 5,140 5,140 5,140 5.140 5,140 5,140 5.140 5,140 5140 ~ ~ ~ ~ 394 452 423 486 453 520 489 561 694 776 852 999 727 813 893 1.047 737 825 905 1,062 804 899 987 1 157 847 948 1.040 1220 858 959 1,053 1,235 1.357 1.430 1.106 1,213 1422 639 714 755 843 926 1,016 1.098 1,257 947 1.038 1.122 1.286 979 1,074 1,161 1,329 1,021 1.119 1.210 1386 1.074 1 178 1.273 1458 1,106 1,213 1,311 1,502 1,631 1,707 1.388 1,500 1,718 Round Thread Short ~ ~ Long 749 858 965 1.085 789 904 1.017 ,114 800 916 ,030 ,159 ,055 ,186 ,335 ,182 ,330 ,496 ,591 ,789 Reaular Cotpllng 928 1.038 1.146 1.268 976 1.092 1.206 1.334 1.008 1.127 1.244 1,377 1.288 1.423 1.574 1,415 1.562 1.728 1.859 2,056

Special Regular Coupling Hloher Grade* Soecial Clearance Coupling 883 883 883 003 927 927 927
927

Clearance Couphng Higher Gradei

Extreme Standard Jomt 917 992 1.060 1.060 963 1.042 1.113 1.113

Lane Opttonal Joint 917 992 932 932 963 979 979
979 -

2,270 2,560 3.520 3.950 3,520 3.950 -

7.710 8.670 9 640 10,740 10.040 11 160 11.230

6.340 6.340 6.340 6,340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6.340 6,340 6.340 6,340

1.008 1,127 1,244 1,377 1,288 1,423 1,574

971 971 971 971 1,103 1.103 1,103 1.192 1.192 1,413 1.413

1,008 1,104 1 104 1.104 1.288 1.412 1,412

1.240 1.326 1.326 1.165 1.165 1.165 -

639

639 714 755 843 926 934 934 934 934 934 934 934

639 714 755 843 975 975 975 1.032 1.173 975 975 1.032 1.173 979 1,074 1.161 1.229 1.027 1,027 1.086 1.235 027 027 086 ,235 ,078 ,078 ,141 ,297 975 975 975 1.032 1.053 975 975 1.032 1.053 1.027 1.027 1.086 1.109 027 027 086 ,109 ,078 ,078 ,141 ,164 1.283 1.358 1,544 1,283 1.358 1,386 770 770

714 755 843

979 1,074 1,161 1,329

979 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 1.032 1.032 1.032 1.032

1.106 1.213 1,229 1,229 1.229 1.229 1.388 1500 1.573

1 106 1213 1311 1502 1631 1707 1388 1500 1718

1.082 1.082 1.082 1.082 1.082 1.082 1.229 1.229 1,229

2-16

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

a OD Specral Clearance Coupling (in.) 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 10.125 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250 11.250

10

11

12

Nominal Weiqht, Threads and 00 Coupling (in.) (Ibm/ft) Grade

Threaded and Coupled Extreme Lrne Drrft Dtameter (in.) OD Pipe-Body of Box Collapse Yield Powertight Resrstance Strenath (l.OOO-fbf) (In ) (Psi) 5,640 8,440 10,530 I 1.800 1.697 1,943 2,110 2,209 2,332 7,532 2,651 3,075 367 457 629 715 801 629 715 801 1,092 1,196 1,165 1.276 1,165 1,276 1.310 1,435 1,383 1,515 1.383 1,515 1.660 1,803 1.959 1,602 1.754 1,922 2,088 1,993 2,184 2.373 2,573 2,660 2,887 2,621 2,847 3,094 3,191 3,464 478 737 850 952 737 850 952 OD of Coupling (In.) 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10.625 10625 10625 10.625 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 il.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 11.750 12.750 12.750 12.750 12.750 12.750 12.750 12.750 -

Wall Thrckness (in.) 0.472 0.545 0.595 0.625 0.545 0.595 0 625 0.734

Dnft ID Diameter (in.) (in.) 8681 8535 8435 a375 a535 8435 8375 8157 10 192 10.050 10.050 9.950 9.850 10.050 9.950 9.850 9.850 9 760 9.850 9.760 9.850 9.760 9.850 9.760 9.850 9.760 9.850 9.760 9.660 9.560 9.450 9.850 9.760 9.660 9560 9.760 9.660 9.560 9.450 9.406 9.282 9.660 9.560 9.450 9.406 a525 8.379 8279 a219 a379 8 279 8 219 8001 10.036 9 894 9.894 9 794 9.694 9.894 9.794 9.694 9.694 9.604 9.694 9.604 9.694 9.604 9.694 9.604 9.694 9.604 9.694 9.604 9.504 9.404 9.294 9.694 9.604 9.504 9.404 9.604 9.504 9.404 9.294 9.250 9.126 9.504 9.404 9.294 9.250 9.126 10.928 10.844 10.724 10.616 10.844 10.724 10.616

9%
f f

47.00 53.50 58.40 61.10 53.50 58.40 61.10 70.30 32 75 40.50 40.50 45.50 51.00 40.50 45 50 51.00 51 00 5550 51.00 55 50 51 00 5550 51.00 55.50 51.00 55.50

Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 v-150 v-150 v-150 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 N-80 N-80

*
1

8,960 11.560 13,120 18,800 840 1.390

10 %

0.279
0.350 0.350 0.400 0.450 0 350 0.400 0.450 0.450 0.495 0.450 0.495 0.450 0.495 0.450 0.495 0.450 0.495 0.450 0.495 0.545 0.595 0.650 0.450 0.495 0.545 0.595

9.794 9 694 9.794 9.694 9.694 9604 9 694 9604 9.694 9.604 9.694 9.604 9.694 9.604 11.460 11.460 11.430 11.460 11.460 11.460 11.460 11.460 11.460 11 460 11.460 11.460 11.460 11.460 -

1.580 2.090 2,700 1,580 2,090 2,700 3,110 3,920 3.220 4,020 3,220 4,020 3,400 4,160 3,480 4,290 4,460 5,950 7.550 8,640 9,600 3,660 4,610 5,880 7.500 4.850 6.070 7.920 9.990 10,810 13,150 6,550 8,320 10,880 11,900 14,790 1.070 1.510 2.070 2.660 1.510 2.070 2.660

c-90 c-90 c-95 c-95


HC-95 w-95 HC-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 P-110 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v.150 v-150 v-150 v-150 v-150 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 K-55

* t + t *

51.00 55.50 60.70 65.70 71.10 51.00 55.50 60.70 65.70

9.694 9.604 9.504 11.460 11.460 11.460 -

I/

. 1 1 / * *

55.50 60.70 65.70 71.10 73.20 79.20 60.70 65.70 71.10 73.20

0.495
0.545

0.595
0.650 0.672 0.734 0.545 0.595 0650 0.672 0.734 0.333 0.375 0.435

*
11%

79.20
42.00 47.00 54.00 60.00 47.00 54.00 60.00

9.282
11.084 I 1.000 10.880 10.772 I 1.000 10.880 10.772

0.489
0.375 0.435 0.489

CASING.

TUBING.

AND

LINE PIPE

2-17

TABLE 2.3~MINIMUM
13

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23 JOIN

24 Strenglh"

25 (1 000 Ibf)

26

27

Internal Pressure

Reslstancet

(psi)

Threaded

and Coupled Buttress Thread Speual

Buttress Thread Plaln End or Extreme Line 10.730 12,390 13.520 14,200 12.390 13,520 14.200 16.680 1.820 2,280 3.130 3.580 4.030 3.130 3.580 4.030 5.490 6.040 5.860 6,450 5.660 6.450 6.590 7.250 6.960 7660 6.960 7.660 6,430 9.200 10.050 8.060 8.860 9.760 10.650 10.070 11.090 12,110 13.230 13,670 14,940 13,310 14.530 15.670 16.410 17.920 1,980 3.070 3.560 4,010 3.070 3.560 4.010 Round Thread Short ~ ~ 1.620 2.280 3.130 3.580 4.030 3.130 3.580 4,030 5.490 6.040 5.660 6.450 5.660 6.450 6.590 6,860 6.880 6 880 6860 6,880 6.880 6,880 6.880 7.860 7,660 7,860 7.860 7,860 7,860 7,860 7.860 7,860 7,860 7,860 7,860 7.660 7.860 7.860 1.980 3,070 3,560 4,010 3.070 3.560 4.010 3,070 3.560 4.010 3,070 3.560 4.010 3.070 3.560 4,010 3070 3,560 4,010 Long 9,670 9.670 9.670 9670 9670 9670 9670 9670 Special Regular Coupling Same Grade 9160 9.160 9 160 9.160 9.160 9.160 9.160 9.160 Hlqher Grade Clearance Coupling Same Grade 5,140 Hlqher Grade Round Thread Short ~ ~ .205 314 3,130 3.560 4.030 3,130 3.580 4,030 3,130 3,290 3.290 3.130 3,290 3,290 4.150 4.150 4.150 4,150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4,150 4,150 4.150 3.130 3,560 4.030 3.130 3,580 4.030 420 493 565 450 528 606 756 843 794 884 a04 895 632 771 927 1032 737 821 914 1005 1105 1080 1203 1338 1472 1351 1503 1.653 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4,150 4.150 4.150 4 150 1.817 1.862 2063 i 798 1,918 2174 2.252 2469 307 477 568 649 509 606 693 Long 1.361 1595 1754 1848 1595 1754 1.848 2 185 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ 807 931 ,042 935 079 ,208 700 796 891 819 931 1.043 1.160 1.271 1,190 1.303 1.228 1.345 1,287 1,409 1.354 1.483 1.392 1.524 1.670 1.614 1.971 1.594 1,745 1.912 2.077 1.925 2,109 2.291 2.489 2.568 2.639 2 513 2.730 2 366 3,060 3.127 Regular Couplmg 1.650 1 890 2052 2149 2.251 2.444 2,553 2.812

Regular Couplmg Htgher Grade' Specral Clearance Couplrng 1326 1328 1.574 1,574 1,574 1.574 700 796 691 819 931 1,043 .1.228 1.345 1.392 1.524 1.670 1.814 1.971 1.594 1.745 1.912 2,077 700 796 822 819 931 1,041 1,041 1.041 1.041 1,041 1.096 1.096 1,112 1,112 1,151 1151 1,223 1.223 1.223 1.223 1.223 1.370 1.370 1.370 1.370 1.501 1.501 1501 1.501 1.501 1.501 1.779 1,779 1.779 1.779 1779

Clearance Coupling Higher Grade'

Extreme Standard
JOlnt

Line Optronal Joint

5.140 5 140 5.140 5 140 5.140 5 140 5 140

--

3,130 3.580 4.030 3.130 3.560 4.030 5.490 6.040 5,860 6.450 5.660 6,450 6,590 7,250

700 796 891 819 931 1.043 975 1092 1.236 1.363 1383 1515 1.363 1.515 I 228 1.345 1.456 1,595 1,456 1.595 1.529 1389 1.389 I 389 1.389 ,389 1534 ,745 ,754 ,754 -1.675 -

5.860 6.450 -

6.960
7.450

6.960
7.450 7.450 7.450 7.450 7.450 7.450 7.450 7.450 -

4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 4.150 -

6.960
7.450 7.450 7.450 7.450

1820 1993 2000

807 931 1,042 935 1.079 1.208

2-18

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

OF CASlNG(conlinued)

8 OD Special Clearance Coupling (in.)

IO

11

12

Nominal Weight. Threads and OD Coupling (in.) (Ibmift) Grade 1 1% 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 (r 60.00 60.00 * f 13% 60.00 66.70 66.70 48.00 54.50 61.00 68.00 54.50 61.00 68.00 68.00 72.00 68.00 72.00 68.00 72.00 68.00 72.00 68.00 72.00 . f 72.00 86.00 68.00 72.00 . * * f 16 72.00 76.60 92.50 92.50 100.30 65.00 75.00 84.00 75.00 84.00 c-75 L-80 N-80 c-90 c-95 HC-95 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 K.55 K-55 K-55 c-75 c-75 L-80 L-80 N-80 N-80 c-90 c-90 c-95 c-95 HC-95 HC-95 P-110 P-110 Q-125 Q-125 Q-125 v-150 v-150 H-40 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 H-40 J-55 K-55 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 K-55 K-55 K-55

Threaded and Coupled Extreme Line Drift Diameter (in.) Pipe-Body OD Yield of Box Collapse Powertight Resistance Strength (1,000 Ibf) (in.) (psi) 3,070 3,180 3,180 3,360 3,440 4,410 3,610 3,680 4,980 5,200 740 1,298 1,384 I,384 1,557 1,644 1,644 1,903 2,162 2,407 2,888 541 853 962 1,069 853 962 1,069 1,458 1,558 1,556 1,661 1,556 1.661 1,750 1,869 1,847 1,973 1,973 2,378 2,139 2,284 2.596 2,756 3,352 4,023 4.373 736 1,178 1,326 1,178 1,326 994 1,367 1,367 1,077 1,480 1.685 2,125 1.480 1,685 2,125 00 of Coupling (in.) 12.750 12.750 12750 12.750 12750 12.750 12.750 12.750 12.750 12.750 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 14.375 17.000 17.000 17.000 17.000 17.000 20.000 20.000 20.000 21.000 21.000 21.000 21.000 21.000 21.000 21.000

Wall Thickness (in.) 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.547 0.547 0.330 0.380 0.430 0.480 0.380 0.430 0.480 0.480 0.514 0.480 0.514 0.480 0.514 0.480 0.514 0.480 0.514 0.514 0.625 0.480 0.514 0514 0.547 0672 0672 0.734 0.375 0.438 0 495 0438 0.495 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.438 0.438 0.500 0.635 0.438 0.500 0.635

ID (in1 10.772 10.772 10.772 10.772 10.772 10.772 10.772 10.772 10.656 10.656 12.715 12.615 12.515 12.415 12.615 12.515 12.415 12.415 12.347 12.415 12.347 12.415 12.347 12.415 12.347 12.415 12.347 12.347 12.125 12.415 12.347 12.347 12.281 12.031 12.031 11.907 15.250 15.124 15.010 15.124 15.010 17.755 17.755 17.755 19.124 19.124 19.000 18.730 19.124 19.000 18.730

Drift Diameter (in.) 10.616 10.616 10.616 10.616 10.616 10.616 10.616 10.616 10.500 10.500 12.559 12.459 12.359 12.259 12.459 12.359 12.259 12.259 12.191 12.259 12.191 12.259 12.191 12.259 12.191 12.259 12.191 12.191 11.969 12.259 12.191 12.191 12.125 11.875 11.875 11.751 15.062 14.936 14.822 14.936 14.822 17.567 17.567 17.567 18.936 18.936 18.812 18.542 18.936 18.812 18.542

1,130 1,540 1,950 1,130 1,640 1.950 2.220 2,600 2,260 2,670 2.260 2.670 2,320 2,780 2,330 2,820 3,470 6,240 2,330 2,880 2,800 3,490 5,950 6,400 8,090 630 1,020 1,410 1,020 1,410 630' 630' 630' 520' 520* 770' 1 ,500 520' 770' ,500

~8%

87.50 87.50 87.50

20

94.00 94.00 106.50 133.00 94.00 106.50 133.00

Non-API WlQhtS

or grades

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-19

TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Joint Strength * (1,000 Ibf) Internal Pressure Reslstancet (PSI) Threaded and Coupled Buttress Thread Special Round Thread Short Lono Reqular Cot&a 1.361 1,399 1,440 1,517 1,596 1,638 1.877 2,074 2.308 2,752 909 1.025 1,140 1,038 1,169 1.300 1,496 1,598 1,545 1,650 1.585 1.693 1.683 1,797 1,772 1.893 1,935 2,333 2,079 2.221 2,463 2.615 3.181 3,795 3.863 1.200 1.351 1,331 1.499 1.329 1.427 1.402 1,596 2,012 1.479 1.683 2123 1402 1 596 2,012 1,479 1 683 2 123 1329 1,427 1,200 1,351 1,331 1,499 2,079 2.221 1585 1,693 909 1,025 1,140 1,038 1,169 1,300 1,877 1,440 Regular Coupilng Hlaher Grade* Special Clearance Couolina Clearance Couphng Hrgher Grade * Extreme Standard Jornt Line Optronal Joint

Buttress Thread Plain End or Extreme Line 5,460 5,830 5,830 6,550 6,920 6,920 8,010 9.100 10,180 12.220 1,730 2.730 3,090 3,450 2,730 3.090 3.450 4.710 5.040 5.020 5,380 5.020 5,380 5.650 6.050 5,970 6,390 6,390 7,770 6,910 7400 8,400 8,950 10,990 13,190 14,410 1640 2630 2,980 2,630 2.980 1.630 2.250 2,250 1.530 2.110 2.410 3.060 2.110 2.410 3.060 Round Thread Short 5,460 5,820 5,820 5.820 5,820 5.820 5.820 6.650 6.650 6,650 1.730 2.730 3,090 3.450 2.730 3.090 3.450 4,550 4,550 4.550 4,550 4.550 4,550 4.550 4.550 4,550 4,550 4,550 4,550 4,550 4.550 4.550 4,550 4.550 4.550 4.550 1.640 2.630 2.980 2.630 2,980 1.630 2.250 2,250 1.530 2.110 2.400 2.400 2.110 2.400 2,400 Long Spew Regular Coupling Same Grade 5.460 5,830 5,830 6,300 6.300 6.300 6,300 6.300 6,300 6,300 Higher Grade 6,300 Clearance ^ Louprlng Same Grade HIoh& Grade

869
913 924

~ 907 1.057 1.380 955 1.113 1.453

,011 ,066 ,078 ,242 ,395

,582 ,893 322

2,730 3,090 3,450 2.730 3.090 3,450 4,710 4,930 4,930 4.930 4,930 4,930 4.930 4,930 4,930 4,930 4.930 4.930

2,730 3,090 3,450 2,730 3,090 3450 4,930 4.930 ~ 4.930 4.930 -

514 595 675 547 633 718 905 978 952 1.029 963 1,040 1,057 1,142 1.114 1.204 1.215 1.507 1,297 1,402 1,576 1.690 2.113 2.529 2,776

1,530 2.110 2.400 2.400 2,110 2.400 2.400

4,930 4,930 4.930 4,930 4.930 4.930 4,930

2.630 2,980 2,630 2.980

2.630 2.980 2.630 2.980

439 710 817

.-. -

752 865 559 754 794 581 784

2.250 2.250 2.110 2.320 2.320 2.110 2.320 2.320

2.250 2,250

2.110 2.320 2.320 2.110 2.320 2,320

913 1.192 824 960 1253

2-20

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.4a-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE H-40


AxialStress.ps

Weqht (Ibmilt) d,ie 95 14 20 17 20 24 26 32 323 36 3275 405 42 48 65 a75 94 21 95 22 54 23 30 3 25 74 2542 2837 24 5 30 65 27 34 38 53 30 71 3529 4053 42 67 42 82 4566

AE2, (W In1 2 766 4 029 5 734 4 912 5 749 6 904 7947 9 149 9 126 10254 9 176 1, 435 11944 13524 16408 24856 26918

- 10.000 2.930 2.770 2650 1.490 2.050 2.120 1.690 2.310 1.430 1.810 860 1 450 1.070 740 630 630 520

- 5 000 2.860 2 710 2 600 1460 2 020 2 080 1650 2260 1410 1770 650 1 420 1060 740 630 630 520

0 2.760 2 620 2.502 1420 1 970 2 030 1610 2.200 1.370 1.720 840 1,390 1.040 740 630 630 520

5 000 2640 2 510 2420 1380 1910 1 960 1 550 2 120 1330 1660 630 1340 1010 730 630 630 520

10.000 2.500 2.360 2 290 1.320 1 a30 1 880 1.490 2 020 1280 1600 010 1 290 980 720 630 620 520

15000 20000 25.000 Collapse Pressure.ps, 2.320 2.220 2,140 1.260 1,730 1,770 1,410 1900 1.220 1520 780 1.230 940 700 620 610 510 2.100 2.010 1,950 1.170 1,590 1,630 1.320 1740 1 140 1420 750 1150 a90 670 600 590 510 1.840 1.760 1.710 1,080 1,420 1.450 1,200 1.550 1.050 1.290 700 1.050 830 640 570 570 490

30.000 -

35.000 -

40.000 -

45,000 -

50000 -

TABLE 2.4b-MINIMUM
-10.000 3.440 4.200 5.220 3 170 4.340 5.880 3.230 4.230 5.180 3.070 4.790 2.370 3.400 4 540 2 990 1400 2.600 3 590 2 100 2 640 1630 2 170 2 780 1550 2 150 2 740 ,140 1580 2 020 1020 1440 630 520 770 1530

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADES J-55 AND K-55


AxialStress.PSI -5000 3 390 4 110 5 100 3 120 4 250 5 730 3 100 4 150 5.060 3 030 4.690 2 320 3 340 4.440 2950 1 390 2570 3530 2.070 2.610 1.610 2.140 2.750 1.540 2.120 2.710 I 140 1.560 1.990 1020 1.420 630 520 770 1520 0 3 310 4 010 4 960 3 060 4 140 5 560 3 120 4 040 4 910 2 970 4 560 2 270 3 270 4.320 2 890 ,370 2 530 3 450 2.020 2 570 1.580 2,090 2.700 1.510 2.070 2.660 1 130 1.540 1.950 1020 I.410 630 520 770 1500 5 000 3230 3880 4 790 2 900 4.010 5 360 3 040 3 920 4 740 2 900 4410 2 210 3 100 4.190 2.830 1.350 2.490 3.360 1.970 2.520 1550 2.040 2.650 1 490 2.020 2610 1.120 1.510 1.900 1.010 1.390 630 520 770 1.470 10.000 3 120 3,740 4.590 2 890 3.860 5.120 2.950 3.770 2 820 4.230 2 140 3.080 4 020 2 750 I 320 2 430 3 240 1 920 2,460 1.520 1.980 2 560 1,450 1 960 2.540 1.110 1.460 1.850 1010 1,360 630 520 770 1440 15,000 20,000 25,000 Collapse Pressure.ps, 3 000 3.570 4,360 2790 3.690 4860 2,840 3.600 4320 2 720 4030 2 090 2960 3840 2650 1 290 2 350 3110 I a50 2 360 1470 1900 2500 1.410 1.890 2.460 I 090 1.440 1.780 990 1320 630 520 770 1.400 2850 3.380 4.100 2.660 3.480 4.550 2.700 3.410 4,060 2.590 3.800 2.020 2.820 3 620 2 530 1250 2 260 2 960 1 770 2.290 1420 1820 2 390 1.360 1010 2.360 1 060 1380 1.710 970 1280 630 520 770 1.350 2.660 3.150 3.600 2,500 3240 4210 2550 3 180 3 770 2450 3 530 1930 2650 3370 2390 1 200 2 150 2 770 1,670 2 170 I.360 1740 2 260 1.310 1.720 2.240 1.030 1.320 1.620 950 1.230 630 520 760 1.290 30,000 2.470 2.890 3.450 2,320 2.970 3,730 2,350 2.910 3 430 2 270 3,220 1810 2 450 3.060 2 220 ,140 2 010 2 550 1.590 2,030 1.280 1.650 2.110 1.230 1.630 2.080 980 1.250 1.520 910 1.160 620 520 740 1220 35,000 2,220 2.570 2.980 2090 2640 3160 2130 2590 2970 2050 2650 1670 2200 2.730 2010 1070 1.830 2 290 1.460 1.850 1.190 1.530 1.920 1.150 1.520 1.900 930 1.160 1.420 860 1.090 600 510 710 ,140 40,000 1.930 2,150 2.380 1 820 2 180 2 530 1850 2 160 2 370 1 790 2 290 1480 1.910 2.230 1.760 980 1,610 1.980 1.330 1.630 1.090 1.370 1.680 1.050 1.360 1.660 a60 1060 1290 BOO 1 DO0 580 490 670 1040 45,000 1,420 1.540 1.710 1370 1570 1820 1380 1550 1700 1360 1640 1220 I.410 1.600 1.340 a70 1.280 1.440 1.150 1.280 960 1.160 1.310 930 1.170 1300 770 940 1 120 720 090 530 470 610 920 50,000

Welghl (ibmift) d,ie 95 105 11 6 11 5 13 15 14 155 17 20 24 20 23 26 264 24 32 36 36 40 405 455 51 47 54 60 54 5 61 68 75 84 075 94 1065 133 21 95 2009 18 22 73 1976 1689 22 54 20 1809 23 1882 2574 22 oa 1934 23 25 3267 24 5 21 56 2734 2437 30 71 2688 2369 3133 2701 2403 352 31 1 2786 3653 3232 4262 4566 40 315

Area csq In 1 2 766 3 009 3338 3 304 3 773 4 374 4 029 4514 4 962 5 734 6 937 5 749 6656 7 549 7 519 6 934 9 149 10 336 10254 11454 11435 13006 14 561 13401 15463 173 15514 17487 19445 21414 24112 24858 26918 30631 38632

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-21

TABLE

2.4c-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE

RESISTANCE

UNDER

AXIAL

LOAD.

GRADE

C-75

AxialStress.ps, Welght (Ibmlfl) d,le 116 135 15 18 21 4 232 241 17 20 23 24 28 32 23 26 29 32 35 38 264 29 7 33.7 39 428 453 47 1 36 40 44 49 40 435 47 53 5 51 55 5 60 68 72 18 1552 16 89 13 81 1144 1046 10 1809 15 24 1325 18 82 1589 13 35 22 08 is 34 1716 1545 14 06 12 96 23 25 20 33 17 73 15 25 1357 12 t32 12 2 2156 1917 17 25 1548 24 37 2213 2039 1766 23ES 21 72 2403 2766 2602 Ak?a (=3 In1 3338 3836 4 374 5275 6264 6 791 7069 4962 5828 6 63 6 937 8 133 9 177 6 656 7 549 a 449 9 317 10172 10 959 7 519 8 541 9 72 11 192 1247 13 141 13 745 10336 11557 12 763 14 118 11 454 12559 13572 15 547 14561 15 947 173 19445 20768 6.330 8.500 7,220 10.440 12.680 13.750 14.310 6,260 8 790 11.090 5.740 8.130 10 270 5,390 6,990 8,570 10 130 11320 3,390 4.780 6,540 8,770 10 760 11.430 11.960 4,090 5.500 6 920 a 540 3 080 3.800 4.740 6.590 3 210 4 010 3 170 2,260 2 660 6 220 8 330 7 090 10220 12 340 13380 13930 6 160 8610 10800 5650 7970 10,050 3,790 5.310 6.870 8,400 9910 11.020 3.340 4.720 6,430 8.600 10,520 11,130 11.640 4,050 5,420 6.800 8.370 3,030 3,770 4,680 6,480 3,160 3.970 3.120 2.240 2.630 6.100 8.140 6.940 9 960 11.970 12 970 13500 6 040 8 410 10 470 5 550 7 790 9.800 3 750 5 220 6,730 8.200 9 670 10.680 3,280 4 650 6,300 8,400 10,240 10,790 ii ,290 4,000 5,330 6.660 B.180 2.990 3,730 4,610 6,350 3,110 3.920 3,070 2.220 2.600 5,970 7920 6 770 9680 11550 12520 13030 5 910 8 180 10 100 5430 7 590 9 520 3 700 5 120 6570 7990 9400 10,310 3,220 4560 6,150 8,170 9.880 10,410 10890 3,940 5,220 6.500 7,960 2,930 3.680 4,530 6,200 3.050 3.870 3.020 2.190 2.560 5.810 7.680 6.580 9.340 11,090 12.020 12.510 5.750 7.930 9.700 5.300 7.370 9 210 3 5 6 7 9 9 650 000 390 750 100 900 - 10,000 -5000 0 5 000 10,000 15.000 20000 25.000 Collapse Pressure.ps 5.640 7,420 6,370 8.920 10.590 11.480 11,950 5.580 7,660 9.260 5.150 7,120 8830 3,580 4,860 6180 7.480 8 760 9450 3,120 4,360 5,810 7 650 9060 9 550 9 990 3,800 4 960 6 120 7450 2 3 4 5 800 560 330 850 5.440 7,130 6.140 8.460 10,050 10,890 11,340 5.390 7.350 8.790 4.980 6.840 8.380 3.490 4,710 5.960 7.180 8,320 8,970 3,060 4,230 5,600 7.340 8,600 9.060 9,480 3 700 4 800 5.900 7 160 2 720 3.470 4,210 5,650 2.840 3,640 2.800 2 070 2,390 5.220 6,810 5,870 7.970 9,460 10,260 10660 5.170 7,020 6,280 4.790 6,540 7890 3400 4,540 5710 6,860 7,840 8,450 2,990 4090 5,370 7010 8100 8,530 8930 3 590 4620 5 650 6 840 2 640 3 380 4,060 5410 2 780 3 530 2 740 2.020 2,320 30.000 4.980 6.450 5.580 7.440 8.830 9.570 9.960 4.930 6.650 7.730 4.580 6.200 7.370 3,280 4,340 5,430 6,500 7 310 7.880 2,900 3,930 5,120 6 640 7,560 7 960 8.330 3,460 4,420 5 380 6 480 2.580 3.260 3,900 5,160 2.710 3,400 2.670 1,960 2,230 35.000 4.710 6,060 5,260 6860 8,150 8,840 9,200 4,670 6240 7130 4.340 5,830 6800 3140 4120 5,120 6,100 6 750 7 280 2800 3 740 4840 6 230 6 980 7 350 7690 3310 4 190 5 070 6080 2 500 3130 3,720 4870 2620 3,260 2 580 1.880 2,140 40 000 4.400 5.610 4.900 6.250 7.420 8.040 8.370 4,360 5,700 6,490 4.070 5,420 6 190 2.980 3.870 4,780 5,630 6 150 6 630 2.670 3520 4 520 5 700 6 350 6 690 7 000 3 130 3,930 4 730 5 620 2 400 2.970 3.500 4.550 2.510 3,090 2,480 1.790 2,040 45,000 4,060 5,010 4,500 5.590 6,630 7190 7,480 4,020 5,100 5,EOD 3.760 4,900 5,530 2 790 3,580 4390 5030 5 490 5,920 2,510 3270 4,160 5 100 5 680 5980 6 260 2930 3640 4350 5030 2 270 2 780 3,260 4,190 2 370 2.890 2.340 1.690 1.950 50,000 3,660 4,370 4.040 4.870 5.780 6,270 6,520 3.630 4,440 5,060 3.410 4,270 4.820 2.570 3.250 3.950 4.390 4 790 5.160 2.330 2.990 3.750 4,440 4.950 5.210 5.450 2.690 3 300 3 920 4.380 2.120 2 560 2.970 3 780 2 200 2 650 2 180 1 580 ,840

3 160 4 470 5 990 7 920 9 490 10000 10460 3 5 6 7 880 100 320 720

2.870 3 620 4,440 6 040 2 980 3 800 2950 2 160 2 510

2 910 3 730 2 870 2 120 2,450

2-22

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.4d-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADES L-80 AND N-80


AxialStress, PSI

Area

- 10.000 6 570 8.890 7 520 10,970 13.490 14.620 15.220 6.500 9 200 11,770 5,940 0500 10.780 5.570 7.280 6.960 10,630 12.040 3,500 4.910 6,790 9 180 11 300 12,160 12 720 4 5 7 a 180 690 zoo 930

-5,000 6,470 6.720 7.400 10.750 13.140 14.250 14.830 6.400 9.020 il.500 5.660 8.340 10.560 3.870 5.490 7.160 8,800 10420 11730 3 450 4.850 6.680 9010 11.070 11 850 12,400 4 140 5.610 7.080 6.760 3.130 3840 4.820 6740 3.260 4.060 3,220 2.280 2.700

~- 5,000 6.230 8 330 7.090 10.220 12.350 13.360 13,930 6,160 8.610 10.800 5.650 7 970 10.050 3.790 5.310 6.870 8.400 9 910 11.020 3.340 4,720 6.430 8 600 10520 11 130 11 650 4 050 5420 6 800 8 370 3 030 3 770 4.660 6460 3.160 3970 3 120 2.240 2,630

10.000 6 080 8 100 6910 9910 11 890 12 890 13420 6,020 8.370 10.400 5.530 7760 9.750 3,740 5,200 6,700 8.170 9.620 10.610 3.270 4.630 6.270 8.360 10,180 10.720 11,220 3.990 5 310 6630 8.140 2980 3 720 4 600 6320 3 100 3920 3060 2 220 2590

d,le wl In )
116 13 5 15 18 21 4 232 24 1 17 20 23 24 28 32 23 26 29 32 35 38 264 29 7 33 7 39 42 8 453 47 1 36 40 44 49 40 43 5 47 535 51 55 5 60 66 72 18 1552 1689 13 81 1144 1046 10 1809 15 24 1325 1682 1589 1395 2208 1934 17 16 1545 1406 1296 2325 20 33 17 73 1525 13 57 12 62 122 21 56 19 17 1725 1548 2437 2213 2039 1766 2389 21 72 2403 2786 2602 3 338 3836 4 374 5275 6264 6 791 7 069 4962 5828 663 6937 5133 9 177 6656 7 549 8 449 9317 10172 10959 7519 8541 9 72 11 192 1247 13 141 13745 10336 11 557 12763 14116 11454 12559 13572 15547 14561 15947 173 19445 20768 6.350 8.540 7.250 10.500 12.760 13.830 14,400 6.290 8.630 11.160 5.760 8.170 10.320 3.830 5.410 7.020 8,610 10 180 11 390 3,400 4.790 6.560 8 820 10810 11.510 12 040 4 100 5 520 6 950 8.560 3.090 3810 4.760 6.620 3.220 4.020 3.160 2.260 2.670

15.000 20.000 25.000 Collapse Pressure.PSI 5.920 7.850 6 710 9.580 11 400 12 350 12.860 5.660 8.100 9.970 5.390 7 520 9.420 3.690 5,080 6.510 7,910 9.300 10,170 3.190 4,530 6,100 8.090 9.750 10.280 10.750 3.920 5.180 6,440 7.880 2.910 3.660 4 500 6 150 3.030 3850 2.990 2 180 2 540 5 730 7,570 6 490 9 150 10870 11 780 12260 5680 7610 9 500 5,230 7260 9,060 3.620 4.940 6.300 7,630 8.950 9.700 3,150 4,420 5,910 7.800 9.300 9.800 10.250 3.840 5,030 6.230 7.600 2.840 3.590 4.390 5.960 2.950 3.770 2.920 2 140 2490 5.530 7.260 6,240 8.670 10.290 11.160 11,610 5,460 7.490 9.000 5,060 6 970 8,590 3.530 4.780 6.060 7,320 8.520 9.190 3.090 4.290 5.700 7.480 8.810 9.280 9.710 3.740 4.870 6 000 7.290 2,750 3.510 4.260 5 740 2.660 3.680 2.830 2.100 2.420

30,000 5 310 6,930 5,970 8.150 9660 10.490 10,920 5,260 7.140 8,470 4,860 6,650 8.070 3.430 4.600 5.800 6.980 8.020 8.640 3.020 4.140 5.460 7,130 8.280 8.730 9.130 3.630 4,690 5 750 6.960 2,660 3,410 4 120 5 500 2 810 3 570 2 760 2,040 2,350

35.000 5.050 6,560 5,670 7.590 9,020 9.780 10,180 5,010 6,760 7,890 4,640 6,300 7.520 3.320 4.400 5.510 6.610 7.470 8.050 2.930 3.980 5.200 6,750 7,720 8.130 8.510 3.500 4.480 5,460 6,590 2,600 3,300 3.950 5 240 2 730 3 440 2 690 1.970 2.260

40,000 4 770 6,150 5,340 7.000 8,310 9.010 9,380 4,730 6.340 7,270 4,400 5,920 6.940 3.180 4.170 5.200 6.200 6.890 7,420 2.820 3.780 4.900 6,330 7,110 7.500 7,840 3.350 4.250 5 150 6 180 2 520 3 160 3,760 4 940 2.640 3.290 2.610 1.900 2 160

45.000 4.460 5.710 4,970 6,360 7,560 8.190 8.530 4,420 5.610 6,610 4.120 5.500 6.300 3.010 3.920 4.840 5.730 6.260 6,750 2,690 3,560 4.580 5 BOO 6,470 6.810 7,130 3.170 3.980 4.600 5 720 2420 3.000 3 540 4 610 2.530 3.120 2 500 1,810 2,050

50,000 4100 5,100 4 560 5 680 6,740 7310 7610 4070 5180 5 900 3800 4990 5,630 2,820 3,620 4,440 5,120 5.580 6.020 2.540 3.310 4.210 5.180 5.770 6.080 6.360 2.960 3,680 4.410 5.110 2.290 2.810 3.290 4240 2,390 2.920 2 360 1.710 1 970

3 170 3 670 4.670 6.850 3.310 4.090 3260 2.290 2,730

CASING, TUBING, AND LINE PIPE

2-23

TABLE 2.4e-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE C-90


Anal Slress psf

(Ill ) 4'2 4% 5 5 5 5 5 5Q 5'h 5',2 5')'~ 5',2 6b8 65,8 65/8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7% 7% 7% 75!, 7% 75.8 7% 7% 7% 7% W/a 8% S8 85,. 95,a 958 95.. 95.8 9% 9% 1014 70% 1034 11U 13% 133g

do

WeIghI (Ibm/ltJ dole 116 135 15 18 21 4 232 24 1 17 20 23 26 35 24 28 32 23 26 29 32 35 38 41 46 49 5 57 5 26 29 33 39 42 45 47 53 4 7 7 8 3 1 58 18 15 52 16 89 13 a1 1144 1046 10 If! 09 1524 1325 1155 8 46 1882 1589 1395 2208 1934 17 16 1545 1406 1296 1186 10 45 959 795 23 25 20 33 1773 1525 1357 1282 122 1045 1348 1303 2156 19 17 1725 1548 2437 2213 2039 1766 16 18 154 23 89 2172 1433 2403 2786 2602

Alea lsq I") 3338 3836 4 374 5275 6264 6 791 7069 4962 582E 663 7513 9 904 6937 8133 3 177 6656 7543 8 449 9317 10172 10 959 11 881 13324 14379 16919 7519 8541 972 11 192 1247 13 141 13745 15813 12961 13374 10336 11557 12763 14118 11454 12559 13572 15547 16879 17671 14561 15947 23562 173 19445 20768

10.000 7010 9630 a 090 1 t 990 15090 16360 17020 6 9 12 14 19 930 980 890 960 720

-5 000 6.920 9 470 7,970 11.770 14740 15980 16630 6.840 9810 12.650 14.610 19,260 6,220 9.040 11.560 4.080 5.810 7.700 9.560 11,400 13,140 14,270 15,990 17,260 20.320 3,660 5.090 7 160 9.800 12.140 13.290 13.910 15990 12.280 13.020 4.290 5 940 7.610 9.520 3.290 4.070 5.040 7.230 8.720 9.620 3.440 4,220 11.010 3400 2.330 2.800

0 6 820 9 300 7.840 11530 14360 15 560 16200 6 740 9630 12 380 14.240 18.760 6140 a 880 11330 4 030 5 740 7.560 9.380 11 170 12 820 13900 15580 16,810 19.790 3 610 5040 7050 9,620 11.890 12 950 13540 15580 12.020 12.740 4.250 5.870 7 490 9.340 3250 4.010 5.000 7,120 8.560 9.440 3.400 4.160 10.790 3 360 2.320 2 780

5 000 6.700 9.100 7,690 11 260 13.940 15.110 15.730 6.630 9420 12090 13 820 18 220 6050 8.700 11070 3 960 5 660 7 440 9.180 10.910 12450 13.500 15130 16,330 19.220 3.560 4.980 6.930 9 410 1 I.610 12570 13,150 15.130 Il.740 12,390 4,220 5 780 7 350 9.150 3.210 3.940 4.940 6,990 8.390 9.240 3.360 4.130 10.550 3320 2.310 2 760

10 000 6.570 8.890 7.530 10.970 13.490 14630 15.220 6.500 9 200 Ii.770 13.380 17.630 5 940 a 500 10.780 3.890 5 570 7280 a 970 10 640 12050 13060 14640 15.800 18600 3 500 4 910 6 790 9 190 11310 12 170 12.730 14.640 11440 11 990 4 180 5 690 7.200 8930 3 170 3 870 4.870 6.850 8.200 9,020 3.310 4.090 10,290 3.270 2.300 2 730

15000 20000 25000 Collapse Pressure.PSI 6.430 8.660 7.350 10.660 13.010 14.100 14.680 6.360 8.950 11.380 12.900 17.000 5,820 8.280 10.480 3.850 5.460 7 110 8.730 10.340 11,610 12.590 14,120 15 240 17 940 3 440 4.830 6.640 8 940 10 980 11 730 12 270 14120 11.100 Ii.560 4 130 5,580 7.040 8.700 3110 3 830 4 800 6,700 8,000 8.780 3,250 4.040 10,000 3.210 2.280 2.690 6270 8.400 7.150 10320 12.500 13.540 14.100 6.210 E 690 10.930 12.390 16.330 5,690 8.040 10.140 3.810 5.350 6,920 8,470 10,010 11.150 12.090 13,550 14.630 17220 3,360 4.740 6.480 8 680 10 630 11260 11 790 13.550 10 740 11 100 4 070 5460 6 850 8.440 3.050 3.780 4 710 6530 7.770 6.520 3.180 3.990 9.690 3.140 2.250 2.650 6.100 8.130 6.930 9.950 11.940 (2.940 13.470 6.030 8.400 10.450 11.840 15.600 5,540 7 780 9,780 3.750 5.220 6.720 8190 9,650 10,660 11,560 12.960 13 980 16 460 3 280 4 640 6 290 8.390 10.220 10.770 11.270 12.960 10,280 10,610 4.000 5.320 6.650 8.160 2.980 3 730 4 610 6 340 7,520 8.240 3.110 3,920 9.350 3.070 2.220 2.600

30.000 5,900 7.820 6.690 9.550 11.350 12310 12.810 5.640 6.080 9.930 11.260 14.640 5.380 7 500 9.390 3.680 5.070 6,490 7 890 9 270 10 140 10.990 12 320 13290 15650 3 190 4 520 6 090 8070 9 720 10,240 10.710 12 320 9.780 10.090 3.920 5 170 6.420 7.860 2.910 3.660 4.490 6,130 7.250 7.930 3,020 3.840 8.980 2.990 2.180 2.540

35000 5.690 7.490 6.430 9.030 10.730 I1.630 12.100 5,630 7,740 9.380 10.640 14.020 5 190 7 190 8.950 3.600 4 900 6,240 7.550 8 060 9.580 10 380 11 640 12.560 14.790 3.130 4.390 5.860 7.730 9.180 9,670 10 120 11 640 9.240 9.530 3.620 5.000 6.180 7.530 2,820 3.580 4.360 5.900 6.960 7.600 2.930 3.750 8.580 2.890 2.130 2470

40000 5.450 7,140 6.140 8.470 10.060 10.910 11.350 5,400 7.360 8.800 9.980 13.150 4990 6850 8.390 3.500 4720 5 960 7 190 a 330 8 980 9 740 10 920 11 780 13670 3 060 4 240 5610 7.350 8.610 9.070 9.490 10.920 6.660 8.940 3 700 4 800 5910 7 170 2.720 3.480 4210 5,650 6.640 7.230 2.840 3.640 8.150 2800 2.080 2390

45000 5 180 6.740 5.830 7.880 9.350 10.140 10.550 5.130 6.950 a 180 9.270 12.220 4.760 6.480 7.800 3.380 4.510 5 660 6 800 7 750 8.350 9 050 10 150 10.950 12 890 2.980 4 060 5 330 6 950 8 000 8430 8820 10150 8 050 a 310 3 4 5 6 570 590 610 770

50000 4 890 6 320 5.480 7.240 8600 9 320 9 700 4.840 6510 7 520 8 530 11.240 4.500 6.080 7.170 3.230 4,270 5.330 6.360 7.120 7.680 8.320 9330 10.070 11850 2870 3860 5020 6,500 7360 7 750 8 110 9330 7400 7640 3410 4 340 5280 6.340 2.550 3,220 3640 5 060 5.890 6.400 2.680 3,360 7,000 2.640 1,930 2.200

6 290 9 190 11770 4 130 5 870 7.810 9.720 11610 13 390 14 600 16370 17670 20800 3 700 5 130 7 260 9 970 12370 13600 14230 16370 12510 13270 4 340 6010 7 720 9680 3 320 4 120 5090 7 330 6.860 9.780 3.480 4.280 1,210 3.430 2.330 2.820

44 7 46 1 36 40 44 49 40 43 5 47 53 5 584 607 51 55 5 82 60 66 72

2.630 3.360 4 040 5.370 6.280 6.830 2.770 3.510 7.610 2,730 2.010 2300

2-24

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.4f-MINIMUM
Welghl (lbmiill f< ,e 11 6 135 15 18 21 4 232 24 1 17 20 23 24 28 32 23 26 29 32 35 38 26 4 29 7 33 7 39 42 8 453 47 1 36 40 44 49 40 43 5 47 535 51 555 60 68 72 18 1552 1689 1381 1144 1046 10 1809 1524 1325 1882 1589 13 95 22 08 1934 17 16 1545 14 06 12 96 2325 2033 1773 1525 1357 1282 122 21 56 19 17 1725 1548 2437 22 13 2039 1766 2389 2172 2403 2786 2602 Area (X 'fl 1 3338 3836 4 374 5275 6 264 6 791 7 069 4 962 5828 6 63 6937 8 133 9177 6 656 7549 E 449 9317 10172 10959 7519 8541 9 72 11 192 1247 13141 13745 10336 11557 12 763 14 118 11 454 12559 13572 15547 14 561 15947 173 19445 20768 7.210 9.990 8.350 12480 15.890 17220 17.930 7 120 10360 13440 6450 9520 12250 4 240 6 000 8.060 10080 12080 13970 3780 5220 7470 10340 12880 14230 14990 4 470 6150 7960 10040 3380 4220 5 170 7 540 3550 4400 3 500 2340 2850 7 120 9 830 E 240 12 270 15 540 16840 17530 10 000 -5 000

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE C-95


AxialStress ps 0 7 030 9 660 8 110 12 030 15 160 16430 Ii 100 6 940 10 010 12940 6 310 9220 11.810 4 140 5.880 7.830 9.750 11.650 13.440 3.710 5.140 7280 10000 12410 13.660 14.300 4.350 6,020 7 740 9710 3.320 4.120 5090 7 340 3480 4290 3440 2330 2 820 5 000 6.920 9470 7 970 1, 770 14 740 15 980 16630 6 840 9 810 12650 6 220 9 040 11 560 4 080 5 810 7 700 9 560 1,400 13140 3 660 5 090 7 160 9.800 12 140 13290 13910 4 290 5.940 7 610 9 520 3.290 4 070 5040 7.230 3.440 4 220 3 400 2.330 2.800 10000 6800 9270 7810 11 490 14300 15490 16130 6 720 9 600 12340 6 130 8850 11 290 4 020 5 730 7 560 9 350 11 130 12 760 3 610 5 030 7 030 9 590 11 840 12 890 13 490 4 5 7 9 250 860 470 310 15000 20000 25000 Collapse Pressure.PSI 6.670 9040 7.640 11.180 13.820 14.980 15590 6.590 9,360 12000 6.020 8.640 10 990 3 940 5.630 7,390 9.120 10840 12330 3.550 4.960 6 890 9 350 11 530 12460 13 030 4 5 7 9 210 760 310 090 6520 8 800 7.460 10.850 13310 14420 15010 6450 9110 11640 5 900 8.410 10670 3880 5 530 7220 8880 10520 11 880 3480 4880 6 740 9 090 11 180 12000 12550 4 5 7 8 3 3 4 6 160 650 140 840 150 850 840 790 6.350 8540 7,250 10.500 12.760 13.830 14.400 6 290 8.830 11 160 5.760 8,170 10 320 3 830 5 410 7.020 8.610 10 180 11 390 3 4 6 8 10 11 12 4 5 6 8 400 790 560 820 810 510 040 100 520 950 580 30.000 6170 8250 7030 10 110 12190 13210 13750 6 110 8520 10 660 5610 7 900 9 940 3 780 5280 6810 8320 9 810 10880 3320 4690 6370 8510 10410 10 990 11 490 4030 5.380 6 740 8290 3010 3 750 4 650 6420 3 140 3950 3 100 2230 2 620 35000 5.970 7 940 6 780 9 700 11 570 12 540 13060 5 910 8 200 10 120 5 440 7 600 9 540 3 710 5 120 6 580 8 000 9410 10330 3 220 4 570 6 160 a 190 9 900 10430 10 920 3 950 5 230 6510 7 970 2 940 3680 4 540 6 210 3050 3 870 3.020 2 190 2 560 40000 5 750 7 600 6 510 9200 10920 11840 12320 5 700 7840 9 550 5250 7 290 9 100 3620 4 960 6320 7 660 8990 9 750 3 150 4 430 5 930 7830 9 350 9 850 10300 3850 5050 6 260 7 630 2850 3 600 4 400 5 980 2 960 3780 2 920 2 150 2490 45000 5 510 7230 6 220 a 620 10 230 11 090 11 540 5 460 7 460 8 950 S 040 6 940 a 540 3 4 6 7 8 9 3 4 s 7 a 9 9 3 4 5 7 2 3 4 5 520 760 040 290 470 130 080 280 670 450 760 230 650 730 850 980 260 740 500 250 720 50000 5.240 6830 5890 8000 9 500 10300 10720 5 190 7040 8310 4810 6560 7 930 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 4 5 7 8 8 8 400 550 730 880 870 480 990 100 390 030 130 570 960

7040 10.190 13200 6 380 9370 12040 4200 5.950 7.950 9.920 11.870 13720 3.750 5.180 7380 10180 12660 13970 14.660 4.410 6.090 7860 9 880 3350 4180 5 140 7 450 3520 4350 3470 2340 2 640

3600 4 630 5 670 6 860 2 640 3 380 4 070 5430 2 790 3 540 2 750 2 020 2320

3 250 4 000 4990 7 100 3400 4 150 3 350 2320 2.780

3 200 3 920 4 920 6950 3 340 4 120 3 300 2 310 2 750

3 090 3 810 4 760 6620 3 220 4 020 3 180 2 260 2 670

3 280 4070 3 240 2 290 2 710

2 a60 3 670 2 820 2.090 2410

CASING, TUBING, AND LINE PIPE

2-25

TABLE 2.4g-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE l-K-95*


Ar~alStress psi

Weight Ilbmift) d,'e 116 13 5 15 1 15 18 23 17 20 23 23 26 29 32 35 38 26 4 297 337 39 453 36 40 44 49 40 435 47 535 564 61 1 51 555 60 7 657 71 1 60 72 66 NC *PI gram 18 1552 1335 1689 1381 1046 1809 1524 1325 2208 19 34 1716 1545 1406 1296 2325 2033 17 73 1525 12 82 2156 1917 1725 1548 2437 2213 2039 1766 16 18 138 2389 2172 1972 1807 16 54 2403 2602 21 4

Area (SC ln j 3330 3836 4407 4 374 5275 6 791 4 962 5828 6 63 6656 7 549 8 449 9 317 10172 10959 7519 8541 9 72 11 192 13141 10336 11557 12763 14 118 11454 12559 13572 15547 16 079 15708 14561 15947 17473 18982 20625 173 20 768 25035

10000 8840 10610 12600 3 590 12.140 16170 8.770 10.870 12730 5 780 7 970 9 400 10630 11 860 12980 4 960 7 310 9 000 10840 13 190 6 190 8 080 9.300 10,630 4.320 5720 7.260 9.050 10.170 10.730 4.560 6080 7.720 8.830 9.810 4.510 3.550 6.380

5.000 8.760 10.510 12480 9 500 12030 I6020 8 690 10 760 12 ma 5 720 7 900 9 310 10530 11 740 12 860 4 910 7 240 8 910 10.730 13 060 6 140

0 8650 10380 12330 9380 11 880 15820 8580 10630 12450 5650 7 800 9 200 10400 11600 12 700 4850 7 150 8 800 10600 12 900 6 060 7900 9 100 10400 4230 5 600 7 100 8 850 9 950 10 500 4 460 5950 7550 8.640 9 600 4 410 3 470 6240

5000 8520 10.220 12 150 9240 11 700 15580 8 450 10470 12260 5 570 7.680 9 060 10240 11 430 12 510 4 780 7 040 8 670 13440 12 710 5 7 8 10 970 780 960 240

10 000 0 370 10040 11 930 9070 11 490 15310 8300 10280 12040 5470 7550 8900 10060 11220 12290 4690 6920 8510 10260 12480 5860 7640 8800 IO 060 4 5 6 8 9 10 4 5 7 8 9 090 420 870 560 630 160 310 760 300 360 290

15000 20000 25.000 Collapse Pressure ps 0 190 9 830 11 680 8 890 11 250 14990 a 130 10 070 11 790 5.350 7.390 8.710 9850 10.990 12.030 4.590 6,770 8.340 10.040 12.220 5.740 7.480 8.620 9.850 4.010 5 300 6.730 8.380 9 430 9.950 4,220 5 640 7.150 8 180 9.090 4.180 3.290 5.910 0 000 9600 11 400 8670 10980 14620 7930 9 830 11 510 5.220 7210 8500 9610 10720 11.740 4,480 6.610 8.130 9.800 11920 5.600 7.300 8.410 9610 3.910 5180 6560 8180 9200 9 710 4120 5500 6980 7990 8870 4080 3210 5 770 7 rro9 330 11 080 8.430 10 680 14 220 7 710 9,550 11.190 5.080 7.010 8.270 3 350 10.430 11.410 4.360 6.430 7.910 9.530 11.590 5.450 7.100 8.180 9.350 3.800 5.030 6.380 7.950 8.940 9 440 4.010 5350 6.790 7 770 8 630 3 960 3 120 5 610

30 000 7 530 9.030 ,073o 8.160 10.340 13770 7.470 9.250 10.840 4,920 6.790 8.010 9.050 10.100 11.050 4.220 6.220 7660 9220 11230 5270 6880 7.920 9 050 3680 4870 6180 7 700 8 660 9 140 3880 5 180 6 570 7520 8350 3 840 3020 5430

35000 7 260 8.710 10340 7870 9.970 13270 7.200 8.920 10.440 4.740 6.540 7,720 8.720 9.730 10.650 4.070 6.000 7.380 8.890 10.820 5.080 6.630 7.630 8 720 3.550 4.700 5,960 7 420 a 350 8 810 3 740 4 990 6 330 7250 8 050 3 700 2 910 5 230

40 000 6.960 8.350 9 920 7 540 9550 12720 6 900 8.550 10010 4.540 6.270 7.400 8360 9330 10210 3900 5750 7.080 8520 10370 4870 6350 7320 8 360 3400 4 500 5710 7 120 0 000 8440 3 590 4 780 6070 6 95C 7 72c 3 550 2 790 5 020

15 000 6.630 7,950 9450 7.190 9.100 12 120 6 570 8.140 9.540 4.330 5.980 7 050 7.970 8.890 9.730 3.720 5.480 6.740 8.120 9.880 4.640 6.050 6,970 7 970 3 240 4 290 5.440 6 780 7 620 8 040 3 4 5 6 7 420 560 780 620 350

50.000 6.270 7 520 I3 930 6,800 8610 11460 6 220 7 700 9.020 4 090 5 650 6 660 7 530 0.400 9.200 3.510 5.180 6.370 7680 9.350 4.390 5 720 6.590 7530 3060 4.060 5.140 6410 7210 7,610 3230 4.310 5470 6 260 6950 3 190 2510 4 520

9 210 10.530 4 280 5 670 7 190 8.960 10 070 10 630 4 520 6 020 7.640 a 750 9 720 4 460 3 510 6 320

a 000

4 170 5 520 6 990 8 720 9 800 10 340 4 5 7 8 9 390 060 440 510 460

4 340 3 420 6 150

4 270 3 360 6 040

3 380 2 060 4 780

2-26

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.4h-MINIMUM
Wetghl (Ibmlft) d,ie 11 6 13 5 15 18 21 4 232 24 1 17 20 23 24 28 32 26 29 32 35 38 26 4 29 7 33 7 39 428 453 47 1 40 44 49 435 47 535 51 555 607 65 7 60 68 72 18 1552 1689 1381 1144 1046 10 1809 1524 1325 1882 1589 1395 19 34 1716 1545 14 06 1296 23 25 20 33 17 73 1525 1357 ,282 122 ,917 1725 1548 22 13 2039 1766 2369 21 72 1972 1807 2403 2786 2602 Area (X r 1 3338 3 836 4374 5275 6264 6 791 7069 4 962 5 828 6 63 6937 8 133 9 177 7 549 8 449 9317 10 172 10 959 7 a 9 11 12 13 13 519 541 72 192 47 141 745 7720 10.980 9.060 13.900 18.290 19.830 20.640 7.620 11.410 15030 6.830 10.430 13640 6310 8.720 11,090 13,430 15 650 3 970 5440 a 030 11 400 14.370 15 950 17 260 6 480 a.610 11 040 4 490 5 410 a 110 3 700 4 690 5 950 7640 3 640 2 340 2 880 7650 10 840 8 960 13700 17940 19440 20 230 7550 1,260 14800 6 790 10300 13 440 - 10 000 -5000

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE P-l I 0


0 7 580 10 680 8 13 17 19 19 a50 470 550 020 800 5 000 .- 10000 7490 10310 a 730 13230 17140 18570 19330 7400 10 920 14270 6670 IO 000 12980 6 180 8 420 10610 12 790 14 850 3890 5320 7 780 10900 13670 15 140 16 170 8 340 a 310 10570 4 370 5 270 7 850 3 640 4 560 5840 7 420 3 580 2 340 2 E80 7.390 10.330 8.600 12970 16.700 18.100 18.840 7.300 10.720 13.980 6.590 9.830 12.730 6 120 8.290 10.430 12.540 14 540 3 5 7 10 13 14 15 860 290 760 710 390 820 750 15 000 20000 25 000 Collapse Pressure ps, 7,290 10.130 8.460 12.690 16.230 17.590 16.310 7.200 10.510 13.670 6,510 9.650 12,460 a 050 8 160 10,230 12.280 14210 3810 5250 7560 10.500 13100 14480 15310 6,200 8.060 10190 4270 5200 7630 3 570 4440 5 740 7220 3520 2.340 2860 7.170 9.920 8.300 12.390 15.740 17.060 17.750 7.090 10.280 13.330 6,420 9.450 12.160 5.980 8.010 10.010 11.990 13.860 3.770 5,200 7430 10,270 12.780 14.120 14.840 6.120 7.920 9.970 4.200 5.160 7.500 3.530 4.370 5.670 7 100 3.490 2.340 2.850 7.040 9.690 8.130 12.060 15,210 16490 17.160 6,960 10040 12,980 6,320 9.240 11,850 5.890 7.850 9.770 11,680 13.480 3.710 5.140 7290 10.030 12.450 13710 14350 6.030 7760 9 740 4 130 5100 7360 3.490 4300 5600 6 980 3440 2330 2 830 30 000 6.900 9.440 7.940 11.720 14.660 15.890 16.540 6.820 9.780 12.590 6.200 9.010 11.510 5.800 7.680 9.520 11.350 13080 3.650 5.080 7.140 9.760 12.080 13,220 13.830 5.930 7.590 9.480 4050 5.030 7.200 3.430 4 210 5.510 6 840 3.390 2.330 2 a00 35.000 6.740 9.170 7,740 11 350 14,080 15260 15.880 6660 9 490 12190 6080 8760 11 150 5 690 7480 9,250 11 000 12570 3 580 5000 6 970 9480 11700 12690 13280 5810 7400 9210 3970 4 960 7030 3370 4 140 5410 6 680 3330 2310 2 760 40.000 6.560 8 880 7 520 10 960 13.470 14.600 15.190 6.490 9 190 11.750 5.930 8.490 10 770 5 7 8 10 12 560 270 950 620 020 45.000 6370 8560 7 270 10530 12820 13900 14470 6 300 8 860 11 220 5 780 8 190 10350 5420 7040 8640 10220 11 450 3 410 4800 6 580 8850 IO 850 11 560 12090 5 540 6 970 8 610 3 810 4 770 6 640 3 4 5 6 220 020 180 320 50 000 6.160 8.230 7,010 10.080 12.140 13.160 13.700 6.100 8.500 10.620 5.600 7.880 9.910 5.270 6.790 8.300 9.780 10.840 3.310 4.680 6.360 8.490 10.380 10.950 11.460 5.370 6.720 8.270 3.750 4.650 6.410 3.130 3950 5.030 6 110 3.100 2.230 2 620

7 480 11 100 14 540 6 730 10 160 13220 6 230 8 530 10 780 13.020 15 140 3 920 5 350 7 870 11 000 13.920 15.430 16.550 6 390 0 420 10.740 4 420 5 300 7 950 3 4 5 7 660 610 880 500

6270 8 630 10940 13240 15,400 3.950 5.390 7 960 11 250 14.160 15.700 16.920 6.440 8.520 10.900 4.460 5.350 8040 3 680 4 650 5920 7580 3620 2 340 2880

3 500 4 910 6 790 9 170 11 290 12140 12 700 5.680 7 190 8 920 3 870 4 a70 6840 3 4 5 6 300 090 300 510

11 557 12 763 14 118 12 559 13572 15547 14 561 15 947 17473 18982 173 19445 20766

6.270 a.190 10 390 4 320 5 240 7 750 3.610 4 510 5 790 7 320 3 560 2.340 2 870

3 610 2 340 2 880

3 260 2 290 2 720

3 190 2 270 2 670

CASING.

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-27

TABLE 2.4i-MINIMUM
Welght (Ibmitt) d,ie 15 1 161 19 1 15 1335 12 103 16 69 13 81 11 44 1046 10 18 09 1524 1325 11 1882 1589 1395 ,716 1545 1406 1296 11 2 2033 1773 1525 1357 1282 122 1917 1725 1548 2039 1766 1618 154 2172 1972 1807 1654 16 1465 2403 2148 2602 2445 199 Area WI In1 4 407 4 66 5578 4 5 6 6 7 374 275 264 791 069 16.290 19,820 22,740 9.650 15.230 20.690 22.430 23.350 7 990 12 360 16.520 21 440 7.090 11.230 14.930 9,260 11 990 14 690 17,240 21.090 5.760 6.470 12,340 15.770 17,590 19,270 6.660 9.130 11,930 5.720 8.560 10.750 12.070 4.900 6.160 8.020 10.180 11.050 13.480 3,680 5 040 2.660 3,490 6.060 10000

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE Q-125


AxialStress.psi 0 15,640 19.100 21.920 9.400 14.630 19.940 21.620 22.500 7.890 12.080 16.070 20.660 7.020 10990 14.530 9 100 11720 14.310 16.750 20.330 5,670 6.350 12,060 15350 17.090 16.700 6.630 8.980 II 660 5640 8440 10530 11 800 4 050 6 070 7 920 9 990 10610 13 150 3.660 4.980 2.680 3.490 5.950 5,000 15.590 18.700 21 460 9.300 14,600 19,530 21 170 22,040 7.830 11.920 15.810 20.240 6,980 10 860 14 310 9 010 11.560 14.090 16.460 19.910 5,620 0 270 11.900 15.110 16.810 10.360 6.600 0.890 11.510 5.580 8 360 10.410 11.650 4810 6 020 7850 9.080 10680 12960 3 670 4 940 2.660 3.490 5 890 10.000 15.320 18.290 20.990 9.270 14.360 19 100 20 700 21 550 7.760 11 740 15.540 19.790 6.930 10710 14.060 8910 11 400 13660 16190 19470 5 560 8 190 11 730 14850 16510 10010 6560 8.800 11.350 5.520 8.260 10.270 11.460 4 770 6000 7760 9760 10540 12760 3 660 4 900 2660 3490 5630 15,000 20,000 25,000 Collapse Pressure.PSI 15.040 17.850 20.480 9 150 14.100 18640 20 200 21030 7.680 11.560 15,250 19.310 6.660 10.550 13.030 8.810 11.220 13.620 15.880 19000 5.490 8.100 11.540 14.580 16.200 17.580 6520 8.690 11.170 5.460 0.190 10.130 11.300 4.730 5.970 7.710 9.620 10.390 12.550 3,650 4850 2 080 3.480 5 800 14.730 17.390 19.950 9,020 13.620 18,160 19.680 20.480 7.600 11 350 14.940 18,810 6.820 10.360 13,560 8.690 11.030 13.360 15.550 18.510 5.420 8,000 11.340 14290 15.660 17130 6.460 6.570 10.900 5 390 8,090 9,970 11.110 4.660 5.930 7,620 9,480 10.220 12,320 3630 4.600 2660 3460 5 770 14.410 16.900 19.390 8,080 13,530 17.650 19 130 19 910 7.500 11 140 14.610 16.260 6,740 10.190 13,270 8.550 10,820 13.000 15.200 17.990 5.350 7,890 11,120 13 980 15.500 16,650 6.400 8.450 10.760 5.310 7.970 9,000 10.900 4.620 5.090 7.520 9.320 10.040 12.070 3.610 4 740 2 880 3 450 5 730 30.000 14.070 16.390 16.810 0 730 13,220 17.110 18 550 19 310 7,390 10910 14.260 17,730 6,660 9.990 12.970 6.410 10.600 12.760 14.630 17,450 5,320 7.770 10.690 13650 15.120 16,140 6.330 8.310 10,560 5.270 7.650 9,610 10,680 4,560 5.640 7,410 9,150 9.850 11,810 3 580 4670 2660 3420 5680 35,000 13.700 15.850 16.190 8.560 12,680 16.560 17.940 16680 7,270 10660 13.090 17.150 6.570 9,780 12,650 6.250 10.370 12.460 14,440 16.860 5.260 7,640 10.640 13 300 14 720 15.620 6.250 8.150 10,330 5.230 7,710 9.410 10.440 4.490 5.760 7.290 0.970 9.640 11.520 3.550 4 600 2.870 3 390 5 630 40,000 13,320 15,290 17,550 6.360 12,530 15.970 17 310 18 020 7.140 10390 13490 16.550 6 470 9.550 12.300 8.000 10.110 12.130 14.030 16.280 5.220 7.490 10.380 12930 14,290 15070 6 160 7.990 10,070 5 180 7.560 9.190 10,160 4.410 5.700 7160 6.770 9410 11 220 3 500 4 510 2650 3360 5 560 45,000 12.910 14,710 16.880 6.160 12.160 15 360 16650 17.330 6.990 10110 13080 15 910 6 350 9.300 11,940 7.900 9.040 11,770 13,590 15.660 5.160 7.330 10,100 12540 13,640 14,490 6060 7 810 9.000 5120 7400 8,960 9,900 4,320 5,620 7.010 6.550 9.170 10,900 3450 4.420 2 830 3 310 5 480 50 000 12,470 14,100 16 100 7.960 11.760 14.720 15 950 16.610 6.630 9.800 12,640 15.250 6220 9.030 11 550 7 690 9.550 11.390 13,120 15,000 5.060 7,160 9,790 12.120 13.270 13.680 5.940 7,610 9.5!0 5.040 7.220 6.710 9610 4,220 5 520 6650 8.320 8910 10.560 3.400 4.330 2.000 3260 5 390

-5,000 16,070 19470 9,570 15.040

ia

21 4 232 24 1 17 20 23 268 24 20 32 29 32 35 38 427 297 337 39 428 453 47 I 40 44 49 47 535 58 4 61 1 55 5 607 65 7 71 1 73 2 79 2 60 667 72 766 92 5

20,330
22.030 22,940 7 950 12 230 16300 21.060 7 060 11 110 14,740 9.190 II.860 14,500 17.000 20.720 5.720 6.410 12.210 15.570 17.350 10.990 6.660 9.060 1 1.000 5.680 8.500 10,650 11.940 4.870 6 130 7 970 10090 10940 13 320 3.660 5.010 2.080 3.490 6.010

4 962 5628 663 7854 6937 8133 9177 0 449 9317 10172 10959 12517 8541 972 11 192 1247 13141 13745 1,557 12763 14118 13572 15547 16879 17671 15947 17473 18962 20625 21 276 23096 173 19252 20766 22044 26818

2-28

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.4j-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE

RESISTANCE

UNDER

AXIAL LOAD, GRADE V-150

WeIghI Area (Ibmifll cf,/e- (sq I" ) 15 1 166 19 1 15 18 23 2 20 23 268 24 28 32 29 32 35 38 42 7 297 337 39 453 44 49 53 58 61 70 60 65 71 79 5 4 1 3 7 7 1 2 1335 12 103 1689 1381 1046 1524 1325 11 1882 1589 1395 17 16 ,545 1186 12 96 112 2033 1773 1525 1282 1725 1548 1766 16 la 154 ,311 1972 1807 1654 1465 2148 199 1822 4 407 4 66 5578 4 374 5 275 6 791 5 828 663 7 854 6937 8 133 9 177 a 449 9 317 11881 10 959 12517 8 9 1, 13 541 72 192 14,

10000 18.510 22.890 27.130 10.360 17,220 26.760 13.690 18.800 25 580 7 440 12 290 16 840 9 880 13 220 23 400 19 680 25170 6 100 8.900 13.670 20.120 9.720 13 160 9.020 11 710 13330 19.220 6.620 8350 11.010 15.060 5.210 6.460 a 120

-5.000 18 320 22620 26730 10 310 17050 26 360 13 580 18 610 25.200 7.390 12210 16,670 9.840 13.130 23.120 19.470 24.790 6.080 8.880 13 560 19.900 9.680 13.060 a 990 11640 13 230 1goao 6 590 8 340 10950 14 930 5 200 6430 a 110

0 18110 22330 26300 10250 16860 25940 13460 18390 24790 7340 12.120 16.500 9.790 13.020 22.820 19,240 24.390 6.060 8.850 13.440 19.660 9.640 12.950 a.960 11 560 13 120 18.800 6 550 8 320 10880 14 790 5 200 6 400 a090

5 000 17.890 22.020 25,850 10 190 16670 25 500 13340 18 170 24370 7 290 12020 16310 9 740 12.900 22510 19.000 23980 6.030 8820 13320 19.410 9.590 12840 8.930 11 470 13000 18.560 6.510 8 300 10 610 14630 5 190 6370 a 070

10 000 17,660 21.700 25.380 10.120 16.460 25,030 13.200 17,930 23930 7 230 11910 16 110 9 680 12770 22180 18 740 23540 6 000 8.780 13 180 19.140 9.530 12.710 8.880 11.370 12870 18.320 6.470 8270 10.720 14.470 5.170 6.330 a.050

15000 20000 25000 CallaDse Pressure.LEGI 17,410 21,360 24.880 10.040 16.240 24.540 13,050 17,670 23460 7200 11 790 15900 9 610 12,630 21820 18470 23080 5 960 8 730 13 030 la 860 9470 12570 a.830 11.260 12 730 18.050 6 430 a230 10.630 14.290 5.160 6.290 a.020 17.150 21,000 24,370 9.960 16.000 24.040 12.890 17.400 22.970 7 180 11.660 15.670 9 530 12480 21.450 18 180 22600 5920 a670 12870 18560 9.390 12430 a 780 11 150 12580 17 770 6 370 a 190 10.530 14.100 5.130 6.240 7980 16.870 20.630 23.830 9.860 15.750 23.510 12.720 17,120 22470 7 160 11.530 15430 9 450 12.320 20.990 17870 22 110 5.870 a610 12700 la.250 9.310 12,270 a.710 11.020 12420 17.480 6310 a.140 10.420 13.900 5.110 6 160 7940

30.000 16.570 20.230 23.270 9 760 15.490 22950 12540 16,820 21.940 7120 11.380 15170 9350 12150 20500 17550 21 590 5 a20 8.540 12520 17.910 9.220 12.100 8.640 10.890 12240 17.170 6.250 8.080 10.300 13,690 5.080 6 120 7.880

35000 16.260 19.770 22,690 9 640 15210 22 380 12.340 16 500 21.390 7.090 11210 14.900 9,250 11,970 19.980 17.210 21.040 5.760 8.460 12.330 17,560 9,120 11,920 8.560 10.740 12.060 16.840 6.160 a.010 10 170 13.460 5.040 6.050 7.820

40,000 15930 19.240 22080 9 520 14910 21 780 12 130 16.160 20.820 7 040 II 040 14610 9,140 1 ,,770 19.450 16.850 20480 5.690 8.370 12.120 17.190 9.010 Il.720 8.460 lo.580 I 1.860 16.490 6 100 7.940 10.030 13.210 4990 5.970 7750

45000 15580 I8 390 21 450 9380 14,600 21 160 11910 15.800 20,220 6 980 10.850 14.310 9,010 11.560 18.890 16.470 19.900 5.620 8.270 11.890 16.800 8.890 11.510 6.360 10.410 11.640 16.120 6.020 7.850 9.870 12.960 4.940 5.890 7 670

50.000 15.210 18.120 20.800 9,230 14,260 20 510 11 670 15,430 19.610 6.910 10650 13990 8.870 11 330 18.320 16,070 19,290 5,540 8.160 11.660 16,390 a 760 1, ,280 8.240 10.220 11.410 15.740 7.750 9.710 12.680 4.880 5.810 7580

12 763 14 118 15 547 16879 17671 20502 17473 18 982 20 625 23096 19252 26818 29149

66 7 92 5 1003

TABLE 2.5--ROUND-THREAD CASING COUPLING DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TOLERANCES (FIG. 2.1)

OD** Size* (in.) 4 /2 5 5%

MinImum Short 6% 6% 6% 7% 7% 7/2 7% 7% a 8 a 9 9 9

Length, Lonq 7 7% a avi 9 9 /4 10 10k -

d
(inOr) 5.000 5.563 6.050 7.390 7.656 8.500 9.625 10.625 11.750 12.750 14.375 17.000 20.000 21.000

1 m,n, in.

Diameter of Recess

Width of Bearing Face

Weight, Ibm Short 8 05 10.18 11 44 19.97 18.34 26.93 35.58 39.51 45.53 49.61 56.23 78.98 118.94 98.25 Long 9.07 12.56 14.03 24.82 23.67 34.23 47.48 55.77 = 126.74

(In.) %2

6%
7 7%

8%
9% 10% 1 1 3% 13% 16 1w8 20

1 1%

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-29

TABLE

2.6-BUTTRESS-THREAD WEIGHTS. AND

CASING TOLERANCES

COUPLING DIMENSIONS, (FIG. 2.2)

OD, in. Special Clearance t d M)s (in.) 4.875 5.375 5.875 7.000 7.375 8.125 9.125 10.125 11.250 Minimum Length Diameter of Chamfer (in.) 4.640 5.140 5.640 6.765 7.140 7.765 8.765 9.765 10.890
11.890

Width of Bearing Face

Weight, Ibm Regular 10.11 12.99 14.14 24.46 23.22 34.84 45.94 50.99 56.68 61.74 69.95 87.56 138.03 110.33 Special Clearance 7.67 8.81 9.84 12.44 13.82 20.45 23.77 26.47 29.49 -

Regular

d
5.roo 5.563 6.050 7.390 7.656 s.500 9.625 10.625 11.750 12.750 14.375 17.000 20.000 21 .ooo

L ml

(in.)

dc

b
(in.)

13.515 16.154 18.779 20.154

TABLE 2.7-EXTREME-LINE API CASING SIZE AND LENGTH OF UPSET (FIG. 2.3) Length of Upset, in. OD (in.) Pin Minimum (L,),, Box Mimmum Pin or Box Maximum
kbp)max

TABLE

2.8-GROSS LINEAR FOOTAGE FOOTAGE, API SHORT-THREAD


Number of Threads per Inch 6 8 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 8 6 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 Make-Up Loss per Joint (In.) 2 000 2 625 2 500 2 750 2 675 3 125 2 375 3 125 3 250 3000 3 375 3 375 2 750 3 500 3.500 3.500 4.000 4000 4.000

FROM CASING

NET

OD (In1 -950 4% 4% 5 5 5% 6% 7 7 7% 85% 8% 9% 10% 10% 11% 13% 16 18% 20

Nommaf Weighf per Foot Wm) others 1 1so others all all 17.00 others aIf 24.00 others all 32.75 others all all all ali all

Multlphcaflon FactorforAverage Joint Length 20 fl 10084 10111 1.0105 1.0116 10121 1.0132 1.0100 1.0132 10137 10127 10143 1.0143 1.0116 1.0148 1 0148 1.0148 1.0169 1.0169 1.0169 30 ff 10056 10073 10070 10077 I 0081 1.0088 1.0066 1.oom 1.0091 1.0064 1.0095 1.0095 1.0077 1.0098 1.0098 1.0098 1.0112 1 Cl112 1.0112 4otl 10042 1 0055 1.0052 1.0058 1.0060 1.0066 1.0050 1.0066 1.0068 1.0063 I.0071 10071 I 0058 1.0073 1.0073 10073 10084 1.0084 1.0084

(Lbk
7 7 7 7 7 8% 8% 846

8 8 8 Bk 8 11 11 12%

L n = m~nmm length from end of pqe ofthe machmed dmmeter on pm ?d L, =%e machined diameterd,, pluslengthof threadon box, to the begmnmg of the ~nlernal upset runout L,, = 9 ,n (2266 mm) max,mum for7 ,n-35 lbflft and 7 I-38 fbf/ft cwng

TOma, Ihe gross shipping lenglh. multiply net length 8tee, bythemltipllcallon factor

2-30

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

BASIC

POWERTIGHT

MAKEUP

HANDTIGHT

MAKEUP

Fig. 2.1--Round-thread casing and coupling

c--ti

BASE OF TRIANGLE STAMP

BASE OF TRIANGLE STAMP

-3/m x 45 (I,2 wrr-j I /

*PaROX I I !

~+!d
BASIC POWERTIGHT MAKEUP

i
HANDTIGHT MAKEUP

Fig. 2.2~Buttress-thread casing and coupling

Fig. 2.3-Extreme-line casing

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-31

TABLE 2.9-GROSS

LINEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET FOOTAGE, API LONG-THREAD CASING


Multiplication Factor for Average Joint Length 20 ft 1.0127 1.0143 1.0148 1.0164 1.0169 1.0175 1.0191 1.0202 1.0224 30 ft 1.0084 1.0095 1.0098 1.0109 1.0112 1.0116 1.0127 1.0134 1.0148 40 ft I .0063 1.0071 1.0073 1.0081 1.0084 1.0087 1.0095 1.0100 1.0111

Weight per Foot OD (in.) (Ibm) all all all all all all all all all

Number of Threads per inch a 8 8 8 8 a 0 0 a

Make-Up Loss per Joint (in.) 3.000 3.375 3.500 3.875 4.000 4.125 4.500 4.755 5.250

TABLE 2.10-GROSS

LINEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET FOOTAGE, API BUTTRESS-THREAD CASING


Multiplication Factor for Average Joint Length 20 ft 30 ft 40 11 1.0083 1.0085 1.0087 1.0091 1.0095 1.0099 1.0101 1.0101 1.0101 1.0101 1.0101 1.0101 1.0101 1 .OlOl 1.01671.0111 1.0172 1.0114 1.0175 1.0116 1.0183 1.0121 .0191 .0127 .0199 .0132 .0135 .0205 .0205 .0135 .0135 .0205 .0205 .0135 .0135 .0205 1.0205 1.0135 1.0205 1.0135 1.0205 1.0135

Nominal Weight OD per Foot (in.) P-4 4% 5 5% 6% 7 7% all all all all all all all all all all all all all

Number of Threads per inch 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Make-Up Loss per Joint (in.) 3.9375 4.0625 4.1250 4.3125 4.5000 4.6875 4.8125 4.8125 4.8125 4.8125 4.8125 4.8125 4.8125 4.8125

8%
9% IOVl 1 1 a/4 13% 16

13%
20
To obmn

the gross shIppInglength, mult!ply net lengthin feetby the multlpllcatlon factor

TABLE 2.11-GROSS

LINEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET FOOTAGE, API EXTREME-THREAD CASING


Multiplication Factor* for Average Joint Length 20 ft 1.0195 1.0195 1.0195 1.0195 1.0195 1.0259 1.0259 1.0259 30 ft 1.0129 1.0129 1.0129 1.0129 1.0129 1.0171 1.0171 1.0171 40 ft 1.0097 1 0097 1.0097 1.0097 1.0097 1 .0128 1.0128 1 .0128

OD (in.)

Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibm) all all all all all all all all

Number of Threads per inch 6 6 6 : 6 6 6

Make-Up Loss per Joint 0n.l

4.590 4.590 4.590 4.590 4.590


6.0625 6.0625 6.0615

To obtainthe gross shlpplnglength. mulllply net lengthIfeetby the multlpllcation lactor.

2-32

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.12--MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES, PLAIN-END LINER CASING, GRADE J-55


Minimum

Minimum Weight
OD (in.) per Foot (Ibm) Wall (in.) 0.289 ID

(in.) 2.922 3.428 3.920 4.276 4.778 5.791

Collapse Resistance (i-4


8,330 7,300 6,420 7,390 6,610 6,170

Internal Yield
Pressure (Psi) 7,950

Minimum Pipe-Body Yield (1,000 Ibm) 160 184 211 290 321 447

3%
4

4%
5 5% WB

9.91 11.34 13.04 17.93 19.81 27.65

0 286 0.290 0 362 0.361 0 417

6,880 6,200 6,970 6,320 6,060

the joint strength safety factor, the weight below each section of the string is calculated and multiplied by the safety factor ( 1.8 has been used in this design), the joint strength that equals or exceeds the value for the particular section selected, and the actual safety factor calculated. If the joint required is not the short or long thread, that section of the string should be evaluated to determine how much of the section requires the higher-strength joint. The weight per foot and length of each section required to meet the collapse safety factor requirements are listed in Table 2.19. Joint Required for 23.lbm At Top of String. Table 2.19 shows that the total weight of the string is 27 1,450 lbm. Multiplying by 1.8 yields a required minimum joint strength of488,610 lbm. In Table 2.3 we find that the long-thread ,joint with a joint strength of 442.000 lbm will not provide the required 1.8 minimum safety factor and that the buttress thread with a joint strength of 588,000 Ibm is required. Dividing the 588,OOWbm strength of the buttress joint by the 271,450-lbm total weight of the casing yields a safety factor of 2.17. Jointfor the Lower Part of 23.lbm Section. The depth at which the 23.lbm round-thread joint with a strength of442.000 Ibm can be set with a safety factor of 1.8 is (271.450-442,000/l .8)/23= 1,126 ft,

Joint Strength Safety Factor. To calculate

Jointfor26.lbm Section. Table 2.19 shows the weight acting on the top of the 26.lbm section to be 123.100 lbm. Multiplying 123,100 Ibm by 1.X requires that the jomt strength be equal to or greater than 221,580 lbm. Referring to Table 2.3, we find that the long-thread joint has a strength of 5 19,000 lbm and can be used. Dividing the 519,000-lbm joint strength by the 221,580.lbm load at the top of the 26-lbm section yields the safety factor 2.34. Joint for 29.lbm Section. Table 2.19 shows the weight of the string acting on the top of the 29.lbm section to be 46.400 Ibm. Multiplying 46,400 lbm by the safety factor, 1.8, requires that the joint strength be equal to or greater than 83,520 lbm. Table 2.3 shows that a longthread joint has a joint strength of 597,000 lbm and can be used. Dividing the 597,000.lbm joint strength by the 46,400-lbm load at the top of the 29.lbm section gives a safety factor of 12.87.

Safety Factors. Values of pipe-body yield strength are determined from Table 2.3 and the string weight at the top of each casing weight from Table 2.19. Pipe-body yield-strength safety factors are determined by dividing the pipe-body yield strengths by the casing weights at the top of the casing string sections (Table 2.20). Safety Factors. The entire string can be subjected to an internal yield pressure equal to the BHP, which is 5,500 psi. Values of internal yield pressures for the casing joints are obtained from Tables 2.2 and 2.3. Safety factors are determined by dividing the internal yield pressures by 5,500 psi (Table 2.21). Internal-Yield-Pressure

Pipe-Body Yield-Strength

which is rounded to I, 150 ft. At a depth of I, 150 ft, the weight of the string is 271,450-1.150~23. or 245,000 lbm. Dividing the 442,000-lbm joint strength by the 245.000-lbm load yields a safety factor of 1.804.

TABLE

2.13-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE

PRESSURE

UNDER

AXIAL

LOAD,

GRADE

J-55 LINER CASING

d,
IIn ) 35 4 45 5 55 6625

We\ghl

(Ibm/ft) do/e
9 91 11 34 1304 1793 19 81 2765 12 11 1399 15 52 13 81 15 24 1589

Area (sq I)
2915 3337 3836 5275 5828 8 133 8.990 7.870 6.810 7 970 8.690 7.610 6:630 7.700 6.830 6.370 8.330 7,300 6 420 7.390 6.610 6 170 7.930 6.950 6.170 7030 6.360 5 940 7.470 6.550 5.890 6.620

Collapse Pressure. psi 6.960 6.100 5.540 6,170 6.390 5,600 5.090 5,670 5.770 5.050 4.590 5.110 5.070 4,440 4.040 4.500 4.300 3.770 3.420 3.810 3.440 3,020 2.740 3.050 2.470 2.170 1.970 2.190 -

7.020
6.540

6.050
5.670

5.630
5.370

5.170
4 980

4.670
4.490

4.110
3.950

3.480
3.350

2.790
2.680

2.000
1.920

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE

PIPE

2-33

TABLE 2.14-OIL,

WATER, AND MUD WEIGHT FACTORS


Buoyancy Welghl (Derwty) ilbm/bbll 350 353 361 370 378 386 395 403 404 412 420 428 437 445 454 462 470 479 487 496 504 512 521 529 538 546 554 563 571 580 588 596 605 613 622 630 638 647 655 664 672 680 689 697 706 714 722 731 739 740 756 764 773 781 790 798 806 815 023 832 840 848 557 865 874 882 590 899 907 916 FluId Head fos1/fti 0433 0436 0447 0457 0468 0478 0480 0 499 0500 0 509 0519 0 530 0540 0 551 0561 0571 0 582 0 592 0603 0613 0623 0634 0644 0655 0665 0675 0686 0 696 0706 0717 0727 0738 0746 0758 0 769 0 779 0 790 0 800 0810 0821 0831 0842 0852 0862 0873 0883 0 894 0 904 0914 0 925 0 935 0 945 0 956 0 966 0 977 0 987 0 997 101 1 02 103 104 105 106 107 108 1 09 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 fftlosll 2 31 2 29 2 24 219 214 2 09 205 2 00 2 00 196 193 1 89 185 1 81 178 175 172 1 69 166 163 1 61 158 155 153 150 148 146 144 142 1 39 i 38 136 134 132 1 30 128 127 125 123 122 120 119 1 17 1 16 1 15 1 13 112 1 11 109 108 107 1 06 105 104 102 101 1 00 0 992 0 982 0972 0 962 0 953 0 943 0 935 0 925 0917 0 908 0 899 0891 0883 Factor' Tolally Immersed 0873 0872 0 869 0866 0862 0860 0856 0853 0853 0850 0847 0844 0841 0838 0835 0832 0 829 0826 0823 0820 0817 0814 0810 0808 0804 0801 0 798 0 795 0 792 0 789 0786 0783 0780 0 777 0774 0 771 0768 0765 0762 0 759 0755 0753 0749 0746 0743 0740 0737 0734 0731 0720 0725 0722 0719 0716 0713 0710 0707 0704 0701 0698 0694 0 692 0688 0685 0682 0 679 0676 0673 0670 0667

Degrees API 10 API 0 Pure Water

Speclflc Grawtv 100 101 103 106 1 08 1 10 1 13 1 15 1 154 1 18 1 20 122 125 127 129 132 1 34 137 1 39 141 144 146 149 151 153 156 158 161 163 1 65 168 1 70 1 73 175 177 180 182 185 187 189

(Ibm/gal) 8 34 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 9 625 98 IO 0 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8 110 11 2 114 11 6 11 8 12 0 12 2 12 4 12 6 12 8 13 0 13 2 13 4 13 6 13 8 14 0 14 2 14 4 14 6 14 a 15 0 15 2 154 15 6 15 8 16 0 16 2 16 4 16 6 16 a 170 17 2 17 4 176 17 0 18 0 18 2 18 4 18 6 18 8 19 0 19 2 19 4 19 6 19 8 20 0 20 2 20 4 20 6 20 8 21 0 212 21 4 21 6 21 8

llbm/ft3) 62.4 62.8 64.3 65 8 673 68 8 70.3 71 El 720 73 3 74 8 76 3 77 8 79 3 80 8 82 3 83 8 85 3 86 8 88.3 89 8 91 3 92.8 94.3 95.5 97 2 98 7 100 102 103 105 106 108 109 111 112 114 115 117 118 120 121 123 124 126 127 129 130 132 133 135 136 138 139 141 142 144 145 147 148 150 151 153 154 156 157 159 160 162 163

Sail Water

Common Cemenl Slurry"

192 194 197 199 201 204 206 209 2 11 2 13 2 16 2 18 221 223 225 228 2 30 233 235 2 37 240 242 245 247 249 2 52 2 54 2 57 259 2 61

2-34

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.15-DESIGN SAFETY FACTORS FOR A SINGLE WEIGHT AND GRADE CASING STRING
Safetv Factor Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibmlft) Grade ~~ 29.00 N-80 Collapse Bottom of Section 1.276 Joint Strength Top of Section 1.87 Pipe-Body Yield Strength Top of Section 2.12 Internal Yield Pressure Bottom of Section 1.48

Type Thread Long

Amount WI 11,000

TABLE 2.16- -DESIGN SAFETY FACTORS FOR COMBINATION

CASING STRING

Safetv Factor Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibm/ft) Grade 23.00 23.00 26.00 29.00 N-80 N-80 N-80 N-80 Collapse Bottom of Section >1.129 1.129 1.126 1.160 Joint Strength Top of Section 2.17 1.80 2.34 12.87 Pipe-Body Yield Strenqth Top of Section 1.96 2.17 4.91 14.57 Internal Yield Pressure Bottom of Sectron 1.15 1.15 1.32 1.48

Thread Buttress Long Long Long

Type

Section Length (W 1.150 5,500 2,300 2,050

TABLE

2.17-INTERMEDIATE

SECTION COLLAPSE SAFETY FACTORS

7-in.. 26.lbm, N-80 Axral Load Collapse Stress (Psi) 0 Load (Ibm) 0 37,745 75,490 46,400 Collapse Resistance (Psi) 5,410 5,310 5,200 5,290

Weight Below 29 Ibm Pm) 0 0 0 0

Net 26.lbm Load Availability Equivalent 29-lbm for 29-lbm Length Weight (Ibm) 0 37,745 75,490 46,400 m 0 1,302 2,603 1,600

26-lbm Section Bottom Depth (ft) 11,000 9,698 8,397 9,400 Collapse Pressure (Psi) 5,500 4,849 4,199 4,700 Safety Factor 0.984 1.095 1.238 1.126

5,000
10,000 6,147

7-in., 26-lbm cross-sectional area= 7.549 sq in

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-35

TABLE 7-in., 23 Ibm. N-80 Axial Load Collapse Stress (Psi) 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 18,299 18,495 Load (Ibm) 0 33,280 66,560 99,840 133,120 121,800 123,100

2.18-TOP

SECTION COLLAPSE SAFETY FACTORS


Net 23-lbm Load AvailabIlity Equivalent 26-lbm for 26-lbm Length Weiaht (lb;) w

Collapse Resistance (Psi) 3,830 3,790 3,740 3,690 3,620 3,640 3,640

Weight Below 26 Ibm

23-lbm Section Bottom Depth WI Collapse Pressure (Psi) Safety Factor

(IW
46,400 46,400 46,400 46,400 46,400 46,400 46,400

20,160 53,440 86,720 75,400 76,700 775 2,055 3,335 2,900 2,950 8,625 7,345 6,065 6,500 6,450 4,313 3,673 3,033 3,250 3,225 0.867 1.005 1.194 1.120 1.129

7-in., 23-lbm cross-sectional area= 6 656 sq In. Length of 29-lbm intermediatesection= 9,400 ft

Stretch in Casing When Freely Suspended in Fluid Media (Also Applicable to Tubing)
When pipe is subjected to an axial stress, either tension or compression, that does not exceed the elastic limit of the material, the stretchor contraction may be determined by use of Youngs modulus of elasticity (30 million psi for steel pipe).

were developed are based on a modified form of Eq. I with the lateral contraction of the pipe taken into consideration.

AL,=AL,

+AL? fALj

+F,

w,+w,
WI +F5f

WI 2

+ Cl IL.71XL,? +(L.>l +L,z u-13 I

where E = Youngs modulus of elasticity, psi, D = unit stress. psi, AL,, = unit axial stretch or contraction, in., W,, = superimposed tension or compression axial load, Ibm, metal area of pipe. sq in., A ,,I = cross-sectional AL, = total axial stretch or contraction. in.. and L,, = length of pipe. in. From Fig. 2.4 we get the values of AL, and F, (Free Stretch Factor I) corresponding to length L,, : AL? and Fz (Free Stretch Factor 2) from L (2 : and At!. 7 from L,,3,

TABLE 2.20-PIPE-BODY YIELD STRENGTH SAFETY FACTORS


Section Pipe-Body Weight Yield per Foot Strength (Ibmlft) Wm) 23 26 29 532,000 604,000 676,000 Weight Below Sectlon (lb4 271,450 123,100 46,400

The lateral stretch Fig. of one


weight

unit tension or compression stress in pipe, when deflection is prevented. is u= IV,,/.4 ,11, unit axial or contraction being AL,, =AL,/L,, 2.4 gives stretch in single-weight strings of pipe grade, or in combination strings of more than one or grade. The equations from which these charts

Safety Factor 1.96 4.91 14.57

TABLE

2.19-WEIGHT

AND

LENGTH

TO MEET

JOINT-STRENGTH
Section Weight per Foot Length (Ibmlft) V) 23 26 29 6,450 2,950 1,600 11,000

SAFETY FACTORS
Weight Below Top of Sectton, Ibm 29 Ibm 26 Ibm 123,100 46,400 29 Ibm 271,450

TABLE 2.21-INTERNAL YIELD PRESSURE SAFETY FACTORS


Nominal Weight per Foot flbmlft) 23 ;i 29 Internal Yield Pressure Joint Buttress Long Long Long (Psi) 6,340 6,340 7,240 8,160

Weight P-N 148,350 76,700 46,400

Safety Factor 1.15 1.15 1.32 1.48

2-36

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

40-00

1 W;= 38?FT

-I -?
string.

Fig. 2.4--Relievingstresses in suspended casing strings

Fig. PS-Example

Example Problem 1. Assume a lO,OOO-ft. three-weight


combination string is freely suspended in salt water. The weight of the 5,000-ft, 23-lbm/ft top section is 5,000X23=1 15,000 Ibm. The weight of the 3.000-ft, 26-Ibm/ft middle section is 3,000~26=78,000 Ibm. The weight of the 2,000-ft, 29-lbmift bottom section is 2.000~29=58,000 Ibm. Determine the casing stretch. Solution. 78,000+58.000 A,!,,=13.5+4.86+2.16+29 115,000 58,000 + 10.478,000 +(5,000+3.000)2,000]-0.000000200294 [ 115,000 x-+(2.000)' 78,000 115,000+78,000 58,000 I (3,OOO)I

+0.000000120177(5.000x3,000

=20.52+29x1.183+10.4x0.744+0.000000120177 x31.000,000-0.000000200294x26,578,000 =20.52+34.31+7.74+3.73-5.32 =60.98 in

To determine tension stresses in casing strings after they are set and cemented, the following equations are used. w,=c,(w;L; L()=CqW,(L,/w, and L, =C5a,L, where L = (Li +Ll+ Ld = Lo-L,,
c3 = (I-PflPsL

+w$L$ f..

. +w;L;),

i-Lzlw2 +. . . +L,h,),

. +L,),

In these equations. LI ,Lz.. . L,, = lengths above top of cement of singleweight Sections 1, 2. n of combination string, ft. L\,LS... LA = lengths below top of cement of singleweight Sections 1, 2. n of combination string, ft, w , , 2 . Sections I ( 2, II ull = weights of single-weight of combination string above top of cement, Ibmift, cv\ ,w; . . Sections 1, 2. n w:, - weights of single-weight of combination strings below top of cement, Ibm/ft, c, = constant (for salt water, 0.000000120177; for rotary mud, 0.000000150869; and for air, zero), c2 = constant (for salt water, 0.000000200294; for rotary mud. 0.000000251448; and for air, zero), c3 = constant (for salt water, 0.8527; for rotary mud, 0.8151; for air, l.O),* Cd = constant, 0.00000136, cs = constant, 0.0000004, &I = distance to lower top of casing for a desired stress at top of cement, in., to uI, in., L, = stretch corresponding Lo = distance required to lower top of casing for zero stress at top of cement, in., w, = total load below top of cement, lbm, u t= tension stress desired to be left at top of cement, psi. Pf = density of floatant, lbmicu in. (for salt water, 0.041728; for rotary mud, 0.052385),* and density of steel, 0.2833 lbmicu in. Ps =
Based on salt wafer and rofary mud havingspeclflc gravities 01 1.155and 1 45, respectively

C4 = 40.8lE, and C5 = 12/E.

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-37

TABLE 2.22-API

TUBING TENSILE REQUIREMENTS


Minimum Tensile Strength (Psi) 60,000 75,000 95,000 95,000 100,000 100,000 120,000 Maximum Hardness HRC BHN ~ Minimum Elongation in 2 in. PM

Tubing Grade H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80 N-80 c-90 P-105

Yield Strength,psi Minimum 40,000 55,000 75,000 80,000 80,000 90,000 105,000 Maximum 80,000 80,000 90,000 95,000 110,000 105,000 135,000

23 25.4

241 255

Thernllrnl

Example Problem 2. Assume that an I I ,OOO-ft combination string of 7-in.-OD casing is suspended freely in salt water, then cemented 4,000 ft up. The weight and length of the sections are shown in Fig. 2.5. We must find Lo for zero stress at the top of the cement and L,, for a 5,000-lbm tension at the top of the cement. Solution.

For any variation in temperature after cementing, the corresponding expansion or contraction for the part of the string above the cement must be considered.

Single-Weight

String Suspended in Rotary Mud

For a single-weight string suspended in rotary mud, the distance required to lower the top of the casing for a zero stress at the top of the cement is determined by

L(j=C(j(D-L)L, =0.8527(64,000+76,000) =0.8527x 140,000 where


Ch = c3c4,

= 119.378 Ibm.

D = total depth of the well or length of string. ft, and L = length of casing below top of cement, ft. an 8,000-ft-long singleweight string of any OD and weight suspended freely in rotary mud with a specific gravity of 1.45, then cemented 2,100 ft up. Determine the amount the top of the casing has to be lowered for a zero stress at the top of the ccment. For rotary mud with this specific gravity, C3=0.8151. 0=8,000 ft, and L=2,100 ft. Solution. L(j =C(j(D-L)L

Example Problem 3. Assume

=0.00000136x

119,378

3,500 -+26

3,000 t29

500 32 >

=0.16235(134.62+103.45+15.63) =O. 16235 x253.70

=0.8151x0.00000136(8,000-2,100)2,100 =41.19 L,7 =C.jff,L =0.ocKl0004x5,ooo(3,500+3,000+500) =0.002x7.000 = 14 in. Ld LO -L,,


1

in.

=0.0000011085x5,900x2,100 = 13.7 in.

TABLE 2.23-API

TUBING RANGE LENGTHS

Ranae
2 Total range length,inclusive, ft 20 to 24 28 to 32 Range length for 95% or more of carload 2 Permissiblevariation, maximum ft 2 20 28 Permissiblelength,minimum ft

=41.19=27.19

14 in.

2-38

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE 2.24-MINIMUM
1 -~~ 2 3 4 5

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF TUBING


6 ~~ 7 8 9
IO

11

Threaded and Coupled

OD of Coupling (in.)
Nominal Weight (lbmlft) OD do (in.) Threads and Coupling Nonupset 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1315 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30 1.900 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.90 2.90 2.90 2.90 2.90 Upset 1.201.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 Integral Joint 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.10 2.33 2.10 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.40 2.76 2.40 2.76 2.76 2.76 2.76 Wall Thickness e (in.) 0.113 0.113 0.113 0.113 0.113 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.125 0.140 0.125 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.125 0.145 0.125 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145 Upset ID d, (in.) -0.730 0.824 0.824 0.824 0.824 0.824 1.049 1.049 1.049 1.049 1.049 1.410 1.380 1.410 1.380 1.380 1.380 1.380 1.650 1.610 1.650 1.610 1.610 1.610 I.610 Drift Diameter (in.) 0.730 0.730 0.730 0.730 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 Nonupset Regular Special Clearance

Grade H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80,N-80 c-90 H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80,N-80 c-90 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 c-75 L-80, N-80 c-90 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 c-75 L-80, N-80 c-90

d oc
1.313 1.313 1.313 1.313 1.313 1.660 1.660 1.660 1.660 1.660 2.054 2.054 2.054 2.054 2.054 2.200 2.200 2.200 2.200 2.200

d oc
1.660 1.660 1.660 1.660 1.660 1.900 1.900 1.900 1.900 1.900 2.200, 2.200 2.200 2.200 2.200 2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500

d ocs
-

-1.14 1.050

1.660

Tubing
The performance of the tubing that is run inside the casing to conduct oil or gas to ground level is important. Tubing not only must withstand the same stresses to which casing is subjected, but also must resist the corrosive action of well fluids that in some areas is severe. API has developed specifications that meet the major needs of the oil and gas industry. .2.4-7 API specifications and bulletins provide standard dimensions, strength and performance properties, and the required gauging practice to ensure complete interchangeability. Tables 2.22 and 2.23 give the tensile requirements and range lengths of API tubing. Listed in Table 2.24 are the minimum performance properties of tubing. Tables 2.25 through 2.27 give the dimensions, weights, and tolerances of nonupset and external-upset tubing, couplings. and integral-joint tubing upsets (see also Figs. 2.6 through 2.8). Multiplication factors for converting net footage to gross linear footage are given in Table 2.28. Equations for calculating performance properties of tubing are found in the section on equations.

Special Tubing Joints


A number of special tubing joints are useful when more strength, leak resistance, or clearance is needed than that provided by the standard API nonupset, upset, or integral joints. These special joints obtain their improved properties by various means, such as couplings or box ends with seal rings of teflon, etc.; special thread profiles, such as Acme or buttress; torque shoulders: metal-to-metal seals; internal upsets; external upsets; integral joints; and flush joints.

Design of Tubing Strings: Oil, Water, and Mud-Weight Factors


For information on oil, water, and mud weight factors needed in the design of tubing strings, refer to Table 2.14, which lists these factors for casing. The same table also will apply to tubing design.

Safety Factors
The following safety factors are commonly used in the design of tubing strings. These safety factors will be used

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-39

TABLE

2.24-MINIMUM 12 13 OD of Box

PERFORMANCE 14

PROPERTIES 15 Internal Yield Pressure (Psi) 7,530 10,360 14,130 15,070 16,950 7,080 9,730 13,270 14,160 15,930 5,270 5,900 7,250 8,120 11,070 16

OF TUBING 17

(continued) 18

Integral Joint Drift Diameter (in.) 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 Collapse Resistance (Psi) 7,680 10,560 14,410 15,370 17,290 7,270 10,000 13,640 14,550 16,360 5,570 6,180 7,660 8,490 11,580 12,360 13,900 4,920 5,640 6,640 7,750 10,570 11,280 12,630

Joint Yield

d,,
(in.) 1.550 1.550 1.550 1.550 1.550 1.880 1.880 1.880 1.880 1.880 1.880 1.880 2.110 2.110 2.110 2.110 2.110 2.110 2.110

Strenath (Ibf) Threaded and Coupled Integral


Upset 13,310 18,290 24,950 26,610 29,940 19,760 27,160 37,040 39,510 44,450 26,740 36,770 50,140 53,480 60,170 31,980 43,970 59,960 63,960 71,950 Joint 15,970 21,960 29,940 31,940 35,930 22,180 22,180 30,500 30,500 41,600 44,370 49,920 26,890 26,890 36,970 36,970 50,420 53,780 60,500

Nonupset 6,360 8,740 11,920 12,710 14,300 10,960 15,060 20,540 21,910 24,650 15,530 21,360 29,120 31,060 34,950 19,090 26,250 35,800 38,180 42,960

11,810
13,280 4,610 5,340 6,330 7,350 10,020 10,680 12,020

in the example tubing string design. The designer has the responsibility to select safety factors to suit particular needs: collapse strength, I, 125; joint yield strength, 1.80; and internal yield pressure. 1.00.

Single Weight and Grade Tubing String. Table 2.29 includes design data and safety factors for an 1 I ,OOO-ft single weight and grade upset tubing string with an OD of 27/, in. Selection of Nominal Weight and Grade. Formulating
a table similar to Table 2.30 is convenient when the nominal weight and grade of tubing are selected to meet the adopted safety factor requirements. Table 2.30 is based on the safety factor requirements, collapse resistance, joint yield strengths, and internal yield pressures that can be found in Table 2.24. Cols. 1 through 4 and 7 were obtained directly from Table 2.24. Grades C-95 and L-SO, which have restricted yield-strength ranges, were eliminated from consid-

eration because the well conditions did not warrant the use of such premium grades of tubing. The collapse setting depths in Col. 5 were obtained by dividing collapse resistance (Co]. 3) by the 0.5-psi pressure gradient and 1.125, the safety factor. The joint yield-strength setting depths (Co]. 6) were obtained by dividing the joint yieldstrength values in Col. 4 by the nominal weight per foot (Col. 1) and I .80, the safety factor. Col. 7 was obtained directly from Table 2.24 and required no modification because the entire string may be subjected to an internal pressure equal to the BHP. It is apparent from Table 2.30 that 21/,-in., 6.5~lbm N-80 upset tubing will be required because it is the lowest grade that provides adequate collapse resistance, joint yield strength, and internal yield pressure strength. safety factor of 2.029 in Table 2.29 was determined by dividing the 1 I, 160-psi collapse resistance in Col. 3 of Table 2.30 by the 0.5-psiift pressure gradient and the 11 ,OOO-ft length of the string.

Collapse Safety Factor. The collapse

2-40

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.24-MINIMUM 1
2 3 4

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF TUBING (continued)


5 6 7 8 9 OD 10 11

Threaded and Cowled of Couollna fin.1 Upset ID d, (in.) ~1.751 1.751 1.751 1.751 1.751 2.041 1.995 2.041 1.995 2.041 1.995 1.867 2.041 1.995 1.867 1.995 1.867 2.041 1.995 1.867 2.441 2.441 2.441 2.323 2.259 2.441 2.323 2.259 2.441 2.323 2.259 2.441 2.323 2.259 Drift Diameter (in.) ~ Nonupset Regular Special Clearance Nominal Weight (Ibm/ft) OD do (in.) 2.063 Threads and Coupltng Nonupset Upset Integral Joint 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 4.70 4.70 4.70 5.95 4.70 5.95 4.70 5.95 4.70 5.95 6.50 6.50 6.50 7.90 8.70 6.50 7.90 8.70 6.50 7.90 8.70 6.50 7.90 8.70

Grade H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80, N-80 c-90 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 P-105 P-105 c-90 c-90 c-90 H-40 J-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 P-105 P-105 P-105 c-90 c-90 c-90

Wall Thickness e (in.) 0.156 0.156 0.156 0.156 0.156 0.167 0.190 0.167 0.190 0.167 0.190 0.254 0.167 0.190 0.254 0.190 0.254 0.167 0.190 0.254 0.217 0.217 0.217 0.276 0.308 0.217 0.276 0.308 0.217 0.276 0.308 0.217 0.276 0.308

d,,

d,,

d ocs

1.947 1.901 1.947 1.901 1.947 1.901 1.773 1.947 1.901 1.773 1.901 1.773 1.947 1.901 1.773 2.347 2.347 2.347 2.229 2.165 2.347 2.229 2.165 2.347 2.229 2.165 2.347 2.229 2.165 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668

23/E

4.00 4.60 4.00 4.60 4.00 4.60 5.80 4.00 4.60 5.80 4.60 5.80 4.00 4.60 5.80

2.910 2.910 2.910 2.910 2.910 2.910 2.910 2.910 2.910 2.910 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460

1 -

27/b

6.40 6.40 6.40 7.80 8.60 6.40 7.80 8.60 6.40 7.80 8.60 6.40 7.80 8.60

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-41

TABLE2.24-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

OF TUBlNG(continued)

12 ___~

13

14

15

16 Internal

17

18

19

20

Integral Joint Drift Diameter (in.) 1.657 1.657 1.657 1.657 1.657 OD of Box Collaose Resistance (Psi) 2.325 2.325 2.325 2.325 2.325 5,590 7,690 10,480 11,180 12,430 5,230 5,890 7,190 8,100 9,520 11,040 14,330 9,980 11,780 15,280 15,460 20,060 10,940 13,250 17,190 5,580 7,680 10,470 13,020 14,350 11,160 13,890 15,300 14,010 18,220 20,090 12,380 15,620 17,220 Plain-end and Nonupset (Psi) 5,290 7,280 9,920 10,590 11,910 4,920 5,600 6,770 7,700 9,230 10,500 14,040 9,840 11,200 14,970 14,700 19,650 11,070 12,600 16,840 5,280 7,260 9,910 12,600 14,060 10,570 13,440 15,000 13,870 17,640 19,690 11,890 15,120 16.870

Upset Reaular Coupling (Psi) Special Clearance Coupling (psi) ~

Joint Yield Strength (Ibf) Threaded and Coupled Upset 30,100 36,000 41,400 49,500 56,500 67,400 96,600 60,300 71,900 103.000 94,400 135,200 67,800 80.900 115,900 52,800 72,600 99,000 32,100 149,400 05,600 140,900 59,300 138,600 184,900 209,100 118,800 158,500 179,200 Integral Joint 35,700 49,000 66,900 71,400 80,300

Nonupset

52,000 71,700 97,800 126,900

5,600 7,700 10.500 13,960 11,200 14,890 14,700 19,540 12,600 16,710 5,280 7,260 9,910 12,600 14,010 10,570 13,440 14,940 13,870 17,640 19,610 11,890 15,120 16,820

5,600 7,700 10,500 10,720

11,200 11,440 14,700 15,010 12,600 12,860 5,510 7,260 9,910 10,340 10,340 10,570 11,030 11,030 13,870 14,480 14,480 11,890 12,420 12,420

104,300 135,400 136,900 177,700 117,400 152,300 72,500 99,700 135,900 169,000 186,300 145,000 180,300 198,700 190,300 236,600 260,800 163,100 202,800 223,500

~ -

2-42

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.24-MINIMUM
1 2 3 4

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF TUBING (continued)


5

9
OD

10

11

Threaded and Coupled of Coupling (in.) Upset ID d, (in.) 3.068 2.992 2.922 3.068 2.992 2.922 3.068 2.992 2.922 2.750 3.068 2.992 2.922 2.750 3.068 2.992 2.922 2.750 2.992 2.750 3.548 3 476 3.548 3.476 3.548 3.476 3.548 3.476 3.548 3.476 3.958 3.958 3.958 3.958 3.958 Drift Diameter (in.) 2.943 2.867 2.797 2.943 2.867 2.797 2.943 2.867 2.797 2.625 2.943 2.867 2.797 2.625 2.943 2.867 2 797 2.625 2 867 2.625 3.423 3 351 3.423 3.351 3.423 3.351 3.423 3.351 3.423 3.351 3.833 3.833 3.833 3.833 3.833 Nonupset Regular Special Clearance Nommal OD Weight (Ibmlft) Integral Joint

--

do (in.) 3%

Threads and Coupling Nonupset 7.70 9.20 10.20 7.70 9.20 10.20 7.70 9.20 10.20 12.70 7.70 9.20 10.20 12.70 7.70 9.20 10.20 12.70 9.20 12.70 9.50 9x0 9.50 9.50 9.50 Upset

Grade H-40 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 P-l05 P-l05 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 c-75 c-75 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 c-90 c-90 H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80, N-80 c-90

Wall Thickness e (in.) 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.375 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.375 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.375 0.254 0.375 0.226 0.262 0.226 0.262 0.226 0.262 0.226 0.262 0.226 0.262 0.271 0.271 0.271 0.271 0.271

d,,
4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.750 4.750 4.750 4.750 4.750

d,,
4.500

d ocs
4.180

9.30 9.30 9.30 12.95 9.30 12.95 9.30 12.95 9.30 12.95

4.500

4.180

4.500 4.500 4.500 4.500 4.500 4.500 4.500 4.500 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000

4.180 4.180 4.180 4.180 4.180 4.180 4.180 4.180

11.00 11.00 11.00

4%

12.60 12.60 12.60 12.60 12.60

12.75 12.75 12.75 12.75 12.75

5.200 5.200 5.200 5.200 5.200

5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563

TABLE 2.25-NONUPSET TUBING COUPLING DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TOLERANCES (FIG. 2.6)
Maximum Bearing Face Diameter Soecral Bevel

00
Size (In.) 1.050 1.315 1.660

Minrmum Length

Diameter of Recess d, IIn) 1.113 1.378 1.723 1.963 2.438 2.938 3.563 4 063 4.563

Width of Beartng Face

(4;;
1.313 1.660 2.054 2.200 2.875 3.500 4.250 4.750 5.200

L nl,
3% 3% 3%

b
(In.)

(in.)

(dbt) max
(In.) 1.181 1.488 1.857 2.050 2.625 3.188 3.875 4.375 4.850

Weight (lbm) 0.51 0.84 1.29 1.23 2.82 5.15 8.17 9.57 10.76

33/4 4% 5/a 5% 5%

6%

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-43

TABLE

2.24-MINIMUM

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

OF TUBING

(continued)

~~

12

13

14

15

16 Internal

17

18

19

20

Integral Joint Drift Diameter (in.) OD of Box d,, (in.) Collapse Resistance (Psi) 4,630 5,380 6,060 5,970 7,400 8,330 7,540 10,040 11,360 14,350 7.870 10,530 12,120 15,310 8,540 11,570 13.640 17,220 13,050 20,090 4,060 4,900 5,110 6,590 6,350 8,410 6,590 8,800 7,080 9,590 4,590 5,720 7,200 7,500 8,120 Plain-end and Nonupset (Psi) 4,320 5,080 5,780 5,940 6,990 7,950 8,100 9,530 10,840 14,060 8,640 10,160 11,560 15,000 9,720 11,430 13,010 16,880 13,340 19,690 3,960 4,590 5,440 6,300 7,420 8,600 7,910 9,170 8,900 10,320 4,220 5,800 7,900 8,430 9,480

Upset Regular Coupling (Psi) 5,080 6,990 9,530 14,060 10,160 15,000 11,430 16,880 13,340 19,690 Special Clearance Coupling (Psi) 5,080 6,990 9,530 9,990 10,160 10,660 11,430 11,990 13,340 13,990

Joint Yield Strength (Ibf) Threaded and Coupled Nonupset 65,100 79,500 92,600 89,500 109,400 127,300 122,000 149,100 173,500 231,000 130,100 159,100 185,100 246,400 146,400 179,000 208,200 277,200 208,900 323,400 72,000 Upset Integral Joint 142,500 194,300 276,100 207,200 294,500 233,100 331,300 272,000 386,600 -

103,600 -

4,590 6,300 8,600 9,170 10,320 4,220 5,800 7,900 8,430 9,480

99,000 135,000 144,000 162,000 104,400 143,500 195,700 208,700 234,800

123,100 169,200 230,800 246,100 276,900 144,000 198,000 270,000 288,000 324,000

TABLE

2.26-EXTERNAL-UPSET OD

TUBING

COUPLING

DIMENSIONS,

WEIGHTS,

AND

TOLERANCES

(FIG. 2.7)

Regular and Special Special Bevel * Clearance? d ocs Size (in.) ;:, (in.) 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 1.660 1.900 2.200 2.500 3.063 3.668 4.500 5.000 5.563 2.910 3.460 4.180 -

Minimum Length

Width of Diameter of Beanng Face Recess Regular dr (in.) 1.378 1.531 1.875 2.156 2.656 3.156 3.813 4 313 4.813

Maximum Bearing Face Diameter (dbr),,,ax (in.) Special Bevel 1.488 1.684 2.006 2.297 2.828 3.381 4.125 4.625 5.156 2.752 3.277 3.965 Special Clearance -

Weight (Ibm) Soecial Regular Clearance 0.84 1.26 1.49 1.85 3.42 5.29 9.02 10.62 13.31 2.38 3.45 5 22 -

L ml
3% 3% 3%

b
(in.) %2 %2 /8 A? %2 732 /i /i /i

(in.)

% wi
3% 4

37/8 4% 5% 5% 6

Q/2

6%

2-44

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

do

d,

BASIC POWERTIGHT

MAKEUP

HANDTIGHT

MAKEUP

Fig. 2.6-Nonupset

tubmg and coupling

j-+-+=4 0
BASIC

POWERTIGHT

MAKEUP

HANDTIGHT

MAKEUP

Fig. 2.7--External-upset tubing and coupling.

DASHED

LINES

INDICATE

POWERTIGHT

MAKEUP

Fig. 2.8-Integral-joint tubing.

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-45

TABLE 2.27~-INTEGRAL-JOINT

TUBING UPSET DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TOLERANCES


Upset Dimensions (in.1

(FIG. 2.8)

OD

do
On.)

Nommal Weight; Upset and Threaded* (Ibmlft) 1.72 2.10 2.33 2.40 2.76 3.25

Pin

Box
Length of Taper MInimum OD + 0.005 - 0.025 Minimum Length, Length of Taper Diameter of Recess Width of Face Minimum b

OD
+ 0.0625 d4 2.094

ID+ + 0.015 d, 0.970 1.301 1.301 1.531 1.531 1.672

MinImum Length

L, 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% I%6

L ,t A A /4 h /4 /4

d Ob
1.550 1.880 I.880 2.110 2.110 2.325

L,
1.750 I.875 I.875 2.000 2.000 2.125

1.315 1.660 1.660 1.900 1.900 2.063

L Bf 1
1 1 1 1 1

dr
1.378 1.723 1.723 1.963 1.963 2.156

Nommal vwghts, upset.and threaded, are shown forthe purpose of identification inordermg .The mr~mum OD d,. ISllmlted by the mlnimum lengthof lullcrest threads(see Table 2 46) The nxmmum ID.d,, IShmited by the drift test

TABLE 2.28-GROSS

LINEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET FOOTAGE, API TUBING


Multiplication Factor for Average Joint Length 20 ft 30 ft

OD (in.)

Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibm/ft)

Number of Threads per inch

Make-Up Loss Per Joint (in.\

Nonupset Tubing wb

2%
3% 4 4%

all all all 9.50 12.60

10 10 IO 8 a

1.625 2.063 2.313 2.375 2.563

1.0068 1.0087 1.0097 1.0100 1 .OlOEi

1.0045 1.0058 1.0065 1.0066 1.0072

External Upset Tubing

4 4%

2% 27/a 3%

all all all 11.00 12.75

B 0 B 8 B

1.938 2.125 2.375 2.500 2.625

1.0081 1.0089 1.0100 1.0105 I.0111

1.0054 1.0059 1.0066 1.0070 1.0074

Integral JointTubing 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.063 1.72 all all 3.25 10 IO IO 10 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.438 1.0047 1.0052 1.0058 1.0060 1.0031 1.0035 1.0036 1.0040

TABLE 2.29-DESIGN SAFETY FACTORS FOR SINGLE WEIGHT AND GRADE TUBING STRING Design data for an 11 ,OOO-ft string of 27/8-in.-OD upset tubing with 9.625~lbmlgal mud weight and 5,500-psi BHP
Safety Factor Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibmlft) Grade 6.50 6.680 Joint Yield Strength 2.03 Internal Yield Pressure (Psi) 1.92

Type Thread API

Amount (fU 11,000 Collapse 2.029

2-46

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.30-27/8-in.-OD UPSET TUBING SETTING DEPTHS IN COLLAPSE, TENSION, AND INTERNAL PRESSURE RESISTANCE, INCLUDING SAFETY FACTORS
Setting Depth (ft) Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibmlft) Grade ~H-40 6.50 J-55 6.50 N-80 6.50 Joint Yield Strength (Ibf) 72.500 99,700 145,000 Collapse 1.125 9,920 13,653 19,840 Joint Yield Strength Safety Factors 1.80 6,197 6,521 12,393 1.00 5,280 7,260 10,570 Internal Yreld Pressure (Psi)

Collapse Resistance (psi) 5,580 7,680 11,160

Joint Yield Strength Safety Factor. The joint yield


strength safety factor of 2.03 was determined by dividing the 145,000~lbm joint yield strength in Col. 4 by 6.50 lbm, the nominal weight per foot, and the 11 ,OOO-ft length of the string.

Line Pipe
Line pipe is used by the oil and gas industry to transport oil, gas, and water. API has developed specifications for line pipe6-8 to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry. These provide standard dimensions, strength and performance properties, and the required thread gauging practice to ensure complete interchangeability. Tables 2.31 through 2.37 include dimensional and strength data of API line pipe. Tables 2.3 1 and 2.32 give the tensile requirements and tolerances on lengths of API line pipe. Performance property data applicable to standard-weight, threaded line pipe are given in Tables 2.33 :hrough 2.35 and Fig. 2.9. Table 2.36 gives the dimensions, weights, and test pressures of extra-strong threaded line pipe. Table 2.37 lists the dimensions, weights, and test pressures of plain-end line pipe. Equations for calculating performance properties of line pipe are found in the following section.

Internal Yield Pressure Safety Factor. The internal yield pressure safety factor of 1.92 was determined by dividing the 10.570-psi internal yield pressure in Col. 7 by 5,500 psi, the BHP. Stretch in Tubing When Freely Suspended in Fluid Media
When tubing is subjected to an axial stress, either tension or compression, that does not exceed the elastic limit of the material, the stretch or contraction may be determined by Eqs. 1 and 2 for casing. These equations also are applicable to tubing.

Equations for Calculating Performance Properties of Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe
API developed equations for calculating the performance properties of API casing, tubing, and line pipe. These equations were used to calculate the performance properties for non-API grades of casing and tubing, except for the collapse resistance of HC-95 casing. The collapse resistance of HC-95 casing is assumed to be the same as that published by Lone Star Steely for their proprietary S-95 grade. This proprietary grade is offered by other manufacturers under various 95 designations.

TABLE 2.31-TENSILE

REQUIREMENTS OF LINE PIPE


Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength (Psi) 45,000 48,000 60,000 60,000 63,000 66,000* 72,000t 71,000 * 75,000+ 75,000* * 78,000 77,000 * 80,000+ 82,000

Minimum Yield Strength Grade A25 A (Psi) 25,000 30,000 35,000 42,000 46,000 52,000 56,000 60,000 65,000 70,000

Minimum Elongation in 2 in. w

B
X42 X46 x52 X56 X60 X65 x70

Collapse Pressure Equations


The minimum collapse pressures given in API Bull. 5C2 are calculated by means of Eqs. 3, 5, 7, and 9, adopted at the API 1968 Standardization Conference and reported in API Circular PS-1360, Sept. 1968. u Eqs. 4, 6, and 8 for the intersections between the four collapse pressure equations have been determined algebraically and are included for use in calculating the applicable d,/e range (ODiwall thickness) for each collapse pressure equation. Factors FA, Fs, Fc, FF, and FG are calculated by Eqs. 12 through 16. The collapse pressures for Tables 2.3 and 2.4 are calculated with the specified values for d,, and c. The calculated d,/e was rounded to two decimals. The collapse pressure calculations were carried to eight or more digits and rounded to the nearest 10 psi to produce the final values in the tables.

The mimmum elongation I2 in shall be that determmed by the qualion I Table 2 1 .-Forp,peless lhan20 I OD Wh any wall th~cknass and for p,pe 20 I OD and larger withwallfhlckness greater than 0 375 I For p,pe wth a 20.1n OD and larger wllha wallthickness of 0.375 I and less The m,n,mm lhmatetens+sstrength forGrade X60 ElectricResistance Welded Pipe Iall sizesand wallthicknesses shall be 75.000 PSI

CASING,

TUBING.

AND

LINE PIPE

2-47

TABLE

2.32-TOLERANCES

ON

LENGTHS

OF LINE PIPE Shortest Length in 90% of Entire Shrpment (ft) Minimum Average Length EntireShipment (ft)

Shortest Length in
EntireShipment (ft) Threaded-and-Coupled Pipe Single random lengths Double random lengths Plain-End Pipe Single random lengths Double random lengths As agreed upon lengths in excess of 20 ft' 16.0 22.0 9.0 14.0 40% of average agreed upon
lhese tolerances shall apply

Shortest Length in 95% of Entire Shrpment m 8.0 -

35.0

26 3 75% of average agreed upon

17.5 35.0

By

agreemen,

between

the purchaser

and the manufacturer

to each

carload

TABLE

2.33-STANDARD-WEIGHT THREADED WEIGHTS. AND TEST PRESSURES

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, (FIG. 2.9)

Nominal Size (In.)

OD (2,
0.405 0.540 0.675 0.840 1.050

Nominal Werqht: Threads and Coupling (Ibmlft) 0.25 0.43 0.57 0.86 1.14 1.70 2.30 2.75 3.75 5.90 7.70 9.25 11.00 15.00 19.45 25.55 29.35 32.75 35.75 41.85 45.45 51.15 57.00 65.30 73.00 81 .oo

Calculated Weiaht Wall Thickness (ii.) 0.068 0.088 0.091 0.109 0.113 0.133 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.203 0.216 0.226 0.237 0.258 0.280 0.277 0.322 0.279 0.307 0.365 0.330 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 Threads and Couplrng (ErF) 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.60 0.40 1.20 1.80 1.80 3.20 4.40 5.60 7.20 14.80 14.00 20.00 19.20 17.40 32.60 30.80 24.60 30.00 35.60 42.00 -

ID d, (in.) 0.269 0.364 0.493 0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469 3.068 3.548 4.026 5.047 6.065 8.071 7.981 10.192 10.136 10.020 12.090 12.000 13.250 15.250 17.250 19.250

Platn End (ll%ft, 0.24 0.42 0.57 0.85 1.13 1.68 2.27 2.72 3.65 5.79 7.58 9.11 10.79 14.62 18.97 24.70 28.55 31.20 34.24 40.48 43.77 49.56 54.57 62.58 70.59 78.60

Test Pressure (psi) Grade A25 700 700 700 700 700 700 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,200 1,200 1,200 Grade A 700 700 700 700 700 700 1,000 1,000 1.000 1,000 1,000 1.200 1,200 1.200 1,200 1,160 1.340 930 1,030 1,220 960 1,060 960 840 750 680 Grade El 700 700 700 700 700 700 ,100 ,100 ,100 ,100 ,100 ,300 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,350
1,570 ,090

1 1'h 1% 2

2%
3 3'/2 4 5 5 8 8 10 10 10 12 12 14D 16D 18D 20D

1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.875 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.563 6.625 8.625 8.625 10.750 10.750 10.750 12.750 12.750 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000

,200 ,430
1 ,090

,240 ,120 980 880 790

2-48

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE2.34-MINIMUMCOLLAPSE

RESISTANCE

STANDARD-WEIGHT

ANDJOINTSTRENGTH THREADED LINE PIPE

OF

Nominal Size (in.) 'h 'I4 % '12 s/4 1 1 '14 1%


2 2 h 3 3% 4 5 6 : IO 10 IO 12 12

OD do
(in.) 0.405 0.540 0.675 0.840 1.050

Nominal Weight per Foot


(lbmlft)

Collapse Resistance (psi) Grade A25 6,980 6.820 5,830 5.640 4.800 4.540 3,860 3,530 3,030 3,280 2,900 2,670 2,490 2.110 A 8,380 8,180 7.000 6,770 5,760 5,450 4.630 4.230 3,640 3.940 3,480 3.200 2.930 2.380 2,020 1,190 1.580 780 950 1,310 780 1,010 840 620 440 320

Jomt Strenath il.000 Ibf) Grade ' A25 1.65 2.52 3.55 4.97 9.12 10.0 14.4 16.8 20.5 33.2 41.3 47.9 54.5 69.4 A 1.77 2.69 3.79 5.30 9.73 10.7 15.4 18.9 23.2 37.4 46.7 54.3 61.9 79.2 95.8 107 133 122 141 178 173 205 226 253 376 294

0
9,770 9,540 8,160 7,900 6,720 6,360 5,400 4,940 4,240 4,590 4,050 3,670 3,270 2,630 2,200 1,270 1,700 820 1,010 1,410 810 1,070 880 630 440 320

B
2.21 2.36 4.73 6.63 12.2 13.4 19.2 22.9 28.0 45.3 56.4 65.5 74.5 95.1 115 128 159 146 168 213 206 244 283 301 238 349

1.315
1.660

1.900
2.375 2.875 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.563 6.626 8.625 8.625 10.750

IOD 16D 18D 20D

10.750 10.750 12.750 12.750 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000

0.25 0.43 0.57 0.86 1.14 1.70 2.30 2.75 3.75 5.90 7.70 9.25 11.00 15.00 19.45 25.55 2935 32.75 35.75 41.85 45.45 51.15 57.00 65.30 73.00 81.00

TABLE 2.35a-MINIMUM
Weight per Fool (Ibmlft) do/e
5.96 6.14 7.42 771 9 29 9.09 11.86 2375 2075 35 4 45 5563 6625 8625 a625 10.75 1075 1075 1275 1275 14 16 18 20 3.75 59 77 925 11 15 1945 2555 2935 3275 3575 41 a5 4545 51 15 57 653 73 at 13 1 15.42 14.16 16 2 177 la99 2156 23.66 31 14 26 79 3853 35.02 2945 3864 34 3733 4267 48 5333

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE A


Axtat Stress

(PSI)
25.000 (OSII 30,000 35.000 40000 45 000 50.000

Area

d?!!!

-5.000

5.000

10.000

15,000 CoIlawe

20,000

(sq I"I
0 072 0125 0167 025 0333 0 494 0.669 0 799 1075 1704 2 228 260 3174 43 5581 7265 a 399 9178 10072 11908 12676 14.579 16052 10408 20 764 2312 9.420 9.200 7.860 7.610 6.480 6.130 5.210 4,760 4.090 4.430 3.910 3.570 3.190 2.570 2.160 1.250 1.670 810 1.000 1.390 a00 1.060 a70 630 440 320 8.990 a.780 7.510 7.270 6.180 5.850 4.970 4,540 3.900 4,220 3.730 3.430 3.080 2.490 2.100 1,230 1,630 a00 900 1.360 790 1.040 860 620 440 320 6.380 8.180 7,000 6.770 5,760 5.450 4.630 4,230 3.640 3.940 3.480 3.200 2.930 2.380 2.020 1.190 I.580 780 950 1.310 780 1.010 a40 620 440 320 7.590 7.410 6.340 6.140 5.220 4.940 4 200 3 830 3 300 3.570 3.150 2,900 2.710 2,230 1 900 1.140 1.510 760 920 1.260 750 970 al0 600 440 320 6 620 6470 5 530 5 360 4 560 4.310 3.660 3350 2.800 3.110 2.750 2.530 2.370 2.040 1.750 1.080 1.410 730 880 1.180 720 930 780 590 440 320

Pressure

5.460 5,330 4,560 4,410 3.750 3.550 3.020 2,760 2.370 2,570 2.260 2.080 1.950 1.730 1.560 1,000 1,280 690

820
1.100 680 860 730 560 430 320

CASING TUBING. AND LINE PIPE

2-49

TABLE 2.35b-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE A25


Axial Stress (PSI)

d,

Welght per Foot (lbmift) 025 043 0 57 0 86 1 14 17 23 2.75 375 59 77 9 25 11 15 d,/e 596 6 14 742 7 71 9 29 9 89 1186 131 1542 1416 162 177 1899 2156

Area (sq tn.) 0072 0125 0 167 025 0333 0 494 0 669 0 799 1075 1704 2 228 2 68 3 174 43

10000

-5,000

5.000

10.000

15.000

20.000

25.000

30.000

35.000

40.000

45.000

50.000

(In 1
0405 0.54 0675 0 64 105 1315 166 1.9 2.375 2875 35 4 45 5563

Collapse Pressure (PSI) 7.950 7.760 6.640 6.420 5.470 5 170 4.390 4.010 3.450 3.730 3 300 3030 2 820 2 300 7.570 7.400 6 330 6.120 5.210 4 930 4.190 3.820 3 290 3.560 3,140 2.890 2.710 2 220 6980 6820 5830 5640 4800 4.540 3860 3.530 3.030 3.280 2900 2670 2490 2110 6180 6.030 5160 4.990 4250 4020 3420 3.120 2680 2.900 2.560 2360 2.210 1.950 5 150 5030 4300 4 170 3540 3350 2850 2 600 2240 2420 2.140 1.970 1.840 1630

TABLE 2.35c-MINIMUM
Weight d

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE B


Axial Stress (PSI)

(In i
0405 0 54 0675 084 105 1315 166 19 2375 2875 35 4 45 5563 6625 8 625 8625 1075 1075 10 75 12 75 12 75 14 16 18 20

per Foot (Ibmlft) 025 043 0 57 086 1 14 17 23 2 75 375 59 77 925 11 15 1945 2555 29 35 32 75 35 75 41 a5 4545 51 15 57 653 73 81

Area do/e 5 96 614 742 7 71 9 29 9.89 11.86 13 1 1542 1416 16 2 17 7 18 99 2156 23 66 31 14 26 79 38 53 3502 2945 3864 34 3733 4267 48 53.33 (sq ln 1 0072 0 125 0 167 025 0333 0 494 0 669 0 799 1075 1704 2 228 268 3174 43 5 581 7 265

- 10.000

-5.000

5.000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

30,OOC

35.000

40.000

45.000

50.000

Collapse Pressure (PSI) 10.870 10.610 9.070 8.780 7.480 7.070 6.010 5.490 4.720 5,110 4510 3970 3530 2 810 2 340 1330 1770 840 1050 1480 830 1.120 900 630 440 320 10.400 10.150 8.680 8.410 7.150 6.770 5.750 5 250 4.520 4.890 4.310 3.840 3.420 2,730 2280 1310 1,740 830 1,030 1450 I320 1,100 890 630 440 9.770 9,540 8.160 7,900 6,720 6.360 5,400 4,940 4.250 4.590 4050 3670 3270 2.630 2200 1270 1700 820 1010 1410 810 1,070 880 630 440 320 9.000 8.790 7520 7.280 6.190 5.860 4,980 4,550 3.910 4.230 3,730 3.440 3,080 2.490 2.100 1.230 1.640 800 980 1.360 790 1,040 860 620 440 320 8.070 7.880 6.740 6.530 5.550 5.260 4,460 4,080 3.510 3.800 3.350 3.080 2.850 2.320 1.970 1 170 1560 770 940 1290 770 1,000 830 610 440 320 6,980 6.820 5.830 5,640 4.800 4.540 3.860 3,530 3.030 3.280 2.900 2.670 2.490 2,110 1.810 1.100 1450 740 890 1.210 740 940 790 590 440 320 5.700 5.570 4.760 4.610 3.920 3.710 3.150 2.880 2.480 2.680 2,360 2.180 2.040 1.810 1.600 1.020 1.310 700 830 1.110 690 880 740 570 430 320

a 399
9 178 10072 11908 12876 14 579 16052 18408 20 764 2312

2-50

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.36-EXTRA-STRONG WEIGHTS.

AND

THREADED LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, TEST PRESSURES

Nominal Size (in.) ii /4 x3 % % 1 1 Al 1% 2

(in.) 0.405 0.540 0.675 0.840 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.875 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.563 6.625 8.625 10.75 12.75

00 do

Nominal Weight: Threads and Coupling * (Ibmlft) 0.31 0.54 0.74 1.09 1.48 2.18 3.02 3.66 5.07 7.73 10.33 12.63 15.17 21.09 28.89 43 90 55.82 66.71

Wall Thickness e (in.) 0.095 0.119 0.126 0.147 0.154 0.179 0.191 0.200 0.218 0.276 0.300 0.318 0.337 0.375 0.432 0.500 0.500 0.500

Test Pressure Grade (psi) Grade A25 850 850 850 850 850 850 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,700 1,700 1,700 Grade A 850 850 850 850 850 850 1,500 1,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,800 2,700 2,400 2,300 2,100 1,700 1,400 Grade El 850 a50 650 a50 650 850 1,600 1,600 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,800 2,800 2,800 2,700 2,400 2,000 1,600

%
3 3% 4 5 6 8 IO 12

TABLE

2.37a-PLAIN-END Size

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, PlainWall End Thickness Weight (in.) (Ibmlft) 0.24 0.31 0.42 0.54 0.57 0.74 0.85 1.09 1.71 1.13 1.47 2.44 1.68 2.17 3.66 2.27 3.00 5.21 2.72 3.63 6.41 0.068 0.095 0.088 0.119 0.091 0.126 0.109 0.147 0.294 0.113 0.154 0.308 0.133 0.179 0.358 0.140 0.191 0.382 0.145 0.200 0.400

WEIGHTS,

AND

TEST

PRESSURES,

,I~ to 1%

in.

Minimum ID (in.) 0.269 0.215 0.364 0.302 0.493 0.423 0.622 0.546 0.252 0.824 0.742 0.434 1.049 0.957 0.599 1.380 1.278 0.896 1.610 1.500 1.100 Grade A Standard 700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 1,200 1,800 2,200 1,200 1,800 2,200 -

Test Pressure (psi) Grade B Alternative 700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 1,300 1,900 2,300 1,300 1,900 2,300 Grade A25 700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 1,000 1,300 1,400 1,000 1,300 1,400

Nominal (in.) /a /i /4 /4 xl % h
%

Desrgnatron Standard xs Standard xs Standard xs Standard xs xxs Standard xs xxs Standard xs xxs Standard xs xxs Standard xs xxs

OD (in.) 0.405 0.405 0.540 0.540 0.675 0.675 0.840 0.640 0.840 1.050 1.050 1.050 1.315 1.315 1.315 1.660 1.660 1.660 1.900 1.900 1.900

Alternative Standard

% Yi vi VI 1 1 1 1/4 1 /4 1 /4 1% 1/2 1 /2

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-51

TABLE
OD do (in ) Weight wpe (Ibmlft) 2 03 2 64 3 00 3.36 3 65 405 4 39 5 02 567 6 28 9 03 2 47 322 367 4 12 453 4 97 5 40 5 79 613 701 766 1369 303 3 95 4 51 5 06 5 57 6 11 665 7 58 868 9 66 10 25 18 58

2.37b-PLAIN-END
Wall Thickness e (In 1 0083 0 109 0 125 0 141 0 154 0 172 0 188 0218 0250 0281 0436 0083 0 109 0 125 0 141 0156 0172 0188 0203 0216 0250 0276 0552 0083 0 109 0 125 0 141 0 156 0172 0 188 0216 0250 0281 0300 0 600

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TEST PRESSURES, 23/8 lo


M1ri,mum Te Xl Press

59/,, in.

ID d. (In 1
2 209 2 157 2 125 2 093 2 067 2 031 1 999 1 939 1 875 1813 1503 2 709 2.657 2 625 2 593 2 563 2 531 2499 2 469 2 443 2 375 2 323 1 771 3 334 3282 3 250 3 218 3188 3 156 3 124 3068 3000 2 938 2 900 2 300 Standard AlteUlatlVtZ Standard Alternatwe Standard AlternatIve

ure ~OSI) Grade


x52 2.180 2,730 2.860 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.800 2.250 2.370 2,960 2,710 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.480 1.850 1,940 2.430 2.230 2.790 2.510 3,000 2.780 3.000 3.000 3.000 3000 3.000 3.000 3000 3000 3.000 3000 3.000 3.000 3000 3.000 3000

Grade
A25 600 800 1.000 1,000 1,000 1,100 1,200 1.300 1,400 1.400 1.400 600 800 1.000 1.000 1.000 -

Grade A
1.260 -

Grade 8
1.470 -

Grade
x42 1.760 2,200 2.310 2.890 2,650 3,000 2,990 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.460 1.820 1,910 2,390 2.190 2,740 2.470 3,000 2,730 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 1.200 1.490 1.570 1.960 l.f300 2.250 2.030 2.540 2.250 2.810 2.460 3.000 2.710 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3000 3.000 3000

Grade
X46 1,930 2.410 2.530 3,000 2,910 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 1.590 1.990 2,090 2.620 2 400 3.000 2.710 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 1.310 1.640 1,720 2.150 1.970 2.460 2.220 2.780 2.460 3.000 2.710 3.000 2.970 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3000 3000 3000 3000

Grade
X56 2,350 2,940 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 1.940 2,430 2.550 3.000 2.920 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 1,590 1,990 2,090 2.6'20 2400 3.000 2.710 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3000

Grade
X60 2.520 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 2.080 2.600 2.730 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3:ooo 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 1.710 2.130 2.240 2.800 2570 3.000 2.900 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000

Grade
X65 2.730 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 2.250 2.810 2.960 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000

Grade
x70 2,940 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 2.430 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000

2%
2'18 2318 23/a 2% 2% 2%

2,330 2,500 2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500 1.040 -

2.500 2.500 2.500 2 500 2.500 2.500 2.500 1210 -

Standard
Alternative Standard Altetnatlve Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Alternatfve Standard AlternatIve Standard Alternat!ve Standard AlternatIve Standard Alternative Standard Alternative

2%
2%

2%
2%

21/a 278 2%
27/e

1.950 2.150 2.350 2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500 850 -

2.280 2,500 2,500 2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500

2%
2 "a 2 ?+ 2 ?& 2VB 2!Q 27/i 2'ie 3'h 3'f2 3'12 22 3 '/I 3'.'2 3'T 3' '2 3'12 31'2 3',2 3'1

Standard 1.000 Alternatfve


Standard AlternatIve Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Altetnatlve Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Altername Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Allernallve Standard Alternattve Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Altername Standard Alternative Standard Alternative Standard Alternative 1 300 1.000 1.000 1 000 1 000 1.000 800 1.000 600 1.200 1.300 1.400 1.100 1,000 1,000

3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.850 2.310 2.430 3.000 2.790 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000

3,000 3 000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 1,990 2.490 2.620 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3 000 3.000 3 000

2.500 1.000 -

1 290

1 500 -

1.600 1770 1.930 2220 2500 2500 2500 2500

1.870 2060 2260 2500 2500 2 500 2500 2500

2-52

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.37b-PLAIN-END
Wall

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TEST PRESSURES, 23/s to 5%,


Mill mum Grade A25 Standard Alternatwe Standard Alternatwe Standard Alternatwe Standard Alternative Standard Allernatwe Standard AlternatIve Standard Alternative Standard Alternallve Standard Alternallve Standard Alternallve Standard AlternatIve Standard Alternative Standard AlternatIve Standard Alternative Standard Allernatwe Standard AlternatIve Standard Alternative Srandard AlternatIve Standard Alternailve Standard Altt?rnatlVe Srandard AlternatIve Standard Alternawe Standard Aliernatwe Standard Alternatwe Standard Allernallve Standard Aliernatwe Standard Allernatlve Standard Standard Standard Slandard Standard Slandard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard 1.700 800 1.000 1,200 1.200 600 Grade A 750 980 1,120 1.270 1,400 1.550 1.690 2.030 2.250 2,530 2.800 660 1.000 1.130 1,250 1.380 1.500 1.620 1.750 1.900 2 000 2 250 2 500 2 700 2.800 2 800 2.800 Grade E 870 1,140 1,310 1480 1.640 1.810 1.970 2.370 2.620 2.800 2.800 770 1.170 1.320 1.460 1.610 1.750 1,890 2.040 2.210 2,330 2.620 2 800 2.800 2.800 2 800 2.800 630 940 1.180 1.420 1.650 1.950 2 120 2.360 2 600 2.800 2.800 2 800 2 800 Grade X42 1,050 1,310 1,370 1,720 1,580 1,970 1,780 2220 1970 2.460 2.170 2,710 2,370 2,960 2,850 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 930 1.160 1.400 1.750 1.580 1.970 1.750 2.180 1.930 2,410 2.110 2,630 2,270 2.840 2,450 3.000 2,650 3.000 2.800 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3000 3 000 3000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3 000 750 1,130 1410 1.700 1.990 2.340 2.550 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3 000 Te!it Press1,re (PSI) Grade X46 1 150 1,430 1,500 1.880 1,730 2,160 1,950 2.430 2 150 2.690 2.370 2,970 2.590 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 1.020 1.270 1.530 1.920 1.730 2.160 1.910 2.390 2.110 2,640 2.310 2,880 2,490 3,000 2.690 3.000 2.910 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 820 1.240 1550 1.870 2.170 2.560
2.790

in.

(continued)

OD
do (in ) 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4'$ 41'2 4112 4'2 4% 4% 4:/z 4% 4'i2 4':z 41'2 41'2 4% 4 'h 4'12 4' 2 *59,,6 '59!.6 '59,, '536 '59',6 '59;e '5q16 '59.6 '!Y., '59.6 '5qr6 'S916 '5916

Welghl Woe (Ibmift) 347 453 5.17 581 640 7 03 7 65 911 1001 11 16 1250 3.92 5 84 6 56 7 24 7 95 8 66 9 32 1001 1079 1135 1266 1396 1498 1900 2251 27 54 4 86 7 26 9 01 1079 12 50 1462 1585 17 50 1917 20 78 2704 3296 38 55

i-htckness e (In 1 0083 0 109 0125 0 141 0156 0172 0188 0 226 0250 0281 0318 0083 0 125 0 141 0156 0172 0 188 0203 0 219 0 237 0 250 0 281 0 312 0337 0438 0531 0674 0083 0 125 0 156 0 188 0219 0 258
0281

ID
d. (In J 3834 3 782 3750 3 718 3688 3656 3624 3 548 3 500 3438 3364 1334 1250 4218 4188 4 156 4 124 4094 4062 4026 4000 3938 3876 3826 3624 3438 3 152 5397 5 312 5251 5187 5125 5047 5 001 4 939 4875 4813 4 563 4 313 4063

Grade
X56 1,290 1.620 1.700 2,130 1,950 2440 2,200 2,750 2430 3.000 2,660 3.000 2.930 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.150 1.440 1.730 2.170 1.960 2.440 2.160 2.700 2.390 2,980 2.610 3,000 2,810 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 930 1.400 1.750 2.110 2.460 2.890 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3 000

Grade
X60 1390 1.740 1830 2290 2 100 2630 2370 2960 2620 3.000 2.890 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 1.240 1.550 1.870 2330 2110 2.630 2330 2910 2570 3.000 2810 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 1,000 1.500 1.910 2.270 2.650 3.000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3.000 3.000 3.000

Grade X65 1,490 1,870 1,960 2.450 2,250 2.810 2.540 3,000 2.810 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.330 1,660 2,000 2.500 2.260 2.820 2.500 3.000 2,750 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3000 3.000 3 000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 1.040 1.630 2 020 2.430 2.830 3.000 3 000 3.000 3 000 3 000 3 000 3 000 3 000

Grade
x70 1620 2,020 2,130 2,660 2.440 3.000 2.750 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 1.440 1.800 2.170 2.710 2.440 3.000 2.700 3.000 2,980 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3 000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 1.160 1.750 2.120 2.640 3.000 3 000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000

Grade
1740 2,180 2,290 2,860 2,630 3,000 2,960 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 1.550 1.940 2.330 2,920 2,630 3,000 2.910 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 1,250 1.890 2.360 2.840 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3,000 3.000

800 -

1.000

1.200 -

1.200 1200

670 840 1.010 1.180 1200 1520 1680 1860 2 020 2 700 2800 2 a00

540 810 1010 1220 1.420 1670 1820 2 020 2 230 2430 2 800 2 800 2 800

0312 0344 0375 0 500 0625 0750

3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3000 3 000

3.000

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE

PIPE

2-53

TABLE 2.37c-PLAIN-END
Wall OD d, JpL S8 65,8 6% 65/i Welghl w,e (Ibm/fli 5 80 7 59 8 68 9 76 10 70 1185 1292 1392 1498 rhickness A 0 083 0109 0125 0 141 0156 0172 0 188 0 203 0 219 0 250 0 280 0 312 0.344 0 375 0 432 0 500 0 562 0 625 0 719 0 750 0 875 0.125 0.156 0 188 0 203 0 219 0 250 0277 0 312 0 322 0.344 0375 0 438 0 500 0 562 0 625 0719 0750 0812 0 ID d> (In ) 6 459 6407 6375 6 343 6313 6281 6249 6 219 6 187 6125 6065 6001 5937 5875 5761 5625 5501 5375 5187 5 125 4875 8375 8313 8 249 8219 0 la7 8 125 8071 BOO1 7981 7937 7875 7749 7625 7501 7375 7187 7125 7001 6875 6625 10438 10374 10 344 10312 10250 10192 10136 10 062 10020 9 a74 9 750 9 626 9 500 9 312 9126 9 000 0874 a 12406 12374 12344 12312 12 250 .~ 12 188

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TEST PRESSURES, 65/8 to 12% in.
MInImum Grade A Grade Standard 530 690 790 890 990 1090 1,190 1290 1390 1580 1 780 1980 2 180 2380 2 800 2.800 2.800 2 800 2800 2800 610 760 920 1070 1.220 1350 1520 1570 1.680 1830 2.130 2740 2800 2.800 2800 2,800 2800 2800 610 730 860 980 1.090 1.200 1.340 1.430 1710 2.200 2.440 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2800 2.800 570 620 720 820 930 E Test Pressure (PSI) Grade X42 790 1.040 1 190 1,340 1.480 1640 1.790 1.930 2.080 2.380 2.660 2.970 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 910 1,140 1.370 1,480 1,600 1,830 2.020 2,280 2,350 2,510 2.740 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 1040 1250 1350 1450 1660 1850 2040 2280 2420 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3.000 3.000 3.000 960 1050 I 140 1.230 1400 1570 660 860 990 1.120 1.240 1360 1490 1.610 1740 1980 2.220 2.470 2,500 2,730 2.800 2,800 2,800 2,800 2,800 2,800 760 950 1,140 1.330 1.520 1.690 1.900 1,960 2,090 2.280 2.670 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 760 920 1.070 1.220 1 360 1500 1 680 1 780 2 140 2.740 2 800 2 BOO 2 800 2.800 2 800 2 800 2 800 710 770 900 1030 1 160 Grade X46 El60 1,140 1300 1.470 1.620 1,790 1.960 2,110 2.280 2,600 2,920 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 1.000 1.250 1.500 1.620 1.750 2.000 2.220 2.500 2.580 2.750 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.130 1.370 1.480 1.590 1,820 2.030 2,230 2,500 2.660 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.050 1 150 1.250 1.340 1530 1.720 Grade X52 980 1.280 1.470 1.660 1.840 2.030 2.210 2,390 2.580 2.940 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 1.130 1.410 X56 1050 1380 1580 1790 1980 2180 2,380 2570 2780 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 1.220 1.520 1,830 2.000 2.130 2.430 2,700 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1380 1.660 1.800 1.940 2.210 2.470 2.720 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.280 1400 1.520 1.640 1.870 2.100 Grade X60 1.130 1.480 1.700 1.920 2.120 2,340 2.550 2.760 2.980 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1,300 1,630 1.960 2 120 2,290 2,610 2.890 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 1.480 1 780 1,930 2,080 2370 2650 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.380 1500 1.620 1.750 2.000 2.250 Grade X65 1.220 1.600 1.840 2.080 2,300 2,530 2,770 2.990 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.410 1,760 2.130 2.290 2.480 2.830 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.600 1.930 2.090 2,250 2,570 2.870 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.490 1630 1.760 1.900 2 170 2.440 Grade x70 1,320 1.730 1,980 2,230 2.470 2,730 2.980 3,000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 1.520 1.900 2,290 2.470 2.670 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3 000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3.000 3.000 1.730 2.080 2.250 2,420 2.770 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3000 3000 3.000 1.610 1750 1.890 2 040 2 330 2.620

Standard 450 590 680 770 850 930 1.020 I 100 I 190 1360 1520 1700 1870 2.040 2720 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2 800 520 650 780 910 1.040 1,160 1300 1340 1440

AlternatIve 560 740 850 960 1.060 1 170 1.280 1,380 1490 1,700 1,900 2.120 2.340 2.550 2,800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 650 810 890 1.140 1.300 1.450 1.630 1.680 1.790 1.960 2.290 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 650 790 920 1.050 1 170 1290 1440 1 530 1830 2 350 2 620 2 800 2 BOO 2.800 2.800 2 800 2 800 610 660

Allernauve

@B
65/B 658 65k 658 65,8 65's 6$ 6=8 65s 6& 6% tY, 6518 63, 65.8 6%~ I+/, e=,a f35., 85/, 858 8Q 85g B5,a ES,, 85,b 858 8%8 85.8

1702
18 97 2104 2308 2503 28.57 32 71 36 39 40.05 45 35 47 06 63 73 11 35 14.11 1694 1826 1966 22.36 24 70 27

1.700
1.840 1.980 2.260 2,510 2,820 2.910 3,000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 1.280 1.550 1.670 1.800 2.060 2.290 2.520 2.830 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3,000 3,000 3 000 3.000 3.000 3000 3000 1.190 1300 1.410 1.520 1730 1.950

70

28 55 30 42 3304 38 30 43 39 48 40 53.40 60 71 6308 6776 72 42 81 44 1765 21 21 2287 2463 28 04 31 20 34 24 3023 40 48 48 24 54 74 61 15 6758 7703 8618 92 28 9830 104 13 12683 23 11 2522 27 20 29 31 3338 3742

1.570
1830 2350 2610 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 2.800 520 630 730 840 930 1.030 1 150 1.220 1.470 1.880 2.090 2.410 2.720 2.800 2.800 2800 2.800 490 530 620 710 790

B58
es,* 8% I+,* 8bB @g ass 10% 10% 103s 10 '4 10% 10% 10% 10% 103> 10'2 10% 10x4 1034 1012 10% lOi* 1034 10 3& 1OJ1 1213 1231 1231 123J 12J.4 12'4

875

1000 0 156 0188 0203 0219 0250 0 279 0307 0344 0365 0438 0 500 0 562 0625 0 719 0812 0875 0 938 1 000 1250 0 172 0188 0203 0219 0 250 0 281

750

8 250

770
880 990

2-54

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

BASIC

POWERTIGHT

MAKEUP

HANDTIGHT

MAKEUP

Fig. 2.9-Line pipe and coupling.See Table 2.33 for pipe dimensions.

Yield-Strength Collapse-Pressure Equation. The yieldstrength collapse pressure is not a true collapse pressure. but rather the external pressure, p!, that generates minimum yield stress, o,,, on the inside wall of a tube as calculated by Eq. 3.

where FA , FB, and Fc are equation factors established by the API task group on performance properties (Table 2.39) and uY is yield pressure.

Plastic Collapse-Pressure Equation. The minimum collapse pressure for the plastic range of collapse is

(3) ~,,=a?. Eq. 3 for yield strength collapse pressure is applicable for d,/e values up to the value corresponding to the intersection with the plastic collapse (Eq. 5). This intersection is calculated by Eq. 4. Applicable d,/e ratios for yieldstrength collapse are shown in Table 2.38. \I(FA -2) +8(F,+F,/u,.)
~(FB +Fc/q)

(&FB)

-Fc.

. ..

(5)

The equation for minimum plastic collapse pressure is applicable for d,/e values ranging from (d,/e),y, (Eq. 4 for yield-point collapse pressure) to the intersection with Eq. 7 for transition collapse pressure, (d,/e),,,. Values for (d,/e),T are calculated by

(d,h)?,

+(F,

-2)
(d,Mp~= a#, -FF) Fc +a,,(FB -FG) > .. .

....

..

.... .

....

(4)

(3

TABLE

2.39-YIELD COLLAPSE EQUATION RANGE

PRESSURE

TABLE

2.39- -EQUATION FACTORS AND FOR PLASTIC COLLAPSE Equation Factors*

d,/e RANGES

Grade' H-40 -50 J-K-55, D -60 -70 C-75, E L-80, N-80 -90 c-95 -100 P-105 P-110 -120 Q-125 -130 -135 -140 -150 -155 -160 -170 -180

d,/e Range'* 16.40 and 15.24 and 14.81 and 14.44 and 13.85 and 13.60 and 13.38 and 13.01 and 12.85 and 12.70 and 12.57 and 12.44 and 12.21 and 12.11 and 12.02 and 11.92 and 11.84 and 11.67 and 11.59 and 11.52 and 11.37 and 11.23 and less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less

d,/e
Range' 16.40 lo 27.01 15.24 to 25.63 14.81 to 25.01 14.44 to 24.42 13.85 to 23.38 13.60 to 22.91 13.38 to 22.47 13.01 to 21.69 12.85 to 21.33 12.70 to 21.00 12.57 to 20.70 12.44 to 20.41 12.21 to 19.88 12.11 to 19.63 12.02 to 19.40 11.92 to 19.18 11.84 to 18.97 11.67 to 18.57 11.59 to 18.37 11.52 to 18.19 11.37 to 17.82 11.23 to 17.47

Grade** H-40 -50 J-K-55, D -60 -70 C-75, E L-80, N-80 -90 c-95 -100 P-105 P-110 -120 Q-125 -130 -135 -140 -150 -155 -160 -170 -180

FA

FE

FC

2.9500.0465 2.976 0.0515 2.991 0.0541 3.005 0.0566 3.037 0.0617 3.054 0.0642 3.071 0.0667 3.106 0.0718 3.124 0.0743 3.143 0.0768 3.162 0.0794 3.181 0.0819 3.219 0.0870 3.239 0.0895 3.258 0.0920 3.278 0.0946 3.297 0.0971 3.336 0.1021 3.356 0.1047 3.375 0.1072 3.412 0.1123 3.449 0.1173

754 1,056 1,206 1,356 1,656 1,806 1,955 2,254 2,404 2,553 2,702 2,852 3,151 3.301 3,451 3,601 3,751 4,053 4,204 4,356 4,660 4,966

Grades mdlcatedwthout letter dewgnatlon are notAPI grades but aregrades ,nuse or grades being consideredfarse. The do/e range values were calculated from Eqs. 4 and 12 through 14 to eightor more dIgIts

The d,/e range valuesand equationfactors were calculated from Eqs 4, 6. and 12 thraugh 16 to eightor more dlglts Grades lndlcated withoutletter deslgnatlon are not API grades but are grades I se or grades being consideredforuse

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-55

where FF and Fc are equation factors (Table 2.40), and the subscript pT denotes transition pressure. The factors and applicable d,/e range for the plastic collapse equation are shown in Table 2.39.

The applicable d,,/e range for elastic collapse in Table 2.41.

is shown

Collapse Pressure Under Axial-Tension Stress. The collapse resistance of casing in the presence of an axial stress is calculated by modifying the yield stress to an axial-stress equivalent grade according to Eq. 10. oya =[J1-0.75(a,lo,)2
--C.5un/ay]ay,

Transition Collapse-Pressure Equation. The minimum


collapse pressure for the plastic to elastic transition is calculated with zone

(10)

PTyay

(s-FG).

_.

...

where aa = axial stress (tension is positive), psi, = minimum yield strength of pipe, psi, and UY = yield strength of axial-stress equivalent (TYa grade, psi. Collapse-resistance equation factors and d,le ranges for the axial-stress equivalent grade are then calculated with Eqs. 4, 6, 8, and 12 through 16. With the equation factors for the axial-stress equivalent grade, collapse resistance under axial load is calculated with Eqs. 3, 5, 7, and 9, with d,/e rounded to two decimals. The reduced collapse-pressure calculations are carried to eight digits in all intermediate steps, and the final answer is rounded to the nearest 10 psi. Eq. 10 is based on the Hencky-von Mises maximum strain energy of distortion theory of yielding.

Eq. 7 forpT is applicable for do/e values from (d,/e),T (Eq. 6 for plastic collapse pressure) to the intersection (d,/e)TE with Eq. 9 for elastic collapse. Values for (d,/e) TE are calculated with 2tF,IF, 3FB/FA

(do/e) TE =

..

. ..

where the subscript TE denotes elastic transition. The factors and applicable do/e range for the transition collapse-pressure equation are shown in Table 2.40.

Elastic Collapse-Pressure Equation. The minimum collapse pressure lated with for the elastic range of collapse is calcu-

Example Problem 4.
46.95 PE=(d,,e),(d,,e)-*l*. .............

Calculate the collapse pressure of 7-in., 26-lbm P-l IO casing with an axial stress of 11,000 psi. The wall thickness is 0.362 in.; a, = I 1,000 psi, and u,, = 110,000 psi.

TABLE

2.40-EQUATION FACTORS AND FOR TRANSITION COLLAPSE Equation Factors

do/e do/e
Range

RANGE

TABLE

2.41-d,/e

RANGE

FOR

ELASTIC

COLLAPSE

do/e
Grade H-40 -50 J-K-55, D -80 -70 C-75, E L-80, N-80 c-90 c-95 -100 P-l05 P-110 -120 Q-125 -130 -135 -140 -150 -155 -160 -170 -180 Range* 42.64 and 38.83 and 37.21 and 35.73 and 33.17 and 32.05 and 31.02 and 29.18 and 28.36 and 27.60 and 26.89 and 26.22 and 25.01 and 24.46 and 23.94 and 23.44 and 22.98 and 22.11 and 21.70 and 21.32 and 20.60 and 19.93 and greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater

Grade*

F, 2.063 2.003 1.989 1.983 1.984 1.990 1.998 2.017 2.029 2.040 2.053 2.066 2.092 2.106 2.119 2.133 2.146 2.174 2.188 2.202 2.231 2.261

F,
0.0325 0.0347 0.0360 0.0373 0.0403 0.0418 0.0434 0.0466 0.0482 0.0499 0.0515 0.0532 0.0565 0.0582 0.0599 0.0615 0.0632 0.0666 0.06825 0.0700 0.0734 0.0769

H-40 -50 J-K-55, D -60 -70 C-75, E L-80, N-80 c-90 c-95 -100 P-105 P-lIO -120 Q-125 -130 -135 -140 -150 -155 -160 -170 -180

27.01 lo 42.64 25.63 to 38.83 25.01 10 37.21 24.42 to 35.73 23.38 to 33.17 22.91 to 32.05 22.47 lo 31.02 21.69 to 29.18 21.33 to 28.36 21.00 to 27.60 20.70 to 26.89 20.41 to 26.22 19.88 to 25.01 19.63 lo 24.46 19.40 IO 23.94 19.18 lo 23.44 18.97 to 22.98 18.57 to 22.11 18.37 to 21.70 18.19 10 21.32 17.82 to 20.60 17.47 lo 19.93

Grades lndlcated ~~tho, letter deslgna,,on are notAPI grades but aregrades ,nuse or grades being considered foruse The d,/e range values were calculated from Eqs 8. 12,and 13 to e,ghtor more d,g,,s

2-56

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Solution. Substitution U\(, =[A -0.5( -0.75(1

into Eq. IO gives

and

1.000/110.000)

I I .000/l lO.OOO)] 1 lO.OOO= 104,087 psi.

Substitution of uiir for u, in Eqs. 4. 6, 8. and I2 through I6 results in the following values. = = = = = w,, /fJ) \,I= (~l,,le),,~ = (tl,,/e) T& = F,A FB Fc FF F, 3.158, 0.0789. 2.675. 2.051. 0.0512 12.59. 20.75. and 27.02.

Expressed in metric units, Eqs. 12 through respectively.

I5 become.

The i/(,/e range for yield collapse is 12.59 or less; for plastic collapse, 12.59 to 20.75; for transition collapse. 20.75 to 27.02; and for elastic collapse. 27.02 or greater. The d,,/e is 710.362, or 19.34, indicating that collapse is in the plastic range. Substitution of F, (3.158). FB (0.0789). and Fc. (2,675) into Eq. 5 for plastic collapse yields P,, =a~,~,IF~l(d,,~e)-F~l -Fc

Fc=-3.2126+0.030867u,.-l.5204x10-ho,~ +7.7804x and 323.7x F,, = -FR/F, >( IIO ( 2y;;;,d >z 3F,lF,A 2 f F, lF,d > 2 10-o ?,3 *

= 104,087(3.158/19.34-0.0789)-2.675 =6. I IO psi resistance of casing in the presence of an axial stress is calculated with Eq. 1 I. which is based on the total strain energy theory of yielding.
FFFR

FGZP

FA

(16)

HC-95 Casing. The collapse

Pipe-Body Yield Strength


Pipe-body yield strength is the axial load required to yield the pipe. It is taken as the product of the cross-sectional area and the specified minimum yield strength for the particular grade of pipe. Values for pipe-body yield strength were calculated with Eq. 17. I+,,=0.7854@, +)a,. . (17)

=[Jl-0.9324(0,,/~,) P <<I .

-6.26(u,,/u>)]p,.,,, . (11)

where p<.(, is the minimum collapse pressure under axial stress. psi, and p,.(, is the minimum collapse pressure without axial stress, psi.

Collapse Equation Factors. Collapse equation factors for


plastic and transition lowing equations: F, =2.8762+0.10679x collapse are calculated by the fol-

where W,, = pipe-body yield strength. Ibf (rounded the nearest 1.000). and d; = specified inside diameter. in.

to

IO-u>

Internal Pressure Resistance


Internal pressure resistance is the lowest of the internal yield pressure of the pipe, the internal yield pressure of the coupling, or the internal pressure leak resistance at the d,,, or d,, plane calculated with Eqs. 18. 19. and 22.

+0.21301x10~0uJ2-0.53132x10-6a,.3. (12) FB=0.026233+0.50609x10~hu,., Fc = -465.93+0.0308670, +0.36989x 10~3u ,.j , -0.10483 .(13) x 10 -uY 2 (14)

Yield Pressure for Pipe. Internal yield pressure for pipe is calculated from Eq. 18. The factor 0.875 appearing in Eq. I8 allows for minimum wall.

Internal

(IX)

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-57

TABLE 2.42-CASING

SHORT-THREAD

DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A)


End of Pipe to

Length, I. Nommal Weight, Mafor OD do Diameter da Threads and Coupling Numer of Threads End of Pipe to HandTight Plane L, 0.921 1.546 1.421 1.671 1 796 2.046 1.296 2.046 2 104 1 854 2.229 2.229 1 604 2 354 2.354 2.354 2.854 2 654 2 854 Total End of Pipe to Effective Vanish Threads L2 1715 2340 2.215 2 465 2.590 2 840 2.090 2.640 2965 2.715 3.090 3.090 2.465 3.215 3.215 3.215 3.715 3.715 3.715 Point L4 2 000 2 625 2 500 2 750 2875 3125 2375 3125 3250 3 000 3375 3375 2 750 3 500 3 500 3 500 4.000 4.000 4.000

Length, Face of Couphng to HandTight Plane L I/Y (in.) 0 704 0.704 0 704 0.704 0.704 0 704 0 704 0.704 0 709 0.709 0 709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 Dlameter of Coupllg Recess d c, (I.) % /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 h /2 % /2 /2 % % /2 % /2 % h /2 i 3 3 3 3 3 3 3% 3% 3'/2 3/2 3% 3% 312 3% 3 12 3% 3% * * Depth of Couphng Recess HandTight Standoff Thread Turns so -

Mlnlmum Length, Full Crest Threads From End Of Pipe LC On ) 0675 1.500 1.375 1.625 1.750 2000 1 250 2.000 2.125 1.875 2.250 2.250 1.625 2.375 2.375 2.375 2.875 2.875 2.875

Pitch Diameter at HandTight Plane d, (1;) 4.40337 4.40337 4.90337 4.90337 5.40337 652837 6.90337 6.90337 752416 8.52418 6.52418 9 52416 10.64918 1064918 11.64916 13.27418 15.89918 16.52418 19.89918

Center of Coupling, Power Tight Make-Up L C _~ (I.) 1.125 0.500 0.750 0.500 0.500 0.500 1.250 0.500 0500 0.675 0.500 0.500 1.250 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500

0 1
4% 4% 5 5 5% 6% 7 7 7% 8% 8%

(I.)
4.500 4 500 5 000 5.000 5.500 6625 7000 7.000 7625 6625 6625 9625 10.750 10.750 11 750 13.375 16 000 18.625 20.000

(Ibmlft) Per Inch


9.50 others 11.50 others all all 17.00 others all 24.00 others all 32 75 others all all all 87.50 all 8 8 8 8 a 8 8 a 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

9%
10% 10% 1 1% 13% 16 18% 20

Included taper on diameter, allsues, 0.0625

m./~n

L, =L, - 1 125 I foreightround threadcasing For 10%.I Grade P-l10 casing and 20.1~ Grade J-55 and K-55 casing. the hand-tight standoff A 1sfourthreadturns

Internal Yield Pressure for Couplings. Internal yield pressure for threaded and coupled pipe is the same as for plain-end pipe. except where a lower pressure is required to avoid leakage because of insufficient coupling strength. The lower pressure is based on Eq. 19 and is rounded to the nearest IO psi.

P,;=a>< (Y).
where a!.,. = minimum yield d,,,. = nominal OD of nearest 0.001, dl = diameter at the at the end of tight position, 0.001. in. For round-thread cl, =d,,-(LI

L,s,, = hand-tight standoff, in. (L,Y,in API Standard 5B is given in turns), FT = taper, in./in. (F,=0.0625 for 4%- through l3%-in. casing and 0.0833 for casing larger than 13% in.). h,,. = thread height (0.08660 for IO threads/in.; 0.10825 for 8 threads/in.), in., and S,, = thread root truncation (0.014 for 10 threads/in.; 0.017 for 8 threads/in.), in. For buttress-thread casing, .(21)

strength of coupling, psi. coupling. rounded to the in., and root of the coupling thread the pipe in the powerrounded to the nearest

d, =d,

-(L,+I)F~+0.062,

casing and tubing, fL,,,)Fr-th,,.-25 ,,,, (20)

where d, = pitch diameter, in., L7 = length of perfect threads, in., and I = length from the end of the coupling to the base of the triangle in the hand-tight position (Fig. 2.10), in. (/=0.400 for 4X-in. casing: 0.500 for 5- through 13x-in. casing; and 0.375 for casing larger than l3jb in.)

where d, L,

= pitch diameter at hand-tight plane (Table 2.42), in., = length from end of pipe to hand-tight plane (Table 2.43), in..

Internal-Pressure Leak Resistance at Plane d,, or d,


The internal-pressure leak resistance at Plane d,t or d, is calculated with Eq. 22 and rounded to the nearest IO psi. Eq. 22 is based on the assumption that the seal is at

2-58

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.43-CASING

LONG-THREAD

DIMENSIONS

(FIG. 2.10A)

End of Length (in.) End of Pipe to Map OD do (in.) _~ 4% 5 5/2 wa 7 7% as 9% 20 Diameter d, (In.) 4 500 5 000 5 500 6.625 7.000 7 625 8.625 9 625 20 00 Number Threads Per Inch 8 8 8 a 8 8 8 8 8 of HandTight Plane L, 1 921 2.296 2.421 2.796 2.921 2.979 3.354 3.604 4.104 Total End of Pipe to Effective Vanish Threads -__ L2 Point L4 3.000 3.375 3.500 3.875 4.000 4 125 4.500 4.750 5.250 Pipe to Pitch Dtameter at HandTight Plane d, (in1 4.40337 4 90337 5.40337 6.52637 6 90337 7.52418 8 52418 9.52418 19.89918 Center of Couphnq, P&rTlqht Make-Up (f K, 0.500 0 500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 Length: Face of Couplinq to t&dDiameter of Couplmg Recess (2; 4%2 %2 5%2 w3, 7% 723/B w32 w32 Depth of Coupling Recess l$T) 12 12 12 /2 h 12 12 /2 /2 3% 3% 3/2 ** 3% Tight Standoff Thread Turns so Mlnlmum Length Full Crest Threads From End of Pipe

Tight
Plane L Ih (In.) 0.704 0 704 0 704 0.704 0.704 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709

LC (in )
1.875 2.250 2.375 2.750 2.875 3.000 3 375 3.625 4.125

2.715 3 090 3.215 3.590 3.715 3.840 4 215 4.465 4.965

2w32

Included taper on diameter, allsizes. 0 0625 in /in. L, =i, -1 125 an foreightround threadcasing ^For F/s-m Grade P-l10 casmg, and 20-k Grade J-55 and K-55 casmg, the hand-tight sfandolf A ISfourthreadturns

Plane d,,, for round threads and at Plane d, for buttress threads where the coupling is the weakest and the internalpressure leak resistance is the lowest. Eq. 22 is based on the assumption that the internal leak resistance is equal to pressure between the pipe and coupling threads resulting from makeup and the internal pressure with stresses in the elastic range. p,, =EFgL,,,(rh * -r,.)/4r,.rh , (22)

where pi/ = internal-pressure leak resistance, E = modulus of elasticity (30X 106)

psi.

n = number of thread turns makeup (n =r, for round-thread casing, r, + 1 l/z for buttress-thread casing 13% in. and smaller, and r; + 1 for buttress-thread casing 16 in. and larger, Tables 2.42 through 2.44), L,,, = thread pitch (0.125 for round thread, 0.200 for buttress thread), in., rh = external box radius, d,,,./2, in., rc = contact radius, d,, 12 for round-thread casing, d,/2 for buttress-thread casing, in., and = pipe internal radius. in. r,

RANE OF CENTER OF COUPLING a7SYIILLENowmaEMmK2x

I I+

PLANE of EWb PIPE.FWER-TIGHT

r
1

PLANE W MNO-TIGMT ENGAGEYENT

PIPE, H~TKWT

RANEQENDff

PLANE OF VANW

PCiNT

Fig. 2.1OA-Basic dimensions of line-pipe threads and casing and tubing round thread, hand-tightmakeup.

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-59

TABLE

2.44-BUTTRESS

CASING

THREAD
End of Pioe to Center of

DIMENSIONS
End of PiDfs to Center of Couolina. Hand-Tight Make-Up L

(FIG. 2.108)

Length (in.) Total End of OD do On.) Major Dram&r Pipe to Number Threads Per Inch 4.516 5 016 5.516 6 641 7016 7.641 6.641 9.641 10766 11 766 13.391 16.000 16625 20 000 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 of Imperfect Perfect Threads Threads L 11 1.964 1.984 1.984 1.964 1.984 1.984 1.904 1.964 1.984 1.964 1.984 1.486 1.466 1.466 L, 1.6535 1.7765 1.6410 2.0285 2.2160 2.4035 2.5265 2.5265 2.5265 2.5265 2.5265 3.1245 3.1245 3.1245 Vanish Point LA 3 6375 3 7625 3.6250 4.0125 4.2000 4 3875 4.5125 4 5125 4.5125 4.5125 4.5125 4.6125 4.6125 4.6125 Prtch Diameter dP (in.) 4.454 4.954 5.454 6.579 6.954 7.579 8.579 9.579 to 704 11 704 13.329 15936 18 563 t9.938

Mrnimum Length: Lenath: Face of Coupling to Plane E, (in.) End of Pipe to Triangle Stamp L,, (In.1 HandDiameter of Tight Standoff, Counterbore In Coupling Thread Turns so d cc (In.) 4.640 5.140 5.640 6.765 7.140 7.765 6.765 9.765 10.890 11.690 13.515 16.154 16.779 20.154 Length, Full Crest Threads From End of Pipe L (in.) 1.2535 1.3785 1.4410 1.6285 1.6160 2.0035 2.1265 2 1285 2.1285 2.1265 2.1285 2.7245 2.7245 2.7245

Couolina. power-Tight Make-Up L PC (W 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500

~- (IF,
0.900 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.675 0.675 0.675

7z5 5%

T,664
1 ,764 1 ,784 1 ,704 1 ,764 ,764 ,704 ,764 ,784 ,764 1.784 1.313 1.313 1.313 4% 4% 4% 4%

%
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 % 78 %

6%
7 7% w8 9% 10% 11% 13?& 16 18% 20

Included taper on diameter: Srzes 133/8In.and smaller-O.0625 in IIn. Szes 16 I.and larger-O.0833 In IIn Fvch diameteron buttress castngthreadISdehned as bang mldway between the major and m~rwr diameters .L, =L,-0 400 forbuttress casmg Withinthe L, length, as many as 2 threadsshowmg the oroginat outside surfaceof the pipe on thetr crests fora c~rcumterent~t distance not exceedmg 25% of the pope ctrcumference ISpermlss!ble The remamng threadsm the L, threadlengthshall be full crested threads. NOTE At planeof pertect threadlength i,. the txwc major dtamererof the pipethreadand pluggauge threadIS0 016 in greater than nOmlnalpipe diameterd, lor Sizes 13% m and smatter, and ISequal to the nominal pipe dtameterlorsues 16 !n and larger

The interface pressure result of makeup is pd=EFTnL,,(r,,

between

the pin and box as a

-r,.')(r,.2-ri')f4r,.2(r~2-rj2), . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._.......... (23)

Because rb > rc >ri, Apg<p;. Therefore, when plf + Apy=p;, the connection has reached the leak resistance limit, p;/. In other words, if pi>p,,r+Apf, leakage would occur.

where ri is the pipe radius in inches. After makeup, internal pressure, pi, causes a change in the interface pressure by an amount Ap,f: ~pPil=pir;(r~-r~.2)lr~Z(rhZ-ri~). ... . . (24)

~~~+Ap,~=p~

=p;,.

(25)

Substituting the appropriate values ofpg+Ap$ into Eq. 25 and simplifying produces Eq. 22. Note that the dimension T; no longer remains a variable.

Fig. 2.10B-Basic

dimensions of buttresscasing threads, hand-light makeup.

Z-60

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Joint Strength Round-Thread Casing Joint Strength. Round-thread


casing joint strength is calculated with Eqs. 26 and 27. The lesser of the values obtained from these two cquations governs. Eqs. 26 and 27 apply to both short and long threads and couplings. Eq. 26 is for minimum strength of a joint failing by fracture, and Eq. 27 is for minimum strength of a joint failing by thread jumpout or pullout. W,=0.95Ai,U,,p and _. _. (26)

Buttress-Thread Casing Joint Strength. Buttrcssthread casing joint strength is calculated from Eqs. 28 and 29. The lesser of the values obtained from the two equations governs. For pipe thread strength,
W,=0.95A,a,[l.008-0.0396(1.083-o,./a,,,,)dJ, . . . . . . . ..~.................. and for coupling Wj=0.95A,~a,,., thread . strength, . . . . ..t.. (29)

(28)

Lv, =0.954,,&,

-,59u I,, fJ, ( + 0.5L, +o. 14ld,, L,,+O.l4d,,

0.74d

> '

..,....,.....,...........,..

(27)

where W, = minimum joint strength, lbf, area of the pipe wall under A ,,I = cross-sectional the last perfect thread. 0.7854[(d,, -0.1425) -di 1 for eight round threads, sq in., L,. = engaged thread length (L, -L,a, for nominal makeup, API Standard 5B), in., Lpi = length fact of coupling to hand-tight plane, Col. IO of Table 2.42 or Cal. 9 of Table 2.43. minimum ultimate strength of pipe. psi, Ull/ = and CJ, = minimum yield strength of pipe, psi.

where A,, = cross-sectional area of plain-end pipe (0.7854 or d,,* -d;), sq in., A,. = cross-sectional area of coupling (0.7854 d,,,. -d; ), sq in., and u,,~. = minimum ultimate strength of coupling, psi.

or

Joint strengths were calculated to six-digit accuracy with cross-sectional areas of the pipe and the coupling rounded to three decimals. Final values were rounded to the nearest 1.000 Ibf for listing in Table 2.3. The equations, ado ted at the June 1970 API StandardiP zation Conference, . were based on a regression analysis of I51 tests of buttress-thread casing ranging in size from 4% to 20.in. OD and in strength levels from 40,000to lSO,OOO-psi minimum yield. Derivation of the equations is covered by Clinedinst.

Extreme-Line

Casing Joint Strength.


is calculated

casing joint strength Joint strengths of round-thread casing given in API Bull. 5C2 were calculated with tabulated values of diameter and thickness and APIIlisted values of Lj and +. Pipe area was calculated to three decimals, cl,, -(I was calculated to five digits from a seven-place logarithm table, and remaining calculations used six digits. Listed values were rounded to 1,000 Ibf. Eqs. 26 and 27 were adopted at the 1963 API Standardization Conference. Clinedinst covers the derivation of the equations. They are based on the results of an APIsponsored test program consisting of tension tests of 162 joints of round-thread casing in Grades K-55, N-80. and P-l 10 covering a range of wall thicknesses in 4X-, 5-, 5%.. 6x-, 7-, 9%.. and IO&in. diameters using both short and long threads where called for by the size and grade tested. Fourteen tests failed by fracture of the pipe, and 148 tests failed by pullout. Eq. 26 agrees satisfactorily with the 14 test fractures. Eq. 27 is based on analytical considerations and was adjusted to fit the data by statistical methods. The analytical procedure included coupling properties. but analysis of the current group of tests showed that the coupling was noncritical for standard coupling dimensions. Subsequent testing established that these equations are also applicable to J-55 casing. The factor 0.95 in Eqs. 26 and 27 originates in the statistical error of a multiple-regression equation with adjustment to permit the use of minimum properties in place of average properties. W; =Ac,.aL ,,,,

Extreme-line from Eq. 30: (30)

where A,,. = critical section area of box, pin. or pipe, whichever is least [0.7854(d:,, -d,, ) if box is critical, 0.7854(d,, -d, ) if pin is critical, 0.7854(d,, ~Cli) if pipe is critical], d (1 = nominal joint OD. made up. in.. f/l, = box critical section ID (dh +2h,h -6m +O,h), in., d,, = pin critical section OD (d,,, +hTr-8,). in., d,, = nominal joint ID, made up, in., h ,[, = minimum box thread height (0.060 for 6 threads/in. and 0.080 for 5 threads/ in.), in.. 6 Tc, = taper drop in pin perfect thread length (0.253 for 6 threads/in. and 0.228 for 5 threads/in.), in., 0,,, = one-half maximum thread interference in., Cd,, -d,,,.W. d,, = maximum root diameter at last perfect pin thread, in., d /I( = minimum crest diameter of box thread at Plane H, in..

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-6 1

?iTr = taper rise between Plane H and Plane J (0.035 for 6 threads/in. and 0.032 for 5 threads/in.), in., 0,, = one-half maximum seal interference Cd,).,-dh., )12, in.. d ,I = maximum diameter at pin seal tangent point, in., and dh, = minimum diameter at box seal tangent point, in. With the values listed in API standards, critical areas were calculated to three decimals, and the joint strengths were rounded to 1,ooO Ibf. is calculated from Eqs. 3 I and 32 as the product of the specified minimuti yield strength for the steel grade and the area of section under the root of the last perfect pipe thread or of the area of the pipe body, whichever is smaller. The areas of the critical sections of regular tubing couplings, special-clearance couplings, and the box of integral-joint tubing are. in all instances, greater than the governing critical areas of the pipe part of the joint and do not affect the strength of the joint. For calculations that are based on the thread root area. W, =uv x0.7854[(d,,-2hti)* and for calculations of the pipe, W, =u\ x0.7854(d,, -d,]. (31)

Bending Load Failure Strength. 140.5&i,, (@,,p


For Wh /A,ip < ax)

For W,, /A ,,, 2 (T, .

-,p3

II
j

(35)

W,, =0.95A,,,,

= 0.644

+o! -21X. 15r,,d,, > Load.

(36)

Relationship Between Total and External W,=Wer+W,$fi, ,.....,

(37)

Tubing Joint Strength. Tubing joint strength

where W,,h=piA;,,. .. .(38)

Relationship Between Bending and Curvature Radius. 6=5730/r,,,.. . (39)

that are based on area of the body

-di*).

(32)

where h,, = height of thread (0.05560 for 10 threads/in. and 0.07125 for 8 threads/in.), in. Joint strength was calculated to an accuracy six digits and rounded to 100 lbf. of at least

Joint Strength of Round-Thread Casing with Combined Bending and Internal Pressure. Joint strength of
round-thread casing subjected to combined bending and internal pressure is calculated from Eqs. 33 through 39 on a total load basis and is expressed in pounds. These equations were based on Clinedinsts paper. Tables of joint strength of API round-thread casing with combined bending and internal pressure are given in API Bull. 5c4. I6 Full Fracture Strength. Wh, =0.95A,u,,, . . (33)

In Eqs. 33 through 39, to ID, sq in., A;(, = area corresponding area of the pipe wall under A IP = cross-sectional the last perfect thread [0.7854 or (d,,-0.1425)-(d,,-2c)?]. sq in., ft, 6= bending, degrees/l00 F.,,. = ratio of internal pressure stress to yield strength, or /Tid,,/2a, t, WI, = total tensile failure load with bending, Ibf, w,, = external load, lbf, wjo = total tensile load at jumpout or reduced fracture, lbf, total tensile load at fracture, Ibf. Wjil = head load, lbf, Wsf, = w, = total load, the least of Wh, W, , or WC,, lbf, and rh = bending radius of curvature, ft. Calculations were made to six or more digits accuracy without intermediate rounding of areas. The final joint strength values were rounded to the nearest 1,000 lbf. The equations for joint strength on a total load basis are based on a work by Clinedinst, I5 who covers the development of combined loading joint strength equations and the determination of material constants and equation coefficients based on the results of an API-sponsored research project where 26 tests were made on 5%-in., 17-lbmifi K-55 short round-thread casing.

Jumpout and Reduced Fracture Strength.

Line-Pipe Joint Strength


The following equations for the fractured strength and the pullout or jumpout strength of API threaded line-pipe joints have been adapted from Clinedinsts I2 equations:

(1+0.5F.,,)u, + L+0.14d,

Minimum

fracture

strength

is . . . . .(40)

(34)

Wf=0.95AJPuu,,,

2-62

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.45-LINE-PIPE

THREAD

HEIGHT

DIMENSIONS, 14 Threads Per inch p = 0.0714 0.0619 0.0543 0.0024 0.0052

in. (FIG. 2.11) 8 Threads Per Inch p=O.l250 0.1082 0.0950 0.0041 0.0091

Thread Element tc = h, = h, = f,s = f, = f,, = f,, = 0.866p 0.760~ 0.033p 0.073p

27 Threads Per Inch p = 0.0370 0.0321 0.0281 0.0012 0.0027

18 Threads Per Inch p = 0.0556 0.0481 0.0422 0.0018 0.0041

11% Threads Per Inch p = 0.0070 0.0753 0.0661 0.0029 0.0063

h, h,

= sharp thread height = thread height of pipe

h, = thread height of coupling L lp = thread pitch f, = thread root truncationof pipe f,, f I
-. TAPER = i t4 ~_ IN. PER FT 162.5 MM i *x,5-, PER Ml ON DIAM

= thread root truncationof coupling = thread crest truncation of pipe = thread crest truncation of coupling

fen

f:I

and minimum

pullout strength

is
UP

(J + L,+0,14d,

1
,

. .

.(41)

where Ajp = 0.7854[(d, -2hti)* -(d, -2e)2)], sq in., Wf = minimum joint fracture strength, lbf WiJO = minimum joint pullout strength, lbf,

hti = thread height (0.0950 for 8 threads/in.; 0.0661 for 11% threads/in.; 0.0543 for 14 threads/in.; 0.0422 for 18 threads/in.; 0.0281 for 27 threads/in.), in.. h = engaged height of thread or h,j (fC,>+f,,) (0.0900 for 8 threads/in.; 0.0627 for 11 % threads/in.; 0.0515 for 14 threads/in.; 0.0399 for 18 threads/in.; 0.0267 for 27 threads/ in.), in., fC,Y = crest truncation of pipe (Table 2.45), and fc,= crest truncation of coupling (Table 2.45).

Hydrostatic Test Pressures for Plain-End Pipe, Extreme-Line Casing, and Integral-Joint Tubing. The
hydrostatic test pressures for plain-end pipe, extreme-line casing, and integral-joint tubing are calculated with Eq. 42 except for Grade A25 line pipe, Grades A and B line pipe in sizes less than 23/,-in. OD, and threaded and coupled line pipe in sizes 6%-in. OD and less, which were determined arbitrarily.

2ufe
PH=d,,

. .

. . .

. . . .

. . . . .

. . .

. . .

(42)

where pi

= hydrostatic test pressure rounded to the nearest 10 psi for line pipe and to the nearest 100 psi for casing and tubing, psi, and uf = fiber stress corresponding to the percent of specified yield strength as given in Table 2.46, psi.

TAPER

IN.

PER FT 162,s

MM

PER MI

ON

DIAM.

Hydrostatic Test Pressure for Threaded and Coupled Pipe. The hydrostatic test pressure for threaded and coupled pipe is the same as for plain-end pipe except where a lower pressure is required to avoid leakage caused by

Fig. 2.11-Line pipe thread form. Buttresscasing thread form and dimensions for casing sizes 4% to 133/8in.

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-63

TABLE 2.46-FACTORS

FOR TEST PRESSURE EQUATIONS


Fiber Stress as Percent of Specified Minimum Yield Strength

Grade A, A, x, x, K B B u u u

Size (in.) 2?/8 through 3% over 3V2 4% and smaller 6s/B and 85/ 10% through 18 20 and larger 95/s and smaller 10% and larger allsizes allsizes allsizes allsizes allsizes

Standard Test Pressures 60 60 60 75 85 90 80 60 80 00 80 80 80

Alternative Test Test Pressure Pressures Rounding 75 75 75 80 80 60 00 10 10 10 10 10 IO 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Maximum Test Pressure. osi Standard 2,500 2,800 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 10,000** 10,000*
l 10,000 *

Alternative 2,500 2,800 3,000 10,000 10,000 T t

H-40, ?5:. K-55 H-40, J-55, K-55 L-80, N-80 c-75 c-95 P-105 P-l IO

10,000 10,000**

Highertest pressuresare permiwble by agreement between purchaserand manufacturer ;Platn-end p!pe IStestedto 3,000 psimaximum unlessa htgherpressureISagreed upon by the purchaseran+ manufacturer. No maxnnum tat pressure, excepl thatplain-end pope IStestedto 3,000 PSI maximum unlessa higherpressureISagreed upon by the purchaserand manufacturer

insufficient internal yield pressure of the coupling or insufficient internal pressure leak resistance at Plane d,,, or d, calculated with Eqs. 19 and 43, respectively.

Internal Yield Pressure for Couplings. The internal yield pressure for the coupling is calculated with Eq. 19 and rounded to the nearest lo0 psi. For round-thread casing and tubing, dl is calculated with Eq. 20. For line pipe.
d, =d, -(L, where +L,o)Ff +h,,.-2f,,,. 0.0481 . (43) for 18

h,,.=0.0321

for 27 threads/in.:

threads/in.; 0.0619 for 14 threads/in.; 0.0753 for 11% threads/in.; 0.10825 for 8 threads/in., and f,.,, =thread root truncation (Table 2.47), 0.0012 for 27 threads/in.; 0.0018 for 18 threads/in.; 0.0024 for 14 threads/in.; 0.0029 for I1 % threads/in.; and 0.0041 for 8 threads/in. For buttress-thread casing, d, is calculated with Eq. 21. Eq. 19 bases the coupling hydrostatic pressure on the assumption that the coupling is stressed to 80% of minimum yield strength at the root of the coupling thread at the end of the pipe in the power-tight position. The basis of this equation was adopted at the 1968 API Standardization Conference.

TABLE 2.47-EXTREME-LINE

CASING THREADING AND MACHINING DIMENSIONS-SIZES (FIGS. 2.13, 2.15, AND 2.17)
5 6 7 8 9 10 11

5 THROUGH 75/ in.

12

13

Threadina and Machinina Dimensions (in.1


Drift

Diameter
Nommal Made-Up Joint ID 4.198 4.198 4.736 4.701 4.701 4.610 5.781 5 731 5 615 6.171 6 171 6.123 6.032 5.940 5.860 6.770 6.770 6.705 6.565 for

OD
(In) -15.00 5

Weight
(Ibmlft) 18.00 15.50

Bored
upset 4 183 4.183 4.721 4.686 4.686 4 595 5.766 5 716 5.600 6.156 6156 6.108 6.017 5.925 5.845 6.755 6.755 6690 6.550 Maximum 4.504 4.504 5.008 5.008 5.008 5.007 6.089 6088 6.088 6.477 6.477 6.477 6477 6.476 6.476 7072 7072 7072 7071

A
Minimum 4.506 4.506 5.010 5.010 5.010 5009 6.091 6090 6.090 6.479 6.479 6479 6.479 6.478 6.478 7.074 7.074 7.074 7.073 B 4.208 4.208 4.746 4.711 4.711 4 619 5.792 5741 5.624 6.182 6.182 6.134 6.042 5 949 5.869 6.782 6.782 6.716 6.575 C 4.545 4.545 5.048 5.048 5.048 5.048 6 130 6129 6 129 6518 6518 6518 6 518 6 517 6517 7 113 7.113 7 112 7.112 D 4.235 4.235 4.773 E 4.575 4.575 5 079 G 4.938 4.938 5.442 5.442 5.442 5.441 6.523 6.522 6.522 6.912 6.912 6.912 6.911 6.911 6.911 7.511 7.511 7.510 7.510 Minimum 4.827 4.827 5.331 5.331 5.331 5.330 6.412 6411 6.411 6.801 6.801 6.801 6.800 6.800 6.800 7.400 7.400 7.399 7.399

H
Maximum 4.829 4.829 5.333 5.333 5.333 5.332 6.414 6413 6.413 6.803 6.803 6.803 6.802 6.802 6.802 7.402 7.402 7.401 7.401 MinImum 4.819 4.819 5.323 5.323 5.323 5.323 6.403 6 403 6.404 6.792 6.792 6.792 6.792 6.793 6.793 7.390 7.390 7.390 7.391

I
Maximum ~4.821 4.821 5.325 5.325 5.325 5.325 6.405 6405 6.406 6.794 6.794 6.794 6 794 6795 6.795 7.392 7.392 7.392 7.393 J 4.975 4.975 5479 5.479 5.479 5479 6.559 6 559 6.560 6.948 6.948 6.948 6.948 6.949 6.949 7.546 7.546 7.548 7.549

5%

17.00 20.00 23.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 23.00 26.00 29.00 32.00 35.00 38.00 26.40 29.70 33.70 39 00

4.738 5 079 4.7313 5 079 4.647 5.079 5.818 5.768 5.652 6.208 6.208 6.160 6.069 5.977 5.897 6.807 6.807 6.742 6.602 6.160 6160 6.159 6.549 6.549 6.549 6.548 6.548 6.548 7.148 7.148 7.147 7.147

6%

7%

2-64

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

2.47-EXTREME-LINE

CASING

THREADING

AND

MACHINING DIMENSIONS-SIZES

5 THROUGH 7% in. (continued)

Internal-Pressure Leak Resistance at Plane d,, or d,. The internal pressure leak resistance at Plane I,,, or d,, is calculated with Eq. 22 and rounded to the nearest 100 psi.

API Threading Data


Dimensional data on API threads were taken from API Specification 5B for threading, gauging, and thread inspection of casing, tubing, and line-pipe threads. For information on gauges and gauging, and thread inspection equipment and inspection. refer to Ref. 6. Fig. 2.10A shows the basic dimensions of line-pipe threads and casing and tubing round-thread hand-tight makeup. Tables 2.42, 2.43, and 2.48 give the tabulated data for casing short-thread. casing long-thread. and linepipe thread dimensions. Fig. 2. IOB shows and Table 2.44 lists the basic dimensions of buttress casing threads, handtight makeup. Thread dimensions of nonupset tubing,

external-upset tubing, and integral joint tubing are listed in Tables 2.49 through 2.5 I. Thread height dimensions for line pipe are given in Table 2.45 and for casing and tubing in Table 2.52. The respective thread forms are shown in Figs. 2. I I and 2.12. Buttress casing thread forms and dimensions for 4% through 12-in. sizes are shown in Fig. 2.1 I and for l&in. and larger are shown in Fig. 2.12. Machining details for 5- through 75/,-in. casing are given in Fig. 2.13 and for 8%. through 10% -in. casing in Fig. 2.14 and the tabulated data are given in Tables 2.47 and 2.53. respectively. The box and pin entrance threads are given in Figs. 2.15 and 2.16. Also, the product thread form for 5- through 75/,-in. sizes, 6 threads/in., 1 l/z-in. taperift on diameter is shown in Fig. 2.17, and for 8xthrough lox-in. sizes, 5 threads/in., 1 %-in. taperift on
diameter is shown in Fig. 2.18.

L TAPER =

-~---i

, &Xl5 ~~. ~~ - -. ~-.~-DIAM.

1 IN. PER FT 183.3 MM

PER MI ON

Fig. 2.12-Casing and tubinground-thread form.Buttress casing threadform and dimensions for sizes 16 in.and larger.

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE

PIPE

2-65

TABLE 2.48-LINE-PIPE

THREAD DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A)

End of Pipe to Length (in ) End of Total End of Pipe to Effective Vamsh Threads L2 0 2639 0.4oia 0 4078 0.5337 05457 0.6828 0 7068 0.7235 07565 1.1375 1 2000 1 2500 1.3000 1 4063 1.5125 1.7125 1.9250 21250 2.2500 2.4500 2.6500 2.8500 Point Lb 0 3924 0 5946 0 6006 0 7815 0 7935 0.9845 1 0085 1.0252 i 0582 1.5712 1.6337 1 6837 1 7337 1.8400 1 9462 2.1462 2.3587 25587 2.6837 2.8837 3.0837 3 2837 Pipe to HandNumber Threads Per Inch '/e '/a 9'8 vi 3/q 1 1 A 1% 2 2'12 3 3'12 4 5 6 8 10 12 14D 16D 1aD 20D 0405 0.540 0.675 0.840 1.050 1.315 1 660 1.900 2 375 2.875 3 500 4 000 4.500 5563 6 625 6625 10 750 12 750 14.000 16 000 18 000 20 000 27 18 18 14 14 1 1 /2 1 1 /2 1 1 12 1 1 2 8 a a 8 8 a 8 8 a a a a 8 of Tight Plane L, 0.1615 0.2278 0.240 0320 0.339 0.400 0.420 0.420 0436 0.662 0.766 0.821 0.844 0 937 0.958 1.063 1.210 1.360 1.562 1 812 2.000 2.125 Pttch Diameter at HandTight Plane d, On.1 0 37360 0 49163 0.62701 0 77843 0 98887 1.23863 1 58338 1 82234 2 29627 2 76216 3 38850 3.88881 438712 544929 650597 850003 10 62094 12 61781 13 87263 15 87575 I 7.87500 19 87031 Center of Coupling. PowerTight Make-Up L PC (in.) 0.1389 0.2179 0.2119 0.28io 0.2690 0.3280 0 3665 0.3498 0 3793 0.4913 0.4913 0.5038 0.5163 0.4725 0.4913 0.4788 0.5163 0 5038 0.5038 0.4913 0.4788 0.5288 Length: Face of Coupling to HandTight Plane L Ih (In.1 0.1 198 0.2001 0.1938 0.2473 0.2403 0.3235 0.3275 0.3442 0.3611 0 6392 0 6177 0.6127 0.6397 0.6530 0.7382 0.8332 0.8987 0 9487 0.8717 0.8217 0.8337 0 9087 Diameter Of Couphng Recess d ci (in.) 0.468 0.603 0.738 0.903 1.113 I ,378 1.723 1.963 2.469 2.969 3.594 4.094 4.594 5.657 6.719 a.719 lo.844 12.844 14.094 16.094 18.094 20.094 Depth of Coupling Recess D cr (In.1 0.0524 0 1206 0.1147 0.1582 0.1516 0.2241 0.2279 0.2439 0 2379 04915 0 4710 0.4662 0.4920 0.5047 0.5861 0.6768 0.7394 0.7872 0.7136 0.6658 0.6773 0.7490 HandTight Standoff Thread Turns n so 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 03325 0.3565 03732 04062 06342 0.6967 0.7467 0 7967 0.9030 1.0092 1.2092 1.4217 1.6217 17467 1.9467 2.1467 2.3467 Mlnlmum Length. Full Crest Threads From End of Pipe L (Ini

Included taper on dtameter. allwe.%

0.0625 in /in

TABLE 2.49-INTEGRAL-JOINT

TUBING THREAD DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A)


End of Pipe to Thread Pitch Diameter at HandTight Plane d, (In) t .2532a 1 59826 1 83826 2.03206 Run-out in Box PowerTight Make-Up L PI (In ) 0.500 0.500 0500 0.500 Length: Face of Box IO HandTight Plane L Ih (In.) 0446 0446 0446 0446 Diameter of Box Recess m d cr ) Depth of Box Recess D,, HandTight Standoff Thread Turns MInimum Length, Full Crest Threads, From Lc W.) 0.225 0.350 0475 0538 End of Pope

Length (tn.) End of Pioe to Major OD dn (in.) 1.315 1 660 1.900 2.063 Diameter d, (In.) 1.315 1.660 1 900 2 094 Number Threads Per Inch 10 10 IO 10 of HandTtghtPlane L, 0 479 0 604 0 729 0 792 Total End of Pipe to Effective Vanish Threads L2 0 956 i 081 1 206 1.269 Pomt L, 1 125 1 250 1 375 I 438

(In )

so

1.378 1.723 1 963 2.156

Included taper on diameter

allsues. 0 0625 in IIn.

2-66

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.50-NONUPSET

TUBING THREAD DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A)

End of Pipe 10 Length (in.) End of Pipe to Total End of Pipe 10 Effecttve Vanish Threads L2 Point L4 1.094 0.956 1.081 1.206 1.456 1 894 2.144 2.140 2.328 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.625 2.063 2.313 2.375 2.563 at HandTight Plane d, (in.) 0.98826 1.25328 1 S9826 1.83826 2.31326 2.81326 3.43826 3.91395 4.41395 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 Pitch Center of Coupling, PowerTight Make-Up Length: Face of Coupling to HandTight Plane Lf/i (in.) 0.446 0.446 0.446 0.446 0.446 0.446 0.446 0.534 0.534 MInImum Length,

Diameter
of Coupling Recess of Coupling Recess ;:, Tight Standoff Thread Turns so 2 2 2 %s %6 %s % 6 % % 2 2 2 2 2 2

Full Crest Threads From Lc (in.) 0.300 0 300 0.350 0.475 0.725 1.163 1.413 1.375 1.563 End of Pipe*

Major
OD do (.I 1.050 1.315 1.660 Diameter *, (in.) 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.675 3.500 4.000 4500 Number Threads Per Inch 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 a 8 of

HandTight Plane L, -0.925 0.448 0.479 0.604 0.729 0.979 1.417 1.667 1.591 1.779

d c,
(in.) 1.113 i ,378 1.723 1.963 2.438 2.938 3.563 4.063 4.563

1.900

2% 27/s
3% 4 4%

Included taper on diameter. allsizes, 0.0625 in./ln 'L, =L, L, =L, -0 900 I torlo-thread tubing, but not lessthan 0 300 I = 1 000 I lors-thread tubing

TABLE 2.51-EXTERNAL-UPSET

TUBING THREAD DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A)

Length (in) End of Pipe to Major OD do (in.) 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 Diameter da (in.) 1.315 1.469 1.812 2.094 2.594 3.094 3.750 4.250 4.750 Number Threads Per Inch 10 10 10 10 a a 8 8 8 o0.604 0.729 0.792 1 154 1 341 1.591 1.716 1.641 of HandTight Plane L, Total End of Pipe to Effective Vanish Point Threads L2 0.956 1.081 1.206 1.269 1 703 1 890 2.140 2.265 2.625 L4 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.438 1.938 2.125 2.375 2 500 2.390

Pitch Diameter at HandTight Plane *, (in.) 1.25328 1.40706 1.75079 2.03206 2.50775 3.00775 3.66395 4.16395 4.66395

End of Pipe to Center of Coupling, PowerTight Make-Up tng 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500

Length. Face of Coupling to HandTight Plane L,* (In.) 0.446 0.446 0.446 0.446 0.534 0.534 0.534 0.534 0.534 1.378 1.531 1 .a75 2.158 2.656 3.158 3.613 4.313 4.813 Diameter of Coupling Recess Depth of Coupltng Recess DC, (in) HandTight Standoff Thread Turns so : 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Minimum Length, Full Crest Threads From End of Pipe 1, (in.) 0.300 0.350 0.475 0.538 0.938 1.125 1.375 1 500 1 625

2% 2%
3% 4 4%

Included taper on diameter, allSizes, 0.0625 in /in 'L, = 1~ - 0 900 in fatlo-thread tubing, bul not lessthan 0 300 in Le = L n - 1 000 ,n forS-thread tubmg.

h IC

TABLE 2.52-CASING AND TUBING ROUND THREAD HEIGHT DIMENSIONS, in. (FIG. 2.12)
10 Threads Per Inch p=0.1000 0.8660 0.05560
0.01400

Thread Element h, = 0.866p h,,=h,=0.626p-0.007 srs= S,=0.120p+0.002 SC, =sc, =0.120p+0.005

8 Threads Per inch p=O.1250 0.10825 0.07125


0.01700 TAPER = % IN. PER FT 162.5 MM PER MI ON DIAM.

0.01700

0.02000

S,S = thread root truncationof pipe SK = thread root truncationof coupling SC, = thread crest truncationof pipe = thread crest truncationof coupling S LT = thread pitch

CASING, TUBING, AND LINE PIPE

2-67

TABLE 2.53-EXTREME-LINE

CASING THREADING AND MACHINING DIMENSIONS-SIZES (FIGS. 2.14,2.16, AND 2.18)


5 6 7 8 9 10 Dimensions (in.)

85/ THROUGH 10% in,

11

12

13

Threading and Machining Drift Diameter OD (in.) Nommal Weight 32.00 0% 36.00 40.00 44.00 49.00 40.00 43.50 47.00 53.50 45.50 51.00 55.50 60.70 Made-Up Jofnt ID (Ibmlft) 7725 7725 7.663 7.565 7451 8.665 8.665 8.621 a475 9.819 9.719 9629 9.529 for Bored upset 7.710 7.710 7.648 7.550 7.436 8.650 8.650 8.606 8.460 9.804 9.704 9.614 9.514 Maximum 8.100 8.100 8.100 8.100 8.099 9.041 9.041 9.041 9.040 10.286 10.286 10.286 10.286 A Minimum 8.102 8.102 8.102 8.102 8.101 9.043 9.043 9.043 9.042 10.288 10.288 10.288 10.288 B 7.737 7.737 7.674 7.575 7.460 8.677 8.677 8.633 8.485 9.829 9.729 9.639 9.539 C 8.148 8.148 8.148 8.147 8.147 9.089 9.089 9.089 9.088 10.334 10.334 10.334 10.334 D 7.762 7.762 7.700 7.602 7.488 8.702 8.702 8.658 8.512 9.854 9.754 9.864 9.564 E 8.192 8.192 8.192 8.191 8.191 9.134 9.134 9.134 9.133

H G 8.569 8.569 8.569 8.568 8.568 9.512 9.512 9.512 9.511 10.756 10.756 10.756 10.756 Minimum ~ 8.418 8.418 8.418 8.417 8.417 9.361 9.361 9.381 9.360 10.605 10.605 10.605 10.605 Maximum 8.420 8.420 8.420 8.419 8.419 9.363 9.363 9.363 9.362 10.607 10.607 10.607 10.607 Minimum 8.408 8.408 8.409 8.409 8.410 9.351 9.351 9.351 9.352 10.597 10.597 10.597 10.597

I Maximum 8.410 8.410 8.411 8.411 8.412 9.353 9.353 9.353 9.354 10.599 10.599 10.599 10.599 J 8.601 8.601 8.602 8.602 8.603 9.544 9.544 9.544 9.545 10.790 10.790 10.790 10.790

9%

10.378 10.378 10.378 10.378

10%

SEEDETAIl FIG. 2.15

E ( I/2' I I" I I' , CHECK CREST

n+ -<I?

GTHREADS
TAPER PER

SEE FIGS 2 ALLTHREAI ENLARGED DETAIL D

CONTINUATION THREAD ROOT

OF RUNOUT

16/16. _ .
CHECK

3, I A '
ROOT TO ROOT

I TAPER 8

J
ENLARGED

-1
DETAILC

-I TAPER

Fig. 2.13-Machining

details,

extreme-line

casing joint sizes 5 through 75/s in.

2-68

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.53-EXTREME-LINE

CASING THREADING AND MACHINING DIMENSIONS-SIZES


(continued)

8%

THROUGH

10%

in.

SEE DETAIL SEE DETAIL E 5 m.ThPERAS , CHECKCREST THDS. TAPtRE,TD CREST

2. TAPIR PER lo01 Oy D,h.

i 5 THRt TAPER _ SEE FIGS 2 Vi&d

-.OlO" 6.1875+.063

2 18 FOR

I 118

1 1 I TAPER d TAPER 3 CHECK ROOTTD RD3T

ENLARGEI? _-.--._----

DETAIL

Fig. 2.14-Machining

details, extreme-line casing joint sizes 85/8 through 10%

in. (see Table 2.53).

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-69

,960 THREADS WITH NORMAL CRESTS 8 IMPERFECT ROOTS TO AXIS

START OF FIRST FULL THREAD

PARALLEL

,960 I-

FOOT

ON

OIA

BOX

OETAIL ENTRANCE

l-l/2 FOOT

TAPER PER-I ON DIA

THREADS

ft

l-l/Z FOOT

TAPER PER ON @IA

DETAIL
PIN ENTRANCE

F
THREADS

Fig. 2.15-Box-and-pm

entrance threads,extreme-linecasing joint sizes 5 through 7%

In

Z-70

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

START FULL I 536 ORMAL CRESTS 8 IMPERFECT

OF FIRST THREAD ROOTS

l-l/4 FOOT

TAPER ON DIA

PER

BOX

DETAIL ENTRANCE

E THREADS

FIRST

FULL THREAD

.996f ,020 7 NORMAL CRESTS LL 1HI

l-l/4 FOD7

s TAPER ON DIP,

PER

/
,-1/4 FOOT TAPER PER ON DIP. [ z zlc.007 Z:E-.021 I

DETAIL PIN ENTRANCE

F THREADS

Fig. 2.16-Box-and-pin entrance threads, extreme-line casing joint sizes 8% through 10%

in

CASING,

TUBING.

AND

LINE PIPE

2-71

.I666 c .08339 I .0833

- 1

BOX THREAD FORM

BEARING FLANK

PIN THREAD FORM

BOX

PIN

THREAD ASSEMBLY

Fig.

2.17-Product thread form, extreme-line casing joint sizes5 through 75/ in., 6 threads/in., 1%~in. taper/ft on diameter.

2-72

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

BOX THREAD FORM

7
PARALLEL

$0 TO PIPE AXIS ---i 9P A-

PIN THREAD FORM

BOX PIN THREAD ASSEMBLY

900 1

PARALLEL TO PIPE AXIS

900 ,

343 Q

Fig. 2.18-Product thread form, extreme-linecasing ]otnt sizes 85/s through 10% I%-In taperlft on diameter

I., 5 threads/In

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE

PIPE

2-73

Nomenclature
A,. = cross-sectional area of coupling, sq in. A,., = critical section area of box, pin, or pipe, whichever is least, sq in ~~~~ = area corresponding to ID, sq in Aj,, = cross-sectional area of the pipe wall under the last perfect thread, sq in metal area of pipe, A,,, = cross-sectional sq in. A,, = cross-sectional area of plain-end pipe, sq in. h = width of bearing face, in. Cs = constant (0.8527 for salt water; 0.8151 for rotary mud: and I .O for air) C1 = constant, 0.00000136 Cs = constant, 0.0000004 dh = box critical section ID, in. d,,,. = minimum crest diameter of box thread at Plane H, in. (d,,f),nax = maximum bearing face diameter bevel, in. dh,, = minimum diameter at box seal tangent point. in. d,. = diameter of chamfer, in. d,, = diameter of coupling recess, in. d, = inside diameter, in, dj = nominal joint ID made up. in. d,, = OD, in. d n/l = integral joint OD of box. in. (d,,le) Vl, = d,/e intersection between yield-strength collapse and plastic collapse = d,/e intersection between plastic (do/e),,, collapse and transition collapse d,,le intersection between transition (do/d 71: = collapse and elastic collapse d,,, = coupling OD. in. d,,,.,, dci d,, d PI = = = = coupling OD, special clearance, in. nominal joint OD made up, in. pitch diameter at hand-tight plane, in. pitch diameter at hand-tight plane for round threads, in. maximum diameter at pin seal tangent point, in. diameter of recess, in. maximum root diameter at last perfect pin thread, in. diameter at the root of the coupling thread at the end of the pipe in the power tight position, in. depth of coupling recess, in. wall thickness, in. Youngs modulus of elasticity, psi crest truncation of coupling (Table 2.45) crest truncation of pipe (Table 2.45) thread root truncation of coupling (Table 2.45) for calculating collapse

d ,A\ = d,. = d U = dl =

F,,,. = ratio of internal pressure stress to yield strength FT = taper F, = free stretch factor corresponding to t,\, F2 = free stretch factor corresponding to L,,Z h = engaged height of thread, in. h,$, = hand-tight standoff, thread turns h,h = minimum box thread height, in. h,<. = thread height of coupling, in. hti = height of thread, in. I = length from end of coupling to base of triangle in hand-tight position (Fig. 2.2), in. 15,. = minimum length, full crest threads, from end of pipe, in. L,, = distance to lower top of casing for desired stress at top of cement, in. L, = engaged thread length, in. L UI = length of external upset taper, in. LR = length face of coupling to hand-tight plane, in. Li,,. = end of pipe to center of coupling, handtight makeup, in. L IUI = length of internal upset taper, in. L,,i, = minimum length, in. L, = length of pipe, in. L,,. = length from end of pipe to center of coupling, power-lift makeup, in. L PJ = length from end of pipe to triangle stamp, in. L,\ = stretch, in. L SO = hand-tight standoff, in. AL, = total axial stretch or contraction, in. L,; = length from face of coupling to plane of perfect thread, in. L,,, = thread pitch, in. AL,, = unit axial stretch or contraction, in. LO = distance required to lower top of casing for zero stress at top of cement, in. LI = length from end of pipe to hand-tight plane, in. L, ,Lz . I L,, = lengths above top of cement on singleweight Sections I, 2. II of combination string, ft La = total thread length L7 = length of perfect threads, in. L\,L*... Lj, = lengths below top of cement of singleweight Sections 1, 2. n of combination string, ft n = number of thread turns makeup p = pressure, psi ,nIur = minimum collapse pressure under axial stress, psi ,n(.(, = minimum collapse pressure without axial stress, psi pi = minimum collapse pressure range of collapse, psi for elastic

D,.,. P E f(,!

= = = =

J;., = f,, = F,,F,,F,, F,-,F,

= equation factors pressure

2-74

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

PH pi pif Apv p;/

= = = = = PP =

pT =

P? = p!; = rb = rhc. = rc = ri = W,*W?... Sections 1, /I = weights of single-weight 2. n of combination string above cement, lbmift wi ,wi . Sections 1, w;, = weights of single-weight 2. .n of combination string below top of cement, lbmift superimposed tension or compression, w, = axial load, Ibf Wh = total tensile failure load with bending, Ibf Wf = minimum joint fracture strength, Ibf wr; = total tensile load at fracture, Ibf w;,, = total tensile load at jumpout or reduced fracture strength, Ibf wj = minimum joint strength, Ibf w,, = pipe-body yield strength, lbf W po = minimum joint pullout strength, Ibf w, = total load below the top of cement, Ibm Ym = specific gravity of rotary mud Y 1, = specific gravity of water b= bending. degrees/ 100 ft 6 Td = taper drop in pin perfect thread length, in. II taper rise between Planes H and J, in. 6 one-half maximum seal interference, in. 8:= maximum thread interference. 0,/r = one-half in. unit stress, psi U= psi a, = axial stress, to the percent Uf = fiber stress corresponding of specified yield strength given in Table 2.46, psi stress desired to be left at top of u, = tension cement. psi ultimate strength of coupling, au. = minimum psi ultimate strength of pipe, psi ~,,/I = minimum yield stress or strength of a! = minimum pipe. psi of axial stress equivalent a,, = yield strength grade, psi yield strength of coupling, psi a?.(. = minimum

hydrostatic test pressure, psi internal pressure, psi interface pressure, psi change in interface pressure, psi internal-pressure leak resistance, psi minimum collapse pressure for plastic range of collapse, psi minimum collapse pressure for plastic to elastic transition zone, psi yield-strength collapse pressure, psi internal yield pressure, psi external box radius, in. bending radius of curvature contact radius, in. pipe internal radius, in.

Key Equations in SI Metric Units


323.7 x 10 (d,,e)[(d,,e)-l12

PE=

(9)

where PE is in kPa. d, =d;, -(L, where dl, d;, +I)F,+1.578, and L7 are in cm. . (21)

0)

L, +O. 14d,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (27)
where Wj is A,, is L, is d,, is o,,,, is u, is

in in in in in in

N, cm2, cm, cm, kPa, and kPa.

References
I. Casing, tion 2. 5A. Tubing, Dallas Yield 5AC. and Drill [May 31, Pipe, 1984). Casing (May API and Tubing, 31, 1984). SAQ, DalIah (May API 18th 1983). of with Specificarion Pipe. 14th edition, API 37th edition, API SpecificaRestricted Specification 3. 3. Q-125 31. 1985). Casing, 5AX. Properties Supplement and 4. API Tubing, (May dnd Drill 31. 13th edition, Pipe. (April edition (Nov. Drill Inspection Strength Dallas

Casing.

first editjon,

High-Strength Specification Performance edition wth Specification Casmg. Tubing, No.

Dallas

1984) and Drill Dallas tenth Dallas

5. 6.

of Casing, No. Line 1. API Pipe

Tubing, Bull. SC?,

for Threading,

Gauging.

and Thread

Threads. SB.

Supplement 7. Formulas Line Bul. 8. Line 1984). 9. IO. C<~.\ing rend (1983). Collapse Clinedinst. PS 1255 Dallas, I?. paper 13. Cllncdinat, 5C3.

Specification

1983). Pipe. and

and Calculations third Dallas (April

for Casing. edition with

Tuhing.

Pipe Properties. Pipe.

Supplement

No.

1. API 3 I,

1983). API Specification SL. Dallas (May

34th edition,

Tubing

Tdvzicd

Dnm.

Lone API

Star

Steel

Co..

Dallas API circular

Pressure W.O.: presented Appendix W.O.:

Formulas, DalIa Strength 1963 API

Circular 1968).

PS-1360, API

Standardirahon I I.

Conference. Tensile at the C. Strength presented Los Angeles, Buttress 1970 at

(Sept. of Casing

Joints.

Standardization

Conference. Pipe. Div.

of Threaded the 1964

Jomts for Steel ASME Petroleum

64Pet-1

Conference, Clinedlnst. Circular Dallas 14.

Sept. Thread Joint Strength Equations. API API,

W.O.: PS-1398,

API

Standardization

Conicrencc.

(1970). W.O.: presented Appendix W.O.: Buttress at the 2-k-9. The of Effect API of Internal Casing, Pressure paper API and Bendmg at the pre$ented Thread 1970 API Joint Strength, Standardization API Circular

Clinedinst. PS- 1398 Dallas.

Conference,

is.

Clinedinst. on Tensile Symposium Conference.

Strength

on Mechanical Dallas (June

Properties 1967). Joint API

of Pipe.

Standardiratwn

16.

Round Pressure

Thread

Casing

Strength Bull. 5C3.

with

Comhincd (April

Internal 1972).

and Bending.

Dallas

Chapter 3

Wellhead Equipment and Flow Control Devices


James H. Foster, Foster Oil Field Equipment John Beson, Foster Oil Field Equipment Co. W.G. Boyle, Otis Engineering Corp.**
Co.*

Introduction
Wellhead equipment is a general term used to describe equipment attached to the top of the tubular goods used in a well-to support the tubular strings, provide seals between strings, and control production from the well. Since the American Petroleum Inst. (API) is an active organization set up to establish standards in sizes. grades, designs, dimensions, and quality, to provide safe interchangeable equipment for the industry, this section is conlined to equipment covered by API Spec. 6A for wellhead equipment. All manufacturers build safety factors into their product based on sound engineering and past experience, but stresses caused by vibration, impact loads, and temperature variations are impossible to predict. Equipment should never be subjected to pressures above the recommended working pressure. If, for any reason, the equipment is to be used at unusually high or extreme working pressure, manufacturers will insist that a disclaimer clause be written and properly worded to relieve them of legal responsibility. The disclaimer should state possible results that are expected because of equipment failure. Table 3.1 shows the standard API working pressure ratings and their respective body test pressures. Thread Limitation In view of the complex mechanics involved in sealing high-pressure threaded connections, it is recommended that field installations be adequately supervised and that API RP 5Cl be followed with regard to lubricants, makeup, etc., of API threads. The working pressure of a properly assembled threaded connection joining a wellhead or flowline component and a tubular member often is determined by the rating of the tubular element. In such a case, the maximum working pressure rating of the connection is taken as the internal yield pressure at minimum yield as stipulated in API Bull. SC2 for the particular size and type of thread and weight and grade of tubing or casing, reduced by a suitable factor of safety. However, this pressure rating shall not exceed the maximum working pressure rating shown in Table 3.2. In-plant hydrostatic test pressures of components using tubing or casing threads are shown in Table 3.1

API Flanged or Clamped Wellhead Equipment


Fig. 3.1 shows a typical wellhead assembly. Working- and Test-Pressure Terminology The maximum working pressure is the maximum operating pressure at which the equipment should be used. The hydrostatic test pressure is the static-body test pressure for ensuring a margin of safety above the rated working pressure. It is the test pressure imposed by the manufacturer to prove adequacy in design, materials, and workmanship of the body or shell member and should not be applied as a differential pressure across internal hanger-packer mechanisms or closure mechanisms. Occasionally wellhead equipment and valves are accidentally or purposely subjected to pressures in excess of design working pressures during high-pressure remedial work. Although the equipment often withstands the mistreatment, such practices should be avoided.
James ti Fosterwrote the orlglnal chapleron this loplc inthe 1962 edwn W G Boyle isauthorof the SafetyShut-In Systems section of th!s chapter

3-2

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Tubmg

When line pipe threads are used as end or outlet connections of wellhead or flowlinr components. the maximum working pressure rating of the assembled joint is stipulated in Table 3.2. The in-plant hydrostatic test pressure of components using line pipe threads is shown in Table 3.1. In many cases the OD of these female threaded members will be greater than API-tabulated coupling or joint diameter to ensure that the structural integrity of the threaded member will not be less than that of the compatible mating API male tubular member. In addition to the API threads listed in Specs. 5A and 5L, there are a number of proprietary threads available in the same sizes as the API tubing and casing threads. J.5 Some of the proprietary threads offer advantages over the API threads, such as maximum clearance for multiple completions, special corrosion protection from internal fluids, low torque requirements, superior internal and external pressure integrity, and high joint strength. Physical Properties API body and bonnet members are made from steel with properties equal to or exceeding these specified in Tables 3.3 and 3.4. Lowermost Casing Heads The lowermost casing head is a unit or housing attached to the top end of the surface pipe to provide a means for supporting the other strings of pipe, and sealing the annular space between the two strings of casing. It is composed of a casing-hanger bowl to receive the casing hanger necessary to support the next string of casing, a top flange for attaching blowout preventers (BOPs), other intermediate casing heads or tubing heads, and a lower connection.

Fig. 3.1-Typical

wellhead

assembly.

TABLE Flanges (14 in. 1355.6 mm] and smaller)

3.1-TEST

PRESSURE

Flanges
(16% In. 1425.5 mm]

Working Pressure

(Psi)
1,000 1,500 2,000 3,000 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

(bar)
69 103 138 207 345 690 1,035 1,380

(Psi)
2,000 4,000 6,000 10,000 15,000 22,500 30,000

(bar)
138 276 414 690 1,035 1,551 2,070

and larger) (Psi) (bar)


1,500 3,000 4,500 10,000 15,000 Casing 103 207 310 690 1,035 Threads*
l

Clamp-Type Connectors (Psi) 4,000 6,000 10,000 15,000 (bar) 276 414 690 1,035 -

Line Pipe and Tubing Threads (Psi) 2,000 0-W 138 276 414 690 1,035 -

4,000* 6.000* 10,000* 15,000* * l

4%- t0
[114.3(Psi) 2,000 4,000 6,000 7.500

l&%-in. to 273.1-mm] (bar) 138 276 414 517

11% to 13%in. [298.5-lo 339.7.mm] (Psi) 2,000 4,000 4,500 (bar) 138 276 310

16-to 2&n. [406.4- to 508.0-mm] (Psi) 2,000 2,250 (bar) 138 155 -

*Working pressureof lhread When threadsare used as end or outlet connectwns of wellheador flowllne components, the maximum sllpulated inTable 3.2 and the test pressureshall be as tabulated !n Table 3 1

working pressureof the assembled low shall be

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-3

TABLE 3.2-API FOR WELLHEAD

MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE RATINGS MEMBERS HAVING FEMALE THREADED END OR OUTLET CONNECTIONS Maximum Working Pressure Rating

Thread Type Line Pipe (nominal sizes) (in.) 12 z/i to 2 2/2 to 6

Size

[mm1
12.7 19.1 to 50.8 63.5 to 152.4

(Psi)
-690 10,000 5,000 3,000

(bar)
345 207

Tubing, nonupset and external upset (API round thread) Casing (eight round, buttress and extreme line)

1,050

t0 4h

26.7

to

114.3

5,000

345

4% to 10% 11 s/4 to 13% 16to20

114.3 to 273.1 298.5 to 339.7 406.4 to 508.0

5,000 3,000 1,500

345 207 103

The lower connection may be a female or male thread or a slip-on socket for welding. Most common is the female-threaded lower connection, although the slip-on socket connection provides the strongest joint unless the surface casing is of such composition that welding causes serious weakening. The male lower thread is the weakest of the three connections because of the thin cross section necessary to provide full opening. It is used in most cases only to prevent removing the coupling on the surface pipe. The welded connection is most frequently used on deep wells to give the additional strength needed to suspend heavy casing loads without overstressing the threads on the surface pipe. A landing base is sometimes used with the lowermost casing head to provide additional support for extremely heavy casing strings. The landing base is a separate unit welded to the lowermost casing head and to the surface pipe with a lower flange or skirt to transfer part of the weight to conductor strings, pilings, or a concrete foundation. The lower connection is usually the weakest vertical load-supporting connection in an API wellhead assembly. The body-wall thickness of the lowestworking-pressure lowermost casing head is sufficient to support the most extreme casing loads. Therefore, it is not necessary to increase the working pressure of the head because heavy casing loads are anticipated.

Most lowermost casing heads are furnished with two 2-in. line-pipe threaded side outlets, although studded or extended flanged outlets are sometimes used to provide additional strength for attaching valves. Internal valveremoval threads should be included in the studded or extended flanged outlets to provide a means for seating a valve-removal plug to seal the outlet while installing or removing a valve under pressure. In the event a valve on the side outlet of a casing head cuts out or it is desirable to install or remove a valve under pressure, after the well is completed a special tool can be attached to the outlet or the valve and a valveremoval plug can be inserted into the valve-removal thread to seal the pressure while necessary adjustments are made. A full&opening valve must be used for this application to provide clearance for the plug. In case threaded outlets are used, a valve-removal nipple may be used to provide the same facility. Internal threads inside the valve-removal nipple provide a receptacle to seat the plug for removing, installing, or replacing the valve. Lowermost casing heads are available with or without lock screws in the top flange. Lock screws usually are used only to hold the casing hanger down against pressures that may occur during nipple-up operations or when casing-string weights are too light to effect an automatic seal and require a lockscrew to effect the seal.

TABLE

3.3-PHYSICAL

AND CHEMICAL Type 1 Type

PROPERTIES

Type 3 100,000 [690] 75,000 [517] 17 35 : t t

Type 4* 70,000 [483] 45,000 [31 O] 19 32 0.35 0.90 0.05 0.05

Tensile strength, minimum, psi [MPa] Yteld strength, minimum, psi [MPa] Elongation in 2 in., minimum, % Reduction In area, mimmum, % Carbon, maximum, % Manganese, maximum, % Sulfur, maximum, % Phosphorus, maximum, %

70,000 [483] 36,000 [246] 22 30 : :

90,000 [621] 60,000 [414] 18 35 : :

The des~~natw Type 1,Type 2 Type 3. and Type 4 ISa nomenclature selected by the API Committee on Standarduatlon of Valves and Wellhead Equlpmenl to ldentlfy material falling wllhm ihe ranges of tensile requ~remenls losted above Flanges made lrom Type 4 steel are recognlred as readily weldable, however,expeilencelndlcates thata moderate preheating 1s dewable under all condlllons and ISnecessaryII weldingISdone at amblent temperatures below 40F (4%) tChemlcal analysesof Types 1 2. and 3 materials are purposely omllled from lhls speclllcatlon m orderto providethe manulaclurer w,thcomplete freedom lo develop~leels mw.t sLxblelorthe mul,~pkQ of reqwemenls encountered Ilh,s cN,calservice

3-4

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 3.4--MATERIAL APPLICATION, API MATERIAL TYPES SHOWN (1,2,3, or 4) Pressure 1,000 2,000 [I381 3,000 [2071 2orl Ratings, 5,000 [3451 2orl psi (bar)
10,000 15,000 20,000

[691
Body (valve, Christmas tree or wellhead equipment) Integral end connection flanged threaded clamp type Bonnets Independently screwed equipment Loose pieces weld-neck flange blind flange threaded flange --2

[690] 2orl*

[1035] 3

[I3801 3

12
3,4

2 2

2 2

2
2

2 2

12
3,4 1,2 3,4 4 2 2

12
3,4

12
3,4

12
3,4

I,2 3,4

I,2 3,4

4 2 2

4 2

2 2

3 3

'Provld~ng end ~onne~ttons are Type 2 and weld!ng IS done accordmg to generally accepted welding practices

The bowl surface can be protected by the use of a bowl protector during the drilling operations. The bowl protector is then removed before the hanger is set. Sizes and Working Pressures. Lowermost casing heads range in size from 7x6 in. to nominal 21 Y4in. to support casing in sizes from 4% to 16 in. (Table 3.5). Table 3.5 shows the various casinghead sizes needed for common surface, intermediate, and production string sizes. The sizes of lowermost casing heads are designated by the nominal size of the API flanged-end connection and the nominal size of the lower connection. Since the wellhead equipment attached above tubular materials should be full-opening to pass full-sized downhole tools, the bore of the tubular materials below an equipment component determines the minimum nominal size of the flange providing access to that tube.

A wellhead component must have a minimum internal diameter approximately X2 in. larger than the drift diameter of the tube over which it is used in order to be considered full-opening. Tables 3.6 and 3.7 give the minimum nominal flange size to give full-opening access to each standard tube size. Because of the problems encountered in sealing large threaded connections at high pressures in field makeup, Table 3.2 gives the maximum recommended thread pressure ratings for various pipe sizes. Selection. In selecting a lowermost casing head for a particular application, the following factors should be considered. Design. The casing head should be designed to receive a casing hanger that will not damage the casing string to be suspended when supporting a full-joint-strength cas-

TABLE

3.5-API

CASINGHEAD

AND TUBING-HEAD

FLANGES
Second

(in.)

First Intermediate

IntermedIate Tubtng-Head To Support Flange Bottom 7x6 9 11 11 13% 11or9 ii or9 11 or9 11 llor9 11 13% or 11 11 or9 11 or9 11 11 11 11 13% Stze Top' 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7l& 7% 7x6 7 ',,,', 6 7% 6 7 I,,,: 6 7x6 7'h 6 7'/<, 7',,16 7'/I6 7',',6 7'& 11

Surface
Pipe Size 7 8% g5/8 10% 11% 1 1% 11% 13% 13% 16 16 16 16 16 16 20 20 20 20

ToSupport Pipe Size 4%,5 4%,5.5'/2 4'/2,5.5'/2.65/8.7 5'/2,6=/,,7,7% 5'/2.6%.7.7% 7% 8% 0% 9 518 8 5/a 9='8 10% 10 3/a 13% 13% 13% 13% 16 16

API Stze.

Flanoe Lower

CasInghead

Flange

Size

Casing"

Nommal
Size 7x6 9 11 11 13% 135% 13% 13% 135% 16% 16% 16% 16 % 16% 16% 2 1 '14 21 'in 21 'I4 21 '/a Bottom Top -

ToSupport Pipe Size Bottom Top -

Casinghead 7x6 9 11 11 13%

Pipe se

13% 13% 13% 13% 16 % 16% 16% 16 % 16% 16% 21'1 21 '14 2 1 'I4 2 1 '/4 llor9 11or9 11 or9 11 11or9 11 1s5/B or 1 I 13% or 11 13% 13% 13% 13% 16% 2 1% 4Y2.5 4%,5,5'/2 4%.5,5X 5'/2.65/&7 41/2,5% 5'h.6%7 5%,6%,7,7% 75% 8% 9% 8 vi? 9 518 10% 13% 13% or 11 13% 11 or 9 11 or9 11 11 11 11 13% -

13%
13% 13% 13% 16% 16% 16% 16 s/i 16% 16% 21 '14 21'!4 21% 21%

4v2.5 4%,5'h 4%,5%.7 4%.5'h 4'/2,5'/2.7 S'h.7 85% ,9x3 * *

13% 13% 13% 163% 21%

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-5

TABLE 3.6-MATCHING TUBULAR GOODS SIZES FOR USE WITH 2,000., 3,000-, and 5,000-psi FLANGES OR 5,000-psi CLAMP-TYPE CONNECTORS Nominal Size and Bore of Flange* or Clamp Hub (in.) Old Nominal Size of Tubular Line Pipe, Nominal Material

Flange
Size

Tubing (in.) 1.660 and 1.900 1.600 through 2% 2% 3% 4 and 4% -

OD

Casing

OD

[mm1
46.0' 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 179.4 228.6 279.4 346.17 346.1$ 425.5 425.5$ 539.8$ 527.1

(in.)
1% 2 2/2 3 4 6 8 IO 12 13% 16 16% 20 20

(In.)
1% 2 2% 3 4 6 8 10 12 16 20 20

[mm1
42.2 and 48.3 42.2 through 60.3 73.0 88.9 101.6 and 114.3 -

(in.)
-

[mm1
-

13/16

WI6 Wl6
3'h 4%6 7%6 9 11 13% 135/s 16% 163/i 21% 20%

4% 4% through 7 7% and 8% 9% and 103/4 11 % and 13% 11 % and 13% 16 16 20 20

114.3 114.3 through 177.8 193.7 and 219.1 244.5 and 273.1 298.5 and 339.7 298.5 and 339.7 406.4 406.4 508.0 508.0

'Generally nonstocks,ze
Begmmng wih the eleventh edlflon ofAPI Spec 6A. the tradmonal 66 flange nomlnalsue designation was changed 10 a through-bare deslgnalton Old normnafsizes wllbe retamed formformatlon unf~l mdusirybecomes accustomed tothenew through-bore deslgnatlons New nominalsizesi13/,& m [46 0 mm] through11 m [279 4 mm] replaceold nominalsues 1% in throughIO m The 5,000 PSI(345 bar)flanges m the larger sizes are 66X flanges, and the new 6B flange deslgnatlons for the larger S~?S applyonlyto 2.000and 3.000PSI(138 and 207 bar)68 flangesThe new 20%in 1527 i-mm] deslgnallon apples only103000 PSI(207 bar] 6B flangesand fhe new 21Va-fn,5396.mm1 deslgnatmnapplies only to 2,000-PSI (13%bar)6B flanges tThis66 flange1slimtted 10 a maximum worktng-pressure rallng of 3,000 PSI(207 bar)when used Over 11%-ln [P98.5-mm]and 13Wn *Type 6EX flanges are required for5,000.PSI (345bar)maximum workmg pressureIthese sizes 1339 7.mm] casmg

ing load with a packoff pressure equal to the minimum yield of the supported casing or the working pressure of the casing head, whichever is smaller. Working Pressure. The minimum working pressure should be at least equal to the anticipated formation breakdown pressure at the bottom of the surface pipe. or equal to or greater than the internal pressure rating of the surface pipe. Maximum working pressure should be at least equal to the formation pressure at the bottom of the next smaller casing string. Lock Screws. Lock screws in the casinghead flange may be used as an added safety precaution if the annulus pressures are expected during nipple-up or if a very light casing load is to be suspended.

Size. Nominal flange size should normally be the smallest permissible size to provide full-opening access to the surface pipe (Tables 3.6 and 3.7) and should fit a standard out-of-stock intermediate head or tubing head and BOP. It should have the necessary size and type of lower connection to fit the surface pipe. Casing Hangers A casing hanger is a device that seats in the bowl of a lowermost casing head or an intermediate casing head to suspend the next smaller casing string securely and provide a seal between the suspended casing and the casinghead bowl.

TABLE 3.7--MATCHING TUBULAR GOODS SIZES FOR USE WITH lO,OOO- 15,000-, AND 20,000-psi FLANGES AND lO,OOO-psi CLAMP-TYPE Nominal Flange or Clamp Hub Size (in.) 1 A 6 * 1%

CONNECTORS

Size of Tubular Tubing OD

Material Casing OD

[mm1
42.9 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2 179.4 228.6 279.4 346.1 425.5 476.3 539.8

(In.1
1.900 2.063 2% 2% 3'/3 4 and 41/z -

[mm1
48.3 52.4 60.3 73.0 88.9 101.6 and 114.3 -

(in.) 4% 4% through 7 7% and 8% 8% and 9% 10% and 11 a/4 16 18 20

lmml 114.3 114.3 through 177.8 193.7 and 219.7 219.7 and 244.5 273.1 and 298.5 406.4 473.1 508.0

WI6
29/l 6

3% 4x6 7x6 9** 11" 13vet 16Qf 183/h 21'/4

Th,sflangeIS~nacl~ve; available on special orderonly AvatlableI 10,000 and 15 000.PSI (690.and 1,035.bar) ratedflanges only tAvallable I 10.000.psi (690-b@ ratedflanges only

3-6

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Sizes and Sizing. The size of a casing hanger is determined by the nominal OD. which is the same as the nominal size of the mating casinghead flange. The nominal inside diameter is the same as the nominal outside diameter of the casing it is designed to suspend. Sizes range from nominal 7x6 through 21 5/4in. to support 4%- through 16-in. casing. Popular sizes are nominal 9 in. for 4% through 5%-in. casing: nominal I I in. for 4%- through 75/s-in. casing: nominal 13% in. for 5% through 95/R-in. casing, as indicated in Table 3.5. Casing hangers are generally available for all casing sizes in the following types. Automatic (most popular type). The automatic casing hanger is a unitized assembly composed of a set of slips and a sealing mechanism. It can be latched around the casing and dropped through the BOPs to set and seal automatically when the casing is slacked off to set. This type is normally used when annulus pressures are expetted during nipple-up operations. Manual. The manual casing hanger is normally used in preference to the automatic type only as a matter of economics when pressure is not expected in the annulus during nipple-up. It is composed of a set of slips and a The slips can usually be separate packoff element. latched around the casing and dropped through the BOPs, but the packoff is installed after the preventers have been removed and the casing cut off. Slip-Weld. The slip-weld hanger usually is composed of a set of slips to support the casing weight and a spider or ring that can be welded to the casing to seal the hanger to the casing. The hanger usually is sealed in the head by a resilient compression-type seal. The hanger can be dropped through the BOPs to support casing weight. but the final seal is made by welding after the preventers have been removed and the casing cut off. Particular care must be taken in preheating the casing and the casing head to ensure an adequate weld. Some casing is permanently damaged by improper welding. Boll-Weevil. The boll-weevil casing hanger is a simple mandrel-type hanger which screws onto the casing to be supported and seats in the casinghead bowl. This type of hanger is not recommended if there is any question about getting the casing to bottom and obtaining the accurate spacing required. Casing hangers are rated by their capacity to support casing weight rather than by working pressure. Some manufacturers furnish actual pull curves showing the deformation that can be expected in the slip area, for any casing load, up to joint strength, for all standard casing sizes, weights, and grades. Fig. 3.2 shows acceptable pull curves for a heavy-duty casing hanger with a 5.000-psi pressure on the packoff. Selection. In selecting a casing hanger, after establishing which type of hanger is most practical, the following factors should be considered. 1. The hanger should be capable of hanging the full joint strength of the casing to be used without sufficient reduction in diameter to obstruct full-sized downhole tools.

2. The packoff or primary seal should be of such construction that well pressure. flange test pressure, or fracture pressure cannot force the packoff down and reduce the casing-hanger capacity. 3. The hanger should be of the proper design and size to fit the mating casinghead bowl, and properly sized to support the casing to be used. Intermediate Casing Heads

An intermediate casing head is a spool-type unit or housing attached to the top flange of the underlying casing head to provide a means of supporting the next smaller casing string and sealing the annular space between the two casing strings. It is composed of a lower flange, one or two side outlets, and a top flange with an internal casing-hanger bowl. The lower flange of an intermediate casing head is counterbored with a recess to accommodate a removable bit guide, or a bit guide and secondary-seal assembly. The purpose of the bit guide is to protect the top end of the intermediate casing string from damage by bits and tools going into the hole. The counterbore is usually constructed to provide a fixed internal bit guide for the largest-sized intermediate casing string that can be suspended beneath that particular flange size. A removable bit guide must be used to protect smallersized intermediate casing. A removable bit guide and secondary-seal assembly may also be used in place of a removable bit guide to seal the annular space between the intermediate casing and the lower flange of the intermediate casing head. By using a secondary seal, well fluids are confined to the body of the intermediate casing head and not allowed to contact the ring gasket or the packoff on the casing hanger below. If the well fluids are corrosive. use of a dependable secondary seal is particularly important to protect the ring gasket. Use of a secondary seal and confining well fluids to a diameter approximately equal to the intermediate casing OD greatly reduces piston load or thrust on the flanges and flange studs. This permits use of an intermediate casing head with a top flange one working pressure rating higher than the lower flange. Of course, the body, the top flange, and the outlets must be sized for the higher pressure rating. Available secondary seals are generally of three types: (I) unitized pressure-energized, (2) plastic-packed, and (3) externally adjustable. The externally adjustable type offers the advantage of being adjustable to stop a leak at any time during the life of a well. A leak in the pressureenergized type or the plastic-packed type may be scaled by injecting a plugging material into the seal under pressure or by replacement. Intermediate casing heads are available with one or two side outlets, which may be threaded, studded, or extended flanged, depending on the working pressure and particular application. The side outlets should be equipped with valve-removal provisions as discussed in connection with the lowermost casing heads. Like a lowermost casing head, the top flange of an intermediate casing head may be equipped with lock screws if needed because of expected annulus pressures during nipple-up or very light suspended casing loads.

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-7

LCNG rOUPLlNG 7 _ -0 0

JCINT STRENGTHS 84 24

LONG COUPLING

JOINT SlAENGTHS

,010 PIPE (INCHES

I ,020 030 COLLAPSE ON DIAMETER)

cl0 PIPF (INCHES

020 030 COI I APSE ON DlAMi TER)

LONG COUPLING

JOINT STRENGTHS so 1

LONG 8Z 2% IO

z J if a

250 7 -200 150 100 50 0

9$-40*
CASlbG

010 DDF II L IINCHES


I

020 030 rOLLAPSE UC 0 N DIAMETER)

L-L 020 030 L. ?nLLAPSE (INCHES ON DIAMETER) 010 DIDC 8, L

Fig.

3.2-Casing-hanger

pull curves

The design features for an intermediate casinghead bowl are identical to those discussed for a lowermost casinghead bowl. The bowl should be designed to receive a casing hanger which will suspend the next smaller casing string without damage to the pipe. When a relatively short intermediate casing string is used, it is sometimes desirable to use a less-expensive casing hanger with a lower load capacity for support. but a high-capacity casing hanger may be required to suspend the next smaller casing string. Sizes and Working Pressures. The lower and upper flanges on intermediate casing heads may range in size from nominal 7X6 in. to nominal 2 1 l/4 in. to support casing in sizes from 4% to 13 3/s in. Table 3.5 shows the various intermediate head sizes required for standard casing sizes. Tables 3.6 and 3.7 give the minimum nominal flange size to give full-opening access to standard casing. Intermediate casing heads are available in working pressures of 1,000. 2,000, 3,000. 5,000, and 10,000 psi. Generally, the minimum working pressure of the intermediate head should be equal to or greater than the

maximum surface pressure required to break down the formation at the bottom of the intermediate casing string suspended below the intermediate casing head. The maximum working pressure should at least equal the shut-in formation pressure at the bottom of the casing string to be suspended in the intermediate casing head.

Selection. In selecting an intermediate casing head. the following factors should be considered. I. Lower flange must be of the proper size and working pressure to fit the uppermost flange on the casing head below, or the crossover flange attached to the casinghead flange if one is used (Tables 3.5 through 3.7). 2. It must have a properly sized bit guide. or bit guide and secondary-seal assembly, to fit the casing suspended beneath it. 3. Top flange must be of the proper size and working pressure to suspend the next smaller casing string and fit the mating flange to be installed above (see workingpressure discussion and Tables 3.5 through 3.7). 4. It should have the proper size, type. and working pressure side outlets.

3-8

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

5. It must include a casing-hanger bowl designed to receive a casing hanger with an effective packoff mechanism that will support joint strength of the casing to be suspended without damage to the casing. Intermediate Casing Hangers Intermediate casing hangers are identical in every respect to casing hangers used in lowermost casing heads and are used to suspend the next smaller casing string in the intermediate casing head. These hangers are selected on the same basis as casing hangers used in lowermost casing heads, as previously discussed. Sizes are specified by the nominal diameter of the flange in which the hanger is to be used and the nominal size of the casing to be supported. Tubing Heads A tubing head is a spool-type unit or housing attached to the top flange of the uppermost casing head to provide a support for the tubing string and to seal the annular space between the tubing string and production casing string. It also provides access to the casing/tubing annulus through side outlets. It is composed of a lower flange, one or two side outlets, and a top flange with an internal tubing hanger bowl. Tubing heads are generally of two types: (1) a unit with flanged top and bottom and (2) one with flanged top and threaded bottom. The unit with the threaded bottom is usually screwed directly on the production casing string, and the top flange is used for the same purpose as the double-flanged head. The lower flange, on the double-flanged type, is constructed in much the same way as the lower flange on an intermediate casing head in that a recess is provided to accommodate a bit guide or a bit guide and secondary seal. The design, purpose, types, and application of bit guides and secondary seals are explained in the discussion of the intermediate casing head. Lock screws normally are included in the top flange to hold the tubing hanger in place and/or to compress the tubing hanger seal, which seals the annular space between the tubing and the casing. Tubing heads are available with one or two side outlets, which may be threaded, studded, or extended flanged. Usually studded-side outlets are used on units with a body working pressure of 3,000 psi and higher. Threaded side outlets are commonly used on units of 2,000-psi working pressure and lower. Extended flanged outlets are used when large-size side outlets are desired. All outlets should be equipped for valve-removal service, as explained in the discussion of the lowermost casing head. The top flange of a tubing head must be equipped with an internal bowl of the proper design to receive the required tubing hanger. Most available tubing heads will receive any of the various types of single-completion tubing hangers of the same manufacturer. If multiple tubing strings are to be installed, a tubing head with a special bowl may be required. This subject is explained in greater detail under the discussion on multiple completion. Sizes and Working Pressures. The lower flange on a tubing head may range in size from a nominal 7x6 in. to 13% in. The upper flange may vary from nominal 7x6

in. to 11 in. for installation over production strings vatying in size from 4% to 9% in. Table 3.5 gives the various standard tubing-head sizes used over common casing sizes. Tubing heads are available in working pressures of 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, and 20,000 psi. By using a secondary seal in the lower flange to reduce the piston area exposed to well pressure, a top flange may be used with a working pressure one rating above the lower flange, provided the body and outlet dimensions also correspond to the higher rating. The working pressure of a tubing head for particular application should be at least equal to the anticipated surface shut-in pressure of the well. In most cases, it is considered more economical to install a tubing head with a working pressure equal to the formation breakdown rather than to replace the tubing head with higher pressure equipment during high-pressure treatment. A standard tubing head with a 7X,-in. top flange has a minimum bore of approximately 6%. in., which is considered full-opening for a 7-in. or smaller production string. If a 7%in. production string is used, special care should be taken to select a full-opening tubing head for 75/s-in. casing. Special tubing heads are available for this purpose. Backpressure Valves Selection. In selecting a tubing head, the following factors should be considered to maintain positive control over the well at all times. 1. The lower flange must be of the proper size and working pressure to fit the uppermost flange on the casing head below or the crossover flange attached to the casinghead flange, if one is used (Table 3.5). 2. The bit guide, or bit guide and secondary-seal assembly, must be sized to fit the production casing string. 3. The size outlets must be of the proper design, size, and working pressure. 4. The working pressure of the unit must be equal to or greater than the anticipated shut-in surface pressure. 5. The top flange must be sized to receive the required tubing hanger, and of the correct working pressure to fit the adapter flange on the Christmas-tree assembly. Lock screws should also be included in the top flange. 6. The tubing head should be full-opening to provide full-sized access to the production casing string below and be adaptable to future remedial operations as well as to artificial lift. Tubing Hangers A tubing hanger is a device used to provide a seal between the tubing and the tubing head, or to support the tubing and to seal between the tubing and tubing head. Types. Several types of tubing hangers are available, and each has a particular application. A brief discussion of the most popular types follows. Wrap-Around. The popular wrap-around hanger is composed of two hinged halves, which include a resilient sealing element between two steel mandrels or plates. The hanger can be latched around the tubing, dropped into the tubing-head bowl, and secured in place

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-9

by the tubing-head lock screws. The lock screws force the top steel mandrel or plate down to compress the sealing element and form a seal between the tubing and tubing head. Full tubing weight can be temporarily supported on the tubing hanger, but permanent support is provided by threading the top tubing thread into the adapter flange on top of the tubing head. The hanger then acts as a seal only. The tubing can be stripped through the hanger, between upsets, under pressure. After the Christmas-tree assembly has been attached to the adapter flange, the well can be circulated and a packer set under full control. This type of hanger is frequently used as a BOP when running tubing in a low-pressure well loaded with mud. If the well kicks, the tubing hanger can be latched alound the tubing and lowered into the tubing-head bowl. A seal is made by tubing weight and by use of the lock screws. After circulation, it can be lifted out of the bowl with the first upset below the hanger. Polished-Joint. This type of hanger is slipped over or assembled around the top tubing joint, and the internal seals are adjusted to provide a seal on the tubing body. The hanger is sealed against the tubing head with a resilient seal. After the hanger is set, the Christmas tree can be attached to the top tubing thread and the well circulated under full control. The top tubing joint can be stripped through the hanger, between upsets, under pressure. Boll-Weevil. This is a doughnut- or mandrel-type hanger attached to the top tubing thread and supported in the tubing-head bowl. A seal between the mandrel and tubing head is provided by hydraulic packing or 0 rings. It is the only hanger designed to support the tubing weight permanently. Stripper Rubber. A stripper rubber is a pressureactuated sealing element used to control annulus pressures while running or pulling tubing in a lowpressure well. Tubing weight is supported by the adapter flange, a boll-weevil hanger, or slips located above the stripper rubber. In most cases, the stripper rubber should be used in conjunction with a BOP and is not intended to replace the BOP. Selection. In selecting a tubing hanger, the particular application should dictate the type required. In general, the hanger should provide an adequate seal between the tubing and tubing head and should be of standard size suitable for lowering through full-opening drilling equipment. A backpressure valve is a check valve that is installed in the vertical run of the Christmas tree, usually in the tubing hanger or tubing head adapter. A backpressure valve serves two main purposes: (1) to seal the bore of the tubing when removing the BOP and installing the Christmas tree when completing a well and (2) to seal the bore of the tubing when removing the Christmas tree or doing remedial work on the lower master valve. For the backpressure to pass through the Christmas tree the valves and other vertical-run fittings must be fullopening. AvaIlable backpressure valves are generally of two types. One type is secured in place with threads, the other is secured in place with an expanding-lock mechanism.

Adapter An adapter is a unit used to join connections of different dimensions. The adapter may be used to connect two flanges of different dimensions or connect a flange to a thread. An adapter used to connect two flanges with different dimensions may be studded and grooved on one side for a certain flange size, and studded and grooved on the other side for a different flange size. A unit of this type is called a double-studded adapter. Crossover Flange A crossover flange is an intermediate flange used to connect flanges of different working pressures. Crossover flanges are usually available in two types. 1. A double-studded crossover flange is studded and grooved on one side for one working pressure, and studded and grooved on the other side for the next higher working-pressure rating. The flange must also include a seal around the inner string of pipe to prevent pressure from the higher-working-pressure side reaching the lower-working-pressure side. The seal may be of the resilient type, plastic-packed type, or welded type. 2. Another type of crossover flange includes a restricted-ring groove in the top side of the flange to fit a corresponding restricted-ring groove in the mating head. The restricted-ring groove and the seal between the flange and the inner casing string act to restrict the pressure to a smaller area, thereby allowing a higher pressure rating. Christmas-Tree Assembly

A Christmas tree is an assembly of valves and fittings used to control production and provide access to the producing tubing string. It includes all equipment above the tubing-head top flange. A typical Christmas tree is shown in Fig. 3.3. Many variations in arrangement of wellhead and Christmas-tree assemblies are available to satisfy the needs of any particular application. Fig. 3.4 shows several typical assemblies. Tubing-Head Adapter Flange

The tubing-head adapter flange is an intermediate flange used to connect the top tubing-head flange to the master valve and provide a support for the tubing. Standard adapter flanges of the following three types are available. Studded Type. This unit consists of a lower flange with a ring groove and bolt holes to fit the top tubing-head flange, an internal thread in the bottom of the flange to receive and support the tubing weight, and a studded top connection to accommodate a flanged master valve. Spool Type. This type is similar to the studded type except that the top connection is a flange to accommodate the master valve, and a top internal thread may be provided to act as a tubing landing or lift thread. It is also available with internal provisions for a backpressurevalve mandrel. Threaded Adapter Flange. This type of adapter flange is used to connect the top tubing-head flange to a threaded master valve. It is composed of a lower flange with a

3-10

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

GAUGE

VALVE

FLOWLINE

VALVE)

& (FLOWLINE VALVE)

jgiqz$

VALVE (FLOWLINE VALVE)

I wwc

CHOKE

hIASTER ULE (FLOWLINE VALVE)

Fig. 3.3-Typical

Christmas

tree

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

Y W ING VALVE TEE

TEE

INTERMEDIAT CASING HEAD

SINGLE WING - SINGLE COMPLETION THREADED MANIFOLD

HIGH

SINGLE WING - SINGLE COMPLETION

PRESSURE SINGLE SINGLE COMPLETION

WING-

DUAL TUBIN HANGER DUAL TUBING

HEAD

THREADED PARPLLEL STRING DUAL (OR TRIPLE) COMPLETION

ALL

FLANGED PARALLEL DUAL COhlPLETlON

STRING

THREADED INDEPENDENT WELLHEAD

Fig. X4-Typical

Christmas

tree assemblies.

ring groove and bolt holes to fit the top tubing-head flange, an internal thread in the bottom to support the tubing string, and a male thread on top to connect the threaded master valve. The top male thread is usually an upset thread to give added strength. A tubing-head adapter flange is described by specifying the lower flange size and working pressure, the bottom internal thread size and type, and the top-connection type, size. and working pressure. The lower flange must be of the same size and working pressure as the tubinghead top flange. The top connection must be of the same size and working pressure as the master valve. The top

flange on the adapter and the vertical run of the Christmas tree must be sized to provide full-opening access to the tubing. Tables 3.6 and 3.7 show the flange sizes that will provide full-opening bores for tubular goods. Valves API valves, like API wellhead equipment, are made of high-strength alloy steels to give safe dependable service. ASA valves are made of carbon steel and should not be used for wellhead service. Valves used on wellheads are basically of two types-gate valves and plug valves.

3-12

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 3.8-FLANGED 2,000-psi

AND CLAMPED PLUG AND GATE VALVES, MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE End-to-End, Flowline Valves, ( * A6in.) [r 1.6 mm] Full-Bore Flowline Valves Full-Bore Gate Valves (in.) --~ 11% 11% 13% 141~ 17% 22% 22% 26%~ [mm] 295.3 295.3 333.4 358.8 435.0 562.0 562.0 663.6 Plug Valves Reg. and Venturi (in.) ~ 11% 11% 13% 141~ 17% 22% [mm] 295.3 295.3 333.4 358.8 435.0 562.0 -

Nominal Size (in.) [mm1 52.4 x 46.0 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 130.2 179.4x 152.4 179.4

Old Nominal Size (in.) 2x13/4 2 2% 3 4 5 6 6x7

(+/a ] +0.60, (in.) -1%

-0) - 01 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 130.2 152.4 179.4

Drift Diameter (in.)


1 Y32

Full-Bore (in.] 13h 15h 1751~ 2Oh 25h 28% 29% [mm] T 333.4 384.2 447.7 511.2 638.2 727.1 739.8

[mm1
45.20 51.60 64.30 78.60 102.40 129.40 151.60 178.60

2h.x 13/16 2%
2%6

wl6
2s/16

w32
2%2

3% 4x6* 5% 7/BX6** 7%6*


l l

3% 4h,j 5/8 6 7/15

3%

4%
5% 53% 7x2

138 bar maximum workmg pressure. Maxnun throughboresof33h6, 4h,and 7% tn. [81.0, 106 0.and 161 0 mm] arepermissible fornominalSizes3%. 4Ks, and 71& in. 179.4, 103.2, and 179 4 mm]-flanged end connection9 only

TABLE 3.9-FLANGED 3,000-psi

AND CLAMPED PLUG AND GATE VALVES, MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE End-to-End, Flowline Valves, (+A6 in.) [kl.S mm] Full-Bore Flowline Valves Full-Bore Gate Valves (in.) ~14% 14% 16% 17% 20% 24% 24% 28% [mm] 371.5 371.5 422.3 435.0 511.2 612.8 612.8 714.4 Plug Valves Reg. and Venturi (in.) -14% 145/a 16% 15% 18% 24% [mm] 371.5 371.5 422.3 384.2 460.4 612.8 -

Nominal Size (in.)


2%6x 2x6 29h I%6

Old Nominal Size

Bore (+ %. -0) [+0.80, -01 (in.) [mm] ~

Drift Diameter (in.) [mm] 45.20 51.60 64.30 78.60 102.40 129.40 151.60 178.60

Full-Bore (in.) -15% 17% 18% 22% 26% 30% 31% [mm] 384.2 435.0 473.1 562.0 663.6 765.2 803.3

[mm1
52.4 x 46.0 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 130.2 179.4x 152.4 179.4

(in.) 2x13/4 2 2% 3 4 5 6 6x7

3% * * 4x6* * 5h 7h6x6
7x6**

13/16 - 46.0 wl6 52.4 2% 65.1 3% 79.4 4h6 103.2 5 /a 130.2 6 152.4 7/j6 179.4

1732 w32
2 %2

3% 4x2 5% 53% 7%

207 bar Maxrnum throughboresofW6, 4/4, and 7% m 1810, 06 0.and 181.0mm] arepermlsslble for nommalsizes 3%. 4A., and 7%, in. [79 4. 03 2,and 173 4 mm]-flanged end connect~ns only

TABLE 3.1 O-FLANGED AND CLAMPED PLUG AND GATE VALVES, 5,000-psi MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE End-to-End, Flowline Valves, (& 1/l6 in.) [ + 1.6 mm] Full-Bore Nominal Size (in.) Old Nos-nn;al Bore (+%2, -0) [+0.80. -01 (in.) I%6 [mm] -46.0 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 130.2 152.4 179.4 Flowline Valves Full-Bore Gate Valves (in.) 14% 14% 16% 18% 21% 28% 28 32 [mm] 371.5 371.5 422.3 473.1 549.3 727.1 711.2 812.8 Plug Valves Reg. and Venturi (in.) 14% 14% 16% 18% 21% 28 [mm] 371.5 371.5 422.3 473.1 549.3 711.2 -

Drift Diameter (in.) 1%


a2

Full-Bore (in.) 15% 18 20% 24% 31% 36% 38% [mm] 393.7 457.2 527.1 628.7 790.6 917.6 968.4

[mm1
52.4 x 46.0 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 130.2 179.4x 152.4 179.4

(in.) 2x1-Y 2 2% 3 4 5 6 6x7

2%6XI%6
2x6 2%6

wl6
2%6

2 %2
3?&2

3% 4x6** 5% 7/,sx6 7x6*

l l

3% 4h6 5% 6 7/18

4%
53/x 53h 7x2

-- [mm] 45.20 51.60 64.30 78.60 102.40 129.40 151.60 178.60

345 bar Mawmum throughboresof33& 4%. and 7% in. [El.O, 106 0,and 161 0 mm] are permeable for nominalsizes 3/s.4& and 71/cin [79 4, 103 2,and 179 4 mm]-flanged and connectlon9 only

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-13

Both are available with flanged end connections. Gate valves can be divided into lubricated and nonlubricated, wedging and nonwedging types. Full-opening valves must be used in the vertical run of the Christmas-tree assembly to provide access to the tubing. Full-opening valves must also be used on tubinghead outlets and casing-head outlets equipped for valveremoval service. Restricted-opening valves are sometimes used as wing valves, without loss of efficiency or utility, to effect an economic saving. Threaded valves are available in sizes from I /4 to 4 in.. with working pressures from 1,000 through 5,000 psi. Upset tubing threads are usually used on valves in the vertical run of a Christmas tree to provide maximum strength. Valves with line-pipe threads are used on tubing wings, threaded tubing-head side outlets, and threaded casinghead side outlets. Most users prefer flanged valves on applications of 3.000-psi working pressure and above. Flanged valves are available in sizes from 1x6 through 7!,J6 in. with working pressure ratings from 2,000 to 20.000 psi as shown in Tables 3.8 through 3.14. Christmas-Tree Fittings

TABLE 3.1 l-FLANGED GATE VALVES, iO,OOO-psi

AND CLAMPED PLUG AND MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE Flow Line Valves Drift Diameter (in.) I=/& 2%2 2h2 3/32 4,& [mm] End-to-End (+ %rJ[ t (in.)

Full-Bore Bore

Nominal
Size (in.) 1%6 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2

(+/32. -0)
[+OBO, (in.) 13& 2/,6 29h6 3%~ 4/j6 -01 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2

1.61
[mm]

2%6 29%
wl6 4lA.5
690

45.20181/4 51.60 20% 64.30 22% 77.00 24% 102.20 26%

463.6 520.7 565.2 619.1 669.9

bar

setting or raising the Christmas tree and tubing. It is available in sizes from 2%, to 4x6 in. and in working pressures from 1,000 to 20,000 psi. Multiple-Completion Equipment

Other Christmas-tree fittings include tees, crosses. and other connections necessary to provide the most desirable arrangement for the particular application. The size of the vertical run may vary from 2x6 to 4N6 in. but must be consistent with the master-valve and tubing-head adapter-flange size to give full-opening access to the tubing for wireline tools and instruments. The outlet on the tee or cross and wing assembly must be of sufficient size to handle the production requirements without undue restriction. Outlets vary in size from I I&, to 4x6 in., although the 2x;,-in. size is normally adequate and is most commonly used in the U.S. All Christmas-tree assemblies should be assembled, pressure-tested to hydrostatic test pressure, and checked with a drift mandrel to ensure full opening before installation. Table 3.15 shows the through-bores and drift diameter for each standard tubing size. Bottomhole Test Adapter A bottomhole test adapter is a device attached to the top of a Christmas-tree assembly to provide fast and safe adaptation of a lubricator for swabbing or testing. It may also include an internal thread to act as a lift thread for

Multiple completions or multiple-tubing-string completions require the same lowermost casing head, intermediate casing head, and tubing-head equipment as single-tubing-string completions with one exception. The tubing-head bowl must be designed and sized to accommodate the required size and number of tubing strings and provide a means for properly orienting the tubing strings. Fig. 3.4 illustrates two types of dual parallel-string installations, and Tables 3.16 and 3. I7 give a listing of common multiple-string applications and specifications. The following equations, used with Fig. 3.5, may be used to determine the minimum casing size necessary for any combination of multiple-paralleltubing-string completions. Duals and quadruples: dc(m;n)A+d,. Triples: d&i,,) =2(Lt9, . .......... . .... ... (I)

where d,.(,,;,) = minimum casing size, d, = tubing diameter, L = distance (A, B, or C, whichever is greatest, see Fig. 3.5).

TABLE 3.12-FLANGED PLUG AND GATE VALVES, 15,000-psi MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE Full-Bore Flow

Line Valves
End-to-End (~/1d~1.61

Bore Nominal Size (in.) ,13,,6 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 (+,& [+0.80, -0) -01 Drift Diameter (in.) - 12%~ [mm] ~ 45.20 2h2 51.60 21%2 64.30

Short Pattern (in.) - 18 19 21 [mm] -457.2 482.6 533.4

Long Pattern (in.) - 23% 25 [mm] - 596.9 635.0

2h 2%6
*1.035 bar

(in.) [mm] - 13/1~ ~46.0 wl6 52.4 wl6 65.1

3-14

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

@-.

pt~R;~oE dc ---b

DUAL

TRIPLE

QUADRUPLE

Fig. 3.5-Multiple-parallel

tubing

strings

(see Eqs. 1 and 2).

TABLE 3.13-FLANGED GATE VALVES, 15,000-psi MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE RATING Full-Bore Bore Nominal Size (in.) ~-3% 4/6 [mm] 77.8 103.2 (+ %23 - 0) [ +0.80, -01 (in.) 3/, 4%6 [mm] 77.8 103.2 Drift Diameter (in.) 3/3, 4%~ [mm] 77.00 102.4 End-to-End Flowline Valves

(~%~,)[+1.61 (in.) Imml


23% 6 29 598.5 736.6

*1,035 bar Alldlmenslonsin in [mm]

Tubing Heads. In selecting a tubing head for multiple parallel-tubing-string service, the same factors should be considered as previously suggested for selecting a singlecompletion tubing head, with the following additions. The tubing-head bowl should (1) be of the required size and internal design to receive the desired tubing hanger, (2) have the necessary nonrestrictive positioning or indexing devices to orient the tubing hanger accurately, (3) be designed to receive an available tubing hanger, which will suspend the desired number of tubing strings or a single tubing string, and (4) be so designed that removal of the BOPs is not necessary until all tubing strings have been landed and sealed. Tubing Hangers. Multiple-completion tubing hangers perform the same function as single-completion tubing hangers, and as many types and variations in design are available. A brief description of common available types and designs follows. Multiple-Bore Mandrel. This type of hanger consists of a large mandrel or doughnut with a separate bore for each tubing string. The individual tubing strings are landed in the large mandrel on landing collars. Backpressure valves can be installed in the individual

TABLE 3.14-FLANGED GATE VALVES, 20,000-psi MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE RATING Full-Bore Bore Nominal Size (in.) [mm] (+/a. [+0.80, (in.) 2%~ -0) -01 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 Drift Diameter ~-(in.) 12%2 2/32 2%2 3/32 [mm] 45.20 51.60 64.30 77.00 End-to-End ( k /d + I.61 - (in.) 21 23 26% 30% ~[mm] 533.4 584.2 673.1 774.7 Flowline Valves

13/1646.0113/lswl6 52.4 WI 6 65.1 3x6 77.8


1,380bar

WI6
3/6

TABLE 3.15-THROUGH-BORES OF CHRISTMAS-TREE End Flange or Clamp Hub Nominal Stze and Bore (in.) 1%6 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 42.9 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2 Old Nominal Size (in.) Workinq-Pressure Rating (Psi) (bar)

AND MANDREL EQUIPMENT Minimum Vertical ThrouqhBore

SIZE

Tubing OD (in.) [mm]

Size Weight (Iblft) 2.42.9 4.7 6.5 9.3 11 .o 12.75 2.9 3.25 4.7 6.5 9.3 12.75

Drift Mandrel Diameter (in.) 1.286 1.516 1.901 2.347 2.867 3.351 3.833 1.516 1.657 1.901 2.347 2.867 3.833

l l

2% 846
3% 4x6 lh I%6
256 29/,6

2.. 2-, 2-, 2-, 3-, 3-, 3-, 3-, and and and and 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 138, 138, 138, 138,

207, 207, 207, 207, and and and and 345 345 345 345

(in.)

[mm]

[mm1
32.72 3852 48.22 59.62 72.82 85.12 97.32 38.52 42.12 48.22 59.62 72.82 97.32

42.9 52.4 651 79.4 -

TiG1.900 2% 2% 3% 4 4% 1.900 2.063 23% 2% 3/2 4%

1% 2 2% 3 4 l%S I%6
2x6 2% 3x6 6

1/6 2h6 29h6 3% 41/1@


I/16

3x6
4%6

4%

2-. 3-, and 5,000 lo- and 15,000 IO- and 15,000 lo- and 15,000 IO- and 15,000 IO- and 15,000 10,000

138, 207, and 345 690 and 1035 690 and 1035 690and1035 690 and 1035 690 and 1035 690

1%

2x6 2?46
3x16 4%

103.2 42.9 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2

42.2 48.3 60.3 73.0 88.9 101.6 114.3 48.3 52.4 60.3 73.0 88.9 114.3

Bar = 100 kPa **Dribmandrel dnmeters conform totherequrements for drifi mandrelsfor external upsettubing as specified inAPI Spec.5A: Casmg Tubingand DnN Rpe, excepl2.063 in. 152 4 mm] tubmg. which ISintegral-lolnt. internal upsetwth 1% EUE threads.

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-15

TABLE 3.16-CENTER DISTANCES OF CONDUIT FOR DUAL PARALLEL BORE VALVES

BORES

Nominal Size and Minimum Bore (in.) [mm1 42.9 46.0 52.4 65.1 x 52.4 65.1 x 52.4 65.1 65.1 79.4 x 52.4 79.4x65.1 79.4

Basic Casing OD Weight

Sizet Bore to Bore

Large Bore to Flange Center [mm1 Maximum 35.319 35.319 45.047 41.910 47.625 50.800 57.150 51.003 64.097 64.097 Pressure 35.319 45.047 41.910 47.625 50.800 57.150 64.097

Small Bore to Flange Center (in.) Working 1.3905 1.3905 1.7735 I .a97 2.125 2.000 2.250 2.570 2.5235 2.5235 Preure 35.319 35.319 45.047 48.184 53.975 50.800 57.150 65.278 64.097 64.097 [mm]

Basic End Flange Size and Bore (in.) [mm]

(in.) [mm] (Ibmlft) ---2,000-, 3,000-, and 5,000-psi 5% 139.7 139.7 177.8 177.8 193.7 193.7 219.1 219.1 244.5 244.5 23 17 38 29 39 29.7 49 49 53.5 53.5

(in.) [mm] (in.) -~ [138-, 207-, and 345bar]

l%s

wi2
1 v32

70.64 70.64 90.09 90 09 101 60 101.60 114.30 i 16.28 126.19 128.19 Maximum 70.64 90.09 90.09 101.60 101.60 114.30 128.19

1.3905 1.3905 1.7735 1.650 1.875 2.000 2.250 2.008 2.5235 2.5235 Working 1.3905 1.7735 1.650 1.875 2,000 2.250 2.5235

7/j, 7$ 7h6 7hG 9 9 9 9 11 11

179.4 179.4 179.4 179.4 228.6 228.6 228.6 228.6 279.4 279.4

3=/&l 33% 4 4 4% 43~~ 5% 53/s,

lO,OOO-psi [690-bar]

a16
29/,6x 2& 236x2h6

46.0 52.4 65.1 x 52.4 65.1 x52.4 65.1 65.1 77.8

5% 7 7 7% 7% 8% 9%

139.7 177.8 177.8 193.7 193.7 219.1 244.5

17 38 29 39 29.7 49 53.5

w32

33% 33% 4 4

1.3905 1.7735 I ,897 2.125 2.000 2.250 2.5235

35.319 45.047 48.184 53.975 50.800 57.150 64.097

7,,6 7/16 7/16 9 9 9 11

179.4 179.4 179.4 228.6 228.6 228.6 279.4

Wl6 WI6
3%

4%
5%

!&.s,c end connecton s,zeISdeterm,nedby the s,zeof tubmg-head top conect~on, which suspends the several tub,ngstrmgs. If an adaplerllangeISused, a smaller valveend flangeISsometvnes permtlted. Center distances based on 2% [52.4mm] OD tubing. tCAUTION: Due tothe permwble tolerance on theOD lmmedtately behind thetubingupset, the user iscautioned that dlfflculties may occur It isrecommended thatthe user select the lmnt of tubingto be mstalled at the top of the tubingstring NoteDrift sizeforthe 111/,6 m 1429 mm] nomlnalsizeis1% in. [42 1 mm]

TABLE 3.17-CENTER DISTANCES OF CONDUIT BORES FOR TRIPLE, QUADRUPLE, AND QUINTUPLE PARALLEL BORE VALVES Nominal Basic End Flange Size and Bore - (in.) - [mm] Pressure 7hlj 9 9 11 11 11 11 11 13% 11 179.4 228.6 228.6 279.4 279.4 279.4 279.4 279.4 346.1 279.4

Nominal Size and Minimum Bore (in.)

Basic Casing OD

Size7 Weight

Radii to Bores

(in.) [mm] (Ibm/ft) (in.) [mm1 ~ 2,000-, 3,000-, and 5,000-psi [13a-, 207-, and 345bar] Maximum Working

[mm1
46.0 52.4 52.4 65.1

Triple Valve

13/,f,

2x6 2% 2%
1 13/16 I%6
l

168.3 177.8 193.7 244.5 219.1 244.5 244.5 273.1 298.5 244.5

24 26 39 53.5 36 All 53.5 55.5 54 53.5

1% I%6 2%

47.63 49.21 53.98 71.44 73.03 77.79 77.79 87.31 101.60 77.79 Pressure 47.63 49.21 53.98 71.44 87.31

2s
2%
3x6

Quadruple Valve

46.0 46.0 52.4 65.1 65.1 52.4

2% W6 T/16
Quintuple Valve

3X6
3736

4 3% Working 1% 176 2%

2x6
l?&
2/16

lO,OOO-psi [6SO-bar] Maximum Triple Valve 46.0 52.4 52.4 65.1 65.1 65% 7 7% 9% 103/4 168.3 177.8 193.7 244.5 273.1 24 26 39 53.5 55.5

7hfj 9 9 11 11

179.4 228.6 228.6 279.4 279.4

2x6
2% 6 6

2%6
3%6

Quadruple Valve

2%

Basicend connecbon SG% isdetermned by the sizeof tubing-head top connecbon,whach suspends the sweral tubingstrings If an adapterflangeISused. a smaller valveend flangeissometimes permitted. Center distances based on Z&-in. 1524.mm] OD tubmg. tCAUTION Due tothe permwble tolerance on the OD lmmedlately behlndthetubmg upset. theuser iscautioned that dlfficuttles may occur.It ISrecommended that the user select the jomtof tubing to be installed at the top of the iub!ngstring

3-16

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 3.18-API
Bax Nommal Size and __~ Bore of of Flange ) [mm1 Old Nommal SW3 Of Flange 11n/ OD of Flange On) 6 18 6% 7'!z 8 14 10% 13 I4 16% 20 22 27 29% 32 [mm1 156 165 191 210 273 330 356 419 508 559 686 743 813

TYPE 6B FLANGES

FOR P,OOO-psi MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Flange Dlmensmns Total Thickness of Flange BaSlC Thtckness of Flanqe Diameter of Hub Diameter of Bolt ClrCk Diameter Number Diameter of Bolts of Bolts Of Bolt Holes Ring Length of Number Stud Bolts R or RX

-460 ** IS/?/16 52 4 2!46

(1n.l [mm1 118 266


l%f, 1% B 1v,6 11%~ 2516 33.3 36 5 397 46 52 55 63 71 74 84 90 98 0 4 6 5 4 6 1 5 4 1 254 1'/B 286 1 '14 31 a I'iz 136 I '/8 231,~ 2% 2% 3 3'h 3 '12 38 1 445 476 55 6 63 5 66 7 76.2 a2 6 88 9

IIn 1

lmml

(in )
4%

(mm1
1143 1270 1492 1683 2159 2667 292.1 349.3 431.8 489.0 603.3 6541 7239 4 8 6 8 8 8 I2 12 16 20 20 20 24 314 M 314 34 7/B 1 I 1/a 1 '14 1 '14 I'!> I5% I5%

On ) Imml On1 Imml


088 075 088 088 100 112 112 1 25 138 138 162 1 75 175 23 20 23 23 26 29 29 32 35 35 42 45 45 4% 4% 5 5'/4 6' 6 1% 7 a 8% 9 10% 11 IIU 108 114 127 133 I52 17 I I78 203 222 229 260 279 298 20 23 26 31 37 41 45 49 53 57 65 69 73

2%
3% 4'/;8 ' * 5% 7%6 9 II 13% 16% "17U 21%

651 79 4 1032 1302 1794 2286 279.4 346 1 425.5 4509 539 8

2% 69 9 3iA6 84 1 3'5/,6 100 0 4 V8 1175 6 152.4

2%
2% 2'3& 2'5As 3% 39/M 3%

10% 13% 15% 19% 2l'h 24

273 1 342 9 400 1 495 3 5461 609 6

RING MUST

GROOVE BE CONCENTdlC

WITH BORE WITHIN 0010 TOTAL INDICATOR RUNOUT

DETAIL

L SEE

DETAIL

00 T AOLE CEN TEPLINE LOCATED WITHIN 0.03 OF THEORETICAL a.C. AND EGUA SPAC,NG

TOP

VIEW

landing collars. This is the most simple and easily installed hanger but is limited to applications where gas-lift valves or tubing accessories with external diameters greater than tubing-joint diameters are not needed. Multiple-Segment. This type of hanger is composed of an individual hanger segment for each tubing string. Each segment seats in and occupies a part of the bowl when landed. Gas-lift valves and other tubing accessories may be installed on the tubing string. Each hanger segment may be equipped with provisions for backpressure valves. Combination Mandrel and Boll-Weevil. This type of hanger is similar to the multiple-bore mandrel hanger except that one string of tubing is supported by threading into the large mandrel.

Tension-Type. This type of hanger is constructed similar to the multiple-bore mandrel hanger and consists of a landing collar for each individual tubing string. The individual landing collars may be lowered through and lifted back up into the hanger mandrel, enabling the tubing strings to be set in tension through the BOPs. Backpressure valves may be installed in the landing collars.

Selection. In selecting a multiple-completion tubing hanger, the following factors should be considered. 1. Seals on the individual hangers should not be exposed to damage by successive running of remaining tubing strings.

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND

FLOW

CONTROL

DEVICES

3-l 7

TABLE

3.18-API

TYPE 6B FLANGES

FOR 2,000-psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

(continued)

Ring-Joml Groove and Flange Facrng Dimensrons Nommal Size and Bore of Flanae Pitch Drameter of Tvoe R Wrdth of Death of Dtameter of Raised Face Hub Length Threaded Lrne-Prpe Flanqe Hub Lenqih Threaded Casmg Flanae

Hub and Bore Drmenstons Hub Length Weldin&Neck Lme-Pipe Flange On ) Neck Drameler Welding-Neck Line-Prpe Flange Maximum Bore of Welding Neck Flanae

~___
W.1 Imml
68 26 a2 55 101 60 i23.83 149.23 180.98 211.14 269 88 12% 15 18% 21 23 323.85 381 .oo 469.90 533.40 584 20 46 0 52 4 65 1 79.4 ''h '?32 '5% '%2 '%2 '%2 '%2 '732 '%2 %2 '%> 7;; '732 a 11 II 11 73 91 91 91 'I4 %e % 6 % 6 % 6 % 6 % 6 %6 % 6 %6 % 6 ?/,e % 6 35 7.94 794 7.94 7.94 7 94 7.94 7 94 7 94 794 7 94 7 94 9 53

m )

lmml

[mm1 (1n.1 [mm1 On I (In ) __-__


3%6 4 'A 5 5 34

lmml
90 108 127 146

(ln 1 [mm1 ____-__


1% 1% 1'V,6 2% 38 44 49 54

0n 1
3% 4 4% 5 5 J/4 31% 4 '12 415& 5 318

lmml
89 102 114 127 133 100 114 125 137

Imml
76 2 81.0 87 3 90 5 109 5 122 2 1254 141 3 1603

On)
1.90 238 2.88 3.50 4.50 5.56 6.63 a.63 1075

[mm1
48 60 73 88 3 5 2 9

(ln ) GE---2.067 2.469 3.068 4.026 4.813 5.761 7813 9750

[mm1
40.89 52.50 62 71 77 93 102.26 122 25 146 33 19845 24765

103.2 1302 179 4 228 6 11 13% 16% "17% 21% 279 4 346 1 425 5 4509 539 8

11 9 1 11 91 11 91 11 91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 1349

175 0% 210 9 '12 241 11 I/B 302 14 16% 20 225/s 25 356 413 508 575 635

6%

2x6 2"/16 2'5,& 35/,, 31%6 31% 4 'h 4'51% 5%

62 68 75 84 94 100 114 125 137

114.3 141.2 168.4 2192 2731

138 Dar -'These 51zesavailable on spec,ai orderOnly

THREADED

FLANGE

LINE

WELD PlPE

NECK FLANGE

REQUIREMENTS

FOR TABLE 3.16

1 The contourof the flange face wtsrde the d, diameterISoptronal wrththe manulacturer unlessratsed or full face ISspecrfied on the purchase order 2 Rmg-groove radrus r,lshall be %z rn [0 79 mm] forgroove wrdthsll& 18.73 mm] and '% [11 91 mm] 'A.in [I59 mm] forwidth'%. [I 3 49 mm] 3 The bore d, 01weldmg-neck flanges shall be as speofredon thepurchase order NOTE Bore drameter shouldbe the same as ID of prpeto be used,but. because theseflangeS are constructed OfType 4 m&l& the bore shall not exceed valws ofd, 4 The wallthrckness ot weldmg-neck flanges shall be not lessthan 87'!2% of the n0mlrW.l wallthrckness Of the pope to whrch the flangeISto be attached 5 The weldmg end ofweldrng-neck flanges shall be cylrndrrcal or shall have a maximum draft at 7' The length shall be Sufficient toensure a sound weld,but rnno case shall be lessthan $14 rn 164 mm]

2. Positive packoff elements or seals should be provided. 3. Design should allow passage of gas-lift valves if needed. 4. Center lines should be provided to suspend tubing in the casing without spreading at the top. 5. The hanger should be constructed to accommodate positive seating of backpressure valves that do not require an oversize vertical run. 6. The hanger should be constructed for accurate, dependable pressure testing after tubing strings have been landed and sealed.

Christmas-Tree Assembly. The Christmas-tree assembly for a multiple-parallel-string wellhead includes

all fittings above the tubing-head top flange. Threaded, welded, independently flanged, and integrally flanged Christmas-tree assemblies are available for the installation of multiple tubing strings. Threaded, welded, and independently flanged assemblies are furnished in working pressures of 2,000 and 3,000 psi, although threaded assemblies are rarely recommended for 3,000-psi applications. Welded assemblies are recommended for 3,000-psi service only on noncorrosive applications when pressures are expected to decline rapidly and economy is of great importance. Integrally flanged assemblies are available in 2,000-, 3,000-, 5,000-. and lO,OOO-psi working pressures. These assemblies are preferred on severe or corrosive 2.000- and 3,000-psi service, and recommended for 5,000- and lO,OOO-psi applications.

3-18

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE
&SIC Nominal Size and Bore of Flange (In.) t I%6 mm1 46.0 524 65.1 79.4 103.2 130.2 1794 228.6 279.4 346.1 425.5 450.9 527.1 Old Nommal Size of Flange (In.) 1% 2 2% 3 4 5 6 8 IO 12 16 18 20

3.19-API
Flange

TYPE 6B FLANGES

FOR 3,000-psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING
Bolting

PRESSURE

Dlmensrons

Dlmenslons

Outside Diameter of Flange (in) 7 w/2 9% 9% 1 I/2 13% 15 18% 21% 24 27% 31 33% [mm] 178 216 244 241 292 349 381 470 546 610 705 787 857

Total Thickness of Flange (rn.) 1% 1%6 ls/,6 1% 2/,6 p/,6 2% 23/16 3%~ 3/,6 35/ls 4% 4% [mm] 38.1 46 0 49.2 46.0 52.4 58.7 63.5 71.4 77.8 87.3 100.0 114.3 120.7

Basic Thrckness of Flanae (In.) 1 A 1% 1 5/a 1 /2 1% 2 [mm] 31.8 38.1 41.3 38.1 44.5 50.8 55.6 63.5 69.9 79.4 88.9 101 6 108.0 Diameter of Hub (in.) --__2% 4/8 4% 5 6A 7% 9% 11% 14% 16% 20 22% 24% [mm] 69.9 104.8 123.8 127.0 158.8 190.5 235.0 298.5 368.3 419.1 508.0 565.2 622.3

Diameter Of Bolt Circle (rn.) 4~0 6% 7% 71% 9% 11 12h 15% 18% 21 24% 27 29% [mm] 123.8 165.1 190.5 190.5 235.0 279.4 317.5 393.7 469.9 533.4 616.0 685.8 749.3 0 0 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 ?h Diameter of Bolts (In.) Of Bolt Holes

Length of Stud Bolts Ring Number

Number of Bolts

(in.) (In.) mm1 __1.12 1.00 1.12 1.00 1.25 .38 1.25 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.12 29 26 29 26 32 35 32 39 39 39 45 51 54 5h 6 6% 6 7 7%

[mm]
140 152 165 152 178 197 203 229 241 260 296 349 368

R or RX
20 24 27 31 37 41 45 49 53 57 66 70 74

P/l, WI6
3% 4%6 5% 71/x 9 11 13% 16% t17Y4 20% t

WI6
2/2 2% 3% 3% 4 4 /4

a
9 9% 10% 11% 13% 14%

207 bar See Table 3 le sketch tThese SIZE. ~nactwe. wallable

on special order Only

Nomenclature
b, b, b, = width = width = width

for Tables 3.18 through 3.29


of flat of octagonal of groove, in. of ring, in. of bolt circle, of bolt holes, in. in. flange, in. ring, in.

d,, = diameter d bh = diameter d hCmaxj= maximum dt d, d, d,

bore of welding-neck in.

= diameter of flat, in. = pitch diameter of groove, = hole size, in. = diameter of hub, in. of hub, in. of hub, in.

presently standardizing flanges for 30,000-psi working pressure. API has recently standardized a line of clamptype connectors in sizes 2x6 through 21% in. in the 5,000 and lO,OOO-psi working pressure ranges. The design criteria and detailed dimensional data for these clamp-type connectors are given in API Spec. 6A. Details for API ring-joint gaskets for API flanges and clamp-type connectors are shown in Tables 3.27 through 3.29.

d,, = large diameter dHs = small diameter d, d, d z d, d,g D, h,


h,

Flow Control Devices: Safety Shut-In Systems


line-pipe

= neck diameter flange, in.

of welding-neck

= OD of flange, in. = groove OD, in. = OD of ring, in. = diameter of raised face, in. in.

= pitch diameter of ring and groove, = depth of groove, in. = height


= height

of outside
of ring, in.

bevel,

in., or basic in. in. casing line-pipe flange, flange, in. in.

thickness

of flange,

h, = total thickness Lc L, L, L, L

of flange,

= hub length of threaded = length of hub, in. = hub length = hub length in. = length of threaded

of welding-neck in.

line-pipe

flange,

of stud bolts,

Lb, = hub length of tubing flange, in. = radius in groove, in. fg rH = radius of hub or radius at hub, in.
rr = radius in octagonal ring, in.

Flange Data Tables 3,18 through 3.26 show API standard flanges and arc reproduced with permission of API. These tables cover working pressures of 2,000 to 20,000 psi. API is

Since the consequences of uncontrolled well flow are so severe, especially offshore, automatic well shut-in safety systems are important enough that they are sometimes mandated by law. 6 Safety systems must be failsafe. Failure of the energy source or any component must cause the system to go to the safe mode. Usually safe mode means the wells are shut in at one or more points. Safety systems sense conditions on the lease or platform and shut in the well or wells when conditions deviate from the preset limits. Shutting in the well averts further danger due to (1) uncontrolled flow from ruptured pressure vessels, (2) fueling any fire that has started or may start, or (3) overfilling vessels with fluid and/or pressure. The systems consist of fail-safe valves (safety valves), sensors, logic control valving and indicators, and a power source. Some systems may be contained in a single valve or they may be very large multiwell, multivalve, multiparameter, multilogic systems integrated into a production control system with telemetry. Severity of consequences usually dictates how elaborate the safety system should be. Safety valves may be located in the tubing string [subsurface safety valve (SSSV)], on the Christmas tree, or downstream of the well in the process train (surface safety valve) (Figs. 3.6 and 3.7). Most safety valves are controlled with externally applied fluid pressure. Release of the control pressure allows the valve to close.

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW

CONTROL

DEVICES

3-19

TABLE

3.19-API

TYPE 69 FLANGES

FOR 3,000-psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

(continued)

Ring-Joint Groove and Flange Facmg Dlmenslons


Pitch Diameter Hub Hub Length Threaded Casmg Flange (In) 3'/2 4 4'/2 5 5% 45/,6 5x'?/,, 6% 63/4 [mm] 89 102 114 127 133 125 144 16517,

Hub and Bore Dlmenslons Hub Length Hub Length Tubing Flange (in) 2 [mm] ___~ 51 6.5 71 75 69 _ Welding Neck Line-Pipe Flange (in.) 3% 4%~ 4/,6 4%6 4's~ 5%e' 5'j/,s S"/,, 7%~ _ [mm] 88.9 1095 112 7 109.5 122 2 134.9 147.9 169.9 192.1 Neck Diameter Welding Neck Line-Pipe Flange (in.) 1.90 2.38 2.813 3.50 4.50 5.56 6.63 8.63 10.75 _ [mm] 48 3 60.5 73.2 88 9 114.3 141.2 1684 219.2 273 1 -

Maximum Bore of Welding Neck Flange (in.) 1.500 1.939 2 323 2 900 3 826 4.813 5.761 7 439 9.314 ~ [mm] 38.10 4925 59.00 73.66 97.18 122.25 146.33 188.95 236 56 _ ~ :

Nominal
Size and Bore of Flange (in.) ** I=/,,6 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 130.2 179.4 226.6 279.4 3461 425.5 450.9 527.1

of Type R Ring

Diameter
Of

and
Groove (in.) 2/,6 3% 4% 4% 5% 7% 10% [mm] 68.26 95 25 107.95 123.83 14923 18098

Width of
Groove (in.) /& [mm] 0.73

Depth of Groove (in.) /4 5& %G S/q6 s/,6 Y 6 Y,6 % 6 s/,6 %6 %G A! l/z [mm] 6.35 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 11.11 12.70 12.70

Raised Face (In.) 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 12% 14% 16% 20% 23% 25% [mm] 92 124 137 156 181 216 241 308 362 419 524 594 648

Length Threaded Lme-Pipe Flange (in.) 2 29/,6 213h6 2"/,6 3% 3%, 31x6 45/j6 43/,6 45h6 5'1/,, 6/2 6% [mm] 51 65 71 62 76 a7 94 110 116 125 144 165 171

wl.5 WI6
3% 4x6 * * 5% 7x6 9 11 13% 16% 17% 20%

s/x* 11.91 11.91 %2 S/52 11.91 s/32 %> %* %z S/3* & 2'/,2 25/3* 11.91 11.91 11 91 11.91 11.91 11.91 16.67 19.84

2%
23/6 2'5/& 3% _

f3?,8211 14 269.88 323 05 361 00 469 90 533.40 564.20

12% 15 18% 21 23

z/32 19.84

207 bar See Table 3 18 sketch tThese s,zes,nact,ve wallablean special orderonly.

RECXJIREMENTS

FOR TABLE 3.19

1.3, 4, and 5 See Table 3 18 2 Rmg-groove radius T.~shall be A2I. IO.79 mm] forgroove wdlhs & and % [873 and 1 I 91 mm] and 1/,6 I [1.59 mm] for widths2/32 and z:& ]I6 67 and 19 84 mm] ,,s tn [460 10 65.1 mm]. inclusive, are ldentlcal withS.OOO-PSI [345-bar] flanges ITable 3.20 6 Excepl forbore of weldmg neck flanges, dlmerwons forsizes11%6 10 Z9/ 7 MaxImum throughbores of 33/,6. 4X, and 716 I [El0. 108.0, and 181 0 mm] are permwble fornommal sws 3%. 4/ls. and 71,~ [79.4, 103 2, and 179 4 mm]. respectiveiy 8. Flangedend connections ofsome casingand tubing heads may have entry bevelrecesses and/or counterbores greater thand, maximum 10receive a packer mechanism The s,~esand shapes of these bevels. recesses, and/orcounterbores are prapriefary and are 01 covered by this speclflcatlon

Llqud

Regulator

Fus,hle

Manual

IF

Emergency ShuGOown Valve a, Boat Landmo \ ControlPanel ./ Pressure Sensors

(ESD)

Lx-

I,

t
SurfaceControlled Subsurface Safety Valve

Fig. 3.6-Production

platform

safety

shut-in

system.

3-20

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE3.20-API
Basic Nominal Size and Bore of Flange (in.) -46.0 t I%.._ [mm] Old Nominal Size of Flange (in.) 1% 52.4 65.1 79.4 103.2 130.2 179 4 228.6 346.1 279.4 425.5 2 2% Outside Diameter of Flange (in.) 7 8% 9% 10% 12% 14% 15% 19 23 [mm] 178 216 244 267 311 375 394 483 584 Flange

TYPE 68 FLANGES
Dimensions

FOR 5,000~psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING
Boltmg

PRESSURE

Dimensions

Total Thvzkness of Flange (m) 1% 13,s l5/,16 2% [mm]

Basic Thickness of Flange (In.) 1 /4 1% 1% 1% 2% 27/e 31% 35/a 4% [mm] 31 8 38 1 41.3 47.6 54.0 73 0 82.6 92.1 108.0 Diameter of Hub (in.) 2% 4% 4% 5% 6% 7% 9 11% 14% [mm] --~ 69.9 104.3 123.8 133.4 161.9 196.9 228.6 292.1 368.3 -

~ (in.)

Diameter of Bolt Circle [mm] 123.8 165.1 190.5 203.2 241.3 292.1 317.5 393.7 482.6 _ -

Olameter Diameter Number of Bolts 4 8 8 8 of Bolts On.1 1 V8 1 1 /B of Bolt Holes (in.) 1.12 1.00 1.12 1 25 1 38 1.62 1 50 1.75 200 [mm] 29 26 29 32 35 42 39 45 51

Length of Stud Bolts (In.) 5% 6 6% 7% 8 10 10% 12 13% [mm] 140 152 165 184 203 254 273 305 349 Rtng Number R or RX 20 24 27 35 39 44 46 50 54

38.1
46.0 49.2

WE 2% 6
3/s

4% 6% 7% 8 91/z 11% 12% 15% 19 -

3
4 5 6 8 ,35/8 10 ,lj3/4

55.6
61 .9 81 0 92.1 103.2 119 - 1 -

4% 5% 7% 9

256
33/jG 3% 4%~ 41%~ -

: 12 12 12 -

1 /r /2 1 3/a 1% 1 /s -

&h $163/q

345 bar. *See Table 3 18 sketch +These sues ,nactwe, wallableon spectal orderonly *See Table 3 22 fordtmenslondetails an these sizes.

Fusible Plug

Pneumatic -

Surface

Safety Valve Control Panel

Hydraulic Safety

Surface Valve c1

Surface

Controlled Safety

Subsurface Valve

Fig. 3.7-Safety

shut-in

system

with

hydraulic

valves

and

pneumatic

valves

WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT AND FLOW CONTROL DEVICES

3-21

TABLE 3.20API TYPE 6B FLANGES FOR 5,000-psi* MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURE (continued)
Ring-Joint Groove and Flange Facing Dimensions Pitch Diameter of Type R Ring and Groove (in.) Hub Length Threaded Line-Pipe Flange Hub Length Threaded Casing Flange (In.) [mm] __~ 3% 4x6 5x6 Hub and Bore Dimensions** Hub Length Welding Neck Line-Pipe Flange Neck Diameter Welding Neck Line-Pipe Flange Maximum Bore of Welding Neck Flange

Nominal Size and Bore of Flange (in.) t 1%6 2/,, 3% 4116 t 518 7%6 9 11 $135/E [mm] 46.0 52 4 65 1 79.4 1032 1302 179.4 228.6 279 4

Width of Groove

Depth of Groove

Diameter of Raised Face

Hub Length Tubing Flange

24,

(in.) [mm] ~211/,, 68 26 /zz 3% 9 5 2 5 % 4% 107.95 Sk* 5% 136.53 1%

[mm] (m) [mm] (in.) [mm] (in.) [mm] -__8.73 /4 6 35 3% 92 2 51 11.91 %f 7 94 4 % 124 2%~ 65 11.91 %6 7 94 5 a/a 137 213/16 71 11 91 %6 7.94 6% 168 33/16 81 11.91 11.91 1349 16.67 16.67 %6 %6 3/s /I 6 %6 _ 7 94 7.94 9.53 11 11 11 11 _ 7s/, 9 9% 12% 14% 194 229 248 318 371 98 113 129 154 6%6 170 _ 3% 4%6 5x6

On.) Imml -~
2 29~~ 23/16 33/16 51 65 71 81

bn)

lmml

0n)

lmml

t(n)

~ [mm1
33 42 53 66 96 90 98 65

3 /2 889 45/j6 109 5 47/,6 1 1 2 7 415/]6 125 4

1.904831337 2.38 605 1 689 2 88 73.2 2.125 3 50 889 2624

$163/q

346.1 4255

6% 7% 85/j6 10% 12% -

161.93 193.68 211.14 269.88 323.85 -

1%~ 1Yz2 /zz *l/x2 2/~2 -

WI,

98 53/,6 131 8 3% 98 450 1143 3438 87 33 113 556 141 2 4313 10955 6/,6 163 5 129 7% 181 0 663 1684 5189 131 80 154 83/>~ 223 8 863 2192 6.813 17305 6/,6 170 lOY,e 265 1 1 0 7 5 2 7 3 1 8 5 0 0 2 1 5 9 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -

wl6

345 bar See Table 3 16 skerch

REQUIREMENTS FOR TABLE 3.20 ,,3,4,and5 SeeTable 2 R1n9.groove radius r,g shall Ye jhz m (0 79 mm] for 9roove widths & and s/S2 m [8 73 and 11 91 mm]. 1/,6 1. (1 59 mm] for wdths Xz and 2& [13 49 and 16 67 mm] 6 Except for bore of welding-neck flanges, dtmenslons for suxs 11%6 III to 23/,5 !n [46 0 to 65 1 mm]. mclus~ve, are ldentlcal with 3,000.PSI [207-bar] flanges I Table 3 19 7 and 8 See Table 3 19

Surface Safety Valves (SSVs) An SSV on the Christmas tree is usually the second valve in the flow stream. Hence it is the second master valve, if it is in the vertical run, otherwise it is a wing valve. SSVs can be located downstream of the well in the process train at such places as (1) flowline headers, (2) suction, discharge, and bypass on a compressor (the bypass safety valve safe mode is open instead of closed), or (3) at the entrance to the sales pipeline or the pipeline leaving a platform. Most SSVs are reverse-acting production-gate valves with piston-type actuators (Fig. 3.8). Valve-body pressure against the lower stem area moves the gate to the up/closed position. Control pressure applied to the piston pushes the gate to the down/open position. Usual-

ly a spring is used to close the valve if valve-body pressure is not present. Valve-body pressure and piston/stem area ratio determine the control pressure required. Large-ratio pneumatic actuators are used because the larger ratio permits use of lower control pressure. Lower-pressure control-system valves can be simpler and more reliable. Compressed air or produced gas are the usual control fluids. Control pressures are generally 250 psi or less. Low-ratio hydraulic actuators are used where the SSV is to be controlled by the same system that controls the SSSV, or where limited space is available on the Christmas tree (Fig. 3.9). Control pressures are generally slightly greater than the shut-in pressure of the well.

Fig. 3.8Pneumatic-powered ratio-piston surface safety valve.

Fig. 3.9Pneumatic and hydraulic surface safety valves

3-22

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

3.21-API

TYPE 6BX INTEGRAL

FLANGES

FOR 5,000-AND
Bmc

lO,OOO-psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Flange Dlmerwons Large Diameter of Hub Small Diameter of Hub Length of Hub Radus at Hub

Nommal Sue and Bore (in1 2.000 PSI(138 bar) 3.000 PSI (207 bar) 5,000 PSI (345 bar) 26% 26% 13% 716% 18% 2 1% '*I"& I'%16 2%6

OutsIde Diameter

Total Thickness

lmml
6795 6795 346.1 425.5 476.3 539.8 429 46.0 52.4 65.1 77 8 1032 1302 1794 2286 2794

On)
41 43% 26% 30% 35% 39 7%6 7% 7% 9 'h 10% 12',$6 14'/IS 18% 21% 25%

[mm1 -__ bn)

bml

W )
34%

Imml
835.8 870.0 481 0 5556 674 7 7588 a4 1 08 9 1000

(in)
29% 30%, 16"/,6 20% 23%, 26%

bml
743 0 7763 423 9 527 1 598 5 679.5

(ln)
75& 4% 3 6 6%

lmml (ln 1 lmml


vu 518 ve 74 % "AS ve % K V8 3% W 3/s 5% s/s 5/s 159 15 9 159 19 1 159 175 9.5 9 5 9 5 9.5 9 5 95 9 5 159 15.9 15.9 186 114 76 152 165 47 48 52 57 64 73 81 95 94 103 114 76 156 165

1041 4='/2>126 2 322%~ 1102 6"/>, 161 1 673 772 905 991 183 187 200

73/,6 166

4x6 1127 la'%, 5% 1302 21% 6'7/,21659 26%~ 7% 181.0 29% 1% 12%~ 14%4 42.1 42 1 44.1 51.2 563 702 79.4 1032 1238 141 3 3% 3% 3'%.

10,000 ps, (690 bar)

2'3/>2 61.1 12y32 2% 65.1 1% 2'5& 746 2% 3% 92.1 2M 4"/32 110.3 2% 5% 1461 2% 7'& 182.6 3% IO 12% 15% 254.0 327.0 400.1 3% 3'Xs 4vj6 4% 3 6% 6%

232 2%. 270 2'Ysq 316 2-/s, 357 31/s 479 552 654 4%. 4% 5%6

120 7 4% 5'9,& 142.1 73/,e 1826 813/,,2238 11% 14% 17% 21% 25'%a 29% 33% 3016 374.7 450 9 5525 6556 752.5 8477

346 1 30% 768 425 5 345ie 872 476 3 40'5/,, 1040 5398 45 1143 Boltmg Dlmensms Nominal Sam and Bore w 2.000 MI (138 bar) 3.000 psr (207 bar) 5,000 ps; (345 bar1 1 [mm] 679.5 6795 346.1 425.5 476.3 539.8 429 46 0 524 65 1 77 6 1032 1302 1794 2286 2794 346 1 4255 4763 5396 Diameter of Bolt Circle (m) 37% 39% 23% 26% 31% 34% [mm] 9525 10001 590.6 676.3 603.3 885.8
6

6% 1683 6% 1683 Sz5/,z 223 0 9% 2413

lS'/z 4953 23'1/,6 601.7 21?/~ 674 7 30 762 0

=/s 15.9 19.1 % 15.9 % 13/,rj 206

Facing andGroove Diameter of Bolt H&S Lenath of Siud Bolts (in.) [mm] 13% 17 12% 14% 17% 18% 5 5 5% 6 6% 8 8% 11% 13 15 17% 17% 22% 24'h 349 432 318 368 445 476 127 127 133 152 171 203 222 286 330 381 438 445 572 622 Raised Face Diameter (ln ) [mm] Gr0CW? OD (1n.1 /mm]

Dimensions Width of GKPSe (in) [mm] 22.91 Depth of GrCO!e (in.) [mm] 2',3221.43 25'3221.43 V,s 1429 *'kn 6.33 '3& 18.26 % 19 05 '& ?& '%a 5 56 5 56 5 95

Diameter Number 01 Bolls of Bolts (117 ) (m ) [mm] 20 24 16 16 20 24 8 8 8 I3 6 8 12 12 16 16 20 24 24 24 ~ 1% 2 178 1% 2 2 u 3'4 % '/s 1 1'/a 1'/a 1'h 1'h 1% 1w 1% 2% 2% 1.88 2.12 1.75 2.00 2.12 2.12 088 088 0.88 100 112 125 125 162 1 62 1 88 200 200 238 262 48 54 45 51 54 54 23 23 23 26 29 32 32 42 42 48 51 51 61 67

t3ng Number BX-167 8X-168 BX-160 8X-162 8X.163 BX-165 EX-150 8X-151 8X-152 8X-153 8X-154 BX-155 8X-169 8X-156 BX-157 BX-158 6X-159 6X-162 EX-164 BX~l66

26% 26% 13% t16% 18% 2 1% * *11% 6 1'%6

31"',,,804 9 30.249 768.32 0902 32% I8 21%~ 24"& 27% 4 4% 4% 5% 6 7% 6'%s 11% 14% 16%

831.9 30.481 774.22 1.018 25.86 4572 535 0 627.1 701.7 16063 16.832 22.185 24.904 408.00 478.33 563.50 63256 0786 0.705 1.006 1.071 1996 1791 25 55 27 20

10,000 ps, (690bar)

5%
5% 6%

2h 2%
3%6

141.3 146 1 1586

101 6 2.893 104 8 3062 111.1 3395 131 8 152.4 184 9

73.48 0.450 11 43 77.77 0.466 11 84 8628 0.498 12 65

4',& 5% 71:s 9 11 13% 16% 18% 21%

7% 184 2 8% 2159 1O3/,6 2588 ll'Y,s 15% 18% 22% 26% 30% 36% 40% 3000 4032 4763 5652 6731 7763 9255 10224

4.046 10277 0.554 14 07 4685 11900 0.606 1539 5.930 150.62 0.698 17 73 17666 0666 241 83 0.921 29906 1039 35723 1.149 43264 1279 478 33 0 705 57790 1290 64788 1373 1692 23 39 26 39 2918

'%a 6 75 's,64 7 54 ?%a 8 33 3/s 9 53 %6 11 11 'h 1270 %h 1429

220.7 6.955 301.6 9.521 358.8 11 774 428.6 14064 17.033 18.832 22752 25.507

20% 517.5 22"/,,576.3 27'A6 696.9 30% 781.1

5/s 15 88 3249 8 33 17.91 z'& 32 77 23& 18 26 % 19 05 3487

'345and 690 bar '.ThlS flange 14InaCtIve avaIlable on s&x?clal Older only +Thts tlangewasadopledJ"ne 1969and shall be markedwth boththeworking ,xessure (50OOWP)and thetest ~ressure,10,000TPI ,nadd,l,on ,aalher mark,nS requwemenfs

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND

FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-23

TABLE

3.22-API

TYPE 68X WELDING-NECK

FLANGES

FOR lO,OOO- AND 15,000-psi


Basic Flange Dlmenslons

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Nominal Size and Bore

OutsIde Diameter

Total Thickness

Large Dlametet of Hub (in) [mm]

S"Mll Diameter of Hub (in.) [mm] 2'Y32 29/~6 2'7,6 61.1 65 1 74.6

Length of Hub (tn.) [mm] 12x2 47 129/,1 48 2%2 52 2'14 2'/2 2'ls 57 64 73

R&us at Hub (m ) [mm] I % ?/8 3/s =/a 318 3h 5/a 78 s/s s/a % ?/s 3/a k % Vs Ye VI3 9 5 95 9 5 95 9 5 9 5 9.5 159 159 159 159 19.1 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 95 95 159

bml
10.000 psi (690 bar) 429 460 524 651 778 1032 1302 1794 2286 2794 346 1 425 5 15,000 PSI (1035 bar) **1/j6 1'3/.. , 42 9 46 0 524 651 778 103 2 1794

On.) lmml (ln)


7%6 7% 7% 183 187 200 lvx 1v3* I'%4 2'/64 2's& PS&

Imml
42 1 42 1 44 1 51 2 58.3 70 2

3%6 84 1 3'/2 88.9 3'Yje 1000 4% 120 7 5f=/32 142 1 73/,6 182.6 6"/,vj2236 11R 301.6 14% 374.7 17% 4509 21% 5525 2513/,5 6556 3"/18 32'/w 4%51/15 6%, 7"/js 12'3h6 937 97.6 111.1 128.6 1540 195.3 3254

9% 232 lO~/n 270 12%6 316 14%6 357 18v.. 479 21% 552 25% 30'14 34%, 75/e 8%. . 6% IO ll%e 143/,, 19vn 654 768 872 194 208 222 254 287 360 505

35/e 92.1 4"/s2 110 3 5% 1461 7x6 1826 10 254.0 127/n 327.0 15% 19'h 23'%6 400.1 495.3 601 7

31% 794 4'/16 1032 47/s 1238 5Y6 141 3 65/s 1683 65/s 1683 1% 12%.2 2% 2'/;, 33/32 4"& 44 5 45 2 50 8 57 2 64.3 786 119 1

3Y,e 81 3% 95 3('/(6 94 4'& 4'h 3 178 1% 2Vs 2'14 2'12 27/e 35/s 108 114 76 48 48 54 57 64 73 92

2% 6 244 6

3% 6 4x5 7'/< 6

21Y,6 68 3 2'3h. , 71 4 3'/4 82 6 31%6 100 0 4'3/16 122 2 6'/4 158 8 10% 2762 Facmg

BoltingDlmensons Nominal SIX and B0te (1"1 10.000 DSI (690 ba;) . f1',< c 1 '% 6 [mm] 42 9 46.0 524 Diameter of Bolt Circle (in) 5%. 5%6% [mm] Dlametet of Bolt Holes Length of Stud Bolts (in) [mm] 5 127 127 133 152 171 203 222 286 330 381 438 445 133 140 152 171 191 235 324 Ralsed Face Dwneter (in.) [mm]

and Groove Dlmenslons Width of Groove Depth of GVXNe (tn.) [mm] '/w 556 :i; 5 56 's/h4 5 95 '!/64 6 75 754 2'ka 8 33

Diameter Number of Bolts (1") [mm] of Bolts (1"1 8 a 8 8 8 12 12 16 16 20 24 a 8 8 8 8 % % % 7/s 1 1'/s 1'ia 1'/2 1'h 1% 1'/a 1 '/a % % xl 1 1'18 068 088 088 100 112 125 125 1.62 162 1.88 200 200 0.88 100 1.00 1.12 125 1.50 1.62 23 23 23 26 29 32 32 42 42 48 51 51 23 26 26 29 32 39 42

G"JOVt? 00 (in.) 2.893 3.062 3395 [mm]

(1)

[mm] 11 43 11 84 1265 1407 1539 1773

mng Number BX-151 BX-152 BX-153 BX-154 BX-155 BX-169 BX-156 BX-157 8X-158 8X-159 6X-162 BX-150 BX-151 6X-152 BX-153 BX-154 BX-155 BX-156

2%6

141 8 146 1 1588

4 101 6 4?e 104.8 43/a 111 1 5%~ 6 7%, 131 8 1524 184 9

73.48 0.450 77.77 0.466 8623 0498

291,s 65 1 3'& 778 4'& 1032 5'18 1302 7'h. .I 1794 9 2286 11 135/a 16% 15,000 PSI (1035 bar) 2794 346 1 425 5

7'/s 184 2 a','* 215 9 lOz& 2588 11'v,/,6 3000 15'/s 4032 18% 4763 221/n 5652 26% 6731 30%~ 7763 6 1524 65/16 1603 6% 174.6 7'/s 2000 9% 2302

4.046 102.77 0554 4685 11900 0606 5.930 150.62 0.698

%4

8"h 220 7 6.955 176.66 0.666 16 92 IlVe 301 6 9.521 241.83 0.921 2339 14'/s 358 8 11.774 299.06 1.039 2639 1678 428 6 14.064 357.23 1.149 29 18 203/s 517 5 17.033 432.64 1.279 32 49 22'%8 576.3 18.832 476.33 0.705 17.91 3'3A, 96.8 43/,6 106.4' 4% 114.3 5'/4 133.4 6'/,, 154.0 7Vs 193.7 12 304.8 2.893 3.062 3.395 4.046 4.685 5.930 9.521 73.48 77.77 66.23 102.77 119.00 150.62 241.83 0.450 11 43 0.466 11 84 0 498 12 65 0.554 14.07 0.606 15 39 0 698 1773 0.921 23.39

3/s 9 53 '/,e 11 11 '/2 12 70

91.
5/E =h4

14 29 15 66 8.33

* *1 'j/,6 429 I?/,6 46 0 52 4 2%6 65 1 3% I 77 8

2%6

',& 5.56 "32 5.56 '%4 5 95 '%A 675 '?& 7.54 VM 8 33 '/I/(6 11 11

REQUlREMENTSFORTABLES3.22ANO3.24 1 Dueto thed~ff~cuity offteld weldingAPI Types 2 and 3 material from which theseilangesare made,atransjt~on p~ecemay beshopwelded tothebase flange and theweld properly heattreatedThisfrans~t~on pieceshall be made from the same or smlar matenalas the pipetowhich II ISLobewelded by the cusfomer Trans~t~on prxe ID and OD al the heldweid~ngend. and 11s maternal. shall be speclfled on the purchase order 2 The lengthof the lransit~on pwe shall be greatenough thalthe near from fleid weldmg will not affect the metallurgIcal properws of the shop weld 3 The API monogram shall be apphed lo the weldmg-neck flange(solld outl~nej The API monogram does "at applyto the shop weld or the trans,tion p,ece 4 D~mensianh,,may be omltted onstudded connections

3-24

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 3.23-API

TYPE 68X INTEGRAL

FLANGES

FOR 15,000-AND

20,000-psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Basic Flange Dimensions Nominal sze and Bore OutsIde Dtameter (in) 7% 83/,6 8% 10 115/?6 143/,6 [mm] 194 206 222 254 267 360 Total Thtckness (In.) [mm] 1% 44.5 12=& 45 2 2 50.6 2'14 57.2 2'%, 64.3 33h2 76.6 41& 119.1 5% 146.1 7% 167.3 Large Diameter of Hub (in.) [mm] 3"/,6 93.7 3zYz2 97.6 4% 111.1 5'/,s 126.6 6%~ 154.0 7"/,6 195.3 12'%8 325.4 17 431.0 23 564.2 Small Ofameter of Hub (In) [mm] Length of Hub (in.) [mm] 46 46 54 57 64 73 92 124 236 49 52 59 64 73 97 Radius at Hub (In.)[mm] Ys 9.5 318 95 318 9 5 % 9 5 l/s 9 5 =/P. 95 i/s 159 V8 159 5% 159 % "h 318 Ye % % 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 95 159

(In )
15,000 psi (1035 bar) W'%s 1 '%s

[mm]

WI6

429 460 524 2% 6 651 3%, 77.6 4'116 1032

7'116 1794 9 2266 11 2794 20,000 psf (1360 bar) 136 460 524 2% e 65 1 3x5 778 4x6 1032 7s/16 1794

19s 505 25'/z 646 32 813 lo'/8 257 llYjs 267 12'3/,6 325 14'/,, 357 17%~ 446 25'3& 656

211/,,,66.3 1% 2'=A6 71.4 1% 3s 62.6 2'18 3'%6 100.0 214 4'%, 122.2 2'12 6'/4 156.6 2'/8 lo'/8 276.2 3Vx0 13% 349.3 47/8 161J/(64270 9%~

2%6

2'12 63.5 5% 2'Y,6 71.4 6%~ 3'18 79.4 6'3& 3s 05.7 79h6 43/,s 106.4 9%~ 6'/2 165.1 153hb

133.4 4%~ 109.5 l'%s 154.0 5 127.0 2'/,6 173 0 5"/,6 144.5 2%~ 192.1 65/,, 1603 2% 242.9 Et'/8206.4 2'/s 365.6 13%6 338.1 3'%6

Bolting Drmensrons Nommal Stze and Bore fin ) 15,000 PSI -42.96 t l"A6 (1035bar) 1s [mm] 46.0 52 4 65 1 77 8 103 2 1794 2266 2794 46 0 52 4 65 1 77 8 103.2 1794 Dtameter of Bolt Circle (m.) 6%~ 67/a 7s 9x6 11x6 16% 21% 26 [mm] Diameter of Bolt IdOleS (fn) [mm] 088 1 00 00 12 125 1 50 1 62 200 212 ll2 125 136 150 1 66 212 23 26 26 29 32 39 42 51 54 29 32 35 39 46 54 Length of Stud Bolts (in.)[mm] 5'/4 5% 6 6% 7'/2 9% 12% 15% 19'/4 7% a'/4 9% 10 12% 17% 133 140 152 171 191 235 324 400 489 191 210 235 254 311 445 Ratsed Face Drameter

Facing and Groove Drmensrons Groove OD (in) 2.893 3.062 3 395 4.046 4.665 5 930 9.521 11 774 14064 3.062 3395 4.046 4665 5.930 9 521 [mm] 73.46 77.77 66 23 102 77 119 00 150 62 241.63 299.06 35723 77 77 86 23 102 77 11900 150 62 24163 Wldlh of Groove (In) 0.450 0.466 0 496 0 554 0.606 0.696 0921 1039 1149 [mm] 11.43 11.64 12.65 14.07 15.39 17.73 23.39 26.39 29.16 Depth of GVXXe (In.) [mm] %, 5 56 %z 5 56 's/s4 5 95 '%a 6 75 'g& 7 54 2/k4 a 33 /,6 11 11 Vz 12 70 q/~6 1429

Diameter Number of Bolts of Bolts on I 78 '/s 1 1l/a 1 3/s 1'12 1% 2 1 15% 1'/a 1% 1% 2

(lo.) [mm] 3'%r 96.8 43/16106.4 1143 133.4 154.0 193.7 304.8 361.0 454.0 117.5 131.6 150.8 171.5 219.1 3524

Rfng Number 6X-150 BX-151 BX-152 6X-153 6X-154 BX-155 BX-156 BX-157 BX-156 BX-151 6X-152 BX-153 0x-154 BX-155 BX-156

152.4 -3148 160 3 8 1746 8 2000 a 230.2 8 290.5 6 426.6 16 552.5 16 711.2 20 8 8 6 6 6 16

__

8 203.2 9'/,6 230.2 10%~ 261.9 11%~ 267.3 14'/,6 3572 21'3/,,6 5540

0 466 11.84 'h2 5 0 496 12.65 '%a 5 0 554 14.07 '7/6. 6 0606 15.39 '%a 7 0 698 17.73 "kn 0 0921 2339 '/,6 11

56 95 75 54 33 11

'1035and 1380 bar .'See Table321 sketch +Th,sIlange IS,nact,ve. available 0" spew1 order only

TABLE 3.24-API

TYPE 6BX WELDING-NECK

FLANGES

FOR 20,000-psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Basic Flange Nominal Size and Bore (in.) l% [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.6 103.2 179.4 Outside Diameter (in.) lo'/8 lls/,,j 123/la 14/le [mm] 257 287 325 357 Total Thtckness (In.) 2'12 23/,6 3/n 3 V8 43/,6 612 [mm] 63.5 71.4 79.4 65.7 106.4 165.1

Dimensions Large Small Diameter of Hub (in.) -4%5 5 5/,, 6%~ 818 13%6 ]mm] 109.5 127.0 144.5 160.3 206.4 338.1 Facina Length of Hub (In.) [mm] ls/,6 2/,6 2s/,, 2/2 27/a 33/,,6 49 52 59 64 73 97 Radius at Hub (In.) ]mm] 3/a % Ya 3% 3/s % 9.5 9.5 9.5 9 5 9.5 15.9

Diameter of Hub (in.) __~ 5'/4 6/,, 63/la 7%5 9%s 153/1k (mm] 133.4 154.0 173.0 192.1 242.9 385.8

2%6
2% 6 3x6 4%~ 7%6

179/,6 446 25'3/16 656

Bolttng Dimensions Nominal Size and Bore (in.) ~1s [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.0 103.2 179.4 Diameter of Bolt Circle (m) 8 9/,, lO%s lls/,a 14%~ 21+,6 [mm] 203.2 230.2 261.9 2873 357.2 554.0 Number of Bolts El El 6 8 8 16 Diameter of Bolts (in.) 1 1 /a 1 I4 1 a/a 1% 2 Diameter of Bolt Holes Length of Stud Bolts lmm] 191 210 235 254 311 445 Raised Face Diameter (in.) --~ 45/s 5a/18 5%6 6% 8% 1376

and Groove

Dimensions

Groove OD (in.) 3 062 3.395 4.046 4 685 5 930 9 521 [mm] -~ 77.77 66.23 102.77 119.00 150.62 241.83

Width

of

Depth

of Ring Number BX-151 BX-152 8X-153 BX-154 BX-155 BX-156

Groove (in.) 0.466 0.498 0.554 0.606 0.698 0.921 [mm] ~-11.84 12.65 14.07 15.39 17.73 23.39

(In.) [mm1 (in.) -1.12 1.25 1.36 1.50 1.88 2.12 29 32 35 39 46 54 7/2 w/4 9% 10 12/4 17/2

[mm] 117.5 131.6 150.6 171.5 219.1 352.4

Groove _________ (In.) [mm] r/s2 5/64 764 a/& */64 /,e 5.56 5.95 6.75 7.54 6.33 11.11

WI6 wl6
3x6 4/,a 7lyta

'1360 bar. '*See Table 322 sketch

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-25

TABLE 3.25-API

TYPE 6BX BLIND AND TEST FLANGES

FOR lO,OOO- AND 15,000-psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Basic Flange Dimensions Nommal Size and Bore (I.) [mm] 10,000 psi (690 bar) 11% 11%,+ 42.9 46.0 52.4 Outside Diameter (I.) [mm] 7%$ 7% 7Vs 183 187 200 Total Thickness (1) [mm] -1/3? 42.1 1% 42.1 14/64 44.1 21,&a 51.2 219h, 58.3 Z-164 70.2 1% I=,& 2 2% 2/32 33/52 44.5 45.2 50.8 57.2 64.3 78.6 Large Diameter of Hub (in.) [mm] 3sj& 84.1 3% 68.9 3%, 100.0 4% 5& 7%5 3J& 32%2 4% 5/,6 6%~ 71%~ 120.7 142.1 182.6 93.7 97.6 111.1 128.6 154.0 195.3 Small Dlameler of Hub (in.) [mm] -61.1 65.1 74.6 Length of Hub (in.) [mm] --47 48 52 2% 2% 27/s 17/ 17/s 2% 2% 2% 2% 57 64 73 48 48 54 57 64 73 Radus al Hub (m ) [mm] % % M 3/s % 3/s % % 3/s % H % 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

wl, 2%

23/32 2%. 2S/,,

.-

1*%2 1%. 21/,

65.1 3x6 77.8 4/,5 103.2 15,000 psi f1Y16 (1035 bar) I%s 42.9 46 0

918 232 270 10% 12%~ 316

3% 4,&, 5% 2/la 213/,,

92.1 110.3 146.1 60.3 71.4

194 7% 8y16 208 222 52.4 6% 254 651 10 3%6 77.8 11%~ 287 4116 103.2 14%~ 360

wl6 2%

82.6 3% 37,s 100.0 43/,e 120.7 6/4 158.8

BoltingDimensions Nominal Size and Bore (I.) 10,000 DSI (690 b;r) 1%6 VW; [mm] 42.9 46.0 52.4 Dwneter of Bolt Orcle (in.) [mm] 5%. 5%. 6V4 141 3 146 1 158.6 Diameter of Bolt Holes (in) [mm] 0.88 0.88 0 88 1 00 1.12 1.25 0.88 100 1.00 1.12 1.25 1.50 23 23 23 26 29 32 23 26 26 29 32 39 Length of Stud Bolts (in.)[mm] 5 127 5 127 5/1 133 6 6% 8 5% 5% 6 6% 7% 9h 152 171 203 133 140 152 171 191 235 Raised Face Diameter

Facing and Groove Dimensions Groove OD (in.) Width of Groove Depth of GK?OW (in) [mm] %, -_ 5.56 h> 5.56 5/s4 5 95 I/& 6.75 ?/~a 7.54 2& 8.33 /32 5.56 x2 5.56 1% 5 95 1/., 6.75 ?& 7.54 z/s4 8.33

Diameter Number of Bolts of Bolts (in) 8 8 8 6 8 8 6 8 8 8 8 8 % % % 78 1 1/a % T/e 78 1 1l/s 1%

(tn.) [mm] 4 4/8 4% 5% 6 79/z

WI6 2%
31x6 41x6

101.6 2.893 104.6 3.062 111 .I 3.395 131.8 4.046 152.4 4.685 184.9 5.930

[mm] (in.) [mm] -~ --~ 73.48 0.450 11 43 77.77 0.466 11 84 86.23 0.498 1265 102.77 0.554 1407 119.00 0.606 1539 150.62 0.698 1773 73.48 0.450 11 43 77.77 0.466 11.84 86.23 102.77 119.00 150.62 0.498 0.554 0.606 0.698 12.65 14 07 15 39 17.73

Ring Number BX-150 BX-151 8X-152 BX-153 BX-154 BX-155 BX.150 BX-151 BX-152 BX-153 BX-154 6X-155

,65.1 71/n 184.2 77.8 5% 215.9 103.2 lOY,e 258.6 42.9 4.6.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2 6 6%~ 67/e 7/0 9% 11%~ 152.4 160.3 174.6 200.0 230.2 290.5

15,000 psi 1VW (1035 bar) ls/,6

WI6
29h 3x6 41x15

3%6 96.8 2.893 4%/16 106.4 3.062 4% 114.3 3.395 5/4 133.4 4.046 6x6 154.0 4.685 7% 193.7 5.930

690and 1035 bar. Type BX blind flanges mus1 be provided witha prolong on therear face, described by thelarge and small dwwters and length ofthehub.

B TO RlNG GROOYE ,YUST GE CONCENTR,C WmflN O.Q10TOTAL lNOfCATOR RNOT

I-----dol

FdbCl

LOCATED WITHIN 0.03 OF THEOffETICAL E.C AND EOUAL SPACING TOP VfEW h ,NE PlPE THffEADS

all2

;::,I; h,

;y=be may be omlted

3.29)

FLANGE

SECTION

on studded flanges

3-26

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Pressure

Difference

Sensing

Types

Ambient Sensing

Pressure Type

Balanced

Piston, Lines

Single (Flapper

Control Valve)

Line

Two Control (Ball Valve)

LOW-Pressure ControlLlrE

1 3-way Block and Bleed Valve

K Low-Pressure A,,or Gas Source

Emergency Shul-Down Valve

M W,reluwRelrlevable Tubmg SaletyValve N Cas,nglTublng AllJS iclr ConlrolFlwd Tub,ng Retrievable Tubng SafetyVatve Ram Latch Hanger System scoop Head LocatorHead Hydraulk Set Hangar

Hydraulic ControlMamlold

D0

Surface-ConiroUed SaletyValve Hydrauhc Surface SaletyValve Pneumal~c Surface SafetyValve

a R S

General

Schematic

Dual Installation To Tubing Hangar and Retrievable Valves

Annular Control Line

Single Line, Parallel

Control Small Line

Fig. 3.10-Types

of subsurface safety valves and completions

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-27

TABLE 3.26-API

TYPE 6BX BLIND AND TEST FLANGES


Basic Flanae Nommal Size and BOW Outside Diameter Total Thickness [mm] 635 71.4 79.4 85.7 1064

FOR 20,000-psi

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Dimensions Large Small Dlametert of Hub Lengtht of Hub Radius at Hub

Diametert of Hub

-~(in ) 11%

lmml 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2

On 1
lO/e 115/,6 123/6

lmml (in.)
257 287 325 2% ZS6 3% 3% 43/lF,

On.) -__
5%

@ml
1334 154.0 1730 192.1 242.9

W
45/,6 5 5/,6

[mm1 W
109.5 127.0 144.5 160.3 206.4 15/rs

WI6 PA6
3%, 4%s

6%~
63/,6 7%5 9%6

WI,
8%

VI6 2%
2% 2%

Imml (IN l/s 49 52 V8


59 64 73 3/a 318 3/a

Imml 9 5
9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

Bolting Nominal Size and Bore (In.) ~1?/16 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2 Diameter of Bolt Circle (in.) 8 9/,6 105-G 115h6 14%~ [mm] 203.2 230.2 261 9 2873 357.2

Dimensions Diameter Diameter of Bolts (in.) ~ 8 8 8 8 1 1 ve 1 /4 1% 1 314 of Bolt Holes (in.) 1.12 1.25 1.38 1.50 1.88 [mm] 29 32 35 39 48 Length of Stud Bolts (in) 7% 8% 9% 10 12/4 [mm] 191 210 235 254 311 Raised Face Diameter (m) 4% 53/16 55% 6% 8% [mm] 117.5 131.8 150.6 171.5 219.1

Basic Flange

Dimensmns*

Groove OD (in.) 3.062 3.395 4.046 4.685 5.930 [mm] 77.77 86.23 102.77 119.00 150.62

Width

of

Depth

of Ring Number Bx-151 6X-152 6X-153 5X-154 BX-155

Number of Bolts 8

Groove (in.) 0.466 0.498 0.554 0.606 0.698 [mm] 11.84 12.85 14.07 15.39 17.73

Groove (1~) /zz s/s4 /~a ?& 2/64 [mm] 5.56 5.95 6.75 7.54 8.33

2/16
2%6 31x6 4x5

1380 bar See Table 325sketch +Type 68X blind flanges must be provided wth a prolong on the rear lace, described by Ihe large and small diameters and length of the hub

SSVs usually have a stem protruding from a threaded boss on the actuator cylinder head for several reasons. 1, Stem position gives a visual position indication. 2. A position-indicator switch can be attached to provide telemetry feedback information. 3. A manually operated mechanical or hydraulic jack can be attached to open a closed safety valve where the control pressure source is downstream of the safety valve or where system failure makes control pressure unavailable. 4. A lockout cap, or heat-sensitive lockout cap, can be attached to hold the valve open while wireline work is being done through the valve or when the control system is out of service for maintenance. Special Designs. Special designs of SSVs may have various modifications. 1. Extra-strong springs for cutting wireline, should an emergency occur while wireline work is in progress. Special hardened gates are used for these valves. 2. Extra extension of the cylinder from the valve for nesting of two pneumatic actuators on a dual valve or tree where there is not enough space for the large cylinders to be mounted side-by-side. 3. Cover sleeve or cylinder over the bonnet bolting to protect the bolts from tire. 4. Integral pressure sensors to monitor flowline pressure and control the safety valve. Selection. When ordering an SSV the entire system should be considered. The size of the valve is determined by the flowstream in which it is installed. If it is to be in the vertical run of the tree, it should be the same size as the lower master valve. Pressure, temperature, and service ratings should be the same as for the lower master valve. Actuator specifications should consider control system pressure that is available. Valve body pressure. ratio, and control pressure are related by
2(Pvh) Pcl =

where pcl = control pressure, p,+, = valve body pressure, and F,,,. = actuator ratio. Materials for the actuator parts that contact flowline fluids should be consistent with the service and valve body. Subsurface Safety Valves (SSSVs) SSSVs are used because they are located in the wellbore and isolated from possible damage by fire, collision, or sabotage. They are designed to be operational when needed most-in catastrophies. but they are more difficult to maintain. SSSVs are recommended for use with an SSV. Control circuit logic should be designed to close the SSV for routine alarm conditions. Under catastrophic conditions both valves close. SSSVs are either subsurface- or surface-controlled (Fig, 3.10). Selection. Various features should be considered selecting an SSSV (Fig. 3.11).
Tubing-Retrievable vs. Wireline-Retrievable.
in

F,,,

, ..

. ..

(3)

Tubing-retrievable valves have larger bores through the valve for less flowing pressure drop and allow wireline work through the valve without having to retrieve the valve. Since the tubing-retrievable valve is a part of the tubing string and requires a workover rig for retrieval. maintenance is more expensive. Wireline-retrievable valves are located in special landing nipples that are part of the tubing string, and they can be retrieved for maintenance with lower cost wireline methods (Fig. 3.12). Valve Type. The most common type of valves are rotating ball and flapper. Single-Control Line vs. Balance Line. Permafrost, paraffin problems or other equipment such as centrifugal or hydraulic pumps may require setting the safety valve deep, and thus require a balance line (two-control-line system).

3-28

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE X27-API

TYPE R RING-JOINT

GASKET

Ring Number R20 R23 R24 R26 R27 R31 R35 R37 R39 R41 R44 R45 R46 R47 R49 R50 R53 R.54 R57 R63 R65 R66 R69 R70 R73 R74 R82 R84 R85 Ra6 R87 Raa R89 R90 R91 R99

Pitch Diameter of Ring andGroove

Width of Ring (in.) [mm]

Height of Ring Oval (in.) -9/,6 "/,8 "A6 "A6 "A6 "/,5 '& "A6 "A6 "A5 "/16 "A6 3/i 1 "As 7/s "As 7% "/,6 15/ls 1%~ % 'l/16 1
3/4

Octagonal (in.)
12

Width of Flal of Octagonal Ring (in.) ~0.206 0.305 o.xl5 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.341 0.485 0.305 0.413 0.305 0.413 0.305 0.681 0.305 0.413 0.305 0.485 0.341 0.485 0.305 0.305 0.341 0.413 0.413 0.485 0.485 0.583 0.879 0.305 [mm] 5.23 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 a.66 12.32 7.75 10.49 7.75 10.49 7.75 17.30 7.75 10.49 7.75 12.32 a.66 12.32 7.75 7.75 a.66 10.49 10.49 12.32 12.32 14.81 22.33 7.75

--

(in.)

Mm1
68.26 82.55 95.25 101.60 107.95 123.83 136.53 149.23 161.93

[mm] 14.29 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 19.05 25.40 17.46 22.23 17.46 22.23 17.46 33.34 17.46 22.23 17.46 25.40 19.05 25.40 -

[mm]

2%s
3% 3% 4 4% 4% 5% 5% 6% 7% 7% as6 8%6 9 10%

%6 7.94 7/16 11.11 11.11 11.11 11.11 7h6 11.11 y,e 11.11 T/j6 11.11 '/js 11.11 %6 11.11 '/js 11.11 '/j6 11.11 % 12.70 54 19.05 T/,6 11.11 5/e 15.88 T/j6 11.11 % is.88 7,s 11.11 1 25.40 y,s 11.11 =/s 15.88 'he 11.11 v4 19.05 '/z 12.70 % 19.05 56 11.11 5s 11.11 'h 12.70 v8 15.88 5/8 15.88 vi 19.05 3/4 19.05 7/a 22.23 1% 31.75 y,s 11.11 'hs 'A6 7,6

180.98 I 93.68
211.14 211.14 228.60

10%
12% 12% 15 16% 18% i 8% 21 21 23 23 2% 2% 3% 3%
35h6

269.88 269.88
323.85 323.85 381.00 419.10 469.90 469.90 533.40 533.40 584.20 584.20 57.15 63.50 79.38 90.49 100.01 123.83 114.30 155.58 260.35 234.95

4% 4% 6% 10% 9%

1 -

12.70 =/s 15.88 % 15.88 =/0 15.88 % 15.88 5/s 15.88 % 15.88 51% 15.88 xl 15.88 v8 15.88 S/8 15.88 s/s 15.88 "h,j 17.46 'S/16 23.81 73 15.88 '3h6 20.64 5% 15.88 'se 20.64 va 15.88 1% 31.75 %I 15.88 's6 20.64 =/a 15.88 's6 23.81 1%~ 17.46 '%s 23.81 5/a 15.88 =I8 15.88 "/,s 17.46 '3/ls 20.64 '3/ls 20.64 's6 23.81 '%6 23.81 1'/,6 26.99 1% 38.10 5/a 15.88

TOLERANCES (In I -.

Imml
+ 0.20 to39 to20 +039.-O f 0.20 f0.17 *0.12 t 0.39 max + ho

(wdth of ring, see Note 3)

g:
b,D d,{ ,, ,O 23O (width of groove) (averagepitch diameter01 rmg) ( average pitchdiameterof groove) (radius m rmgs) (radius I groove, (angle).

+oooe + l/64 *0008 +1/64,-O ~0008 10007 *0.005 -fl/64 -

Cc--,--i
OCTAGONAL OVAL GROOVE

1.The 23 suriaces on both grooves and octagonal rings shall have a surface finish no rougherthan 63 RMS 2.A smallbead on the centerof e,ther ova,or oclagonalrmgs. located so that,t w,ll not enterthe groove,IS permwible 3 A plustolerance of % in [l 19 mm] on rmg heightISpermitted, prowded the varlataon m height ofany given rmg does not exceed X4 I 1039 mm] throughout the entire clrcumterence

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-29

TABLE

3.27-API

TYPER RING-JOINT GASKET(continued)


Approximate Distance Between Made Up Flanges (in.) 732 %6 3/16 3il 6 3h Yils 3/l 6 %6 3/16 %6 3/'5 %6 '/a
6i32

Rwt Number -~~ R20 R23 R24 R26 R27 R31 R35 R37 R39 R41 R44 FM5 R46 R47 R49 R50 R53 R54 R57 R63 R65 R66 R69 R70 R73 R74 Ra2 R04 R85 R86 R87 R08 R89 R90 R91 R99

Radius in Octagonal Ring (in.) /j6 '/I 6


% 6

Depth of Groove (in.)


14

Width of Groove (in.) ' %2 'S/3* '5/s* '5/s* '5/s* '5/s* '5/s* 'S/3* 'S/32 '5/z* 'S/32 '5/z* "/a* 25& 'S/s2 21/s* 'S/3* 2'/32 'S/32 l'hij '5/a* 2& 'S/3* 25/32 '%2 25& 'S/3* '5/a* "/S> 21/32 Q2 =/32 *5& =/x2 15/E
732

Radius in Groove (in.) ~J/32 '/& j/31 [mm]

[mm] 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 1.59

[mm] 6.35 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 9.53

[mm] 8.73 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 13.49 19.84 11.91 16.67 11.91 16.67 11.91 26.99 11.91 16.67 11.91 19.84 13.49 19.84 11.91 11.91 13.49 16.67 16.67 19.84 19.84 23.02 33.34 11.91

[mm1
4.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 3.2 4.0 4.8 4.0 4.8 4.0 4.8 5.6 4.8 4.0 4.8 4.8 3.2 4.8 4.8 4.8 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.8 4.8 7.9 4.8

%6 %6 '/l6 %6 %6 %6 'il6 %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 'A 6 y3p 'il6 '/I 6


'A6

%6 Y's Yl6 %6 %6 Ys %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 w % s/l 6 y'6 %6 y'6 %6 =/a %6 y'6 %6

0.79 0.79 0.79 /32 0.79 0.79 '/a2 /32 0.79 0.79 y& 0.79 '/32 0.79 '/aa 0.79 '/3* 1132 0.79 T/z2 0.79 1.59 'A 6 1.59 0.79 1.59 0.79 1.59 0.79 2.38 0.79 1.59 0.79 1.59 1.59 1.59 0.79 0.79 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 0.79

%6
%6

'/I 6 'il6 %6 %6 '/l6


% 6

'il6
% 6

%6 3& 'i 6

12.70 7.94 11.11 7.94 11.11 7.94 15.88 7.94 11.11 7.94 12.70 12 9.53 "/s 12.70 '/2 7.94 %6 7.94 % 6 9.53 3/s % 6 11.11 '/I 6 11.11 12.70 % 12.70 '/2 Yi6 14.29 1x16 17.46 7.94 =i 6

'A 6 7132 'i 6 l/32 'i 6 '/x2 3/32 '/a* 'A 6 '/& 'i 6 'As 'A 6 '/a* '/32 '/16 'A 6 'i 6 'A 6 ',I 6

3/16 Y32 %6 %2 3/'6

'i2
Yl6
%2

3/16 3/6 '/a 3il6 Yl.9 %6 '/a


%2

%2
3/6

3/1 6
/16

56
3/Z '/a2

%6
3h6

Equalizing Valves. For equalizing pressure differentials across the closed valve rather than equalizing from an external source. Soft Seat vs. Lapped-Metal Seat. Soft seats can have less minor leakage, but are more susceptible to damage, especially at higher pressure.

the Christmas tree exists ahead of the choke. Caution must be exercised that the well is capable of closing the valve at the setting used. Surface-Controlled Subsurface Safety Valves (SCSSVs). These valves are normally controlled by pressure maintained by a unit at the surface in response to a pilot system. Pressure is transmitted to the safety valve through a small-diameter parallel-tube control line in the annulus or through the tubing/casing annulus in conjunction with a packer below the safety valve (Fig. 3.10). Volumetric compression and expansion of the control fluid usually makes the small tubing system preferable to the annulus conduit even though it is not as rugged. However, the small tubing will convey higher control pressures more economically. When the control pressure is released, a spring and well pressure on the control piston will close the valve. Since well pressure is not always assumed dependable, some valves have a second line, or balance line, to the surface, which is filled with control liquid. This provides a hydrostatic pressure to the back side of the piston for closure. Single control-line valves have depth failsafe

Subsurface-Controlled Subsurface Safety Valves (SSCSVs). These valves sense flow conditions in the well at the valve and close when the flow exceeds a preset limit. They are usually located in a landing nipple in the tubing. There are two main types. Excess flow valves sense the pressure drop across an orifice in the valve and close the valve when the increased flow rate causes the pressure drop to increase past a preset limit. Low-pressure valves have a stored reference pressure in the valve. The valve closes when tubing pressure at the valve draws down below the reference pressure due to restriction of the formation. Both types of valves depend on a flow rate substantially in excess of normal maximum. The presumption is that essentially a complete structural failure (opening) of

3-30

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE3.28-APITYPERXPRESSUREENERGlZEDRING-JOINTGASKETS

Ring Number RX20 RX23 RX24 RX25 RX26 RX27 RX31 RX35 RX37 RX39 RX41 RX44 RX45 RX46 RX47 RX49 RX50 RX53 RX54 RX57 RX63 RX65 RX66 RX69 RX70 RX73 RX74 RX82 RX84 RX85 RX86 RX87 RX08 RX89 RX90 RX91 RX99 RX201 RX205 RX210 RX215

Outside Diameter of Ring (In.) 3 34%4 41x4 4% 4% 42%2 5% 55%

Total Width of Ring (in.) -8.73 "A '5& '% ' %2 '%2 '%2 '% '%2 '%2 '5/x* '% '%2 '% ' %2 %2 '%2 %2 %2 vi2 '%2 1h %2 v32 ' x2 %2 '%2 %2
%2

Width of Flat (in.) [mm]

Height of Outside Bevel (in.) [mm] 4.24 4.24 3.18 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.78 6.88 4.24 5.28 4.24 5.28 4.24 8.46 4.24 5.28 4.24 6.88 5.28 6.88 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.78 4.70 5.28 5.28 7.42 7.54 4.24 1.45* 1.83' 3.18* 4.24'

Height of Ring (in.) 3/h 1 1 Y4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1% 1 =/s 1 1 h 1 1 '/4 1 2 1 1 7/4 1 1% 1 'I4 1% 1 1 1 1% 1 '/a 1'/4 1 '/4 1% 12% 1 0.445 0.437 0.750 1.000 [mm] 19.05 25.40 25.40 19.05 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 28.58 41.28 25.40 31.75 25.40 31.75 25.40 50.80 25.40 31.75 25.40 41.28 31.75 41.28 25.40 25.40 25.40 28.58 28.58 31.75 31.75 44.45 45.24 25.40 11.30 11.10 19.05 25.40

[mm1

[mm] 11.91 11.91 8.73 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 13.49 19.84 11.91 16.67 11.91 16.67 11.91 26.99 11.91 16.67 11.91 19.84 13.49 19.84 11.91 11.91 13.49 15.08 15.08 17.46 18.26 19.84 30.16 11.91 5.74 5.56 9.53 11.91
[co

76.20 93.27 105.97 109.54 111.92 118.27 134.54 147.24 W& 159.94 W& 172.64 7%4 191.69 Vs4 204.39 84%4 221.85 8% 222.25 w32 245.27 11%4 280.59 11% 283.37 13"/& 334.57 13% 337.34 152'/G4 391.72 1725h4 441.72 185%4 480.62 1Q%2 483.39 21%4 544.12 213?!32 550.07 231%~ 596.11 232x2 600.87 2?& 67.87 wm 74.22 3% 90.09 4% 103.58 w&4 113.11 5% 139.30 57/w 129.78 6% 174.63 11 'Ym 286.94 w64 245.67 2.026 51.46 2% 62.31 3=/x 97.63 53% 140.89

'%2 '%2 '%2 '%2 A 6 2%~ %2 1% '% 0.226 %2 3/e ' %2


-0 015 m

0.1824.620.1253.18 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.182 4.62 0.125 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.188 0.263 6.68 0.271 0.407 10.34 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.335 8.51 0.208 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.335 8.51 0.208 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.582 14.78 0.333 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.335 8.51 0.208 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.271 0.407 10.34 0.263 6.66 0.208 0.407 10.34 0.271 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.263 6.68 0.335 8.51 0.188 0.188 0.335 8.51 0.208 0.407 10.34 0.407 10.34 0.208 0.292 0.479 12.17 0.297 0.780 19.81 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.057 0.126 3.20 0.072 0.120 3.05 0.213 5.41 0.125 0.167 0.210 5.33
-0 38 mm]

Tolerance an fhese dmens~ons is +0

TOLERANCES on I (wdlh of rmg) (wdth of flat) (helghl of chamfer) (depth of groove) lwldth of aroavel iheIght oi ring) fOD of rlnal +0008,-0000 +0006,-0000 +oooo,-003 +002.-o + 0 008 lmml +020.-000 i-0 15 -000 +ooo -079 +039.-o + 0 20

+0008.~0000
+0020.-0000 10005 * 0 02 max +

A plustolerance of0 006 I ior b, and h, ISpermeted provided Ihevanalion inwdfh or helghl of any rung does nofexceed 0 004 m throughout 11s entire wcumference

NOTE 1 The pressurepassage hole ,llustrated ,nthe RX nng crosssecl,on ISreqwed Irings RX-82 through RX-91 only Cenlerlmeofholeshall be located a!mldpolnl ofdlmenslonb, Hole diameter shall be ;s I [l6 mm] forrings RX-82through RX-65.?Izz I [24 mm] for rmgs RX-86 and RXG37.and 1s in 13 2 mm] iorringsRX-68 lhrough RX-91 NOTE 2 The 23O surfaces on both rungs and grooves shall have a surfacefimshno roughe:than 63 RMS

WELLHEADEQUIPMENTAND

FLOWCONTROL

DEVICES

3-31

TABLE 3.28-API

TYPE RX PRESSURE

ENERGIZED RING-JOINT GASKETS(continued)


Approximate Distance Between Made Up

-z--.-u RX20

Ring Number RX23 RX24 RX25 RX26 RX27 RX31 RX35 RX37 RX39 RX41 RX44 RX45 RX46 RX47 RX49 RX50 RX53 RX54 RX57 RX63 RX65 RX66 RX69 RX70 RX73 RX74 RX82 RX84 RX85 RX86 RX87 RX86 RX89 RX90 RX91 RX99 RX201 RX205 RX210 RX215

Radius in Ring (in.) 'A6 '/'6 'A6 '/16 '/'6 '/'lj '/'6 'h '/s '/16 '/Is '/16 'Alj 'As 3/32 '/'#j l/16 '/I@? 1/,, '/'6 ?/a2 'A6 '/,6 %6 Z/32 '/16 ys2 '/'6 '/16 '/'6 '/16 '/'#j '/16 '/'+j s2 Ys2 '/'6 '/& '/& 'h2 '/,6 [mm) 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.30 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 1.59 2.38 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 2.38 1.59 0.40" 0.40" 0.79" 1.59"

Depth of Groove (in.) '/4 %6 %6 l/4 7' 6 %6 %6 %6 7' 6 %6 %6 %6 %6 3/s [mm]


-u

Width of Groove (in.)


%2

Pitch Diameter of Groove (in.) [mm]

Radius in In Groove (in.) -%2 'h2 %2 [mm] 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 1.59 1.59 0.79 1.59 0.79 1.59 0.79 2.38 0.79 1.59 0.79 1.59 1.59 1.59 0.79 0.79 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 0.79 0.79 0.40 0.79 0.79

lmml

6.35 7.94 7.94 6.35 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 9.53 12 12.70 %6 7.94 7,s 11.11 =/IR 7.94 7/1; 11.11 %6 7.94 %! 15.88 %6 7.94 56 11.11 =/I16 7.94 '/2 12.70 3/a 9.53 /2 12.70 %6 7.94 %6 7.94 va 9.53 7/16 11.11 7/16 11.11 '/2 12.70 /2 12.70 %6 14.29

732
732 /4 %6

3.97 3.97 6.35 7.94

8.73 '5/a* 11.91 '5% 11.91 "h 8.73 'S/32 11.91 'S/a2 11.91 'S/32 11.91 'S/a2 11.91 '5/m 11.91 'S/32 11.91 'S/16 11.91 'y'6 11.91 'S/32 11.91 "/3* 13.49 25/x2 19.84 'S/a2 11.91 *'/22 16.67 '5/x2 11.91 2%~ 16.67 5/32 11.91 l'/,E 26.99 S/3211.91 Q2 16.67 'S/32 11.91 25& 19.84 "/a2 13.49 =/32 19.84 '5/32 11.91 'S/3* 11.91 "/32 13.49 2%~ 16 67 Q2 16.67 25& 19 84 2542 19.84 2& 23.02 15/ls 33.34 '$ 11 91 732 5.56 %2 5.56 3/s 9.53 '5/a* 11.91

211/1668.26 3% 82.55 3% 95.25 101.60 107.95 i; 123.83 5% 136.53 5% 149.23 6% 161.93 7% 180.98 7% 193.68 as/,, 211.14 85/16 211.14 9 228.60 105/ 269.88 10% 269.88 12% 323.85 123I4 323.85 381.00 :s,* 419.10 18% 469.90 18% 469.90 21 533.40 21 533.40 23 584.20 23 584.20 2% 57.15 2% 63.50 3% 79.38 90.49 3%6 3'5/,6 100.01 4% 123.83 4'/2 114.30 6% 155.58 lo'/4 260.35 9% 234.95 4

(In.) Imml -9.5 3/s


%2 732

h
'I.32 'Lx2 552

15/32 X2 5/32 732

11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 18.3 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 21.4 11.9 11.9 11.9 18.3 15.1 18.3 11.9 11.9 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 18.3 19.1 11.9 -

h
'Lx2
Ii2 %2

'%2
%2

'L32

752
A6

%6
%2 '/I3

' %2 ' %2 ' %2 ' %2 2g/32 ' %2 .-

%2
%6
%2

732 ' %2

%2 'h 'A 6

%2 ' %2 2%
%2

h
A3 A6 'A6 'h x2
%6

1% ' Y32 2% ' %2 23/32 ' %2 ' 5/32 3%


3/s

/l6
%6

V8
3/a

'A 6 'A 6 'A6


3,i2

310
23/32

'h2
%2

%I ' =I32 -

/64
%2

/32

limitations. The limit is determined by the ability of the spring to overcome friction and the force of the hydrostatic pressure against the piston without help from well pressure. A depth limitation of the two-control-line system may be the time for closure due to control liquid expansion and flow restriction in the small-diameter long control line. Control System The control system is the interface system between the power source, the sensors, and the safety valves. The design of the control system depends on several factors: (1) type of power source available-compressed air, produced gas, or electricity: (2) pressure and volume requirements of the safety valves; (3) number and types of sensors (pneumatic-twoor three-way valves-or electric); (4) power requirements and limitations of the pilots; (5) number and type of indicators (position status.

pressure status, first-out sensor): (6) telemetry interface: and (7) logic required. (Will any pilot shut all the safety valves or should certain sensors close certain valves or combinations of valves?) We recommend a time delay after SSVs close before the SSSVs close, and that SSSVs open first. Most systems are pneumatically powered because compressed air or gas is usually available. The power needed by most pilots and safety valves is pneumatic or hydraulic. Power is consumed only when a valve is being opened; most of the time the system is static. Most electrically powered sensors continuously consume power and are sensitive to short-duration power transients. Electra-hydraulic systems arc well suited to cold environments. The air or gas supply should be kept clean and dry. Electrical power should be protected from transient disruptions, especially in the sensor circuitry. Such precautions greatly enhance reliability.

3-32

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

3.29-API

TYPE BX PRESSURE Outside Diameter of Ring (in.) [mm]

ENERGIZED

RING-JOINT Total Width of Ring (in.) 0.379 0.403 0.448 0.488 0.580 0.733 0.826 0.911 1.012 0.541 0.638 0.560 0.684 0.968 0.728 1.029 0.516 0.632 0.509 0.560 0.560 0.560 [mm] 9.63 10.24 11.38 12.40 14.22 18.62 20.98 23.14 25.70 13.74 16.21 14.22 17.37 24.59 18.49 26.14 13.11 16.05 12.93 14.22 14.22 14.22

GASKETS

Ring Number BX-150


BX-151

Nominal Size (in.) -42.9 1%6 I%6 [mm] 46.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2 179.4 228.6 279.4 346.1 346.1 425.5 425.5 476.3 476.3 539.8 539.8 679.5 679.5 130.2 228.6 279.4 346.1

Height of Ring (in.) [mm]

Diameter of Flat (in,) [mm]

8X-152 BX-153 BX-154 BX-I 55 BX-156 8X-157 BX-158 BX-159 BX-160 BX-161 BX-162 BX-163 BX-164 BX-165 BX-166 BX-167 BX-168 BX-169 BX-170 BX-171 BX-172

wl6 2%6
3% 4/,6 71/16 9
11

2.84272.190.3669.300.3669.30 3.008 76.40 0.379 9.63 3.334 84.68 0.403 10.24 3.974 4.600 5.825 9.367 11.593 13.860 16.800 15.850 19.347 18.720 21.896 22.463 24.595 25.198 29.896 30.128 6.831 8.584 10.529 13.113 100.94 116.84 147.96 237.92 294.46 352.04 426.72 402.59 491.41 475.49 556.16 570.56 624.71 640.03 759.36 765.25 173.52 218.03 267.44 333.07 0.448 0.488 0.560 0.733 0.826 0.911 1.012 0.938 1.105 0.560 1.185 1.185 1.261 1.261 1.412 1.412 0.624 0.560 0.560 0.560 11.38 12.40 14.22 18.62 20.98 23.14 25.70 23.83 28.07 14.22 30.10 30.10 32.03 32.03 35.86 35.86 15.84 14.22 14.22 14.22

2.79070.87 2.954 75.03 3.277 83.24 3.910 4.531 5.746 9.263 11.476 13.731 16.657 15.717 19.191 18.641 21.728 22.295 24.417 25.020 29.696 29.928 6.743 8.505 10.450 13.034 99.31 115.09 145.95 235.28 291.49 348.77 423.09 399.21 487.45 473.48 551.89 566.29 620.19 635.51 754.28 760.17 171.27 216.03 265.43 331.06

13%
13%

163/4 16% 18% 18% 21% 21% 26% 26% 5% 9 11 13%

Ring Number BX-150 BX-151 BX-152 BX-153 BX-154 BX-155 BX-156 BX-I 57 BX-158 BX-159 BX-160 BX-161 BX-162 BX-I 63 BX-164 0X-165 8X-166 BX-167 BX-168 BX-169 BX-170 BX-171 BX-172

Width of Flat (in.) -7.98 0.314 0.325 0.346 0.385 0.419 0.481 0.629 0.709 0 782 0 869 0.408 0.482 0.481 0.516 0.800 0.550 0.851 0.316 0.432 0.421 0.481 0.481 0.481 [mm] 8.26 8.79 9.78 10.64 12.22 15.98 18.01 19.86 22.07 10.36 12.24 12.22 13.11 20.32 13.97 21.62 8.03 10.97 10.69 12.22 12.22 12.22 (in.)

Hole Size [mm] 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 1.6 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

Depth of Groove (in.) -5.56 %2 %2 %4 /A gh4 v64 VI.5 12 g/l 6 =/s %6 43/& %4 *a/3* 23/22 vi vi 2/~ 2%~ V6 vi4 %4 v64 [mm] 5.56 5.95 6.75 7.54 8.33 11.11 12.70 14.29 15.88 14.29 17.07 8.33 18.26 18.26 19.05 19.05 21.43 21.43 9.5 8.33 8.33 8.33

Outside Diameter of Groove (in.) [mm]

Width of Groove (in.) [mm]

%6 %6 %6 A 6 %6 %6 1 /a /a /a /a /a %a /a /a /a /a A 6 %6 X6 A6 %s X6

2.89373.48 3.062 77.77 3.395 86.23 4.046 4.685 5.930 9.521 11.774 14.064 17.033 16.063 19.604 18.832 22.185 22.752 24.904 25.507 30.249 30.481 6.955 8.926 10.641 13.225 102.77 119.00 150.62 241.83 299.06 357.23 432.64 408.00 497.94 478.33 563.50 577.90 632.56 647.88 768.32 774.22 176.66 220.88 270.28 335.92

0.45011.43 0.466 11.84 0.498 12.65 0.554 0.606 0.698 0.921 1.039 1.149 1.279 0.786 0.930 0.705 1.006 1.290 1.071 1.373 0.902 1 ,018 0.666 0.705 0.705 0.705 14.07 15.39 17.73 23.39 26.39 29.18 32.49 19.96 23.62 17.91 25.55 32.77 27.20 34.87 22.91 25.86 16.92 17.91 17.91 17.91

TOLERANCES

(in 1

b,
b, 3 dg h;

(widthof ring) (width of Ilat) (hole we) (depth 01 groove) (00 Of groove) !heigM PI ring)
(wldt Of grOOe,

+ 0 008,-0.000
+0006,-00w One +o 02, -0 +0004.-0000

Imml tom-000
to 15.-000 DW +o 39.-o +o lO,-000 +o.zo.-000

0,
d,

d, L=

(00 of ring) (OD of flat) (rad,usI 9) mw

+ 0.008. -0 000 +0004.-0000 + 0 000.- 0.006 too02

A plusfolerance of0 006 ,n fo,b, and h, ISpermlUed providedIhe ariall~ IwidthDI height of any r,ng does notexceed 0 004 I throughout 11s entire cw cumference

SHARP CORNER

NOTE

,, shall be 6 10 12% of the gaskelh,

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-33

Tubing Retrievable

13 in. Wireline Retrievable h

I Single ContrDl

I
Two Control

in. surface-

Fig. 3.1 l-Subsurface

safety valve design

options

Fig. 3.12-Tubing-retrievable and wireline-retrievable controlled subsurface safety valves.

Hydraulically powered safety valves require a pump/control unit in the system (Fig. 3.13). The preferred type of pump is the ratio-piston pneumatic-overhydraulic pump. These pumps have pneumatic pressure operating on a relatively large piston to push a relatively small pump plunger. Low pneumatic pressure can thus develop high hydraulic pressure. The output pressure is easily controlled by the pressure of the input power gas, which can be controlled by a simple demand-pressure regulator. Pressure maintenance is automatic and continuous. Care should be taken to select a pump that is free of continuous bleeding of gas and that will not stall in its reciprocating motion at the end of a stroke. Valve control and system logic is performed by pneumatic/hydraulic or pneumatic/pneumatic relays. These relays permit the use of either bleed (two-way) or block and bleed (three-way) sensors (Figs. 3.14 and 3.15). Relays are reset manually to put the system back in service after a closure. This safety feature ensures that a person is present to determine that the cause for closure has been corrected and that reopening would not be hazardous.

Circuit design determines the hierarchy of closure. All surface and subsurface safety valves should close in case of fire, collision, and manual actuation of the emergency shutdown system (ESD). Many systems close only the SSV of a single well when sensors on a single well actuate because of high liquid level, high pressure resulting from freezing or valve malfunction downstream, or low pressure resulting from flowline rupture or backpressure

Filter Supply Gas


n

Regulators

Pneumatic

Relay

Ire
Tank

lsolatlon Valve Fig 3.13-Basic

Strainer hydraulic control

Relief Valve circuit

Hydraulic Relay

3-34

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Fig. 3.14-Single branched system for two hierarchies trol (bleed-type sensors).

of con-

valve failure. Sometimes several wells on a platform or lease will be closed as a group if they are high vs. low pressure, oil vs. gas wells, etc. Every system should be designed to suit the characteristics of the wells and the severity of consequences of malfunctions. Platforms and compact land leases may have all the control system in a cabinet or console. Communication between the cabinet and well should be with control system media. If well pressure is piped to sensors in the cabinet, the well fluids may freeze and prevent proper operation. There is also the danger of high-pressure, high-volume flow from a ruptured line and leakage of toxic or flammable fluids to an enclosed area. Electric devices and lines usually need to be explosion proof. Requirements for the designation explosion proof are explained in the Nat]. Electrical Code. s API RP14F9 defines which installation areas require explosion-proof equipment. Sensors Sensors monitor conditions that indicate production system hazards or malfunctions. The sensor then actuates an integral pilot valve or switch to activate a control valve. The pilot valve and/or control valve may

bleed (two-way) or block-and-bleed (three-way). Electric sensors interface with pneumatic systems with solenoid valves. Conditions that are usually monitored include (Fig. 3.16): (1) pressure-high or low because of flowline or pressure vessel blockage or rupture: (2) level-high or low in separator or storage tank resulting from control valve system malfunction; (3) fire-heat is sensed by fusible plugs or fusible control line, flames are sensed by ultraviolet detectors, and temperature is detected by infrared detectors; (4) toxic or flammable gas mixtures-detectors located at four or more locations around the perimeter or in enclosures; (5) manual control-ESD system valves at boat landings, living quarters, and other critical locations. Pressure sensors should be located at any point in the production system where sections of the system can be isolated by a check valve or block valve, or where there is a change in pressure due to a choke or pressure reducing valve. lo Pressure sensors may have a moving-seal sensing element or an elastic element such as a Bourdon tube. Moving-seal sensors have poorer repeatability but are considerably less susceptible to damage by abuse and overpressure. Regulations Governmental regulations control the design and operation of some safety shut-in systems. For example, the Minerals Management Service of the U.S. government controls installations in the outer continental shelf (OCS) waters of the U.S. The rules are published in the OCS Order No. 5. 6 The OCS orders require that safety valves installed in or on wells in the federally controlled waters be made according to the ANSIIASME SPPE-1 specification and API Specs. 14Ai2 and 14D.7 ANSIIASME SPPE-1 is an extensive quality-assurance specification. API Specs. 14A and 14D are performance and design specifications for SSSVs and SSVs.

Other Flow-Control Devices


Most flow-control functions are described in this chapter in the sections on Wellheads and Safety Shut-In Systems, and in Chaps. 11 through 16. Some valves and controls are discussed in Chaps. 4 (Production Packers) and 5 (Gas Lift). Other flow-control devices are discussed in the following.

Valve

Actuator

4Lir
SUPPlY Pressure Sensors Level Sensors Relay Valve kManual (ESD) Electric Solenoid (Computer Control) controlled SSV system

Fire (Heat) Sensors

Valve

On Pilot Line Fig. 3.15-Single branched system trol (block-and-bleed-type for two hierarchies sensors). of conFig. 3.16--Remote

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW

CONTROL

DEVICES

Landing Nipple ProfIle Klckover TOOI

Nipple

__

Male Packing Adapter Spht Ring 0.Rng Female Packing Adapter

R
Fig. 3.18-Side pocket mandrel.

Valve or Plug

c1

___

L 1

V-Packing 0.Rng

Female Packing Adapter

they do not obstruct flow up through the tubing. Sidepocket-mandrel valves can be removed by wireline for redressing the seals, which are subject to damage when the circulation path is first opened. Sliding-sleeve valves can be provided with landing-nipple profiles for isolation with a wireline lock mandrel in case of sealing failure. Sliding-sleeve valves can be incorporated in safety-valve nipples to isolate the control line when the safety valve is removed. Tubing Plug The tubing should be plugged to prevent flow or loss of control when the tree and/or master valve is to be removed. Plugs are available for landing nipples in the wellhead and for nipples in the tubing string. Tubing plugs are set and retrieved with wireline methods. Chemical Injection Valves

Fig. 3.17-Sliding

sleeve

valve

Input Safety Valves (ISVs) Injection wells can be protected by the safety shut-in systems discussed earlier in this chapter. The ISV is a lower-cost safety valve that can be used for wells where there is only flow downward into the well. It is basically a check valve mounted on a wireline-retrievable mandrel located in a landing nipple. Upward flow closes the valve. Circulating Devices Circulating devices are wireline-operable valves or devices used to permit selective communication between the tubing and the tubing/casing annulus. Variations include (1) sliding-sleeve valve (Fig. 3.17), (2) sidepocket mandrel and inserted dummy valve (Fig. 3.18). and (3) potted nipple and lock mandrel. Sliding-sleeve valves and side-pocket mandrels permit wireline operations to be performed through them, and

Some wells require frequent or continuous injection of small quantities of chemicals, such as methanol, for protection from freezing or as inhibitors for corrosion control. The chemicals can be injected down through a small-diameter parallel tubing or through the tubing/casing annulus. Chemical injection valves can be installed in a circulating device to better control the injection rate and to provide backflow protection.

Corrosion
Wellhead Corrosion Aspects Corrosion has often been defined as the destruction of a metal by reactions with its environment. The attack may be internal or external and may result from chemical or electrochemical action. Internal attack usually results from weight loss corrosion (sweet corrosion) caused by the presence of CO* and organic acids, or sulfide or chloride stress cracking

3-36

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

corrosion (sour corrosion) caused by the presence of HzS. chlorides, or a combination of these elements. External attack usually results from oxygen corrosion caused by exposure to atmospheric oxygen, electrochemical corrosion caused by the flow of electric currents, or a combination of the two. One or more methods may be employed to control corrosion in wellhead equipment, depending on the type of corrosion present and the economics involved: (1) use of special corrosion-resistant alloys, (2) injection of an effective inhibitor, (3) application of effective coatings, and/or (4) properly applied and maintained cathodic protection. Although a detailed discussion of corrosion is not the purpose of this section, it is necessary to describe briefly the various types of corrosion encountered in wellhead equipment to explain the various methods of control. Internal and external corrosion are controlled differently and are discussed separately. Internal Corrosion Weight Loss Corrosion. Weight loss corrosion is usually defined as corrosion occurring in oil or gas wells where no iron sulfide corrosion product or H 1 S odor exists. Corrosion of this type in gas-condensate wells is often attributed to CO2 and organic acids. Although noncorrosive in the absence of moisture, when moisture is present, CO? dissolves and forms carbonic acid. Carbonic acid with the organic acids contributes to corrosion. The quantity of CO2 dissolved in the corroding fluid determines the severity of corrosion. Generally, corrosion can be expected when the partial pressure of the CO?, at bottomhole conditions, exceeds 30 psi. The partial pressure of COZ can be easily determined: partial pressure equals (total pressure) times (percent CO*). Wellhead Protection Methods. Wellhead protection methods for weight loss corrosion may take two forms. 1. An effective inhibitor, protective coatings. or special-alloy equipment is generally required when the CO? partial pressure, at bottomhole conditions, exceeds 30 psi. 2. Special-alloy equipment is generally required when the CO1 partial pressure, at bottomhole conditions, exceeds 100 psi. Sulfide or Chloride Stress Cracking Corrosion. Sulfide or chloride stress cracking corrosion is defined as corrosion occurring in oil or gas wells when hydrogen sulfide or chlorides are present. Iron sulfide appears as a black powder or scale. Hydrogen sulfide, like COz, is not corrosive in the absence of moisture. If moisture is present. the gas becomes corrosive. If CO? is also present, the gas is more severely corrosive. Attack by H?S causes the formation of iron sulfide. and the adherence of the iron sulfide to steel surfaces creates an electrolytic cell. The iron sulfide is cathodic to the steel and accelerates local corrosion. Hydrogen sulfide also causes hydrogen embrittlement by releasing hydrogen into the steel grain structure to reduce ductility and cause extreme brittleness.
Wellhead Protection Methods for Sulfide or Chloride Stress Cracking. These protection methods take three

1. Special alloy equipment is generally required when pressures exceed 65 psia and the partial pressure of H 1S exceeds 0.05 psia. 2. Proper injection of an effective inhibitor. 3. Carbon and low alloy steels that should not exceed a hardness level of HRC 22. Extreme Sour Senfice. This is sometimes referred to as critical service. An extreme sour condition exists when both CO1 and HIS are present in the well fluids. In this case, protection is required for both sulfide stress cracking and metal loss. In general, stainless steel, Monel*, or other nonferrous materials are used for this service. API Spec. 6A refers to NACE Standard MR-01-75 as the governing standard for materials to resist sulfide stress cracking. I3 External Corrosion Oxygen Corrosion. Oxygen corrosion is caused by the oxidation or rusting of steel due to exposure to atmospheric oxygen or a corrosive atmosphere. The severity of corrosion depends on temperature, erosion of the metal surface, property of corrosion product, surface films, and the availability and type of electrolyte. Salt water causes a very rapid increase in corrosion rate. On offshore installations, wellhead equipment is often subjected to one or more of three zones of attack: (I) the underwater or submerged zone, (2) the splash zone (most severe), and (3) the spray zone.
Wellhead Protection Methods for Oxygen Corrosion.

The protection methods for oxygen corrosion include (1) use of special-alloy equipment, (2) application of effective external protective coatings of metallic or nonmetallic materials, and (3) use of cathodic protection for the underwater zone. Electrochemical Corrosion. There are two major types of electrochemical corrosion. One type is somewhat of a reverse plating reaction caused by stray direct electric currents flowing from the steel anode to a cathode. Another type of electrochemical corrosion occurs when pipe or a wellhead is exposed to certain types of moist soil. Bimetallic corrosion, another form of electrochemical corrosion aggravated by use of dissimilar metals, is often called galvanic corrosion.
Wellhead Protection Methods for Electrochemical Corrosion. There are four protection methods for elec-

trochemical corrosion: (1) use of properly applied and maintained cathodic protection, (2) application of effective external surface coatings, (3) avoiding use of dissimilar metals, and (4) use of electrical insulation of surface lines from wellhead assembly. Material Selection Table 3.30 shows the general accepted materials for various wellhead services.

Special Application
High Pressure Seals Flange connections for pressures through 20,000 psi have been standardized by API and the specifications for these flanges are given in API Spec. 6A. However, other pressure-sealing elements in wellhead equipment

forms

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-37

TABLE

3.30-ENVIRONMENTS

AND APPLICATIONS Gas/Gas-Condensate Wells


LOW-TemDerature

Part 1. Casing 2. Casing heads hangers body housing slips pack-off gasket bolts nuts* body Item Item Item Item Item

General Service Al A J K H M N,N2 Al -

H,S/ H,S A3 A J K H M,Ml ,M2 N,Nl,NZ A3 co2 A3 A J K F,G M N,N2 A3 Al ,B 1 Al Al K Cl Cl Cl Cl F,G M Cl Cl c, c2 S T c2 Bl co2 A3 A J K F,G Ml,M2 Nl,N2 A3 Al,Bl A3 A3 K c2 c2 c2 c2 F.G Ml,M2 c2 c2 D c2 c2 S T c2 82

General Service Al ,A2 A J KL H M,M2.M3 N3 Al ,A2 Al ,Bl Al Al KL Al Al Al Al ,A2 ,A2 ,A2 ,A2

H,S A3 A J K,L H M,Ml M2,M3 Nl,N2 A3 A1,Bl A3 A3 K,L A3,P A3,P A3,P A3,P H.G M,Ml M2,M3 A3 A3 D A3 A3 S T A3 R

CO, Al,A2 A J K.L F,G M.M3 N3 Al,A2 AI,Bl Al Al K,L P P P P F.G M,MS Cl Cl E C2 C2 S T C2 R

H,S/ CO, A3 A J K,L F,G M,Ml M2.M3 Nl,N2 A3

Waterflood

F,G M N,N2

3. None 4. None 5. None 6. Intermediate casing heads 7. Casing hangers 8. Gaskets 9 Bolts 10. Nuts 11 Tubing heads 12. Tubing hangers

see see see see see

2 3 4 5 1

Al,Bl A3 A3 K,L Al Al G M F F E Al Al S T -

housing top bottom pack-off

Al,61 Al Al K Al Al Al Al H M A,Bl A,Bl R Al Al R R Al Bl

A1,Bl A3 A3 K A3 A3 A3 A3 H,G Ml .M2 A3,B2 A3,BZ D A3 A3 s T A3 82

13. Tubing head adapters 14. Tees and crosses 15. Valves

body body body


bonnet

L P P F,G M,Ml M2,M3 C2 C2 D C2 C2 S T C2 R

16. Adjustable

chokes

17. Positive

chokes

bonnet gasket bonnet bolts gates seats stems body bonnet stem seat body bull plug

H M3 Al Al R Al Al R R Al R

A A, A2 A3 61 62 Cl C2 0 E F G H J K L M Ml M2 M3 N N, N2 N3 P R S T

AlSl4130 or ASTM A487-9 (normalized) AISI4130 or ASTM A467-90 (quenched 8 tempered) AlSl4130 or ASTM A467-90 modriled by mckel AISI4130 or ASTM A407-90 or 90 modriied controlled hardness HRC 22 Carbon sleel such as AISI 1020, 1030, 1040 Carbon steel. controlled hardness HRC 22 max AlSt410 S S or ASTM A217-CA15 AlSt410 S S or ASTM A217-CA15 controlled hardness HRC 22 r,,ax K-500 Monel, HRC 36 max 17.4PH. CondltrOn Hi 150 (final heat-treating temperature) AISI316 S S annealed AISI304 S S annealed Softll0 AlSl8620 carbonrtrrded Elastomer, Hycar Elastomer, Hydrl Bolts, ASTM A19387 Bolts. ASTM A193B7M GiRC 22 max) Bolts. ASTM A453grade 660 Bolts, A320.L7 Nuts,ASTM A194-2H Nuts,ASTM A194GHM (HRC 22 max) Nuts.ASTM A194-2 Nuts:AsTM A194, grade 4 or 7 ASTM A487-CA6NM S S AlSl 4140 low alloy K-500 Monel withcarblde trrm AtSl4140 wth carbrdetrrm MR 01-75

Ballsand nuts must not be burredor covered I accordance wllh NACE

3-38

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE

3.31-CHARPY

V NOTCH

IMPACT

REQUIREMENTS

Size of

Specimen
(in.) -3.93 2.95 1.97 0.98
NOTE

Minimum Impact Value Required for Average of Each Set of Three Specimens (ft-lbm) 15.020 12.5 10.0 5.0 [J] 17 14 7

Minimum impact Value Permitted for One Specimen Only Per Set (ft-lbm) lo.014 8.5 7.0 3.5 [J] 12 9 5

[mm] 100 75 50 25

Purchasersare cautioned thatthe energy valuestabulated above have been selected 10 cow a broad range 01 possible physical properues, and care should be exercwd ln energy value ~nterpretahons for the higherstrengthTypes 2 and 3 matemls where mlnlmum energy valueshave no, been clearly estabkhed

such as valve seat, valve stem, fittings, hanger-packer, casing secondary seals, lockscrews, etc., have not been standardized and are subject to agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. Seals other than flange seals for 20,000 psi and higher working pressures require special consideration because of the difficulty in sealing these high pressures, which are usually encountered in combination with hostile fluids and are subject to agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. Low- and High-Temperature Application

practice fire test for valves. I4 The fire test is conducted in a flame with a temperature of 1,400 to 1,600F for a 30-minute test period. Subsea Applications Although subsea wellhead and Christmas-tree equipment has been available for a number of years and a number of installations have been made, most of the installations have been made in relatively shallow water. Equipment is now being designed for use in water depths of several thousand feet. Various methods for installing. operating, repairing, or replacing subsea equipment are being utilized such as by remote operation, the use of divers. or the use of submarines or robots. At this time, subsea equipment is proprietary, with each manufacturer pmviding his own design. Subsea installations are designed for specific projects and are agreed on by the manufacturer and the customer. Offshore wells can be broadly classified as those drilled from a fixed or bottom-supported platform or from a floating platform. Floating platforms are either of the semisubmersible or floating-ship type. Fixed Platform Drilling. Offshore wells drilled from a fixed platform normally are drilled with the wellhead and the BOPs on the platform. The well is completed with the Christmas tree attached to the wellhead on the platform. Wells drilled using a bottom-supported drilling rig (jackup rig) normally utilize mudline-suspension wellheads. The wellhead is installed on the ocean floor, with riser pipe extending from the wellhead to the rig floor. The well is drilled with BOPs attached to the riser

Unless otherwise specified, API Spec. 6A for wellhead equipment is designed to operate in temperatures from -20 to 250F. Low Temperature. API Spec. 6A also provides specifications for materials to operate in temperatures below -20F. Materials operating in extremely low temperatures become brittle and have low impact resistance. API Spec. 6A specifies minimum impact values at -25F, -5OF, and -75F test temperatures. The specified impact values are shown in Table 3.31. High Temperature. As the temperature rises, the strength of steel decreases. Table 3.32 shows the working pressure-temperature relationship of wellhead steel pressure containing parts at temperatures from -20 to 650F. There are some applications where valves with fireresistance capability are required, particularly on offshore platforms where a fire on one well endangers the other wells. API provides API RP 6F, a recommended

TABLE

3.32-PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE

RATINGS Maximum Workinq

OF STEEL Pressure

PARTS

Temperature

(OF)
- 20 to 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650

ICl
- 29 to 121 149 177 204 232 260 228 316 343

(Psi)
2ooo1955 1905 1860 1810 1735 1635 1540 1430

(bar)
138 134.8 131.4 128.2 124.8 119.6 112.7 106.2 98.6

(Psi)
3ooo2930 2860 2785 2715 2605 2455 2310 2145

(bar)
207 202 197.2 192 187.2 179.5 169.3 159.3 147.9

(Psi)
-iiGi---4880 4765 4645 4525 4340 4090 3850 3575

(bar)
345 336.5 328.5 320.3 312 299.2 282 265.5 246.5

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW

CONTROL

DEVICES

3-39

pipe and the completion is made at the top of the riser pipe. above water, usually on a fixed platform that is installed for the completion. Floating Drilling Vessels. Wells drilled utilizing floating drilling vessels normally utilize remote subsea equipment. The wellhead equipment is installed on the ocean floor. The BOPs are installed on the wellhead on the ocean floor. Riser pipes connect the equipment on the ocean floor with the vessel. Guidelines extending from the wellhead to the vessel are used for guiding equipment to the wellhead. For water depths too deep to utilize guidelines, guidelineless drilling systems are available. The guidelineless systems are normally used with dynamically positioned vessels. Guidance is accomplished by the use of acoustics, sonar, or TV. The completion (installation of the Christmas tree) on remote subsea equipment can be made either on the ocean floor or on a platform by utilizing tieback equipment. A variety of completion systems can be utilized for the production of oil and gas in various subsea environments. Some of these include single-well (diverassisted or diverless) satellite, platform, template, production riser, caisson or capsule (wet or dry), or combinations of the various basic systems. SPPElOCS Equipment. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with API and ASME. has established rules and regulations for safety and pollution prevention equi ment (SPPE) used in offshore oil and gas operations. 8 As described under Surface Safety Valve, the USGS rules and regulations require an SSV on each Christmas tree installed in federal offshore waters. The specification governing SSVs is API Spec. 14D. To qualify as a manufacturer and/or an assembler of SPPE equipment, a company must become an SPPE certificate holder. To become an SPPE certificate holder, a company must be qualified by ASME to certify compliance with ANSIlASME SPPE-1 standard on quality assurance and certification of safety and pollution prevention equipment used in offshore oil and gas operations. An SPPE certificate holder certifies his equipment by marking it with an authorized OCS symbol.

Casing Hanger. The casing-hanger slip segments are wrap-around type with a lower capacity than API casing hangers. The slips can be dropped through the BOPs to support the casing, but the seal must be placed around the suspended casing after the cutoff has been made. Intermediate Casing Heads. Intermediate casing heads in this class are identical in design to lowermost casing heads. If an intermediate-casing string is used, it is usually suspended in the lower-casing head with a thread positioned just above the lower-casing head to permit easy installation of the intermediate-casing head. If proper spacing is impractical, the intermediate casing may be cut off a few inches above the lower-casing head and a socket-type nipple with a top thread welded to the intermediate casing. Then the intermediate casing head can be attached to the thread. Tubing Heads. A tubing head threads onto the top thread of the production string to support and seal the tubing string. The tubing may be supported with a set of slips and sealed with a sealing element compressed with a cap screwed down on top of the tubing head. Maximum capacity of the slip-type tubing hanger is about 125,000 Ibm of tubing weight. A mandrel or doughnut tubing hanger may be used to support the tubing if desirable. Maximum weight-supporting capacity of this type of tubing hanger is limited only to the weightsupporting strength of the tubing head. A BOP can be attached to the tubing head with a companion flange for protection while running tubing. A stripper rubber may also be used to strip the tubing in or out of the hole under pressure, if needed. If a stripper rubber is used, it can be placed in the tubing-head bowl and a separate bowl can be attached to the tubing head to support the slip assembly or mandrel hanger. Casing heads arc available in all standard sizes with working pressures of 1,000 psi and lower. Tubmg heads are available in working pressures of 1,000 and 2,000 psi. Both units are usually furnished with two 2-in. linepipe outlets, although 3-in. outlets are available. Christmas-Tree Assembly. Christmas-tree assemblies for this type of equipment are usually very simple. If the well is expected to flow, a master valve is screwed onto the top tubing thread, a nipple and tee are screwed into the master valve, and a wing valve and choke are screwed into the tee. Selection. In selecting this class of equipment, the following factors should be considered. 1. Casinghead and tubing-head components should be constructed of cast steel or forged steel and should be full-opening. 2. Casing-hanger slips should be of drop-through type. 3. Caps used to hold down the suspension members and provide a seal should have hammer lugs for easy effective installation. 4. Both casing heads and tubing heads should be easily adaptable, with a full-opening adapter, to a standard BOP.

Independent Screwed Wellhead


API Independently Screwed Wellhead Equipment This section covers casing and tubing heads having upper-body connections other than API flanges or clamps, in l,OOO- and 2,000-psi working pressures. A typical arrangement of this equipment is shown in Fig. 3.4. Lowermost Casing Heads. Lowermost casing heads are furnished with a lower thread, which is threaded onto the surface pipe. Usually the top of the casing head is equipped with an external thread to receive a threaded cap used to compress the packing to make a seal and hold the slips down. The top thread can also be used to support a companion flange with an API ring groove and bolt holes for attaching standard BOPs.

3-40

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

References
1. S/w;ficcrrion.s fi,r t+c//hetrd (r!rr/ C/trr.cirrrcr.c Tree Eqrr;pwrrf. API Spec. 6A. 15th edition. API. Dallas (April I. 19861. 2. Reu~mmmdd Prucricr for Cart fmd lJsc of Cmrny cd Tuhui,q. API RP SCl, 12th editjon. APl. Dalla (March 19X1). 3. Bulletin on Performance Propcntca of Casing. Tubing and Drill Ptpe. 18th edition, API Bull. 5CZ. API, Dallas (March 1982). 4. Spr~~iJjmf~vr.~ fhr Cusiq Tuhip ad DrYi/ Pipc~ API Spec. 5A. 36th edition, API. Dallas (March 1982). 5. SpeciJkarions for Line Pipe. API Spec. 5L. 33rd e&ton. API. Dallas (March 1983). 6. Prdutrion Sa~?r~ Swrrrrts. OCS Order No. 5. U.S. Dept. of the lntenor (Jan. 197.5). 12. 13.

14. IS.

, , ~-- -r-.---. -. ANSliASME SPPE-I-82 and Addendum SPPE-lh-19X.3. ANSIIASME. New York City. Sprc~jfjuilim fiw Suhsur/ia P .Sojer~ Vo/w Equipmwl, API Spec. 14A. fifth edition, API. Dallas (March 1981). Muiericrl Reyuiwmrt~~\ , Sulfide S/r-c, t.5 Crtrdiu~ Rei.c rum M~~rnlli~~ Mtrlrricrl fiw Oi!fir/ci Eyrrii,nxvrr. N ACE Standard MR-01-75, NACE. Houston (1978). Rrc~ommcndcd Pwricc,for Fit-c, Tc\tj/r Vu/w.s. API RP 6F. third edition. API, Dallas (Jan. 1982). Fowler. E.D. and Rhodes. A.E.: Checklist Can Help Specify Proper Wellhead Material. Oil and Gus J (Jan. 1977) 59-6 I,

Chapter 4

Production Packers
L. Douglas Patton, L.D. Patton & ASSOCS.*

Production Packers Classification and Objectives


Production packers generally are classified as either retrievable or permanent types. Packer innovations include the retrievable seal nipple packers or semipermanent type. The packer isolates and aids in the control of producing fluids and pressures to protect the casing and other formations above or below the producing zone. All packers will attain one or more of the following objectives when they are functioning properly. 1. Isolate well fluids and pressures. 2. Keep gas mixed with liquids, by using gas energy for natural flow. 3. Separate producing zones, preventing fluid and pressure contamination. 4. Aid in forming the annular volume (casing/tubing/packer) required for gas lift or subsurface hydraulic pumping systems. 5. Limit well control to the tubing at the surface, for safety purposes. 6. Hold well servicing fluids (kill fluids, packer fluids) in casing annulus. Once a tubing-packer system has been selected, designed, and installed in a well there are four modes of operation: shut-in, producing, injection, and treating. These operational modes with their respective temperature and pressure profiles have considerable impact on the length and force changes on the tubing-to-packer connections. 1. Tubing is latched or fixed on the packer, allowing no movement (retrievable packers). Tubing can be set either in tension, compression, or neutral. 2. Tubing is landed with a seal assembly and locator sub that allows limited movement (permanent or semipermanent packers only). Tubing can be set only in compression or neutral. 3. Tubing is stung into the packer with a long seal assembly that allows essentially unlimited movement (permanent packers only). Tubing is left in neutral and it cannot be set in tension or compression. A retrievable packer is run and pulled on the tubing string on which it was installed. No special tubing trips are required. It has only one method of connection to the tubing - latched or fixed. The tubing can be set in tension, compression, or left in neutral. Tubing-length changes will result in force changes on the packer and tubing. In deep or high-temperature wells the rubber element may vulcanize and take on a permanent set, making release very difficult. Permanent and semipermanent packers can be run on wireline or tubing. They have three methods of tubing connection: latched (fixed), landed (limited movement), or stung in with a long seal assembly (free movement). Special tools plus milling are needed to recover it from the well. When left for long periods of time without movement, the seal assembly and polished bore (in the packer) may stick together.

Tubing-To-Packer

Connections

There are three methods of connecting a packer and a tubing string, and the tubing can be set in tension, compression, or left in neutral (no load on the packer, tension nor compression).
Author of the chapter on lhis QC in the 1962 edltm was W.B. Bleakley

Packer Utilization And Constraints


Understanding uses and constraints of the different types of packers will clarify the factors to consider before selecting the best packer and will illustrate how they achieve their specific objectives.

4-2

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

-Seal -Slips

Element

-Seal

Slip8 Element

E
Fig. 4.1--Solid-head

Perfs

retrievable compression packer

Fig. 4.2-Solid-head

retrievable tension packer.

Retrievable Packers Solid-Head Compression Packer. Retrievable compression (weight-set solid-head) packers are applied when annulus pressure above the packer exceeds pressure below the packer, as in a producing well with a full annulus. This situation precludes gas lift. Fig. 4.1 shows this type of packer. The constraints of a solid-head compression packer are: 1. Packer release can be hampered by high differential pressure across packer. 2. Packer may unseat if a change in the operational mode results in a tubing temperature decrease (tubing shortens). 3. Tubing may corkscrew permanently if a change in the operational mode results in a tubing temperature increase (tubing lengthens). Solid-Head Tension Packer. Retrievable tension packers generally are used when pressure below the packer is greater than the annulus pressure above the packer, such as in an injection well or low-pressure and -volume treating (Fig. 4.2). These packers also are used in shallow wells where the tubing weight is insufficient to set a compression packer properly. Constraints of the solid-head retrievable tension packer are: 1. Release is difficult with high differential pressure across the packer. 2. Tubing could part if a change in the operational mode results in a temperature decrease. 3. Packer could release if a change in the operational mode results in a temperature increase. Isolation Packer. A retrievable isolation packer (Fig. 4.3)

is used when two mechanically set packers are to be set simultaneously. It requires anchor pipe on the plugged back depth below it to use tubing weight to shear the pins that hold the packer in the unset mode. It can be used to isolate old perforations or a damaged spot in the casing temporarily. This packer is for temporary use only and should be retrieved as soon as its purpose is accomplished. Control-Head Compression Packer. The control-head retrievable compression packer (Fig. 4.4) has a bypass valve to alleviate the packer release problem resulting from excessive differential pressure. The valve is on top of the packer. It is opened, equalizing the pressure across the packer, by picking up the tubing without moving the packer. As with the solid-head packer, using tubing weight, this packer holds pressure from above only. It is not suitable for injection wells or low-volume and -pressure treating. Constraints are: (1) the bypass or equalizing valve could open if an operational mode change results in a tubing temperature decrease, and (2) tubing could corkscrew permanently if an operational mode change results in a tubing temperature increase. A control-head retrievable compression packer run with an anchor is basically a treating packer. It holds pressure from below without tubing weight because the anchor holds the packer and constrains its movement. Pressure across the packer is equalized through a valve operated by picking up on the tubing (Fig. 4.5). Temperature changes have the same effect as they have with the controlhead compression packer without an anchor. Control-Head Tension Packer. The control-head retrievable tension packer is released easily even if high

PRODUCTION PACKERS

4-3

1
-Seal Element Tail Pipe

Valve

Soal Slipr

Element

Perft3

4 I Porfa

Fig. 4.3-Isolation

packer is held in place with shear pins.

Fig. 4.4-Control-head compression equalizing valve.

packer employs a top

differential pressure exists across the packer during normal operations. This pressure is equalized by a valve on top of the packer that is opened by lowering the tubing without moving the packer. This type packer holds pressure from below only, with tubing in tension, and is not suitable for wells with well servicing fluid in the annulus. Constraints of a control-head tension packer are: (1) premature bypass valve opening could occur with a tubing temperature increase as the tubing elongates, and (2) tubing could part with a tubing temperature decrease as the tubing contracts. Mechanically Set Packer. Mechanically set retrievable packers (Fig. 4.6) have slips above and below the seal element and can be set with either tension, compression, or rotation. Once the packer is set, the tubing can be left in tension, compression, or neutral mode. How the tubing is left is dictated by future operations to be performed. Careful planning of these subsequent operations is needed to neutralize temperature and pressure effects on the tubing and the equalizing valve. The mechanically set retrievable packer is suitable for almost universal application, the only constraint being found in deep deviated wells where transmitting tubing movement will be a problem. Hydraulic-Set Packer. The retrievable hydraulic-set packer (Fig. 4.7) also has slips above and below the packing element. It is set by applying the hydraulic pressure in the tubing to some preset level above hydrostatic pressure. Once the packer is set, the tubing may be put in limited tension, compression, or left neutral. The packer generally is released with tension-actuated shear pins. It is universally applicable, the only constraint being its high cost.

Common Constraint - All Latched Packers. Severe tubing length changes resulting from changing temperatures can develop sufficient forces to move the packer in the casing. This can happen in old corroded casing or in the harder grades of new casing such as P-l 10. The teeth on the slips shave the pipe, thus loosening their grip. Permanent Packers The polished sealbore packer (Fig. 4.8) is a permanenttype or semipermanent packer that can be set with precision depth control on conductor wireline. It also can be set mechanically or hydraulically on the tubing. A locator sub and seal assembly is attached to the bottom of the tubing and is stung into the polished bore receptacle of the packer. Isolation is achieved by the fit of the seals inside the polished bore. This packer allows all three connection methods--fixed, limited movement, or free movement-that subsequent operations will dictate. It is ideal for wells subject to frequent workover because the tubing is retrieved easily. Permanent packers are especially useful where tubing temperature may vary widely because the seals slide up and down in the polished bore. They can be retrieved by using a special tool on the end of the tubing in place of the seal assembly, but a round trip with the tubing is required. There is one important constraint with this packer-if the tubing remains in a place for a long time at the same temperature and no movement occurs between the seals and the polished bore, the seals may stick to the polished bore surface, creating a tubing-retrieval problem. The seal assembly length (Fig. 4.8) should allow sufflcient free upward tubing movement during stimulation treatments and permit tubing weight slackoff to eliminate seal movements during the producing life of the well.

4-4

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Valve Valve Slips Seal -Seal Slips Element Slips E lement

-Piston Slips (Anchor)

kPerfs Fig. 4.5-Treating compression packer is held by an anchor containing piston slips.

E
Packer Mechanics

Perfs

Fig. 4.6-Mechanically set dual-slip packer has slips above and below rubber element.

Considerations For Packer Selection


Packer selection requires an analysis of packer objectives for the anticipated well operations, such as initial completions, production stimulation, and workover procedures. Considering both current and future well conditions, the packer with the minimum overall cost that will accomplish the objectives should be selected. Initial investment and installation costs should not be the only criteria. Overall packer cost is related directly not only to retrievability and failure rate but to such diverse factors as formation damage during subsequent well operations or replacement of corkscrewed tubing. Retrievability will be enhanced greatly by using oil or solid-free water rather than mud for the packer fluid. Frequency of packer failures may be minimized by using the proper packer for the well condition and by anticipating future conditions when setting the packer. Permanent packers are by far the most reliable and, when properly equipped and set, are excellent for resisting the high pressure differentials imposed during stimulation. They are used widely when reservoir pressures vary significantly between zones in multiple completions. Weight-set tension types of retrievable packers will pcrform satisfactorily when the force on the packer is in one direction only and is not excessive. Surface/Downhole Equipment Coordination

The end result of most packer setting mechanisms is to (1) drive a cone behind a tapered slip to force the slip into the casing wall and prevent packer movement, and (2) compress a packing element to effect a seal. Although the end result is relatively simple, the means of accomplishing it and subsequent packer retrieval varies markedly between the several types of packers. Some packers involve two or more round trips, some require wireline time, and some eliminate trips by hydraulic setting. The time cost should be examined carefully, especially on deep wells using high-cost rigs. In some cases higher initial packer costs may be more than offset by the saving in rig time, especially offshore. Corrosive Well Fluids Materials used in the packer construction must be considered where well fluids contain CO, or H,S in the presence of water or water vapor. Sour Corrosion (Sulfide or Chloride Stress Cracking Corrosion). Even small amounts of H,S with water produce iron sulfide corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement The Natl. Assn. of Corrosion Engineers specifies that materials for H$ conditions be heat-treated to only a maximum hardness of 22 Rockwell C to alleviate embrittlement. Hardness has no effect on iron sulfide corrosion, however. For critical parts where high strength is required, K-Monel@ is resistant to both embrittlement and iron sulfide corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors may be required to protect exposed surfaces. Sweet Corrosion (Weight Loss Corrosion). CO, and water cause iron carbonate corrosion, resulting in deep pitting. For ferrous materials, low-strength steels or cast

Setting a packer always requires surface action and in most cases either vertical or rotational movement of the tubing. Selection of the packer must be related to wellhead equipment. The well completion must be considered as a coordinated operation. The surface and downhole equipment must be selected to work together as a system to ensure a safe completion. This is especially true in highpressure well applications.

PRODUCTION PACKERS

4-5

II I

k
-

Valve Stinger with aeai eaaamb

/ Slip8 Element Port -Seal -

-Seal Setting

Siipr Eiemen siipr

II

Hydraulic

\Poiirhed real

bora,

5LEPerfs 7
Fig. 4.7-Hydraulic packer is set by tubing pressure. Fig. 4.8--Retrievable. permanent-type polished sealbore.

Perfe

packer is made with

iron are desirable to resist stress concentrations from pitting. Critical parts of production equipment can be made of stainless steel with 9% or higher chromium. Corrosion inhibitors may be required to protect exposed
surfaces.

Bimetallic or galvanic corrosion resulting from contact of dissimilar metals should be considered. Usually this is not a problem, since steel is the anode, or sacrificial member, and the resulting damage is negligible because of the massive area of the steel compared with the lessactive stainless of K-Monel. Sealing Element The ability of a seal to hold differential pressure is a function of the elastomer pressure, or stress developed in the seal. The seal stress must be greater than the differential pressure. In a packer sealing element, the stress developed depends on the packer setting force and the backup provided to limit seal extrusion. The sealing element may consist of one piece or may be composed of multiple elements of different hardnesses. In a three-element packer, for example, the upper and lowermost elements are usually harder (abrasion resistant) than the center element. The center element seals off against imperfections in the casing, while the harder outside elements restrict extrusion and seal with high temperature and pressure differentials. Many packers also include metallic backup rings to limit extrusion. Where H2S or CO2 is present, seal materials and temperature and pressure conditions must be considered carefully. Teflon@ resists H,S or chemical attack up to 450F; but Teflon seal extrusion can be a problem. With controlled clearance and suitable metallic backup to prevent extrusion, glass-filled Teflon has performed satisfac-

torily to 450F with a 15,000-psi differential pressure. Because of seal rigidity it may not perform well below 300F. With temperatures below 250F, Nitrile @ rubber can be used with metallic backup for static seals. The performance of Vito@ seals becomes marginal at 300F. A tubing-to-packer seal consisting of vee-type rings of Kalrez,@ Teflon,@ and Rylon@ in sequence with metallic backup have been satisfactory (under limited movement) up to 300F and lO,OOC-psi differential pressure. Retrievability Consideration of retrievability must combine several factors, relative to packer design and use. Retrievable packers are released by either straight pull or rotation. In a deviated hole, applied torque usually can develop more downhole releasing force than pull, although sometimes it also is necessary to manipulate the tubing up and down to transmit the torque to bottom. The packer sealing element should prevent solids from settling around the slips. Usually the bypass on a controlhead packer opens before the seal is released; this allows circulation to remove sand or foreign material. High setting force is needed to provide a reliable seal under high differential pressures, but it should be recognized that the resulting seal extrusion can contribute to the retrieval problem. A jar stroke between release and pickup positions is an aid in packer removal. The method of retracting and retaining slip segments is a factor in retrievability. Bypass area around the packer is also important. Where external clearance is minimized to promote sealing, the internal bypass area must be sufficiently large to prevent swabbing by the sealing element when pulling out of the hole.

4-6

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Fishing Characteristics A permanent packer must be drilled out to effect removal. This usually presents little problem because all material is millable. Some expensive variations of permanent packers provide for retrieval but retain the removable seal tube feature. Removal of stuck retrievable packers usually results in an expensive fishing operation because components are nondrillable and require washover milling. When selecting packers, consider the volume and type of metal that must be removed if drilled and the presence of rings or hold-down buttons that may act as ball bearings to milling tools. Through-Tubing Operations

TABLE 4.1-COST

COMPARISON PACKERS Tubing-Casing size (in.) 2 x 5% 2 x 5/2 2 x 5% 2 x 5% 2x2x7 2 x 5% 2 x 5/2

OF PRODUCTION

Packer Type Compression Tension set Mechanical set Hydraulic set Dual Permanent* Semipermanent

Typical Cost Index * 1 .oo 0.925 1 54 2.30 5.85 1 .a5 2.30

Electric-lme setting charge not Included. Cost of simple compresston packer= 1 00

Packers with internal diameters equal to that of the tubing should be used to facilitate through-tubing operations. Also, tubing should be set to minimize or alleviate buckling where through-tubing operations are anticipated. Purchase Price Table 4.1 presents a range of packer cost indices. The most economical types are weight-set and tension packers. However, inclusion of a hydraulic hold-down with a compression packer will increase the initial cost from 20 to 100% _ Multistring hydraulic-set packers are usually the most expensive and also require many accessories.

Tubing/Packer

System

Advantages By using a properly selected packer, well operations will be more efficient. Wireline pressure and logging operations will proceed faster and smoother. Longer flowing life will be achieved with the use of a packer through the optimal use of the gas energy. The use of a packer in a gas well, with a tailpipe run below the perforations, will alleviate the problem of gas wells heading, loading up with water, and dying prematurely. (The water is produced continuously as a mist and is not allowed to build up over the perforations.) This use of a packer and tail pipe will not control the natural water influx, but will keep the water moving along until such time as the available pressure is less than the pressure required to flow. Where Packers Are Not Used Packers are not run in rod-pumped wells, unless extraordinary circumstances such as dual completion call for one. Electric submersible pumped wells would not have a packer, except when used with uphole subsurface safety valves required by government safety regulations for offshore wells. Many naturally flowing, high-volume, sweetcrude wells are produced up the annulus without packers; a small tubing string is run to be used to kill (circulate) the well or for running certain logs or pressure gauges. Dry, sweet-gas wells often are produced up both the tubing and the annulus and have no packers. Operational Well Modes There are four modes of operation that any given well might experience: (1) shut-in; (2) producing (either liquids, gas, or a combination); (3) injecting (hot or cold

liquids, or gases); or (4) treating (high, low, or intermediate pressures and volumes). The usual mode of operation is only one of the factors that need to be considered when selecting a particular type of packer to be used in a well. Subsequent operations and their pressures and temperature changes are likely to be extremely important to packer utilization success. 2,3 Typical temperature-vs.-depth profiles are illustrated in Fig. 4.9. These profiles are similar to those measured in wells operating in one of four modes: shut-in, production, injection, or treatment. Fig. 4.9a depicts a typical geothermal gradient, with the temperature increasing with depth to the bottomhole temperature (BHT). Every time a well is shut in, the operating temperature profile will begin to move toward the shape of the natural geothermal profile. Producing well temperature profiles for both gas and oil are shown in Fig. 4.9b. The wellhead temperature of an oil well will be somewhat less than BHT. The amount of cooling as crude flows to the surface will depend on several factors: (1) the relative amount of oil and water, (2) the specific heats of the oil and water, (3) the flow rate, (4) the gas/liquid ratio, and (5) the vertical flow pressure drop that controls gas liberated and attendant cooling effect. The temperature profile of a gas well may have a wellhead temperature lower than ambient. In any case the wellhead temperature of a gas well will depend on the BHT, the flow rate, the pressure drop in the tubing, the specific heat of the gas, and other factors. Injection temperature profiles can be quite varied (Fig. 4.9~). The profile will depend on such factors as the nature of the injection fluid (liquid or gas), the rate of injection, and the injected fluid temperature (cold liquid or gas, hot gas or liquid, or even steam). The liquids injected will tend to have little heat loss down the tubing, while the gas injected will tend to pick up or lose heat to approach the BHT. While treating is simply a special case of the injection mode, and it is temporary in nature, it is considered important enough to be discussed separately. As with the liquid injection profile, the treating liquid will not pick up any appreciable amount of heat as it moves down the tubing and the treating temperature profile is essentially vertical (Fig. 4.9d). As illustrated in some examples later, the important thing about these profiles is not their shape but how much the shape and temperature change from one operational

PRODUCTION PACKERS

4-7

temperature \ \ \

-+ BHT Temperature a: SHUT IN 0. Temperature -

+ BHT

b: PRODUCING

lnlsction
+ temperature

Treating +

temperature

Cold \

or

Hoi

\ \

L ; \G \ i \ \
00 Temperature c: INJECTING -

(0 I G I I
+ BHT + EHT 0. Temperature -

d: TREATING

Fig. 4.9-Temperature profiles for four possible modes of oil and gas wells: a. Shut-in, b. Producing, c. Injecting, d. Treating.

mode to another, and how those temperature changes atfeet the tubing and packer system. It is strongly recommended that anticipated temperature profiles of each operational mode be drawn accurately when planning various steps of any completion or major workover. Fig. 4.10 shows the pressure profiles of the four modes of well operation. Fig. 4.10a illustrates a typical shut-in well with well servicing fluid in the wellbore. The slope of the profile and the height to which the fluid level rises on the depth scale (and in the wellbore) will depend on the average reservoir pressure, PR, and the gradient of the well servicing fluid. Fig. 4. lob shows the profiles of typical producing oil and gas wells. A liquid injection pro-

file (Fig. 4.10~) is similar to the shut-in profile, the difference being that the bottomhole injection pressure, (pi)bh, is greater than the average reservoir pressure, p R The wellhead pressure, p,&, can have any value, from a vacuum to several thousand psi. The gas injection profile may have a reverse slope on it or may have a normal but steep slope, depending on the rate, tubing size, and bottomhole injection pressure. The treating pressure (Fig. 4.1Od) is a special temporary case of the injection profile. The bottomhole treating pressure, (pt)bh , often will be greater than the injection pressure, especially in a fracturing job. The surface pressure will be constrained by the burst strength of the

4-8

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Wellhsed

prearure

Prereure

Preerure

a: SHUT IN
InjectIon preasuro

b: PRODUCING
Treating preaeure

Preerure

Preeaure

c: INJECTING

d: TREATING

Fig. 4.10-Pressure

profiles for four possible operational modes of oil and gas wells: b. Producing c. In jetting d. Treating.

a. Shut-in

tubing and casing, and safety considerations. The slope of the pressure profile will depend on the tubing size, the treating rates, and the treating pressure downhole, (pt)bh. It is recommended that pressure profiles of each operational mode be drawn for each step of a completion or major workover. As the examples will point out, the importance of pressure changes from one well mode to another and their effects on the tubing and packer system cannot be overemphasized.

Tubing Response Characteristics


Changing the mode of a well (producer, injector, shutin) causes changes in temperature and pressures inside and outside the tubing. Depending on (1) how the tubing

is connected to the packer, (2) the type of packer, and (3) how the packer is set, temperature and pressure changes will effect the following. 1. Length variation in the tubing string will result if the seals are permitted to move inside a permanent polished seal-bore packer. 2. Tensile or compressive forces will be induced in the tubing and packer system if tubing motion is not permitted (latched connection). 3. A permanent packer will be unsealed if motion is permitted (tubing contraction) and the seal assembly section is not long enough. 4. Unseatingof a solid-head tension (or compression) packer will occur if it is not set with sufficient strain (or weight) to compensate for tubing movement.

PRODUCTION PACKERS

4-9

5. The equalizing valve will open prematurely on control-head packers (tension or compression). The net result of any of these five events could reduce the effectiveness of the downhole tools and/or damage the tubing, casing, or even the formations open to the well. Failure to consider length and force changes may result in costly failures of such operations as squeeze cementing, acidizing, fracturing, and other remedial operations. Formation damage may result. In addition, the tubing string could be corkscrewed or parted. Potential length changes under extreme conditions determine the length of seals necessary to remain packedoff with a polished seal-bore packer. Potential induced forces need to be calculated to prevent tubing damage, unseating packers, or opening equalizing valves. The two major factors that tend to lengthen or shorten the string (movement permitted) are4y5 (1) temperature effect and (2) pressure effects-piston, ballooning, and buckling effects. Buckling will only shorten the tubing string. The other factors may shorten or lengthen the tubing string. If motion is prevented, tension or compression forces are induced. It is important to understand and remember the direction of action of the length and force changes. It is equally important to remember that a string of tubing landed in any packer is initially in a neutral condition, except for any subsequent mechanical strain or set-down weight applied by the rig operator. After the tubing is landed, the factors that cause changes in length or force are always the result of a change in temperature and pressure. Temperature Effect Thermal expansion or contraction causes the major length change in the tubing. AL,=8.28~10-~ where AL,, = change in tubing length, ft, Lt = tubing length, ft, and AT = change in average temperature, xL,xAT, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)

Large

bore

packer

Small

Fig. 4.11 -Tubing and packer systems, illustrating various areas and pressures necessary for movement or force calculations.

b
Psn Pr

(6)

bore

pack

In most cases, the temperature effect provides the major length or force change when changing from one operational mode to another. Piston Effect The length change or force induced by the piston effect is caused by pressure changes inside the annulus and tubing at the packer, acting on different areas (Fig. 4.11). The force and length changes can be calculated as follows. F=AP,(A,i-Ati)-Ap, (tubing) and ~t=~[AP,(AI)-Ati)-Ap,(Apr-A,,)1, (pregure where acting on differential area) t. .(4) (A,,-A,) (annulus) . . . . . . . (3)

F.

Length changes are calculated readily if the average temperature of the tubing can be determined for the initial condition and then again for the next operation and the next, etc. The average string temperature in any given operating mode is one-half the sum of the tempe_ratures at the top and at the bottom of the tubing. The AT is the difference between the average temperatures of any two subsequent operating modes. If the motion is constrained, forces will be induced as a result of the temperature change. The temperatureinduced force is F=201 xA, where F = force (tensile or compressive, depending on direction of T), lbf, and = cross-sectional area of the tubing wall, AhV sq in. xAT, ... . , . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)

E = modulus of elasticity, psi (30 x lo6 for steel), A,i = area of packer ID, sq in., Ali = area of tubing ID, sq in., A,, = area of tubing OD, sq in., Apr = change in tubing pressure at packer, psi, and Ap,, = change in annulus pressure at packer, psi. Note that the length change, AL,,, is a product of LIEA,, and the piston force (Eq. 3). The piston force is the sum of two pressures acting on two areas-one for the tubing and one for the annulus. Fig. 4.1 la shows that for a large bore packer, annulus pressure causes downward force while tubing pressure causes an upward force. For a small bore packer this situation is reversed (Fig. 4.1 lb). The force greatest in magnitude will determine the resulting direction of action. An accurate schematic of the tubing and packer bore for each case should be made for proper determination of areas, forces, and the resulting direction of action.

4-10

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 4.2-TUBING CONSTANTS FOR USE IN DETERMINING BUCKLING MOVEMENT CAUSED BY PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS

OD (in.) 1.660 1.900


2.000

(lb!&
2.40 2 90 3.40 3.40 4.70 6.50 9.20

(sq in.)
2.164 2.835 3.142 3.341 4.430 6.492

Alo

(sq in.)
1.496 2.036

A,t

(sq in.)
0.663 0.799

A,

I
(irx4) 0.195
0.310 0.404 0.428 0.784 1.611 3.885

s 1.448 1.393
1.434

2.190
2.405 3.126 4.680

0.952
0.936

WI6 2% 2%
3'1,

1.389
1.417 1.387 1.368

1.304
1.812

9.621

7.031

2.590

wt+w*-w,
Tubing OD (in.)
1.660 1.900 2.000

Weight (Ibmlin.)
w,=o.200

W, and W,d (Ibmlin.)


WS

7.0* 52.3"

8.0 59.8

9.0 67.3

10.0 74.8

11.0 82.3

12.0 89.8

13.0 97.2

14.0 104.7

15.0 112.2

16.0 119.7 0.150 0.141 0.196 0.152 0.218 0.167 0.231 0.217 0.307 0.324 0.450 0.487 0.666

17.0 127.2 0.159 0.150 0.209 0.161 0.231 0.177 0.246 0.230 0.326 0.344 0.478 0.517 0.708

18.0 134.6

W, = 0.242
w, =0.283

W,
Wft
wfd

W, = 0.283 W, = 0.392

Wff
wfd

WE
w,

2%
3%

W, =0.542
W,=O.767

Wft W,
W fl W,

0.0450.0520.0580.0650.0710.0780.0840.0910.0970.1040.1100.116 0.122 0.131 0.103 0.112 0.140 0.065 0.075 0.084 0.094 0.115 0.123 0.132 0.079 0.097 0.106 0.062 0.070 0.088 0.172 0.135 0.147 0.159 0.184 0.006 0.098 0.110 0.123 0.123 0.133 0.142 0.104 0.114 0.066 0.076 0.085 0.095 0.177 0.204 0.095 0.109 0.122 0.136 0.190 0.150 0.163 0.073 0.083 0.094 0.104 0.135 0.146 0.156 0.114 0.125 0.101 0.145 0.188 0.202 0.217 0.159 0.174 0.116 0.130 0.176 0.203 0.162 0.095 0.108 0.122 0.135 0.189 0.149 0.211 0.172 0.192 0.230 0.249 0.268 0.288 0.134 0.153 0.182 0.203 0.223 0.243 0.263 0.284 0.304 0.142 0.162 0.337 0.421 0.196 0.253 0.281 0.309 0.365 0.393 0.225 0.274 0.304 0.335 0.365 0.395 0.426 0.456 0.213 0.243 0.500 0.541 0.291 0.333 0.365 0.416 0.458 0.563 0.625

0.169
0.159 0.221 0.171 0.245 0.187 0.260 0.243 0.345 0.364 0.506 0.548

0.749

Ibmlgal lbmlcu

R.

Ballooning and Reverse Ballooning Internal pressure swells or balloons the tubing and causes it to shorten. Likewise, pressure in the annulus squeezes the tubing, causing it to elongate. This effect is called The ballooning and reverse reverse ballooning. ballooning length change and force are given by AL,=2.4xlO- and F=0.6(A~,A,i where Aj5, = change in average tubing pressure from one mode to another, psi, isi 0, = change in average annulus pressure from one mode to another, psi, and F,i = ratio of tubing OD to ID (Ref. 5 uses R). Buckling Effects Tubing strings tend to buckle only when p f is greater than pa,,. The result is a shortening of the tubing; the force exerted is negligible. The tubing length change is calculated using -AISanA,oj, .. .. (6) XL, Apt -Fm 2A~an F,,2_1

where r = radial clearance between tubing OD, dl,, and casing ID, d,i, =(dCi -d,)i2, in., I = movement of inertia of tubing about its diameter= n/64(d,, -d,i 4), in. 4, W, = weight of tubing, lbmiin., IV@ = weight of fluid in tubing, lbm/in., and Wfd = weight of displaced fluid, lbm/in. Buckling only shortens the tubing and in most wells it will be the smallest constraint. For use with the radial and inertia calculations, values for AI,, A,;, A ,,,,, I, F,i, and (W, + Wp - wfd) can be found, for most tubing sizes, in Table 4.2. The net or overall length change (or force) is the sum of the length change (or forces) caused by the piston, ballooning, and temperature effects. The direction of the length change for each effect (or action of the force) must be considered when summing them. It follows that for a change in conditions, the motion (or force) created by one effect can be offset, or enhanced, by the motion (or force) developed by some other effect. Moseley6 presented a method for graphically determining the length and force changes (Eqs. 5 through 7). This method is particularly useful on a fieldwide basis where wells have the same size tubing, casing and packers. When planning the sequential steps of a completion or workover, care should be taken to consider the temperatures and pressures in each step, once the tubing

. . (5)

~ = r2Api2@Pr-&anj2 f 8-W W, + wfi- Wfd)

(7)

PRODUCTION PACKERS

4-11

and packer system becomes involved. By careful selection of packer bore and use of annulus pressures, one or a combination of pressure effects could be employed to offset the adverse length or force change of another effect.

Key Equations in SI Metric Units


A&=l.4935X10-5L,XAT F=741,934A,,.xAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(I) _. (2)

Combination Tubing/Packer

Systems
AL,=

Uniform completions have been discussed previously (i.e., a single tubing and casing size). Hammerlindl presented a method for solving problems with combination completions. His paper in particular covered two items not covered by Lubinski et al.4 He includes a direct mathematical method for calculating forces in uniform completions where tubing movement is not permitted and a method for handling hydraulic packers set with the wellhead in place. A combination completion consists of (1) more than one size of tubing, (2) more than one size of casing, (3) two or more fluids in the tubing and/or annulus, or (4) one or more of these.

3.6576L, [AFt(A,i -At;)-Ap..(A,,j EA tn, -A,,)].

Since Table 4.2 is not available in SI metric units, Eq. 7 is solved in English units (inches) and the result is converted to SI metric units (meters). where AL, and L, are in m, ATis in C, F is in N, As are in m2, ps are in kPa, and E is in 30X lo6 psi.

Tubing/Packer Forces on Intermediate Packers


Intermediate packers are an integral part of the tubing string. Examples are dual packers in the long string or selective completion packers. The packer-to-tubing force on the intermediate packer is needed so that wells can be treated through the completion system. Without proper design, it is possible to shear the release mechanism in the intermediate packer(s), which could result in an expensive failure of the completion or workover. Hammerlind18 wrote an extension on his and Lubinskis4 earlier works that developed a theory required to solve for the intermediate packer-to-tubing forces. The calculation procedure regarding pressure effects requires working the problem from the lowest packer to the surface in stages. The first stage is the tubing between the bottom and second packer. The second stage is the tubing between the second and third packer (or the surface, if there are only two packers). The procedures are the standard ones for uniform completions. The only changes are those to determine the changes in length as a result of applied forces on the intermediate packers; also the actual and fictitious force calculation procedure is modified. Interested readers are referred to Hammerlindls 1980 paper for additional information on the nebulous fittitious force of Lubinski et al. 4

References
1.

Patton,L.D. and Abbott, W.A.: Well Conzpletions and Workovrw


The Sysfem Approach, second edition, Energy Publications, Dallas (1985) 57-67. Eichmeier, J.R., Ersoy, D., and Ramey. H.J. Jr.: Wellbore Temperatures and Heat Losses During Production Operations, paper CIM 7016 presented at the 1976 CIM Sot. Meeting, Calgary, Ah. (May 6-7). Arnold, R.B., Sandmeyer, D.J., and Elchmeier, J.R.: Production Problems of a High-Pressure, High-Temperature Reservoir, paper CIM 7232. Lubinski, A., Althouse, W.H., and Logan. J.L.: Helical Buckling of Tubing Sealed in Packers, f. Pet. Tec2. (June 1962) 655-70: Trans., AIME, 225. Packer Calculations Handbook, Baker Oil Tool Div. (1971). Moseley, Neal F.: Graphic Solutions to Tubing Movement in Deep Wells, Pet. Eng. Intl. (March 1973) 59-66. Hammerlindl, D.J.: Movement, Forces, and Stresses Associated With Combination Tubing Strings Sealed in Packers, J. Per. Tech. (Feb. 1977) 195-208. Hammerlindl, D.J.: Packer-to-Tubing Forces for Intermediate Packers, J. Pet. Tech. (March 1980) 515-27. Hammerlindl, D.J.: Basic Fluid and Pressure Forces on Oilwell Tubulars, J. Pet. Tech. (Jan. 1980) 153-59.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

Chapter 5

Gas Lift
Herald W. Winkler, consultant *

Introduction
Description
nal source

of Gas Lift Operations


of artificial lift that uses an cxterforof high-pressure gas for supplementing

well to lift the fluids illustrated in Fi?.

from the well.

This closed loop.

as

Gas lift is the method

tnation gas to lift the well fluids. The primary consideration in the selection of a gas-lift system to lift a well. a group of wells. or an entire compression cost of gas. Continuous-ilow cial lift that fully production. which field is the availability and

5 1 ,, is referred to as a closed rotative gas-lift system. Contmuous-flow gas lift operations arc preferable with a closed rotative system. Intermittent gas lift operations are particularly difficult to regulate and to operate efficiently in smaller closed rotative systems with limited gas storage capacities in the low- and high-pressure lines.

gas lift is the only method of artifiutilizes the energy in the formation gas flow, flow by an extension of natural

Most wells are gas lifted by continuous

Applications
Gas lift is particularly applicable for lifting wells where high-pressure gas is available. Gas compressors may have been installed may be nearby. for gas injection, or high-pressure gas wells far exceeds Since the cost of compression

can be considered

supplementing the formation gas with additional highpressure gas from an outside source. Gas is injected continuously injection into the production gas mixes with conduit injection at a maximum gas pressure. well fluids depth The and on the basis of the available

the produced

the cost of downhole should be considered

gas lift equipment, gas lift always when an adequate volume of highfor wells requiring artificial lift.

decreases the flowing pressure gradient of the mixture from the point of gas injection to the surface. The lower bowing pressure attaining pressure gradient reduces the flowing bottomhole (BHFP) to establish a design production the drawdown required for rate from the well. If suffi-

pressure gas is available

Most wells can be depleted by gas lift. which is particularly true since the implementation of reservoir pressure maintenance programs in most major oil fields.

cient drawdown in the bottomhole pressure (BHP) is not possible by continuous flow, intermittent gas lift opcration may be used. Intermittent gas lift requires high instantaneous gas volumes to displace liquid slugs to the surface. The disadvantage of intermittent lift is an on-off need for highpressure gas. which presents a gas handling problem at the surface and surging in the BHFP that cannot be tolcratcd in many wells producing Most hiph-pressure gas lift sand. systems are designed to

Advantages

and Limitations

The flexibility of gas lift in terms of production rates and depth of lift cannot be matched by other methods of artificial lift if adequate injection-gas pressure and volume are available. Gas lift is one of the most forgivrng forms of artificial lift, since a poorly designed installation will normally gas lift some fluid. Many efficient gas lift installations with wireline-retrievable with minimal well gas liti valve mandrels information for locating are designed

recirculate the lift gas. The low-pressure gas from the production separator is compressed and rcinjected into the

the mandrel depths on initial well completion. Highly deviated wells that produce sand and have a high formation gas/liquid ratio arc excellent candidates for gas lift when artificial tions are designed lift is needed. Many gas lift production installafrom to increase the daily

5-2

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

(4

VALVE MOUNTED OUTSIDE THE MANDREL (TUBING MUST BE PULLED TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE VALVE)

CONVENTIONAL

GAS LIFT VALVE

REVERSE FLOW CHECK

Fig. 5.1-Simplified system.

flow diagram of a closed rotative gas lift

THREAD FOR INSTALLING ALYE AND CHECK TO MANDREL

lb)
flowing wells. No other (TFL) method is as ideally completions suited for as a gas

VALVE MOUNTED ,NSiDETHE MANDREL (WIRELINE RETRIEVABLE,

through-flowline

ocean floor

LATCH LATCH RETAlNlNG SHOULDER

lift system. Maximum production is possible by gas lift from a well with small casing and high deliverability. Wireline-retrievable gas lift valves can bc replaced without killing a well or pulling the tubing. The gas lift valve is a simple device with few moving parts. and sandladen well fluids do not have to pass through the valve to bc lifted. The individual well in-hole equipment is relatively inexpensive. is simple The surface and requires equipment little for injection and gas control maintenance

PACKlNG (VALVE TO POCKET SEAL)

PORTS TO ANNULUS ALYE PACKlNG (ALYE TO POCKET SEplLi SlOEPOCKET VALVE PORT TO TUBING RECEIVER)

practically no space for installation. The reported overall reliability and operating costs for a gas lift system are lower than for other methods of lift. The primary limitations for gas lift operations are the lack of formation gas or of an outside source of gas, wide well spacing. and available space for compressors on offshore platforms. single-well Generally, gas lift is not applicable to installations and widely spaced wells that are

Fig. 5.2-Conventional and wireline-retrievable gas lift valves and mandrels. (a) Conventional gas lift valve and mandrel. (b) WirelIne-retrievable gas lift valve and mandrel.

not suited for a centrally located power system. Gas lift can intensify the problems associated with production of a viscous crude. a super-saturated brine. or an emulsion. application generation of gas lift for inaccessible of retrievable valve wireline wells. operation The newer in highly Old casing. sour gas. and long. small-ID flowlines can rule out pas lift operations. Wet gas without dehydration will reduce the reliability of gas lift operations. mandrels have orienting

devices to assure successful deviated wells. The operating principles tional and wireline-retrievable

Conventional

and Wireline-Retrievable

Equipment

for a given type of convengas lift valves arc the same. may vary beand wirelineoutbetween

The early gas liti valves were the conventional type whcreby the tubing mandrel that held the gas lift valve and reverse check valve was part of the tubing string. It was necessary to pull the tubing to replace a conventional gas lift valve. The first selectively retrievable gas lift valve and mandrel wcrc introduced around 1950. The retrievable valve mandrel within was designed with a pocket. could or bc receiver, the mandrel. A gas lift valve

Although the performance characteristics tween the same type of conventional retrievable valve, the installation lined in this chapter do not change.

design calculations The choice

conventional and wireline-retrievable equipment depends primarily on the costs associated with pulling the tubing and on whether ability a workover fluid may damage the deliverof a well.

removed or installed by simple wirclinc operations without pulling the tubing. The wirelinc primary device for locating the mandrel stalling pocket and selectively is a kickover removing tool. or ina gas lift valve The mandrel

Wireline-retrievable equipment is used in most offshore wells and in wells located inaccessibly where workover operations lustrated are extremely in Fig. 5.2. expensive. valves Conventional and mandrels and are ilwireline-retrievable gas lift

is called a sidepockct mandrel because the pocket is offset from the centerline of the tubing. Most sidepockettype retrievable valve mandrels have a full-bore ID equal to the tubing ID. These mandrels permit normal wireline operations. retrievable such as pressure surveys. This wirelinesystem for gas lift valves revolutlonizcd the

Open and Closed Installations


Most tubing-flow to stabilize vent injection gas lift installations blowing will include a packer end of the fluid level in the casing annulus and to pregas from around the lower

GAS

LIFT

5-3

the tubing installation

in wells implies

with

a low BHFP.

A closed gas lift includes without which a packer a standing is widely

that the installation An installation to as semiclosed,

erly without valve.

understanding

the mechanics

of a gas lift

and a standing

valve.

valve may be referred

A large-bore seating nipple, which is designed to receive a lock, is recommended for many gas lift installations. This seating nipple should of the tubing. Applications installation of a standing for intermittent be installed at the lower end for a seating nipple include valve for testing the tubing or a means to secure and

used for continuous flow operations. An installation without a packer or standing valve is called an open installation. An open installation seldom is recommended unless the well has a BHFP that significantly exceeds the injection gas pressure and unless normal packer removal may be difficult or impossible because of sand, scale. etc. A packer is required for gas lifting low-BHP wells to isolate the injection gas in the casing annulus and to allow surface control of the injection-gas volumetric rate to the well. Intermittent gas lift installations will include a packer and possibly a standing valve. Although most illustrations of an intermittent gas lift installation will show a standing valve, many actual installations do not include this valve. If the permeability valve of the well is very low. the is questionable. need for a standing

gas lift operation,

to pack off a BHP gauge for conducting pressure transient tests, etc. The lock should have an equalizing valve if the tubing will be blanked off. The pressure tool string across the from from being lock can be equalized the nipple to prevent blown up the hole. before the lock is disengaged the wireline

Gas Fundamentals as Applied to Gas Lift


Introduction
Only the gas fundamentals ysis of gas lift installations essential to the design and analand operations will be dis-

The advantages of a packer are particularly important for gas lift installations in an area where the in.jection gasline pressure varies or the injection gas supply is intcrrupted periodically. If the installation does not include a packer, the well must he unloaded after each shutdown. More damage to gas lift valves occurs during unloading operations than during any other tirnc in the life 01-a gas gas-line pressure varies, liti installation. If the injection

cussed in this section. The more important gas calculations related to gas lift wells and systems can hc divided into these topics: effect (I) gas pressure at depth, (2) temperature dome pressure, on the confined bellows-charged

(3) volumetric gas throughput of a choke or gas lift valve port, and (4) gas volume stored within a conduit. All gas equations are based on pressure in pounds per square inch absolute (psia), tempcraturc in dcgrces Rankine (R), and volume or capacity in cubic feet (cu ft). An exception is pressure difference in pounds per square inch (psi), which may bc a difference pressure in gauge difference or absolute units since the calculated

the working fluid level changes. The result is a liquid washing action through all valves below the working fluid level. and this continuing the scat assemblies fluid transfer can eventually valves. A tluid-cut of these gas lift

packer stabilizes the working the need for unloading after washing action from a varying

fluid Icvel and eliminates a shutdown and the tluid injection gas-lint prcssurc.

would he the same. Generally, field measurements readings: therefore, gas-pressure-at-depth

of pressure are in gauge and

the volumetric-gas-throughput

Considerations for Selecting Installation and Equipment


If a well can be gas litied of gas liti should

the Proper
flow. this form injectiongas lift sysof pressure and highwith inter-

charts are in units of paig. The gas

lift valve equations and calculations for bellows-charge and operating pressures in this chapter use gauge pressure.

by continuous

be used to ensure a constant

Gas Pressure
Accurate essential analyzing

at Depth

gas circulation rate within the closed rotativc tem. Continuous flow reduces the possibility surges pressure in the BHFP, tlowline. and the lowsurtacc facilities that are associated

prediction of injection gas pressure at depth is for proper gas lift installation design and for or trouble-shooting gas lift operations. Most

mittent gas lift operations. Overdesign rather than undcrdesign of a gas lift installation always is recommended when the well data arc questionable. ment in the wells is the least expensive The gas liti equipportion of a closed

gas-pressure-at-depth calculations are based on a static gas column. Pressure loss because of friction from the flow of injection gas through a typical casing/tubing annulus is negligible. The gas velocity ly nil since the cross-sectional in the annulus is practicalarea of the annulus is so

rotative gas lift system. The larger-OD gas lift valve should be selected for lifting high-rate wells. The superior injection-gas volumetric throughput performance for the 1 /2-in.-OD gas lift valve as compared to the I-in.OD valve is an important lations requiring a high The gas lift installation include consideration for gas lift instalinjection gas requirement. designs outlined in this chapter for errors in

much larger than the port area of a gas lift valve. The maximum gas flow rate is limited by the valve port size.

Calculating

Static Injection
gas pressure

Gas Pressure

at Depth.

Static injection usmg Eq. 1.

at depth can bc calculated

several safety factors to compensate

well information and to allow an increase in the injection gas pressure to open the unloading and operating gas lift valves. If an installation is properly dcsigncd. all gas lift valves above an operating gas lift valve should be closed

P ml) = P 10(.(?.,D)i(ji

MT;).

(I)

where P,(,~ = operating psia, P ,I) = operating psia, injection gas pressure at surface, injection gas pressure at depth D.

and all valves below will be open. The installation methods presented in this chapter are based on this premise. Gas lift valve operation is discussed in detail because it is propdifficult to design or to analyze a gas lift installation

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Gas Pressure, 100 psig Fig. 5.3--Simplified compressibility factor chartfornatural gases

CJ =

Napierian logarithm

base=2.718 (air= ft, R, and T, based on average 1 .O).

4. True

vertical

depth of gas column, at wellhead, T,l,=200F

D=E,OOO

ft.

= gas specific

gravity depth,

5. Gas temperature

T,,+ =80F. at 8.000

dimensionless, D = true vertical T = average : = compressibility pressure dimensionless. The depth used in the equation is the true vertical depth of the gas column. Since the gas compressibility factor is a function solution of the average pressure and temperature, is trial-and-error. the to this equation A simplified gas temperature, factor

6. Gas temperature at depth, ft. Calculate the static gas pressure


Ttt.17 + Th~

at the depth of 8,000 ft.

p and temperature

SO+200 =p 2 = 140F+460=600R.

1. T=

hD 2. -= 53.343

0.70(8,000) =O. 175 (constant). 53.34(600)


+2.5X

compressibility chart is illustrated in Fig. 5.3. Generally, the average pressure and temperature are assumed to be the arithmetic mean of the wellhead and bottomhole values. This assumption is reasonable because the increase in well temperature with depth tends to result in a constant gas density with depth. A straight-line traverse will approximate pressure-at-depth traverse most gas lift installations. an actual static-injection-gasand is used for the design of

3. First 8,000 ft.

assumption:

p;,,D =pio

10-5(p;,,)D. 1,200
pSig

p,&=1,000+2.5X

10~5(1,000)8,000=

at cal-

Note: Gauge pressure culations. P 111 +P i/ID 2 z = 0.865 from

can be used for approximate

zz

1,000 + 1,200 = 1, IO0 psig, 2

Example
Given:

Problem

1.
gravity. yp =0.70 (air= I .O).

Fig. and

5.3 for

1,100 psig and

140F, ,DioD = 1,014.7e = I .227.5

I. Gas specific

2. Atmospheric pressure= 14.7 psia. 3. In.jection gas pressure at surface. p,,) = I.000 ps~g= I .014.7 psia.

(0.175K) 86.5)=1,242,2

psia

psig at 8,000

ft.

GAS LIFT

5-5

Chart 1. 2.

Basis: Gas specific gravity Gas temperature at Gas temperature at (air = 1.0) = 0.65 surface = 100F depth = 7OF + 1.6F/lOO

3.

ft

10

11 at

12

13

14 100 psig

15

16

17

ill

19

20

Injection Fig. 5.4-Static

Gas Pressure

Depth,

injection-gas pressure at depth curve

4. Repeat Step 3 using the previously 1,000+1,227.5 =1,113.8 2 ? = 0.864 from Fig. and 5.3 for

calculated

pli,~.

Injection-Gas-Pressure-at-Depth

Curves.

Since the in-

psig,

jection gas pressure at depth is based on the injection gas gravity and the geothermal temperature at depth gradient. gas-pressure-at-depth curves should be based on the properties of the injection gas and the actual average temperin the well. There is no one set curves that are suited for gas lift for all wells. Gas preson the basis of the acature of the gas column of gas-pressure-at-depth installation design

1,114 psig and

140F.

and analysis

sures at depth should be calculated ProD = 1,014.7p0.75/0.8~) = 1,227.S = 1,242.5 ft. equal to the of psia

tual field data, and should be plotted with an expanded scale for the anticipated range of kick-off and operating injection gas pressures and the well depths for the field. Static injection gas-pressure-at-depth curves are illustrated in Fig. 5.4. 4 These curves are based on a geothermal gradient of 1.6F/IOO ft of depth and a gas gravity of 0.65. The basis for the injection must represent gas-pressure-at-depth Indiscriminate curves use actual field conditions.

psig at 8,000 ploo

Since the calculated

is approximately

assumed pio~, let pioo = 1,228 psig at 8,000 ft. The first assumption in Step 3, using a coefficient 2.5 x 10 -5 to estimate the initial gas pressure is based on a hydrocarbon gas that is primarily After tinued the initial as outlined assumption, the computations and calculated in Step 4 by assuming

at depth, methane. are convalues

of just any gas-pressure-at-depth chart may result in an installation design that will not unload or in an erroneous analysis of the operation of an existing gas lift installation.

the previously

calculated P,(,~ until the assumed are approximately equal.

Factor for Approximating


convenient and accurate

Gas Pressure

at Depth.

method

for estimating

A static in-

5-6

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

jection gas pressure at depth is to develop a factor for pas pressure at depth on the basis of the available surface opcrating injection gas pressure, average well depth. the injection gas gravity, and the actual geothermal temperature gradient. The equation for calculating depth with the proper factor is PI*,o=p,,,+F,~xlO~(p,,,)D. where F, I.. gas pressure at

Temperature Effect on the Confined Bellows-Charged Dome Pressure


There are more bellows-charged than sprlngloaded gas lift valves in service. Most of these valves have nitrogen gas in the dome. Since it is impractical to set each gas lift valve at its operating well tcmpcraturc. the test rack opening or closing pressure is set at a standard base tcm perature. Most manufacturers set their bellows-charged gas lift valves with the nitrogen gas charge in the dome at 60F. Nitrogen was selected as the charge gas for these factors for nitrogen at varreasons: (1) the compressibility

. factor,

(2) psi/l00

is the gas-pressure-at-depth

psi/l ,000 ft. A factor for gas pressure for a particular jn,jection gas pressure

at depth should be calculated the well depth, the

field on the basis of the actual operating at the wellsite,

ious pressures and temperatures are known. (2) nitrogen is noncorrosive and safe to handle, and (3) nitrogen is readily available throughout the world and is inexpensive. The temperature correction factors for nitrogen based on 60F are given in Table 5. I. These factors are used to calculate the nitrogen-charged dome pressure at 60F for a given valve operating temperature (T,n) or unloading temperature (T,,,[)) at valve depth in a well.

Injection gas gravity, and the geothermal temperature in the wells. Static gas pressure at true vertical depth can be calculated for the design operating surface injection gas pressure factor using Eq. 1. Then a gas-pressure-at-depth with Eq. 3: can be calculated

p,, =FT(p/,,.D),
where Eq. 3 will ensure reasonably accurate gas-pressure-atgas in most wells. FT = temperature from correction factor for nitrogen T,.o or T ,,,,u to 60F. dome dome pressure pressure at 60F. at T,o or

(4)

depth calculations pressure associated

over the range of surface injection with gas lift operations

dimensionless. I))> = bellows-charged psig. ph,,o and = bellows-charged T,,,,L), psig.

The slope of the injection gas-pressure-at-depth curve based on Eq. 2 will increase with surface pressure, as it should.

Example
Given

Problem

2.
previous Example Problem I): Although perature Table 5.1 is based on 60 F, a test rack openpressure can bc calculated for another temfactors can correction ing or closing

(data from

I. p;(, = 1.000 psig at surface. 2. piou = 1,228 psig at 8.000 ft.

base, or the temperature

3. 0=8,000
Calculate: I. Static

ft. factor from Eq. 3:

be used to calculate the test rack opening pressure at a temperature other than 60F when a valve has been set at 60F. P 1.0

gas-pressure-at-depth

p,.<,\ =-)

(5)
FTI

=2.85
2. Static

psi/100

psi/l,000

ft. ft from Eq. 2:

where P I0 = test rack valve psig, p,,(,., = test rack valve psig, T,,,, = test rack valve than 60F), = temperature opening opening setting F, and factor for nitrogen pressure pressure temperature at 60F. at T ,..,, (other

gas pressure

at 6,000

x(1.000)6,000=1,171 3. Static gas pressure face pressure

psig at 6.000 at 6,000 ft from

ft.

FT!

correction

at T,., . dimensionless. Eq. 2 for a survalue 2.3 This is a particularly useful equation for testing or setting gas lift valves in a field where a cooler is unavailable. The most important consideration during the test rack setting procedure for a given is that all bellows-charged be set exactly gas lift valves installation at the same temperof 800 psig. Compare the calculated

with the chart reading for the proper gas-pressure-at-depth curve in Fig. 5.4. F,? from psi/ 100 psi/ I ,000 ft. Fig. 5.4 is approximately

p,,D=800+2.3x
=910 From Fig.

IO-(800)6,000
ft. psig at 6,000 ft.

ature. To ensure that the valves are at the same temperature, all gas lift valves for a given well can be stored in the same water bath. The valves remain submerged container of water with the exception in the of the short inter-

psig at 6,000 5.4, pioo=9lO

val of time that a valve is in the tester. The tester-set tem-

GAS

LIFT

5-7

TABLE

5.1-TEMPERATURE

CORRECTION FACTORS BASED ON 60F F,' 0.852 0.850 0.849 0.847 0.845 0.844 0.842 0.841 0.839 0.838 0.836 0.835 0.833 0.832 0.830 0.829 0.827 0.826 0.825 0.823 0.822 0.820 0.819 0.817 0.816 0.814 0.813 0.812 0.810 0.809 0.607 0.806 0.805 0.803 0.802 0.800 0.799 0.798 0.796 0.795 OF 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220
F,"

FOR

NITROGEN

FJ

OF 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140

F,
0.919 0.917 0.915 0.914 0.912 0.910 0.908 0.906 0.905 0.903 0.901 0.899 0.898 0.896 0.894 0.893 0.891 0.889 0.887 0.886 0.884 0.882 0.881 0.879 0.877 0.876 0.974 0.872 0.971 0.869 0.868 0.866 0.864 0.863 0.861 0.860 0.858 0.856 0.855 0.853

OF 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180

"F 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260

F, 0.743 0.742 0.740 0.739 0.738 0.737 0.736 0735 0.733 0.732 0.731 0.730 0.729 0.728 0.727 0.725 0.724 0.723 0.722 0.721 0.720 0.719 0.718 0.717 0.715 0.714 0.713 0.712 0.711 0.710 0.709 0.708 0.707 0.706 0.705 0.704 0.702 0.701 0.700 0.699 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300

F,*

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

0.998 0.996 0.994 0.991 0.989 0.987 0.985 0.983 0.981 0.979 0.977 0.975 0.973 0.971 0.969 0.967 0.965 0.963 0.961 0.959 0957 0955 0953 0.951 0949 0.947 0.945 0943 0.941 0.939 0.938 0.936 0.934 0.932 0930 0.928 0.926 0.924 0.923 0.921
Gas

0.794 0.792 0.791 0.790 0.788 0.787 0.786 0.784 0.783 0.782 0.780 0.779 0.778 0.776 0775 0774 0.772 0 771 0.770 0769 0.767 0.766 0.765 0.764 0.762 0.761 0.760 0.759 0.757 0.756 0.755 0.754 0.752 0.751 0.750 0.749 0.748 0.746 0.745 0.744

0.698 0.697 0.696 0.695 0.694 0.693 0.692 0.691 0.690 0.689 0.688 0.687 0.686 0.685 0684 0.683 0.682 0 681 0.680 0.679 0.678 0.677 0.676 0.675 0.674 0.673 0.672 0.671 0.670 0.669 0.668 0.667 0.666 0.665 0.664 0.663 0.662 0.662 0.661 0.660

are a, 60F dome pres! htt valve

perature

will

be the temperature

of the water,

and the for any

Example

Problem
valve

3.
with ratio of valve bellows port ball-seat area T,l, = 142F. of valve at psig at 142F.

nitrogen-charged dome pressure can be calculated setting temperature as follows:

Given: 1. Gas lift

Ph., =

FT(P/xD) F,

contact area to effective A,,/A,,=O.II. ,,,..._..................

(6)

2. Valve well

temperature temperature,

in the well. JJ~,~ =800

3. Calculated

bellows-charge

pressure

where phv, is the bellows-charged psig. The reciprocal of the temperature

dome pressure at T, y. correction factors for

Refer

to Table

5.2 and Eqs.

16 and 21 in the valve

mechanics discussion for explanation of the port-tobellows-area ratio terms and the equations used in the following calculations. Calculate the test-rack 1. FT=0.850 for valve opening from Table pressure at 60F. 5.1 psip at 60F.

nitrogen in Table 5. I is published by some companies. These factors will be greater rather than less than one. If the published ing when using factors are greater than one, simply divide instead of multiplying, or multiply rather than divid-

142F

Eqs. 5 and 6.

2. P~=~~(p~,~)=O.850(800)=680

5-8

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

3.pi,,,=

pb

680
(I-0.11)

A = area of opening, pt = upstream pressure. P: = downstream g = acceleration Tt Fcf = upstream = critical and F dll = ratio

sq in.. psia, psia, ftisec?. dimensionless. R,

(1 -A,/Ah)

pressure. of gravity, heats. temperature.

=764 psig at 60F.


Calculate the test-rack valve opening pressure at 90F. I. FTs =0.939 for 90F from Table 5.1. FT(Ph,D)

k = ratio of specific

2
flow pressure ratio= ~ ( k+l >

h!(hI ,

2. Ph! =

o.fw8w
= 0.939

FT,

of downstream consistent

pressure/upstream units, Fth, =F,., if

pressure, F(I,, < F,f

=724 psig at 90F. 3.Pw, =


P/WY (l-A,/A~)

and F,I,, =R

1~ I 2 F, f. gas throughput and analysis is not included

764
=(I-0.11)

It is apparent purposes.

from

Eq. 7 that injection for installation factor

charts are desirable

design

The gas compressibility

=814 psig at 90F


or
P 10

in Eq. 7; therefore, most published gas passage charts do not include a gas-compressibility-factor correction. Since the compressibility factor would enter the equation as a square root term in the denominator. psig at 90F the chart values will gas graviin Figs. are

764
-=814

P1.o\=F= T\

0.939

be lower than actual values for most injection ties and pressures. One type of choke capacity 5.5 and 5.6. The advantages chart is illustrated

The previous equations using F,, are recommended when checking tester opening pressures of a string of gas lift valves at a temperature other than the base temperature of 60F.

of this type of display

the number of orifice sizes on a single chart for a full range of upstream and downstream pressures, and an orifice size can be determined for a given gas throughput given upstream and downstream pressures. and the The gas

Volumetric Gas Throughput or Gas Lift Valve Port


The injection gas throughput

of a Choke

throughput capacity of the different orifice sizes is based on 14.65 psia and 60F for a gas gravity of 0.65 and an orifice discharge coefficient of 0.865. Since gas flow through a gas lift valve occurs in a gas lift installation at the well temperature at valve depth, a correction for temperature improves the prediction for the volumetric gas rate. If the actual gravity correction should be applied. for gas passage equations. differs from 0.65, using a second correction An approximate

of a valve can affect the gas-

lift installation design and operation. A high-rate installation will not unload if the choke or port size is too small. The volumetric gas rate required to uncover a lower valve by gas injection through the valve above is greater than the injection gas required to lift from the same lower valve for a given production rate. The volumetric gas throughput of an orifice is calculated on the basis of an equation for flow through a converging nozzle. This equation is complex and lengthy for noncritical flow. For this reason, gas passage charts generally are used for estimating an orifice equations Craver. or valve port. for gas throughput the volumetric gas rate through widely used by ThornhillOne of the more was published

can be calculated

the following

C,g=O.O544Jy,(T,D)
and qnr,=----, c ST where C gT approximate gravity 4 ,@I = actual qsc, = chart

..t......

Ygr

. . ..

. .

. .. .

. . .

. .

. .

(9)

Gas flow through most gas lift valves occurs in the noncritical flow range. The calculation of volumetric gas rate through a choke for noncritical flow is lengthy? as can be seen by the following basic gas flow equation.
Y,cp =

correction at valve

factor depth,

for gas R. and

and temperature, gas rate,

dimensionless, Mscf/D.

T .SD = gas temperature volumetric volumetric

gas rate, Mscf/D.

Although most gas lift manuals will include gas capacity charts for every conceivable gas-lift valve port and choke size, numerous charts are unnecessary. The gas capacity for any choke size can be calculated from a known gas capacity for a given choke size because the volumetric gas throughput rate is directly proportional to the area of the orifice.

where qgcc = gas flow rate at standard conditions psia and 60F). Mscf/D, C,, = discharge coefficient (determined dimensionless, experimentally), (14.7

qc,=qRl

. .

(10)

GAS

LIFl

5-9

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Volumetric Gas Throughput,

Mscf/D

atio specific heats = 1.27 fficimlt = 0.865

i
Upstream Pressure, 100 psig

Fig. 5.6-Gas

passage chart for lv&- through ?&,-in.orifices

where 4 q I = known (1 I = orifice in., ys2 = unknown rate, in. Orifice sizes can be in 64ths of an inch. The denominavolumetric gas rate. Mscf/D. gas and volumetric gas rate, MscfiD, volumetric gas rate, ID for known

c .ST= 0.0544~0.7(140+460)=1.115.
qac, =
4 go =

1,210

MscfiD

from

Fig.

5.5 (chart (actual of a S-in. values.

value).

1,2 1011.115 = 1,085 volumetric

MscfiD

value). orifice

Calculate (j&in.) and compare

gas throughput and chart

~1~ = orifice

ID for unknown

volumetric

on the basis of the capacity the calculated

of a W-in. orifice

q,s,. = I .2 10

tor of the fraction

for both terms must remain consistent.

0.5 2 =4.840 (6) 0.25


for S-in.

Mscf/D

Example
Given:

Problem

4.
or depth

(1,210

MscfiD

orifice).

1. Injection gas gravity. ys =0.7 (air= I .O). 2. Orifice-check valve port size= I% in. 3. Operating (upstream injection pas pressure at valve pressure), pir,o = I. 100 psig.

4. Flowing production pressure at valve depth (downstream pressure). p,,/ c1=900 psi&. 5. In.jection 140F. Determine ori tice-check gas temperature at valve depth, T,,, = of the =4,840 MscfiD, and from Fig. 5.6 for %-in.

the actual volumetric valve.

gas throughput

y,?( ~4,850 MscfiD orifice,

GAS

LIFT

5-I1

Gas Volume
Typical (1) the volume

Stored Within
for of injection

a Conduit
calculations to fill are gas required the pro-

temperature average

are the surface values in Eqs. 12 and 13. The of a gas column in the casing is

applications

gas volume

temperature

assumed to be the same at the instant a gas lift valve opens or closes. Eq. 13 may be simplified by using one compressibility factor for an average of the average pressures. This assumption is particularly applicable for very little change in pressure. Approximate estimations and questionable field data do not warrant detailed calculations. The approximate volume of gas required for a given change in pressure within a conduit can be calculated using the following equation:

duction conduit and to displace a liquid face for intermittent gas lift operations:

slug to the sur(2) the volume

of injection gas available, or removed, from a casing annulus on the basis of a change in the casing pressure during an intermittent injection gas cycle-particularly important for design calculations using choke control of

the injection gas; and (3) design calculations for the lowand high-pressure systems in a closed, rotative gas lift system when a minimum capacity is required for storage or retention of the injection gas within the system. The gas capacity and voiumc calculations are based on an equation pV=,-nRT, where P= v= pressure. volume psia. or capacity, factor cu ft. based on p and T, Ibtn-mol, ftilhm-mol-R. of state for real gases. (I I)

v,s.,= (Y)
where Q,
The ratio which

v,., .
gas volume, scf.

(14)

is the approximate of the standard

to the average

temperature, of

is less than one, tends to offset

the reciprocal

the compressibility factor that is greater than one. This compensation decreases the error made when not including these variables in the approximate equation.

compressibility dimensionless. I? = number R= T= and temperature,

of pound-moles,

Example
Given:

Problem

5.
annulus=O. 10 cu ftift casing). ft. valve. valve,

gas constant=

10.73 psia-cu R.

I. Capacity (2/,-in.-OD

of casing

tubing ~5 &in.-OD

Most gas volume and capacity problems can be solved using Eq. 1 I and Avogadros principle, which states that 1 Ibm-mol of any gas occupies approximately 379 scf at can be cal14.7 psia and 60F. The volume of gas required to fill a conduit culated with the following equation:

2. Depth of operating valve, D,,. =6,000 3. Surface closing pressure of operating pvt. =600 psig. 4. Surface opening pressure of operating

p. =660 psig. 5. Average temperature T= 120F=580R. 6. Standard conditions: Y,~ =0.65, (520R). 7. Gas gravity

of gas column, 14.7 psia and 60F (air= factor, I .O). F,Y =2.4 psi/l00

v,,= v,. fi ;,,(,T . ( >


where V, = gas v,olume at standard

I..
conditions. psia. and scf,

(12)

8. Gas-pressure-at-depth psi/ I .OOO ft. of conduit. gas pressure, cu ft.

V, = capacity
p = average

9. Atmospheric pressure= 14.7 psi,. Calculate the volume of gas stored in the casing annulus between surface pressures of 660 and 600 psig by using Eq. 13. V, j?, = 6,000(0.10)=600 = 660+2.4x = 707.5 z , = 0.911 = p2 120F, psig+ from cu ft, psia. T psig,

P )C = standard pressure base. psia. T = average gas temperature. R, T,, Also. = standard the volume temperature base. R.

10-5(660)3,000 14.7=722.2 Fig. 5.3 for

of gas can be calculated

by solving

for the number of pound-moles in Eq. I I and by converting the pound-moles to standard cubic feet using Avogadros temperature for inclined principle. Average values for pressure and based on surface and bottomholc values and ,--value equation must be used in the equation for pressure difference can be conduits.

ys =0.65,

and p =707.5

= 600+2.4x = 643.2 from

10-s(600)3.000 psia. and T psig. Fig. 5.3 for

psig+l4.7=657.9 ys =0.65,

the corresponding A gas volume written as

z 2 = 0.918 = 120F.

and p =643.2

vs=F p-2).
where average factor, Subscripts pressure rcspcctively. 1 and 2 refer and the corresponding is horizontal.

_. _. _,
compressibility

(13) 722.2 657.9 0.918 > =2,784 scf at 14.7 psia and 60F.

to the high and the low does not

and the average temperaturc

change. If the conduit

average pressures and

5-12

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

remains the most widely used type of gas lift valve for gas lifting wells. The original King valve had most of the protective
(4)Tubing mandrel

design

features

of the present from high

gas lift valves. hydrostatic fluid

The bellows

was protected

pressure by a gasket that sealed the bellows chamber from well fluids after full stem travel. A small orifice was
(93) Dome

drilled provided

in a bellows bellows

guide tube. The orifice mechanism support.

was designed guide

to be an anti-chatter

and the bellows

Bellows guide (96)

(941 Bellows (97) Orifice

Purposes

of Gas Lift Valves

The gas lift valve is the heart of most gas lift installations and the predictable performance of this valve is essential for successful gas lift design and operations. The gas lift valve performs several functions in a typical gas lift installation. The primary function of a string of gas lift valves is to unload a well with the available to a maximum expansion lift valves injection gas pressure the energy of depth of lift that uses fully

Stem (881 Stem tip (871 (91) Gasket or sea, 184) seat

on the basis of the injection gas pressure. Gas provide the flexibility to allow for a changing

depth in the point of gas injection to compensate for a varying BHFP, water cut, daily production rate allowaFig. 5.7-Original King unbalanced, smgle-element, bellowscharged, gas lift valve on a conventional tubing mandrel.

ble, and well deliverability. in an intermittent

The operating

gas lift valve an exces-

gas lift installation

prevents

sive injection gas pressure bleed-down following an injection gas cycle. The gas lift valve provides the means to control the injection gas volume per cycle. Another important function of gas lift valves is the abilin a temup. This ity to maintain an excessive BHFP drawdown porarily damaged well until the well cleans

Calculate

the approximate

volume

of gas stored in the of 722.2 and

casing annulus between average 657.9 psia by using Eq. 14:

pressures

operation is accomplished by lifting from near total depth (TD) until reservoir deliverability returns to normal. The final operating point of gas injection for the stabilized production rate in certain deep wells with a high reservoir pressure injection can be nearer the surface than the point of gas to establish initial BHP drawdown during un-

,$,, = (yq
=2,624 Calculate

, = (72~~f~;7~))600
scf at 14.7 psia difference between the detailed

loading if the load fluid is salt water. Again. gas lift valves must be installed below the depth of the operating gas lift valve to clean up the well. gas-line pressure significantly exWhen the injection

the percentage solutions:

and approximate

2,784&2.624 % difference = 2,784 > 100=5.8%

ceeds the BHFP at the maximum valve depth, freezing can occur across the surface controls for the injection gas if the operating can be replaced valve is a large orifice. The orifice valve gas lift by an injection-pressure-operated

Gas Lift Valve Mechanics


Introduction
The advent of the single-element. charged gas liti valve (as illustrated unbalanced, bellowson Sheet 1 of the King

valve to transfer the pressure drop to the gas lift valve at well temperature where hydrates will not form. The reverse check in a gas lift valve is important for valves below the working fluid level. The check prevents backflow from the tubing to the casing, which is particularly important if the well produces sand and has a packer.

patent in Fig. 5.7) revolutionized gas lift application and installation design methods. Before the bellows-charged gas lift valve, there were differential valves and numerous types of unique devices used for gas lifting wells. These devices. or valves. were operated by rotating or vertically moving the tubing and by means of a sinker bar on a wireline. Single-element implies that the gas lift valve consists

Unbalanced,

Single-Element

Valves

The unbalanced, single-element gas lift valve is an unbalanced pressure regulator. The analogy between these two devices is apparent in Fig. 5.8. Unbalanced implies that the pressure applied over the port area exerts an opening force, whereas this same pressure the opening pressure of a balanced pressure-reducing regulator. The closing charge lift valve can be a gas pressure has no effect backpressure force in the bellows on or ex-

of a bellows and dome assembly. a stem with a tip that generally is a carbide ball. and a metal seat housed in a valve bodv that is attached to a mandrel in the tubing string. as jllustrated in Fig. 5.7. The original patent for this type of gas lift valve was filed in I940 by W.R. currently. the unbalanced single-element bellows King; valve

for a gas

erted over the effective bellows area or a spring force, or a combination of both. The closing force for the rcgulator or gas lift valve can be adjusted to maintain a desired

GAS

LIFT

5-13

(b)

Spring-Loaded

Unbalanced backpressure for controlling injection gas pressure.

regulator
Nitrogen-Charged

Gas Flow Injection Gas ?V?SSUl-e

Unbalanced pressure reducing regulator for controlling flowing production pressure.

-Charged

Flowing Production Pressure -

Injection Gas Pressure

Fig. S.f3-Analogy of unbalanced, single-element. bellows-charged, gas lift valvesto unbalanced pressure regulators. (a)In)ection-pressure-operated gas lift valveresponds to InjectIon-gas pressure.(b)Production-pressure-(fluid)-operated gas lift valve responds to flowingproductlon

pressure.

backpressure for injection pressure operation or a design downstream pressure for production pressure operation. The regulator closing force Generally, or valve the major will initial remain opening closed until this set is exceeded. force for a gas lift bellows force is
Pilot Section

(b)

valve is the pressure exerted over the effective area less the port area, and the lesser opening the pressure acting

over the port area. In like manner,

the ma,jor opening pressure is applied over an area equal to the diaphragm area less the port area for a regulator. The effect of the unbalanced opening force is far Icss significant for most unbalanced backprcssurc and pressurereducing regulators than for gas lift valves because the
ratio of the port area to the total effective bellows area of a gas lift valve is much greater than the ratio of the

Differential

port area to the total diaphragm The operating principle remains

area for most regulators. identical for the gas lift

valve and regulator. but the pressure applied over the port area has greater effect on the initial opening pressure of most gas lift valves.
Fig. 5.9-Pilot-operated and differential-pressure opening injectionpressure-operated gas lift valves. (a)Pilot-operated gas lift valve.(b)Pressure differential opening, constant closing gas lift valve.

Pilot and Differential-Opening, Pressure-Operated Valves


There are numerous available. The operation

Injectiongas lift valves valves

special-application

of many of these unique

can be analyzed using the force balance equations for the simple single-element. unbalanced, gas lift valve. The many different cause of their valves
in calculations will

types of gas lift valves and the variation not be discussed in this chapter beapplication. importance Two special-purpose and the are the pilot

installations and deep intermittent gas lift operations with low injection gas pressure and large casing. The pilot valve offers a very large main port with controlled spread and a predictable valve will function trol of the injection
same manner

constant

closing

pressure.

This type of

limited

of particular

properly on time cycle or choke congas. The pilot section operates in the gas lift valve. with a downstream of the valve seat. The

differential-opening, in.jection-pressure-operated gas lift valves. The construction of the differential-openingvalve may vary between manufacturers ciple remains the same.

as a single-elcmcnt

small choke

located

but the operating

prin-

production pressure at valve depth is exerted over the ballscat contact area of the pilot section as an initial opening force. When the pilot section begins to open. an incrcasc occurs between the pilot valve seat and the in pressure

The pilot-operated ating characteristics

gas lift valve

in Fig. 5.9a has opersuited for chamber

that are ideally

514

PETROLEUM

ENGINEER;NG

HANDBOOK

TABLE 5.2-VALVE

SPECIFICATIONS AND SHARP-EDGED

FOR

STEM

WITH

BALL

SEAT FP
Full-Open Stem Travel+ (in.)

TABLE 5.3-OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENTIAL OPENING AND CONSTANT CLOSING PRESSURE VALVE Spread * &) -450 650 700 750 ppps~) 500 550 (Psi) 50 100
150

Port Size (14 (in.)

Area of Port (sq in.) AD/A,

1 - A,/A,

Productlon Pressure Factor

I-in.-ODGas Lift Valves With A, 10.31 sq in. /E

%6
/4 %6 %

0.0123 0.0276 0.0491 0.0767 0.1104

0.040 0.089 0.158 0.247 0.356

0.960 0.911 0.842 0.753 0.644

0.041 0.098 0.188 0.329 0.553

0.0440 0.0714 0.1002 0.1302 0.1610

'Based on constantclosing ~ress"re=600 PSI~

I%-in.-00
%a /4 % 6 % A6 /2 0.0276 0.0491 0.0767 0.1104 0.1503 0.1963

Gas Lift Valves With A, =0.77 sq In


0.036 0.064 0.100 0.143 0.195 0.255 0.964 0.936 0.900 0.857 0.805 0.745 0.037 0 068 0.111 0 167 0.243 0.342 0.0714 0.1002 0.1302 0.1610 0.1925 0.2246

through the large main valve port. As the injection gas pressure in the casing decreases from gas passage through the large port, the pilot section begins to close. The pressure downstream of the pilot port remains equal to the injection gas pressure until the pilot port arca open to flow is less than the bleed-hole area in the main valve piston. When the pressure equalizes returns the main valve across the piston, the spring pressure to its xeat. The closing

i 2i

of a pilot valve is predictable and near the theoretical closing pressure of a single-element. unbalanced gas lift valve because the pressure upstream and downstream of the pilot port are approximately equal at the instant the pilot section closes. The spread ot a pilot valve can be controlled by selecting the proper pilot port size without altering the high injection-gas throughput capacity of the large main valve The port. differential-opening, in Fig. 5.9b injection-pressure-operated has operating characteristics

travel based on the area of the


frustrum of a right circular

gas lift valve

that differ from a pilot valve. The differential-opening pressure valve has the unique feature of requiring a constant difference between the injection gas and the production pressure to open the valve when the injection gas pressure exceeds its constant closing ating principle is illustrated pressure. with This opera constant spring sctfor a valve

closing pressure of 600 psig and a differential ting of 200 psi in Table 5.3.

For example, the valve will snap open when the production pressure exceeds 500 psig with an injection gas pressure of 700 psig and will close after the injection gas pressure decreases to 600 psig. The resulting spread is 100 psi for these operating conditions. The differentialopening, injection-pressure-operated valve is designed for preschoke control of the injection gas into the well. The pilot valve dots not operate with a constant

sure differential between the iyjection gas and production pressures at valve depth. The Injection-gas opening prcssure and spread decrease as the production pressure increases at the depth of a pilot valve. The differentialopening
0

pressure

valve

cannot be opened by an increase whereas the pilot valve

0.1

0.2

in only the injection

gas pressure,

Fig. 5.10-Equivalent area of a gas lift valve portvs. stem travel on the basis of the lateral area of the frustrumof a rightcircular cone.

can be opened by increasing the injection gas pressure. The similarity in these two valves is that both types have a predictable constant closing pressure and can have large ports.

Valve Specifications
piston on the main valve. This increase in pressure above the piston results in compression of the spring under the piston, high, and the main valve instantaneous, snaps open. An exceedingly injection gas rate enters the tubing facturer for their

and

Stem Travel
are published by each manuassume a Some manufacturers

Gas lift valve specifications valves.

sharp-edged seat for the ball-scat contact and others arbitrarily add a small increase to the port ID to account for a slight bevel for the ball-scat contact. Since most

GAS

LIFT

5-I 5

manufacturers use the same source for their supply of bellows and the bellows areas are relatively standard, the specifications in Table 5.2 are representative of many actual single-element, unbalanced. gas lift valves. The theoretical full-open stem travel is not included in the valve specifications published by most manufacturers. The stem travel required to open an unbalanced, singleelement, gas lift valve fully increases with the larger port sizes. as illustrated in Fig. 5. IO. The curves were calcu-

(4

(b)

lated for gas lift valves with a sharp-edged seat and a ball on the stem that is %,-in. larger in diameter than the inside diameter of the port. The equivalent port area before a valve is full-open is based on the lateral area of the frustrum the frustrum of a right circular cone. The major area of is the port area, which remains constant. and in stem travel Fig. 5.11 -Typical gas lift valve port configurations. (a) Sharp edged seats have an effective A, equal to the bore area through the seat. The A, may be based on a diameter slightly greater than the seat bore ID if the port has a minor taper to eliminate a sharpedged ballseat contact. (b) Tapered seat with a 45O chamber measured from the horizontal (90 Included angle). The effective A, in the A,/A, ratlo is the ball-seat contact area and not the bore area through the seat.

the minor area decreases with an increase as the ball moves away from its seat.

There is an important gas-lift-valve performance consideration that is not noted in the published literature and will not be discussed completely lem needs to be recognized wells being gas lifted through casing annulus. An injection on a full-open lift valves. port area port in this section. The probwith high-rate large tubing or through the gas throughput rate based not be assumed for the gas unbalanced, by operators

size should

larger port sizes in most single-element,

controlled by changing the ball size and the angle of the taper, because the ball-seat contact area depends on the ball size and the angle of the chamfer for valves with a port similar the taper, to Fig. ball 5.1 1b. The selection of an angle for the seat size, and the bore area through

For nearly all these gas lift valves with a large relative to the bellows area, the maximum

equivalent port area open to flow of the injection gas will be less than an area based on the reported port size for an actual range in the injection gas pressure during typical gas lift operations. The necessary increase in the injection gas pressure to open fully a 1-in.-OD
gas

can result in a ball-seat contact at the base of the taper. For this geometry, the bore area of the port would be used in the A,,/A,, term. The maximum stem travel in many gas lift valves with a deep taper is limited to prevent the ball from pulling out of the taper. The equivalent port area open to flow for a sharp-edged seat in the throttling mode is based on the frustrum of a right circular cone. A throttling mode implies that the generated area open to flow for the injection gas is less than the bore area through the valve seat. Typical curves sharpof equivalent port area vs. stem travel for different

lift valve this re-

with a large port can approach

200 psi-assuming

quired stem travel is possible. Maximum stem travel may be limited by a mechanical stop or bellows stacking before a full-open port area is achieved.

Gas-Lift-Valve
fect the volumetric

Port Configurations
and the maximum gas throughput stem travel will afof a gas lifi valve. Most

The port geometry

edged port sizes are illustrated

in Fig. 5.10. The calcula-

gas lift valves have a carbide ball silver-soldered to the stem. The valve seat can have a sharp-edged port or a taper. The chamfer may be very slight for breaking the seat line or may be of sufficient depth to assure that the ball remains in the taper for full stem travel. A sharpcdqed and a tapered seat with a 45 chamfer are illustrated m Fig. 5.1 1. Most of the example calculations in this chapter are based on the sharp-edged ty of gas lift valves in service seat since the majoriseat have a sharp-edged

tions for an equivalent port area based on stem travel are more complex for valves with deep tapered seats. Certain types of gas lift valves with a deep tapered scat are designed tinuous to operate flow only in the throttling mode for conapplication.

Example

Problem

6.
(deep chamfer seat=0.25 sq in. and area and ball. in. sq in. with in. ball-seat

Given: 1. Seat angle=45

or a very shallow chamfer for breaking the seat line. The calculations are basically the same for a sharp-edged seat and a seat with a shallow taper. The calculations for an equivalent area open to the injection gas flow differ for a seat with a deep chamfer (Fig. 5. I 1b). There has been no standard angle adopted for a taper of a gas-lift-valve seat. Certain manufacturers use the same tapered seat for different stem-ball sizes. The area of the port used in the port-to-bellows area ratio must be redefined for tapered seat when the ball-seat contact area is larger than the bore area through the seat, as shown in Fig. 5. I1 b. The port area for the ratio A,,/A,, is based on the ball-seat contact through the seat. which area and not on the bore area can be the same for more than for the gas lift valve are

contact on taper). 2. Bore diameter through 3. Effective bellows

area=0.31

Calculate the ball-seat contact diameter the effective A,]/A/, ratio for a %-in.-OD Ball-seat Ball-seat Effective contact contact

ID=(0.375) sin 45=0.265 area=a/4(0.265) =0.055 =O. 178.

A,,/Ah =0.055/0.31

Calculate the ball-seat contact diameter the effective A,,/A,, ratio for a %-in.-OD Ball-seat Ball-seat Effective contact contact ID=(O.50) area=a/4(0.354) A,/Ab =0.098/0.31=0.316.

and area and ball. in. sq in. =0.098

sin 4.5=0.354

one ball size. The specifications

5-16

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

/----

Yalve

and the volumetric per unloading that is smaller

injection-gas

throughput

for the upsize

gas lift valves

is limited

by a choke

than the port area. The small inlet chokes associat-

tend to reduce the valve closing pressure problem ed with production pressure operation.

Bellows

Protection
manufacturers of gas lifi valves have provid-

All reputable

ed bellows protection in the design of their valves. A bellows should be protected from a high pressure differential between the bellows-charge and the well pressures and from the possibility of a resonance condition that can result in a high-frequency valve stem chatter. The bellowsFig. 5.12-Schematic of crossover seats with and without a choke upstream of the valveport. (a)Choke upstream of portto control injection-gas volume and to ensure downstream pressure being applied to bellows area after valve opens. (b)Crossover bypass area should significantly exceed portarea without choke upstream of port

charge pressure

will

be atmospheric

pressure

for a typi-

cal spring-loaded valve, The highest pressure differential will occur in most installations during initial unloading operations when the lower high gas lift valves fluid from are subjected pressures in to exceedingly deep wells. Gas lift valve static pressures ferential hydrostatic-load are protected methods: preformed),

bellows by four

high hydrodifrings

(1) high pressure (2) support

(hydraulically

Crossover

Seat

Several types of gas lift valves have a crossover seat for a particular application. The crossover seat is designed to direct where the downstream pressure into the valve body. this pressure is exerted over the area of the belis applied 5.12 is a

within the convolutions, (3) confined liquid seal with full stem travel, and (4) isolation of bellows from outside pressure with full stem travel. The primary purpose of these methods for protecting the bellows is to prevent a permanent change in the radii of the convolutions, which in turn can affect the operating pressure of a gas lift valve. The possibility or fully of a chatter condition The evidence is not predictable stem chatter understood. of valve

lows less the port area. The upstream pressure to the port area. The crossover seat in Fig.
schematic illustrating

tual crossover

the principle of a crossover. An acseat will have a group of bypass openings of these bypass seat would be

around the main port, and the summation areas must exceed the port area. An example of the need for a crossover

will be a bellows failure seat is not manufactured

and a dished-out seat if the valve from an extremely hard materi-

al. Most gas lift valves will have some form of dampening mechanism, and the majority of these devices will operate hydraulically. The bellows will be partially filled with a liquid, and restricted liquid flow rate or fluid shear prevent instantaneous undampened stem movement.

a production-pressure-operated gas lift valve in an in.jection-pressure-operated gas lift valve mandrel. Another application would be a casing (annulus) flow gas lift valve in a tubing flow mandrel. In both examples the gab lift valve is modified rather than the gas lift valve man-

Bellows-Assembly
Bellows-assembly

Load Rate
load rate is defined as the psi increase

drel. For example. wireline-retrievable gas lift valve mandrels with pockets designed for injection-pressureoperated gas lift valves and tubing flow have been installed in a well. The operator desires production pressure operga\ ation. The solution is production-pressure-operated lift valves with a crossover seat. Gas lift valves with a crossover
tnendcd if the proper mandrels

exerted over the bellows area per unit travel of the valve stem or unit travel per psi increase. It may be reported in either manner. The controlled pressure is applied over the entire effective bellows area, and the valve stem travel is measured lows-assembly by means of a depth micrometer. The belvs. load rate is the slope of the pressure

scat arc not recomto utilize

can be installed

gas lift valves without this type of seat. The maximum port ai,e is limited for valves with a crossover seat. This littlitation can bc very serious in wells requiring a high Scat
in,jection gas rate. Another

stem travel curve and the choice of units depends on the manner in which these data are displayed. The increase in nitrogen-charged dome pressure with stem travel is generally negligible as compared with the load rate of a bellows in most bellows-charged gas lift valves. The load rate of a bellows. which is analogous to the load rate of a helical spring, is far greater than the effect of the increase in dome pressure resulting from the decrease in dome volume with the stem travel required cal gas lift valve. The measured bellows-assembly to open a typi-

problem

with a crossover

is the possible partial plugging of the crossover bypass area. The physical bypass area rhould be at least 50% greater than the valve port arca because the bypass openings usually arc smaller and tnorc likely to plug than a valve port. which can be opened and clojed. A productionpressure-operated gas lift valve will not close at the dcsign closing presxure if the crossover area becomes less than the port arca. hocause the in.jcction gas rather than the flowing production pressure is cxcrted over the bello~vs area. Most production-pressure-operated crossover seats can bc choked gas lift valves with of the ball-seat upstream

load rate is not iden-

tical for all gas lift valves with the same size of bellows. The typical three-ply monel bellows that is used in many 1 %-in.-OD gas lift valves has a reported effective bellows area of 0.77 sq in. The bellows-assembly load rate for a valve with a nitrogen-charged dome will range frotn 400 to 500 psi/in. in the linear portion of the curve for a valve with a test-rack opening pressure between 600 and

contact area. The same port size may be uzcd in all valves.

GAS

LIFT

5-17

1,000 psig. The three-ply valve has a reported

monel bellows

in the I -in.-OD

effective

area of 0.3 1 qq in. and a

bellows-assembly load-rate range of 1,000 to 1,200 psi/in. for a valve with a nitrogen-charged dome and a test-rack opening pressure between 600 and 1,000 bellows-assembly load rate for a spring-loaded psig. The l-in.-OD

valve can range from near 2,000 to more than 3,500 psi/in. depending on the wire size and number of free coils in the spring. The purpose in noting the magnitude of the bellows-

assembly load rate for typical gas lift valves is to emphasize the fact that a single-element, unbalanced, gas lift valve will not snap open. An increase in injection gas pressure. or in flowing production pressure, or a combination of an increase in both pressures. is necessary to stroke the valve stem. The larger gas lift valves should be selected for installations requiring high injection-gas rates since the smaller valves do not have the same gas
Supply Line Valve Gas Lift Valve Pressure Gauge

throughput performance of the larger valve with the same port size. Valves with the smaller bellows assembly are not recommended for low-pressure injection wells. gas systems The low closthat may be used to gas lift shallow

ing force and bellows stiffness can result in leaking valve seats because of poor stem seating characteristics at low injection-gas operating pressures.

Static-Force Balance Equations for Unbalanced, Single-Element, Bellows-Charged Valves


Most gas lift equipment manufacturers use a valve setgas ting temperature based on 60F for nitrogen-charged

lift valves. The valve is submerged in a 60F water bath to assure a constant nitrogen temperature in the dome of each valve during the valve the test-rack setting procedure, whether
is set at test-rack opening or closing pressure.

E lT
;
valves adjusted report until a test-rack perature. Spring-loaded

Bleed-off or Vent Valve \L b;.;; Ring

Stand

The initial tester-set opening pressure is measured with the tester pressure applied over the bellows area less the stem-seat contact area while atmospheric pressure (0 psig) is exerted over the stem-seat contact area. The valve actually is closed and begins to open from an opening force that is slightly greater than the closing force, thus allowing an extremely low tester gas leakage rate through the valve seat. Although most gas lift valves are set with an initial opening pressure, certain types of valves with very high production pressure factors and other valves with unique construction use test-rack pressure closing is obtained pressures. by bleeding The test-rack closing

Fig. 5.13~Standard ring-type gas lift valvetester. Insert sleeves


are available thatfit inthis tester fortesting smallerOD gas lift valves.

closing

pressure.

The spring

is

the force exerted

by the spring

is equal to

the desired test-rack closing pressure. Since there is no nitrogen gas charge pressure in the dome, there is no need to set a spring-loaded gas lift valve at a base tester temvalves are considered temperature insensitive. If the total closing force for a gas lift valve is a combination of a bellows-charged pressure and a spring-load, the spring-load effect must be subtracted from the total closing force to obtain the bellows-charged pressure portion of this closing force. The temperature correction factor is applied to the nitrogen-charged dome pressure before calculating the test-rack-set opening pressure of the valve. A typical ring-type tester and piping gas-lift-valve are derived manifold are illustrated in Fig. 5.13. The following equations for the initial opening pressures in a tester and in a well for an injection-pressure-operated

the tester gas from the downstream side of the gas lift valve. This theoretical closing pressure is obtained only when the downstream and upstream equal at the instant the gas lift valve tester pressures are closes. An accurate

closing pressure is more difficult to observe than an initial opening pressure and can be affected by the rate of decrease in the tester pressure during bleed-off of the tester gas. An encapsulating tester with gas capacity rather than a ring-type tester is recommended so that small leaks in the tester piping will not prevent observation of the true closing pressure. The pressure should be bled off of the downstream side of the valve through a small orifice. The equations for initial opening pressure in a tester and well and a tester closing pressure are based on staticforce balance equations gas lift valves. and would pressure apply to spring-loaded effect would replace The spring

gas lift valve since most

gas lift installations use this type of valve. The injection gas pressure and flowing production pressures are interchanged for production-pressure-(fluid)-operated valves. The flowing production pressure gas lift becomes the

the bellows-charged pressure force. Several manufacturers

of the valve for the closing with spring-loaded gas lift

major opening force by being applied over the effective bellows less port area as an initial opening force.

5-18

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

(a)

Conventional Valve Mandrel Tester

Ire Tested Pressc Fig. 5.14-Illustration of nomenclature used in static-force balance equations for gas lift valves in testerand well.(a)Test-rack opening pressure (p,,) obtained by flowingsupply gas at a low rate intoa ring-type tester with atmospheric pressure appliedto the portarea.(b)Test-rackclosingpressure (pvcr) obtained by opening the gas lift valve,closingthe supply valve,and slowing bleedingoffthe encapsulatingtester pressure downstream of the port. (c)lnltlal valve opening pressure in well (p,,) based on the flowing production pressure (pplD) at valve depth.

1. Initial Closing

opening

pressure force,

in a tester

(Fig.

5.14a):

p,!fr

= test-rack

downstream psig.

flowing

production

force=opening

pressure, 3. Initial Closing opening

Pb(Ah)=Pwr(&--A/J). Dividing by Ah, . initial . .I . pressure .(15)

pressure

in a well

(Fig.

5.14~):

force=opening

forces,

p~=p,,(l-A/J4~). Solving for test-rack

Dividing valve opening (p,.,,) at the test-rack-setting Pb plo = (, -A,,*h) ) bellows-charged . pressure at 60F. (16)

by Ah, -A,/A,,)+p~~,fo(A,/Ah), .

ph,,D =poD(l where

(18)

pJ,,,D = the bellows-charged where Ab A, ph = effective = valve and = bellows-charged psig. 2. Closing pressure Closing force=opening in a tester forces, (Fig. 5.14b): dome pressure at 6OF, Solving port bellows area, sq in., contact area, sq in., ball-seat temperature, pPfz, poo = the following depth, = the initial depth. psig, valve psig psig,

dome

pressure pressure pressure

at well at valve at valve

production and opening

for the initial

injection-gas gas lift

opening pressure for valves,

injection-pressure-operated

Jo P/,(A/,)=Pw(Ah). Dividing by Ah, (when PO =pr,tr =p,J), .(17) or

hD = (1 -AJAb)

-ppfll(

,fzAh),

. . . (19a)

~~,~=p\,~,~-p,,~(F~),

.._

_.

.(19b)

oh =P\,~( where

P 10 p<,D=--Ppe,
FT

_.

. (19c)

PO = initial valve opening pressure, psig, P,,~, = test-rack valve closing pressure at 60F, and only stream psig, are equal and if, the upstream at the instant and downport pressures across the valve the valve

where if, pv,,~ F,, I) .,.. = initial pPf~ and = production-pressure . effect.
psi.

valve

opening zero,

pressure psig, factor,

at T,,D when

equals

= production-pressure

dimensionless,

closes,

GAS

LIFT

5-19

Additional equations used in initial sure calculations are the following: .4,JAh F,, = (1 -A/,/A,,) _ A,J A,, -A,,

valve

opening

prcs-

PlOD

!I hD (, -A,,,A,,)

(2 1a)

or
P IO I),,& =F @lb)

pPcF,(p,,jD).

(22)

Fig. 5.15-Initial injection-gas opening pressure vs. production


pressure at valve depth for 1-tn.-OD,unbalanced, single-element, gas lift valvewitha +&In.sharp-edged port and 0.31~sq-in. bellows area.

Initial Opening Single-Element,


An understanding

and Closing Unbalanced

Pressures Valve

of a
the initial unbal-

of the relationship

between

opening and closing

pressures of a single-element.

pressure-operated

gas lift

valve

since

the production-

anced, gas lift valve is important installation designs and analyzing

for calculating gas lift gas lift operations. A

pressure factor is less than one. It is apparent from the slope of the force-balance lint in Fig. 5. I5 that an increase in the injection-gas resultant stem travel pressure greater will result in a force and
than that from

single-element, unbalanced. gas lift valve does not have a constant closing pressure as noted in many publications, and the valve does not snap full open at the initial itrjection-gas opening pressure. This type of gas lift valve is a simple, unbalanced, backpressure regulator. lift valve opens and closes at the same injection if the flowing like manner, production an unbalanced pressure remains pressure backpressure The gas pressure In opens

the same in-

cremental increase in tlowing production pressure because the production factor is less than one. The maximum stem travel is attained by increasing both pressures.

constant.

Production-Pressure
The production-pressure

Factor and Valve Spread


factor (F,,,) is a relationship

regulator

and closes at the same upstream

if the down-

stream pressure remains constant. Fig. 5.15 shows a plot of the initial injection-gas opening pressure vs. the flowing production pressure for a 3/,-m-ID sharp-edged port in a I-in.-OD gas lift valve with an effective bellows area of 0.3 I sq in. This bellows size is used by most manufacturers in the I-in.-OD gas lift valve. A %-in.-ID port is the largest port size available from several manufacturers for the I-in.-OD. singleport size pressure element. unbalanced. gas lift valve. The larger production

based on the effective bellows and port areas for an unbalanced gas lift valve. Unbalanced implies that the flowing production pressure is exerted over the entire ball-seat contact area as a portion of the initial opening force for a valve. In terms of gas lift valve operation. the production-pressure factor is the ratio of the incremental difference in the initial injection-gas opening pressure to a difference in the flowing production pressure. If the flowing production pressure increases. the initial imectionand vice versa. The progas opening pressure decreases.

was selected factor.

because of the higher

The closing force for a single-element, lift valve is assumed to remain constant

unbalanced, gas for this analysis.

duction-pressure factor can be obtained from the slope of the force-balance line in Fig. 5.15 or can be calculated from the specifications for the valve. Valve spread is defined as the difference between the initial injection-gas opening and the injection-gas closing pressures of a gas lift valve. The valve spread is zero for a constant flowing production pressure because a valve initially opens and closes at the same injection-gas pressure. This concept is used in several continuous-flow installation design methods. The valve spread observed in intermittent gas lift operations results from a change in the flowing production pressure at the depth of the operating gas lift valve during an injection gas cycle. The production pressure at valve depth approaches the injection gas pressure beneath a liquid slug during gas injection. thus decreasing the valve closing pressure (also the initial opening pressure), which results in a spread between the initial opening and closing pressures of the operating valve. This can be a very lift installation important where consideration opening for a preschamber the initial

The slight increase in a bellows-charged dome pressure with stem travel (or the increase in the spring force for a spring-loaded gas lift valve) is neglected in this simplified force-balance discussion. The gas lift valve actually is closed on the line that represents a balance between the opening and closing forces in Fig. 5.15. The valve is open above the line and closed below be opened by (I) increasing the line. The valve can the injection gas pressure with

a constant flowing production pressure; (2) increasing the injection gas and flowing production pressures simultaneously; and (3) increasing the flowing production pressure with a constant injection-gas pressure. All three means of opening a valve are illustrated by vectors based on a loo-psi increase in the injection-gas pressure and in the flowing production pressure. The resultant vector is based on both of the other vectors. The bellows-assembly

load rate for a valve and the distance from the forcebalance line to the tip of the vector would control the actual stem travel. The valve in Fig. 5.15 is an irrjection-

sure of the operating low tubing pressure is located above

gas lift valve will be based on a very because the operating gas lift valve

the chamber.

5-20

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Example
Given:

Problem

7.

!J,,/~ =400
valve scat). psig. on the basis

psig and a

/J,,,,,=600

psig at the instant

the

closes. 110 psi,

1. Effective bellows area=0.31 sq in. 2. Port area=O. 11 sq in. (sharp-edged

Ap, =F,,(Ap,f~)=O.55(600-400)=

3. p,,& = 1,000 psig for p,,fD =o pig. 4. poD =644 psig when pPJD =P<,~ =644
Calculate the production-pressure factor

where Appfo is the difference in p,,rn exerted over A,, at the initial injection-gas opening and closing pressures. psi.

of the areas in the valve

specifications:

Injection-Gas Volumetric Throughput Single-Element, Unbalanced Valves


The injection-gas element, effective on the basis throughput performance

Profiles

for

A,1
F,l=-=

0.11

AL-A,

0.31-o.

=0.55.
11

of a single-

unbalanced, gas lift valve is controlled by the area of the bellows, the bellows-assembly load The performance single-element, gas

Calculate

the production-pressure curve in Fig.

factor 5.15:

rate, and the stem-seat configuration. profiles of two types of unbalanced.

of the force-balance

lift valves are illustrated in Fig. 5.16. The injectionpressure-operated gas lift valve in Fig. 5.16a is a bellowscharged valve with a large effective bellows area, and the stem-seat configuration may be considered as having a ball and sharp-edged very shallow chamfer seat. The seat line is broken but the valve would perform by a in the

where

Apo~

is the difference

in POD based on a change in p,,f~ exerted

in ,D~~D, psi, and App~ over A,, psi.

is the difference

same manner as a valve with a sharp-edged seat. The performance profile for a single-element, unbalanced, springloaded gas lift valve and a large ball-seat with a small effective area relative bellows area contact to the bellows

Calculate

the initial =400

injection-gas psig: