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ICONOGRAPHERS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY1
Introduction The characteristic feat re of !ast cent r"#s icono$ra%h"& 'or!d('ide& is a shift fro) a so)e'hat decadent& senti)enta! st"!e *ac+ to traditiona! )ode!s, A!tho $h there 'ere scho!ar!" and socia! inf! ences he!%in$ to effect this re-i-a!& the ret rn to the act a! %aintin$ of traditiona! icons 'as initiated *" . st a fe' icono$ra%hers/ it is these& %! s so)e other inf! entia! icono$ra%hers 'ho) 'e sha!! *e disc ssin$ this e-enin$, Ine-ita*!" there 'i!! *e a s *.ecti-e& %ersona! e!e)ent in )" choice of icono$ra%hers in s ch a %resentation as this, Ho'e-er& I ha-e tried to %ic+ those 'ho are $enera!!" a$reed to *e a)on$ the )ost inf! entia! in their res%ecti-e co ntries, Since this is a $atherin$ of the Fe!!o'shi% of St A!*an and St Ser$ios& I sho !d inc! de An$!ican icono$ra%hers& * t I a) afraid that I do not +no' an", To a%%reciate the contri* tion of these for)ati-e t'entieth cent r" icono$ra%hers it is necessar" to +no' a !itt!e a*o t the state of icono$ra%h" inherited *" the t'entieth cent r"& so I 'i!! *e$in 'ith a -er" *rief o-er-ie' of the %recedin$ fo r cent ries& 'ith their trend to'ards decadence, After s r-e"in$ the t'entieth cent r" it is nat ra! to as+0 'hat can 'e of the t'ent"(first cent r" !earn fro) it and 'here sho !d 'e $o here1 So *" 'a" of an e%i!o$ e I 'i!! -ent re to e2%ress and i!! strate 'ith )" o'n icons so)e icono$ra%hic the)es 'hich I thin+ need to *e e2%!ored in o r o'n t'ent"(first cent r", The growing decadence of icon style from the 16th century Greece We can trace the *e$innin$s of st"!istic decadence fro) the 13th cent r"& in the Ionian is!ands and Crete/ this 'as )ain!" d e to their )ore inti)ate contact 'ith Ita!ian inf! ences, Feat res of this st"!e are senti)enta!it" and the inc! sion of )an" didactic detai!s 'hich distract fro) the %ri)ar" ro!e of the icon& 'hich is to *rin$ one into re!ationshi% 'ith the saint de%icted rather than te!! "o stories a*o t hi) or her, E!se'here in Greece& %artic !ar!" in the Pe!o%onnesos& the tradition 'as +e%t )ore intact& a!*eit to a )ore fo!+ standard than 'or+s of B"4anti ), Ho'e-er& this chan$ed after the War of Inde%endence in 1561& 'hen 'esternised Gree+s ret rned and introd ced )odernist icono$ra%h" thro $ho t Greece, Russia and the Bulkans In R ssia e!e)ents of decadence *e$in to enter in the !atter %art of the se-enteenth cent r"& a!tho $h so)e 'o !d sa" that the e2tre)e e!on$ation of 7ion"si s#s 'or+s ear!ier in that cent r" 'ere a!read" si$na!!in$ a de%art re, Thin$s acce!erated )ar+ed!" thro $h Peter the Great and Catherine ca)%ai$n to 'esternise R ssia, 8 st as R ssia#s ch rch ) sic 'as do)inated *" Ita!ian tastes& so a!so did its icono$ra%h", Nat ra!is)& s %erf! o s detai! and nat ra!istic %ers%ecti-e s"ste)s characterise this %eriod, 9The e2ce%tion to this is the O!d Be!ie-er sect& 'hose !it r$ica! conser-atis) A ta!+ $i-en at the Fe!!o'shi% of St A!*an and St Ser$i s Ann a! Conference& Sto r*rid$e& 66 A $ st& 6:::, 1
ect )atter. What are the characteristics of <onto$!o #s 'or+1 He is )ost +no'n as the one 'ho t rned the Gree+ ch rch *ac+ to the s *!i)it" of the B"4antine icon tradition. He st died in 1=1@ at the Athens Schoo! of Fine arts& * t at the o t*rea+ of the War he tra-e!!ed thro $ho t 'estern E ro%e& st d"in$ its art& *efore in d e co rse he ca)e to st d" and 'or+ in Paris. B" his 'ritin$s and e2a)%!e he sho'ed that there are %rofo nd reasons for the traditiona! st"!e& and therefore that Orthodo2 need not fee! that it is inferior to sec !ar 'estern art ( to the contrar"& that it is s %erior. <onto$!o 'as *orn in 15=> in A"-a!i& Asia ?inor. The )ost intense ti)e for %aintin$ icons and frescos and for 'ritin$ 'as fro) the 1=D> nti! his death in 1=3>. Yet it ) st *e said that he did not nderstand the tradition to *e static& a )ere co%"in$ or %aintin$ *" n )*ers.. In 1=@@ he directed the Co%tic ) se ) in E$"%t& then the fo!!o'in$ t'o "ears he!%ed c!ean the 'a!! %aintin$s of ?"stra& Greece. R )ania& H n$ar" and Ser*ia a!! fe!! nder the sa)e inf! ences. His 'or+ as a restorer he!%ed hi) to st d" o!d 'or+s c!ose!". This is a %ainter#s %ractica! )an a!& and e2%!ains techniE es as 'e!! as the contents of a!! the )a. Fro) 1=@C(D: he %ainted the 'a!! %aintin$s for the Athens Cit" Ha!!. In 1=1= he ret rned to his ho)e to'n 'here he ta $ht French and technica! dra'in$ for t'o "ears.6 +e%t its icons )ore tr e to the o!d st"!istic tradition. A!to$ether he 'rote o-er a do4en *oo+s %! s n )ero s artic!es. With his assistants he %ainted a*o t >&::: sE are "ards of frescoes& )ost of 'hich can *e fo nd in Athens. The ear!iest o-ert icon I can find is a Ba%tis) of Christ dated 1=6@6& so it is c!ear that e-en in this ear!" ti)e he 'as *ein$ attracted to the B"4antine tradition. In 1=@: he 'as a%%ointed as technica! ad-iser to the B"4antine ) se )& Athens. In 1=66& after the disastro s Asia ?inor ca)%ai$n for 'hich he had *een conscri%ted& he de%arted to Athens& and )arried ?aria in 1=6>. After the death of his father the ne2t "ear he 'as raised *" his )other and her *rother& 'ho 'as a**ot of the fa)i!" )onaster". The return to tradition and its proponents Greece and Photius Kontoglou The re-i-a! of traditiona! icono$ra%h" in Greece is )ain!" attri* ta*!e to Photi s <onto$!o & 'ho acti-e!" sed his a*i!ities as a %ainter& scho!ar and 'riter to %ro)ote the ca se. Portraits and i!! strations %redo)inate. ?ost of the e2tant 'or+s % to this ti)e are hi$h!" acco)%!ished nat ra!istic 'or+s& and $enera!!" non(re!i$io s in s *.or icons. The fact that -arnishes dar+ened 'ith a$e and 'a!! %aintin$s *eca)e sooted o-er& )eant that %eo%!e *eca)e )ore and )ore i$norant of traditiona! st"!es. <on"i$!o . Ho'e-er& there is a discerni*!e $ro'in$ inf! ence of icons in the si)%!er& )ore a*stracted st"!e. His icons are reco$nisa*!" his. His chief *oo+ is AE+%hrasisB& % *!ished in 6 -o! )es. 6 6 . He *e$an his 'ritin$ career in 1=15 'hen he 'rote and i!! strated APedro Ca4asB. Here he 'or+ed as a desi$ner for the AI!! strationB % *!ication& fro) 'hich he recei-ed a %ri4e. 1=3:& Athens/ i!!. In 1=@6 he *e$an his fresco %aintin$ career *" %aintin$& 'ith his % %i!s Tsarochis and Ni+os En$ono%o !os& his ne'!" * i!t ho se in Patisia& Athens. An interestin$ %oint is 6 AE+%hrasisB *" P.
Father Henon 'as *orn in 1=>@ in Per-o)ais+ of the Ni+o!a"e. Ho'e-er& after disci%!inar" action o-er an ecc!esiastica! iss e he !eft& 'ith one or t'o of his )on+s& to !i-e in a -i!!a$e near the *oarder of Estonia and R ssia& north of Ps+o-. rather than R ssian )ode!s. There )an" ?osco' artists *e$an to %aint nder his direction. Gra*ar 'ho had 'ritten the ) !ti(-o! )e 'or+ AHistor" of R ssian ArtB *e$an the first restoration 'or+sho% at this ti)e.A. Po+ro-s+i 'ho in 15=: % *!ished a %a%er on ) ra! %aintin$s in O!d Gree+ and R ssian Ch rches. In the 1=C:#s !a" %eo%!e *e$an to co)e and st d" nder her as 'e!!.re$ion 'here& %erha%s si$nificant!"& there had *een Gree+ sett!e)ents. Here Sister 8 !iania i))ediate!" *e$an teachin$ icono$ra%h" and restoration to se)inarians and )on+s& and contin ed to do so nti! her death in the 1=C:#s. I))ediate!" after Sta!in officia!!" reco$nised the Ch rch in 1=DD& St Ser$i s# Ga-ra 'as re(esta*!ished and 'ith it a se)inar" and acade)"..A. This rene'ed !o-e for thin$s R ssian !ed so)e %ainters to $o search(o t o!d frescoed ch rches and %hoto$ra%h or %aint the). Hers 'as the first officia! acade)" of icono$ra%h" in co)) nist R ssia and to her is %ri)ari!" d e the restoration in R ssia of traditiona! icono$ra%h". A nota*!e instance is the re)ar+a*!e fo rteenth cent r" ch rch of the 7or)ition at Fo!oto-o Po!"e. His characteristic feat re& at !east since the !atter 1=5:#s& has *een the choice of ins%iration fro) the ?idd!e B"4antine Era 9ninth to thirteenth cent ries. Tra$ica!!" this ch rch 'as *o)*ed to r **!e *" the Na4is in Wor!d War T'o. A fe' "ears a$o he 'as )ade a**ot of an ancient )onaster"& to restore it and to esta*!ish an icono$ra%h" schoo! in the conte2t of the )onastic !ife. 'as secret!" %aintin$ icons *ased on the recent!" restored )edie-a! icons. 7 rno-o and others. He then did his )i!itar" ser-ice& as an artist& after 'hich in 1=C3 he *eca)e a )on+ at Ps+o-(Pecher" )onaster". The R ssian re-o! tion forced nder$ro nd the ch rch and the %ractice of icon( %aintin$. The R sso%hi! )o-e)ent a!so he!%ed to re)o-e an inferiorit" co)%!e2 a*o t the non(nat ra!is) of icons. Russia: Sister Yuliania (Maria Sakalova) and Archimandrite Zenon Ho' did the R ssian Ch rch ret rn to %aint icons in the traditiona! st"!e1 Interest in )edie-a! icono$ra%h" *e$an its re-i-a! thro $h the 'or+s of scho!ars and archaeo!o$ists& in the !atter ha!f of the nineteenth cent r" ( for e2a)%!e& N. He !ater st died at the Odessa arts co!!e$e& 'here in his second "ear he *e$an to %aint icons. The art historian I.@ that 'hi!e he 'as an icono$ra%her he contin ed to acce%t sec !ar co))issions& !i+e %ortraits& i!! stration and the decoration of ) nici%a! and %ri-ate * i!din$s. B t fro) the 1=@:#s& a secret n n na)ed Sister Y !iania 9?aria Ni+o!ia Sa+a!o-a in the 'or!d. A )ore % *!ic and stri+in$ i)%et s to the re-i-a! ca)e in the *e$innin$ of the cent r" 'ith the c!eanin$ of o!d icons. P %i!s fro) @ .F. ?ats !e-ich in 1=1: and e2ce!!ent %ainted co%ies )ade *" G. The fa)o s os!italit" or ol" #rinit" icon *" St. Andre' R *!iof 'as one of these first icons to *e restored. Fro) 1=5@ nti! 1=5= he *e$an 'or+ on the St 7anie! ?onaster" in ?osco' & the ne' Patriarcha! centre. ?ore recent!"& Archi)andrite Henon has *eco)e a)on$ the )ost fa)o s of R ssian icono$ra%hers. It a%%ears to )e that her )ode!s 'ere ta+en )ain!" fro) the ?osco' schoo! of R *!iof#s ti)e 91Dth and 1>th cent ries. This 'as %hoto$ra%hed in detai! *" G. Her % %i!s contin e the teachin$ tradition there.
Aro nd 1=55 'or+s !i+e the St Sera%hi) side(cha%e! of the Trinit" Cathedra! Ch rch of Ps+o. ?ore recent!" he has *een sin$ the enca stic techniE e 9that is& 'ith 'a2& as )ost ear!" icons nti! a*o t the 5th cent r" 'ere %ainted. Geonid O s%ens+" is +no'n )ain!" thro $h the )an" % %i!s 'ho) he has t tored in Paris& and thro $h his *oo+s AThe ?eanin$ of IconsB& 'ritten . Their ca%tain sto%%ed the) in ti)e to sa-e the "o n$ O s%ens+". Henon. @ AR ssian Ch rch Art Toda"B *" S.eonid /us!ensk" and 0r' Gregor" Kroug Fe' Orthodo2 need an introd ction to these t'o %ainters& %artic !ar!" %erha%s O s%ens+". It sho !d *e noted a!so that there e2ist in Ps+o.oint!" 'ith F!adi)ir Goss+"& and AThe Theo!o$" of the IconB& no' a-ai!a*!e in e2%anded for) in t'o -o! )es.D o-er the 'or!d sti!! co)e to st d" nder hi)& 'hich to$ether 'ith % *!ications of his 'or+ and the icons the)se!-es ens re the s%read of his inf! ence./ %. Gater he 'ent to Paris 'here he st died art& and *e$an %aintin$ icons. O s%ens+" has an interestin$ histor". He 'as s *seE ent!" ta+en *" the) to Ger)an"& 'here he 'or+ed in a )ine for so)e ti)e.sho' a $reater inf! ence fro) the ?idd!e B"4antine %eriod. Yet there is an ndenia*!e sti!!ness and interiorit" to his 'or+s& es%ecia!!" I thin+ those done in the ear!" B"4antine tradition. D . His ear!ier 'or+s& !i+e the St Nicho!as Cha%e! at Ps+o-& are )ain!" in the 1Dth cent r" R ssian tradition ( %artic !ar!" the ?osco' and No-$orodian schoo!s.hristianit" in Russia' And the" imitated the Greek models'There is a!so a refreshin$ *o!dness and a thorit" in his *r sh'or+/ he a%%arent!" 'or+s E ic+!". In decidin$ to $o *ac+ to this ear!ier e%och for his ins%iration& he is $oin$ to the so rce of a!! R ssian %aintin$ B t he is a!so creatin$ a *rid$e *et'een the Gree+ and R ssian icono$ra%hic traditions& 'hich for too !on$ ha-e *een considered t'o E ite distinct& e-en %art!" contradictor" schoo!s. He 'as *orn in R ssia& 'here he fo $ht as a teena$er 'ith the Red Ar)". In the )idst of their f!i$ht the White so!diers decided to dis%ose of a!! their ca%ti-es& and so !ined the) % and %roceeded to shoot the)..'or+s fro) this %eriod& sti!! in the B"4antine st"!e& 'hich do *t!ess had a direct inf! ence on Fr. +uro!e: . Gater he ca)e to *e +no'n not on!" as a %ainter * t as a teacher of the craft& as 'e!! as a 'riter and a !ect rer on the theo!o$" of icons at the St Ser$e Instit te in Paris. His rest!ess e2%!oration of ne' ( or rather& o!d ( techniE es and st"!istic roots +ee% his 'or+ -i$oro s. Ti)chen+o& ?osco'& 91==@. He and so)e of his co)rades 'ere ca%t red *" the White Ar)"& 'ho 'ere f!eein$ the Reds at the ti)e.F.1@. He said in an inter-ie'0 Since living s!iritual tradition has $een com!letel" severed the level o% our s!iritual develo!ment is ver" lo&' #here%ore it &ould $e unrealistic to !roceed %rom the highest achievements o% %i%teenth centur" icon(!ainting' #he" are undou$tedl" $e"ond the com!rehension o% a modern man' )e should go %urther $ack to or s!iritual origins $" mastering the B"*antine tradition' +ach icon(!ainter &ill have to tread the !ath covered $" the %irst Russian icon(!ainters %ollo&ing the ado!tion o% .
He a!so %ainted frescoes in ch rches o tside the s+ete& nota*!"& a!on$ 'ith Geonid O s%ens+"& the R ssian Patriarcha! Cathedra! in Paris. In the !ast ten "ears Ser$i Feodorof& a % %i! of Fr. 7 rin$ the 'ar he s ffered %s"cho!o$ica!!"& fro) de%ression I thin+& and 'as hos%ita!ised. Iconography in the Twenty-first Century Ti)e!ess "et indi$eno s/ h )*!e "et fear!ess/ traditiona! "et ne'/ these are so)e of the E a!ities of $reat icons. In 1=65 he st died art in Ta!!in& then !ater in Tart . Great Britain In this co ntr" -irt a!!" a!! Orthodo2 icono$ra%hers ha-e *een 'or+in$ in the R ssian tradition. Fr. In 1=@1 he !eft for Paris& 'here he st died f rther at the Acade)" of Art& nder ?i!ioti and Sa)o-. Gre$or" *eca)e Orthodo2 at the a$e of 1=. ?ention co !d *e )ade of Fr. A!so& the o-er(si4ed irises and % %i!s of his e"es $i-e an i)%ression of tenderness& sadness de-oid of senti)enta!it"& and of a dee% interior !ife.> A)on$ O s%ens+"#s *est +no'n % %i!s is the A)erican& Tho)as 7oo!an& no' the )on+ Father Si)onas. The other +e" fi$ re for the R ssian tradition in E ro%e is Fr. His father 'as G theran of S'edish ori$in and his )other 'as R ssian Orthodo2. Fr. One s ch feat re is his se of darts of % re 'hite hi$h!i$hts& 'hich f!oat o-er a sea of ne-en co!o r. Gre$or"#s icons are st"!istica!!" niE e. In o r o'n co ntr" another % %i!& ?aria)na Fort natto& is +no'n for her teachin$ the art of icono$ra%h". B t his icon(%aintin$ career *e$an 'hen he !earned to %aint icons 'ith Federo-& Ste!!ets+" and Sister 8ean 9Reit!in$er. The n ns of the ?onaster" of St 8ohn the Ba%tist in Esse2 ha-e nder the ins%iration of Father So%hron" *een %rod cin$ for fifteen "ears %orta*!e icons& frescoes& )osaics& car-in$s& ena)e!s and e)*roider". Gre$or"#s icons stand a*o-e a!! for a )arria$e of freedo) 'ithin and a dee% res%ect for the Ch rch#s icono$ra%hic tradition. In this co ntr" the )onaster" of St 8ohn the Ba%tist in Esse2 has the !ar$est n )*er of his icons. He 'as *orn in Peters* r$ in 1=:5. With the he!% of his s%irit a! father he reco-ered eno $h to !ea-e and *eco)e a )on+ at the S+ete of the Ho!" S%irit. Henon& has *eco)e 'e!! +no'n thro $h his co))issions for An$!ican and Catho!ic cathedra!s and a**e"s.. His 'or+ is de-oid of that nhea!th" t"%e of fear 'hich so easi!" !eads to !ife!ess co%"in$& * t nor is it disdainf ! of the Ch rch#s 'ise traditions. 7a-id of Wa!sin$ha)& %erha%s +no'n )ost for his icons of British saints& and his % %i!& Geon Gida)ent. We ha-e a!read" )entioned ?aria)na Fort natto& 'hose teachin$ on the theo!o$" and the %ractice of icon(%aintin$ has *een of $reat ser-ice o-er the %ast decades. There for the ne2t t'ent" "ears of his !ife he dedicated hi)se!f to icon(%aintin$. Ho' s ccessf ! ha-e 'e *een this %ast cent r" in > . A!tho $h I do not +no' her 'or+ %ersona!!"& I nderstand that ?at sh+a Pats" Fostiro%o!os is * s". Whi!e re)ainin$ tr e to the %rinci%!es of the icon tradition& he has his o'n niE e 'a" of e2%ressin$ these %rinci%!es. Gre$or" <r $& 'ho !i-ed a!so in Paris and often 'or+ed 'ith O s%ens+". Unfort nate!" )ost of his icons are deterioratin$ ra%id!"& in %art d e to the %oor )ateria!s he sed& in %art d e to %oor technica! 'or+)anshi%. Raised in the G theran tradition& the f t re Fr. And then there are n )ero s other icono$ra%hers in -ario s sta$es of de-e!o%)ent %aintin$ as ) ch as their fa)i!" or 'or+ co))it)ents a!!o'. He died in 1=3=. The" !ater )o-ed to Estonia.
A%art fro) other icono$ra%hers sharin$ their e2%erience 'ith others in an infor)a! 'a"& I thin+ that there are no other -ehic!es for !earnin$. This 'as certain!" one )ethod sed *" the )edie-a! %ainters& * t not the on!" one. Fer" fe' se * rnished $o!d * t rather oi! $i!din$& and as far as I +no'& the nor) in B"4anti ) 'as * rnished $o!d.3 achie-in$ these standards1 What cha!!en$es therefore !ie *efore the icono$ra%her of this cent r"1 In assessin$ icon %aintin$ of s ch a -ast and di-erse 'or!d as internationa! Orthodo2"& on!" $enera!isations can *e )ade. In this res%ect the R ssians# i)itation of the )asters tends to *e$in at an ear!ier sta$e of the icon %rod ction %rocess than in Greece& 'ith the %i$)ents the)se!-es. Ho'e-er& I 'o !d E estion the $reat e)%hasis % t *" so)e R ssian teachers on the % dd!in$ techniE e as the on!" !e$iti)ate R ssian techniE e 9this )ethod in-o!-es the a%%!ication of 'ater" & % dd!ed !a"ers. ConseE ent!" 'e ha-e -er" fe' icono$ra%hers in this co ntr" 'ho ha-e nder$one serio s !on$(ter) trainin$. The %aints are a%%!ied ) ch )ore thic+!" than the B"4antine )ode!s& and s a!!" $arish artificia! %i$)ents are sed in %!ace of the nat ra! ones. There is ?aria)na Fort natto 'ho has on!" recent!" res )ed so)e )eas re of teachin$. I )"se!f do one or t'o 'or+sho% a "ear& of fi-e da"s d ration. #raining As 'e ha-e seen& the dissi%ation of so)e ne'!" acE ired s+i!!& techniE e or st"!es reE ires so)e )eans of teachin$ it. B t the E estion needs to *e as+ed 'hether the co%ies *ein$ )ade of traditiona! icons are co%ies )ade 'ith nderstandin$ or are the" c! )s" a%%ro2i)ations1 Sad!"& I thin+ )an"& if not )ost icons *ein$ )ade in Greece are in the !atter cate$or". In Britain there are -er" fe' )eans of !earnin$ the craft. Henon had !itt!e trainin$ fro) others as far as I +no'& and !earned 3 . The 'ooden s %%ort of the icon is often of inferior E a!it" and 'i!! not !ast. In R ssia there see)s to *e a ) ch $reater res%ect for the )ateria!s/ -er" often for e2a)%!e icono$ra%hers co!!ect and $rind their o'n %i$)ents.. A for)a! trainin$ is not a!'a"s necessar" *" an" )eans ( Fr.. In rea!it"& 'ithin a $i-en )edie-a! icon there are s a!!" -ario s )ethods sed0 so)e areas ha-e *een !aid do'n E ite o%aE e and others )ore trans! cent& so)e 'ith a dr" *r sh char$ed 'ith concentrated %aint and others 'ith )ore di! te %aint. I 'i!! disc ss so)e +e" iss es nder headin$s. B t I a) !i)itin$ these to the sa)e fi-e or si2 %eo%!e. There is nothin$ !i+e detai!ed& %ersona! o*ser-ation of icons& %refera*!" the ori$ina!s/ often a teacher 'i!! e)%hasise on!" one techniE e or schoo! of thin+in$& * t in the !on$ r n an icono$r%aher I thin+ needs to s %%!e)ent this 'ith his or her o'n o*ser-ation. Is it 'orth'hi!e then to )a+e s ch $enera!isations1 I thin+ the" can *e he!%f !& a!tho $h the -ie's I e2%ress no' 'i!! on!" *e )" %ersona! ones& and ho!d no a thorit" in the)se!-es. 9Tho $h it sho !d *e noted that this re-i-a! is *" no )eans ni-ersa!& es%ecia!!" in R ssia 'here a !ot of the ch rches *ein$ * i!t or restored are ha-in$ icons %ainted in the senti)enta! st"!e. Used e2c! si-e!"& it does not $i-e one eno $h contro! to $i-e -ariet" of e2%ression or cris%ness of for). #he return to traditional !rotot"!es The t rn fro) sec !ar and senti)enta! )ode!s to traditiona! %rotot"%es is c!ear!" a 'e!co)e )o-e.
There are t'o reasons for this. The idea! is therefore to *e a f !! ti)e icono$ra%her.. If& for e2a)%!e& the di-init" of Christ 'as *ein$ E estioned& the" tended to desi$n or chose icons of the ?other of God in 'hich C . I thin+ that 'e need to consider )o-in$ *ac+ to this tradition of the icon affir)in$ the niE eness of the h )an %erson. Wo !d it not *e nat ra! and traditiona! for the sa)e to ha%%en in Britain1 I thin+ that there are three e!e)ents 'hich 'o !d he!% in this nat ra!& $rad a! %rocess. This s re!" sho !d *e ref!ected in the icon. The !a*o rer is 'orth" of his hire. #o&ards a &estern or British iconogra!h" The fact that *" their st"!e a!one 'e can s a!!" date o!d icons to 'ithin thirt" "ears and identif" their %ro-enance te!!s s that there is a !e$iti)ate and nat ra! -ariation 'ithin the tradition. If the icono$ra%her is 'estern& and see+s to *e faithf ! to these %rinci%!es 'hich are rooted in ti)e!ess& hea-en!" -a! es& then s re!" an a thentic 'estern& t'ent"(first cent r" icono$ra%h" 'i!! de-e!o%. Second& icono$ra%hers need to co)e to a dee% nderstandin$ and int ition of the %rinci%!es of the icon tradition. Ce!tic& An$!o(Sa2on and Ro)anesE e %eriods are o*-io s choices. Pa"ment If so)eone is to *eco)e an acco)%!ished icono$ra%her the" need to s%end considera*!e ti)e %aintin$. B t )ost %eo%!e can not !earn this 'a"/ the" need a co rse of teachin$. First& sanctit" does not a*o!ish the niE eness of the saint& * t % rifies his niE e %ersonhood. 1cons as a real likeness Icons % nti! aro nd the iconoc!astic crisis 9for e2a)%!e& the )osaics of Ra-enna and the enca stic icons. The icono$ra%her for his %art needs to tr" and %rod ce to% E a!it" 'or+& a!'a"s tr"in$ to %erfect the art& i)* in$ it 'ith the s%irit of the saints& and sin$ )ateria!s and techniE es 'hich ens re !on$e-it". A %eo%!e recei-e the tradition fro) another Orthodo2 %eo%!e& * t *efore !on$ the" sa" the sa)e thin$ 'ith their o'n accent0 the B"4antine do)e *eco)es a R ssian onion do)e/ the )ore *odi!" Gree+ icons *eco)e in R ssia )ore dia%hano s and e!on$ated& and so on. An icon schoo! is so)ethin$ 'e need to 'or+ to'ards in Britain& *e it an a%%renticeshi% s"ste) or a for)a! instit tiona! arran$e)ent.C %ri)ari!" fro) o*ser-ation and ana!"sis. are n)ista+a*!" a !i+eness& or at !east are not $enera!ised faces differentiated on!" *" ha-in$ a different na)e 'ritten *eside the). S re!"& 'itho t *ein$ nat ra!istic %ortraits& their icons o $ht to ref!ect this !i+eness1 A !astoral and doctrinal sensitivit" It is c!ear fro) e2tant o!d icons that icono$ra%hers of o!d res%onded to the doctrina! and %astora! needs of the ti)e. Second!"& 'ith the ad-ent of %hoto$ra%h" 'e +no' 'hat )ost saints 'ho !i-ed in the !ast cent r" !oo+ed !i+e ( St Si!o an the Athonite& Ne' )art"r E!i4a*eth etc. In this 'a" the" need not *e co))itted to one c !t res# and e%och#s %artic !ar e2%ression of these %rinci%!es. Ch rches and indi-id a!s then need to reco$nise that if the" 'ant icon E a!it" to i)%ro-e the" need to %a" icono$ra%hers rea!istic %rices 9ass )in$ the %ainters# standards are 'orth itI. First& icono$ra%hers can& 'ith discern)ent& dra' %on so)e feat res of 'estern art %rod ced in its Orthodo2 era ( a%%ro2i)ate!" % nti! the thirteenth cent r" I 'o !d sa".
Third!"& and I thin+ this is 'hat concerns s )ost& there 'as and is sti!!& a $ro'in$ fee!in$ that in fact 'e )i$ht not ha-e ret rned to the tradition as ) ch as 'e tho $ht 'e had. We need to di$ dee%er sti!!& to nderstand the icon#s ti)e!ess %rinci%!es so that ne' icons can *e )ore a thentic& can $o *e"ond the e2tre)es of fearf ! co%"in$ and i)%atience Ato do one#s o'n thin$B *efore h )*!" i)*i*in$ the tradition. Tho $h 'e )i$ht re$ret icons *ein$ *o $ht and so!d as art o*. Conclusion We can characterise t'entieth cent r" icono$ra%h" first& *" a ret rn to traditiona! )ode!s in the Orthodo2 co ntries& and second& *" the reintrod ction of the icon tradition itse!f to the 'est. ?ost icons of this ?acedonian and Co)nenian %eriod ha-e an inner sti!!ness co)%ared to& sa"& the )ore acti-e and h )anist Pa!aio!o$ian schoo! of the fo!!o'in$ t'o cent ries. One e!e)ent I %ersona!!" a) tr"in$ to res%ond to thro $h )" icon(%aintin$ is the need for %eo%!e in o r cent r" to s!o' do'n& to !earn to *e and not . Icons ha-e a !ife of the)se!-es& inde%endent of the reasons %eo%!e )i$ht * " or se!! the).ects on the co))ercia! )ar+et& at !east this %rocess& a!on$ 'ith often sec !ar scho!arshi%& has *ro $ht the icon tradition and Orthodo2" in $enera! ) ch )ore into the 'estern % *!ic conscio sness. Ha-in$ effecti-e!" !ost the tradition& 'e are findin$ that it is not so eas" to re$ain it in a!! its s *t!et" and %rof ndit". For this reason& icons of the 1:th to 1@th cent ries ha-e *een a *i$ inf! ence in )" )ore recent 'or+. 5 . st do.5 the di-init" of the Sa-io r 'as e)%hasised.
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