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GEH-5980E

SPEEDTRONIC Mark V Turbine Control


Maintenance Manual

SPEEDTRONIC Mark V Turbine Control


Maintenance Manual GEH-5980E
Issue Date: June 25, 1993 Revision A: July 21, 1993 Revision B: September 16, 1993 Revision C: June 1994 Revision D: July 1996 Revision E: February 1998

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment, nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met during installation, operation, and maintenance. If further information is desired or if particular problems arise that are not covered sufficiently for the purchasers purpose, the matter should be referred to GE Industrial Control Systems. This document contains proprietary information of General Electric Company, USA and is furnished to its cu stomer solely to assist that customer in the installation, testing, operation, and/or maintenance of the equipment described. This document shall not be reproduced in whole or in part nor shall its contents be disclosed to any third party without the written approval of GE Industrial Control Systems.

Copyright 1993 by General Electric Company, U.S.A. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Print date February 20, 1998

ARCNET is a registered trademark of Datapoint Corporation. Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corporation. HP is a trademark of Hewlett Packard Company. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines. MODBUS is a trademark of Gould Inc. PKWARE is a registered trademark of PKWARE Inc. Speedtronic is a trademark of General Electric Company, USA.

SAFETY SYMBOL LEGEND

WARNING

Indicates a procedure, practice, condition, or statement that, if not strictly o bserved, could result in personal injury or death.

CAUTION

Indicates a procedure, practice, condition, or statement which, if not strictly o bserved, could result in damage to or destruction of equipment.

NOTE
Indicates an essential operation or important procedure, practice, condition, or statement.

WARNING

This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment. Isolation of test equipment from the equipment under test presents potential electrical hazards. If the test equipment cannot be grounded to the equipment under test, the test equipments case must be shielded to prevent contact by personnel. To minimize hazard of electrical shock or burn, approved grounding practices and procedures must be strictly followed.

WARNING

To prevent personal injury or equipment damage caused by equipment malfunction, only adequately trained personnel should modify any programmable device.

Safety Symbol Legend (cont.)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section/Subject Page CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1. ORGANIZATION OF DOCUMENTATION..................................................................................................................1-1 1-1.1. Requisition Specific Drawings ................................................................................................................................1-1 1-1.2. Instruction Books.....................................................................................................................................................1-1 1-1.2.1. USERS MANUAL. .....................................................................................................................................1-2 1-1.2.2. MAINTENANCE MANUAL. .....................................................................................................................1-2 1-1.2.3. APPLICATION MANUAL .........................................................................................................................1-2 1-2. MARK V TURBINE CONTROL PRODUCT OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................1-2 1-2.1. Primary Operator Interface, <I>...............................................................................................................................1-3 1-2.2. Backup Operator Interface Panel - <BOI> .............................................................................................................1-4 1-2.3. Control Panel Configurations ...................................................................................................................................1-4 1-2.4. Location of Turbine Control..................................................................................................................................1-5 CHAPTER 2 CONTROL SYSTEM HARDWARE 2-1. MARK V DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORKS ...................................................................................................2-1 2-2. STAGE LINK ....................................................................................................................................................................2-2 2-3. DATA EXCHANGE NETWORK....................................................................................................................................2-3 2-4. IONET................................................................................................................................................................................2-5 2-5. THE ARCNET INTERFACE BOARD ............................................................................................................................2-6 2-5.1. Hardware Configuration ..........................................................................................................................................2-7 2.6. ALERT BOX FUNCTION................................................................................................................................................2-7 2-6.1. Adding an Alert Box to the <I> Processor..............................................................................................................2-8 2-6.2. Modifications To F:\IO_PORTS.DAT ...................................................................................................................2-8 2-6.3. Using the Alert Box .................................................................................................................................................2-9 CHAPTER 3 <I> SOFTWARE STRUCTURE 3-1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................................3-1 3-2. IDOSTHE <I>'s COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM.............................................................................................3-2 3-2.1. Root Directory .........................................................................................................................................................3-2 3-2.1.1. DRIVE F: FILES ..........................................................................................................................................3-3 3-2.1.2. DRIVE F: SUBDIRECTORIES ..................................................................................................................3-3 3-2.1.3. DRIVE G: SUBDIRECTORIES..................................................................................................................3-4 3-3. <I> HARD DISK BACK-UP ............................................................................................................................................3-4 CHAPTER 4 SOFTWARE TOOLS 4-1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................................4-1 4-2. DYNAMIC RUNG DISPLAY..........................................................................................................................................4-1 4-2.1. BBL (Sequencing/Non-sequencing)........................................................................................................................4-1 4-2.1.1. PRIMITIVE ..................................................................................................................................................4-3 4-2.1.2. PARAMETERS -PASSED/AUTOMATIC.................................................................................................4-3 4-2.1.3. PARAMETERS -ANALOG/LOGIC...........................................................................................................4-3 4-2.1.4. LOGIC STATES ..........................................................................................................................................4-3 4-2.2. Position Indicator.....................................................................................................................................................4-4 4-2.3. User Status Box .......................................................................................................................................................4-5 4-2.4. Positioning Targets ..................................................................................................................................................4-5 4-2.5. Parameter/Picture Targets .......................................................................................................................................4-6

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Section/Subject Page 4-2.6. Executing/Exiting Dynamic Rung Display .............................................................................................................4-6 4-2.6.1. FINDING BBL .............................................................................................................................................4-6 4-2.6.2. SELECTING AUTO ....................................................................................................................................4-7 4-2.6.3. SELECTING MORE....................................................................................................................................4-8 4-2.6.4. SELECTING PAR........................................................................................................................................4-8 4-2.7. Segments, Rungs, and Sub-rungs ............................................................................................................................4-9 4-2.7.1. SEGMENTS ...............................................................................................................................................4-10 4-2.7.2. RUNGS.......................................................................................................................................................4-11 4-2.7.3. SUB-RUNGS..............................................................................................................................................4-11 4-2.7.4. SELECTING SRC IN A SEQUENCING BBL. ......................................................................................4-11 4-2.7.5. PIC FILE IN A NON-SEQUENCING BBL .............................................................................................4-14 4-2.7.6. TEXT MESSAGE ......................................................................................................................................4-18 4-2.7.7. RLD RUNG ................................................................................................................................................4-19 4-2.8. Using "Find All" to Find Parameters ....................................................................................................................4-21 4-2.9. Files Used by the Dynamic Rung Display.............................................................................................................4-27 4-3. DIAGNOSTIC DATA DISPLAY (DIAGC) ..................................................................................................................4-27 4-3.1. Executing DIAGC .................................................................................................................................................4-27 4-3.2. Menus ...................................................................................................................................................................4-28 4-3.2.1. SUB-MENUS .............................................................................................................................................4-29 4-3.2.2. POSITIONING TARGETS. .....................................................................................................................4-30 4-3.2.3. SELECTING A DISPLAY ........................................................................................................................4-31 4-3.3. Associated Files .....................................................................................................................................................4-33 4-4. EEPROM DOWNLOADER ...........................................................................................................................................4-33 4-4.1. Executing EEPROM Downloader.........................................................................................................................4-33 4-4.2. EEPROM Downloader Command <option> ........................................................................................................4-34 4-4.3. EEPROM Downloader Command <sections>......................................................................................................4-39 4-5. REVERSE TABLE COMPILER ....................................................................................................................................4-41 4-5.1. Executing Reverse Table Compiler.......................................................................................................................4-41 4-6. MK5MAKE.BAT ............................................................................................................................................................4-42 4-6.1. OPERATION ........................................................................................................................................................4-42 4-6.2. MK5MAKE.LOG File ..........................................................................................................................................4-44 4-7. Alarm Help.......................................................................................................................................................................4-44 4-8. CONTROL CONSTANT ADJUSTMENT ....................................................................................................................4-45 4-8.1. Modifying A Control Constant..............................................................................................................................4-47 4-8.1.1. CHANGING THE NEW VALUE.............................................................................................................4-47 4-8.1.2. CHANGING THE RAM VALUE .............................................................................................................4-47 4-8.2. Saving Control Constant Modifications ................................................................................................................4-48 4-9. LOGIC FORCING...........................................................................................................................................................4-50 4-9.1. Executing Logic Forcing ......................................................................................................................................4-50 4-9.2. Unforcing A Logic Pointname ..............................................................................................................................4-51 4-10. PREVOTE DATA ........................................................................................................................................................4-51 4-10.1. Executing Prevote Data .......................................................................................................................................4-52 4-11. COMMAND TARGETS...............................................................................................................................................4-53 4-11.1. Executing Command Targets ..............................................................................................................................4-53 4-11.2 Edit Form Screen ..................................................................................................................................................4-54 4-11.2.1. COMMAND POINTNAME FIELDS. ....................................................................................................4-55

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Section/Subject Page 4-11.2.2. VALUE FIELDS ......................................................................................................................................4-55 4-11.2.3. FEEDBACK SIGNAL FIELDS...............................................................................................................4-55 4-11.2.4. TARGET TYPE FIELD...........................................................................................................................4-56 4-11.2.5. TARGET NAME......................................................................................................................................4-56 4-11.3. Command Target Additions, Modifications, Deletions ......................................................................................4-56 4-11.3.1. COMMAND TYPE POINTNAMES ......................................................................................................4-57 4-11.3.2. COMMAND TARGET SELECTION GUIDELINES ...........................................................................4-57 4-12. LAN CONTROL CARD (LCC)....................................................................................................................................4-58 4-13. TERMINAL INTERFACE MONITOR (TIMN) .........................................................................................................4-58 4-13.1. Set-up/Operation..................................................................................................................................................4-59 4-13.2. TIMN Commands................................................................................................................................................4-59 4-13.2.1. I/O STATUS.............................................................................................................................................4-60 4-13.2.2. PROFILER ...............................................................................................................................................4-61 4-13.2.3. UPDATE COMMAND............................................................................................................................4-62 4-13.2.4. ZERO COUNTERS..................................................................................................................................4-62 4-13.2.5. DUAL PORTED MEMORY (DPM) ......................................................................................................4-62 4-13.2.6. ERROR .....................................................................................................................................................4-63 4-13.2.7. FACTORY USE ONLY COMMANDS..................................................................................................4-63 4-14. HOLD LIST ...................................................................................................................................................................4-63 4-14.1. Points ...................................................................................................................................................................4-64 4-14.2. Programs ..............................................................................................................................................................4-64 4-14-.3. Conditions...........................................................................................................................................................4-64 4-14-4. Display Targets....................................................................................................................................................4-65 CHAPTER 5 INSTALLATION AND INITIAL STARTUP 5-1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................................5-1 5-1.1. Receiving & Handling .............................................................................................................................................5-1 5-1.2. Unpacking & Storage ..............................................................................................................................................5-2 5-2. <I> INSTALLATION AND STARTUP ..........................................................................................................................5-2 5-2.1. Equipment Overview...............................................................................................................................................5-2 5-2.2. Installation and Initial Startup .................................................................................................................................5-3 5-2.2.1. HARDWARE CONFIGURATION.............................................................................................................5-3 5-2.2.2. STARTUP.....................................................................................................................................................5-4 5-2.2.3. SET CLOCK/DATE.....................................................................................................................................5-5 5-2.2.4. CALIBRATE TOUCH SCREEN ................................................................................................................5-5 5-2.2.5. CONFIGURE DOT MATRIX PRINTER...................................................................................................5-5 5-2.3. Load Requisition and Product Specific Software ..................................................................................................5-5 5-2.4. Get Configuration Information................................................................................................................................5-6 5-3. CONTROL PANEL INSTALLATION AND STARTUP ...............................................................................................5-6 5-3.1. Control Panel Inspection .........................................................................................................................................5-7 5-3.1.1. CARD INSPECTIONS ................................................................................................................................5-7 5-3.1.2. CONTROL PANEL INITIAL ENERGIZATION ......................................................................................5-7 5-3.2. Control Processor Startup........................................................................................................................................5-8 5-3.2.1. VERIFY VOTER ID ....................................................................................................................................5-8 5-3.2.2. VERIFY STAGE LINK ID..........................................................................................................................5-8 5-3.3. Establish ARCNET Communications ...................................................................................................................5-10 5-3.4. Download Configuration Files to the Mark V.......................................................................................................5-11 5-3.5. Set Control Panel Date and Time ..........................................................................................................................5-11

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Section/Subject Page 5-4. AUXILIARY COMPONENT CONNECTIONS ...........................................................................................................5-11 5-4.1 Operator Interface Auxiliaries ................................................................................................................................5-11 5-4.2. Backup Operator Interface (<BOI>) .....................................................................................................................5-12 5-5. FORMAT DISK AS SYSTEM DISK.............................................................................................................................5-12 5-6. MAKE A BACKUP OF THE <I>S HARD DISK.........................................................................................................5-13 5-7. SERVO-VALVE AUTOMATIC CALIBRATION........................................................................................................5-13 5-7.1. AUTOCAL Display...............................................................................................................................................5-14 5-7.2. Operation ...............................................................................................................................................................5-15 5-7.2.1. AUTOCAL TARGETS..............................................................................................................................5-15 5-7.3. Precautions/Preliminary Steps ..............................................................................................................................5-16 5-7.4. Executing AUTOCAL...........................................................................................................................................5-18 CHAPTER 6 DATA DISPLAY TOOLS 6-1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................................6-1 6-2. DATA COLLECTION PROGRAMS...............................................................................................................................6-1 6-2.1. VIEW1.EXE............................................................................................................................................................6-1 6-2.1.1. VIEW1.EXE OPTIONS. ............................................................................................................................6-2 6-2.2. VIEW2.EXE............................................................................................................................................................6-6 6-2.2.1. VIEW2.EXE OPTIONS. .............................................................................................................................6-6 6-2.2.2. VIEW2ASC - VIEW TO ASCII FILE CONVERSION UTILITY. ..........................................................6-7 6-2.2.3. VIEW2T - VIEW HIGH SPEED TRIGGERED MARK V DATA. ..........................................................6-7 6-2.2.4. VIEWPV - VIEW PREVOTE DATA. .......................................................................................................6-9 6-2.2.5. VIEWQ - VIEW <Q> DATA. .................................................................................................................6-10 6-2.2.6. VIEW_LIM - VIEW FILE LIMITS ANALYSIS. ...................................................................................6-10 6-2.2.7. VIEW_SD - ANALYZE VIEW OUTPUT FOR STANDARD DEVIATION. ......................................6-11 6-2.2.8. VIEWHD - VIEW HISTORICAL DATA.................................................................................................6-11 6-2.2.9. VIEWST - VIEW DATA IN THE SHORT-TERM TREND QUEUES..................................................6-11 6-3. SHORT-TERM TRENDING ..........................................................................................................................................6-12 6-3.1. Theory of Operation ...............................................................................................................................................6-12 6-3.2. Adding Short-Term Trending................................................................................................................................6-12 6-4. REAL TIME PLOT .........................................................................................................................................................6-14 6-4.1 Format.....................................................................................................................................................................6-14 6-4.2. Notes and Considerations ......................................................................................................................................6-14 6-4.3. Loading of PreSaved Forms into the Real Time Plot ...........................................................................................6-15 6-4.3.1. THEORY OF OPERATION. ....................................................................................................................6-15 6-4.3.2. FORMAT. ..................................................................................................................................................6-15 6-4.3.3. USE OF THE PRESAVED FORM IN THE MAIN MENU. ..................................................................6-16 6-5. TRIGGERED PLOT........................................................................................................................................................6-16 6-5.1. Defining The Display ............................................................................................................................................6-17 6-5.2. Program Operation ................................................................................................................................................6-19 6-6. SCALING DISPLAYED DATA.....................................................................................................................................6-19 6-7. PERFORMANCE MONITOR........................................................................................................................................6-20 6-7.1. Method of Operation .............................................................................................................................................6-20 6-7.2. Simulation Feature.................................................................................................................................................6-20 6-7.3. Adding the Performance Monitor to a Mark V.....................................................................................................6-21

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Section/Subject Page 6-7.3.1. LOW DRIFT SENSOR PACKAGE..........................................................................................................6-21 6-7.3.2. PERFORMANCE MONITOR DATA FILES. ........................................................................................6-21 6-7.3.3. ENABLE THE <I> PERFORMANCE MONITOR PACKAGE. ...........................................................6-21 6-7.3.4. ADD TO MAIN MENU. ...........................................................................................................................6-21 6-7.4. Performance Monitor Operation ............................................................................................................................6-24 6-7.4.1. MAIN SCREEN .........................................................................................................................................6-24 6-7.4.2 MAKING A PERFORMANCE OR BASELINE RUN. ..........................................................................6-25 6-7.4.3. REQUIRED TURBINE CONDITIONS ...................................................................................................6-25 6-7.4.4. COMPLETING THE CALCULATIONS .................................................................................................6-25 6-7.4.5. FAILED RUNS. ........................................................................................................................................6-26 6-7.4.6. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION. ..........................................................................................................6-26 6-7.4.7. COMPLETING SIMULATED CALCULATIONS..................................................................................6-28 6-7.4.8. FAILED SIMULATION RUNS. ..............................................................................................................6-28 6-7.5. Performance Monitor Output and Interpretation...................................................................................................6-28 6-7.5.1. RELATIVE DATA PRESENTED. ..........................................................................................................6-28 6-7.5.2. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS .........................................................................................................6-28 6-7.5.3. EXPECTED GENERATOR OUTPUT - POWER BALANCE. .............................................................6-29 6-7.5.4. INLET AND EXHAUST DROP DEVIATIONS .....................................................................................6-29 6-7.5.5. HEAT RATE DEVIATION.......................................................................................................................6-29 6-7.5.6. COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY DEVIATION & COMPRESSOR FLOW DEVIATION. ....................6-29 6-7.5.7. EFFECTIVE NOZZLE AREA DEVIATION. .........................................................................................6-30 6-7.5.8. TURBINE EFFICIENCY DEVIATION. .................................................................................................6-30 6-8. SYNONYMS ...................................................................................................................................................................6-30 6-8.1. The SYNONYM.DAT File...................................................................................................................................6-30 6-8.2. Adding, Modifying, or Deleting Synonyms ..........................................................................................................6-30 6-9. CUSTOMIZING THE TRIP LOG DISPLAY ...............................................................................................................6-31 6-9.1 The HIST_B.SRC File ..........................................................................................................................................6-31 6-10. EPA DATA DISPLAY..................................................................................................................................................6-32 6-10.1. Defining EPA Data Points....................................................................................................................................6-32 CHAPTER 7 FUSE RATINGS 7-1. Power Distribution - TCPD ............................................................................................................................................71 7-2. Power Supply - TCPS .....................................................................................................................................................72 7-3 Power Supply - TCEA .....................................................................................................................................................73

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1-1. ORGANIZATION OF DOCUMENTATION Documentation for the SpeedtronicTM Mark V turbine control system consists of two types: unit-specific drawings and product manuals. A unique set of requisition-specific documentation is supplied with each control system (see Section 1-1.1) and three instruction books are available for the specific needs of each user (see Section 1-1.2).

1-1.1. Requisition Specific Drawings Requisition or unit specific drawings are provided by various sources with each Mark V Turbine Control System. General Electric Drive Systems (GEDS) Turbine Products Division provides drawings to describe the hardware and software configuration for each requisition, including: I/O Report contains the unit-specific assignment of I/O terminations in the Mark V control panel. This report also has I/O related information such as the signal names, scale type, cabling information, termination points, and device nomenclature. Control Sequence Program Printout is a unit-specific printout that shows a functional representation of the Big Blocks and sequencing of a particular requisition. Software on the operator interface allows editing and printing of this document from any location. Outline Drawings provide an external view of the control panel and primary operator interface. The drawings furnish information needed for handling and installing the equipment. Case Layout Drawing supplies an internal view of the control panel. The primary purpose of this drawing is to furnish information needed to route interconnect cables. Case Wiring Drawing defines the factory cabling internal to the control panel case. The drawing's primary purpose is to document the internal wiring for maintenance use. Core Drawings provide an isometric drawing of the core depicting the cards and their respective locations within the core. For each card, the physical location and identification of removable parts, such as connectors and hardware jumpers, is highlighted. The core drawing is placed in a pocket on the inside of the core door.

Additional documentation is provided by the turbine manufacturer directly to the customer.

1-1.2. Product Manuals The three manuals provided by GEDS for the Mark V Turbine Control System are designed to meet the special needs of operators, maintenance personnel, and application engineers. For the operator, SpeedtronicTM Mark V Users Manual (GEH-5979) For the maintenance technician, SpeedtronicTM Mark V Maintenance Manual (GEH-5980) For the application engineer, SpeedtronicTM Mark V Application Manual (GEH-6195)

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1-1.2.1. USERS MANUAL. The users manual provides information needed by a turbine operator to understand both the

primary and back-up Mark V operator interfaces. Topics in the manual include: Main Menu and Display PASSWORD Administration Synonyms Alarm Management User-Defined Displays Trip Log Display EPA Display Back-up Operator Interface Operation Printer Functions Multi-Unit Operator Interfaces

1-1.2.2. MAINTENANCE MANUAL. The maintenance manual provides information needed by control system maintenance personnel for installation, calibration, and troubleshooting the Mark V control system. Topics in the manual include:

Control System Installation Control Constant Adjustment Dynamic Rung Display Logic Forcing Pre-voted Data Display

LCC Operation Terminal Interface Monitor Operation DIAGC Display Operation VIEW Tools

1-1.2.3. APPLICATION MANUAL. The application manual is an engineer's reference for the Mark V control system. Topics

in the manual include: Introduction To Mark V Controls Specifications & I/O Capacities The Screen Builder The Control Sequence Editor I/O Application Examples Regulator Descriptions & Diagrams Stage Link Application Rules MODBUS Configuration Instructions The I/O Configurator Signal Flow Diagrams Hardware Jumper Application Notes Big Block Reference

1-2. MARK V TURBINE CONTROL PRODUCT OVERVIEW Turbine Control Systems have been produced for several decades and have enjoyed widespread acceptance in both new unit and retrofit applications. The Mark V represents the latest in a line of microprocessor-based turbine control systems designed specifically for controlling turbines. The Mark V can be used on medium or large steam turbines, heavy duty gas turbines (single or two shaft), and aircraft derivative gas turbines. Unit control and protection is accomplished by using the Mark V in combination with sensors and devices mounted on the unit and its auxiliaries. Unit reliability is improved by using redundant sensors and devices for feedback, control, and protection of critical functions. Should one of the redundant devices fail, operation is not adversely affected. The connection of redundant devices to the control panel and their regulation by the control software were considered to be crucial factors in designing the Mark V. This fail-safe approach results in a highly reliable control and protection system for the turbine. In its most common configuration, the Mark V further improves unit reliability by using three redundant control processors. This triple modular redundant (TMR) design is capable of safely operating, controlling, and protecting a unit in the event of the failure of one of its control processors or control processor components. The TMR design permits a single control processor to be shutdown and repaired without shutting the turbine down. Another attribute of the Mark V TMR control system is its use of software-implemented fault tolerance (SIFT) technology. Each control processor in a TMR control panel makes its own determination of control and protection functions based on separate inputs. The control processors individually vote the inputs used to make these determinations. Should one control processor fail to read an input correctly, its erroneous value would be "out-voted." The following example illustrates the manner in which SIFT voting is enacted by the control system: a logic signal (either a logic " 0 " or a logic " 1 "), representing a digital input from a single pressure switch that senses lube oil pressure, is communicated to each of the three redundant processors in a TMR control panel over individual I/O communication networks

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(IONETs). Each processor accepts what it believes the value of the logic signal to be (the pre-voted value) then communicates that value to the other two processors over a single data exchange communication network (DENET). Each processor then performs a two-out-of-three "vote" of the digital inputs logic signal value and uses the voted value in its control and protection algorithms/sequencing. Therefore, a failure does not result in a turbine trip signal being generated by that processor. (The condition described above is reported as a voting mis match Diagnostic Alarm.) The SIFT voting technique will tolerate multiple failures without initiating a turbine trip. For example, one control processor might determine that a turbine trip should be initiated as the result of a low lube oil pressure switch input and a second control processor might determine that the turbine should be tripped on a high exhaust temperature based on a faulty thermocouple input. Without SIFT, the two control processors initiate a turbine trip generated by two different input devices. However, using SIFT, the control processors use the voted values of the inputs and do not initiate a turbine trip. Another feature, Control Lockout, places the primary operator interface into a view only mode (unless control capability is turned on with the correct password).

1-2.1. Primary Operator Interface, <I> The Mark V Turbine Control Systems primary operator interface <I> consists of an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC), color CRT, keyboard, cursor positioning device (CPD), either touchscreen CRT and/or trackball or mouse, and a printer. The <I> is used to issue commands to start/stop the unit, load/unload the unit, manage and log alarms, and monitor unit operation. With the exception of the Plant Load Control option, no control or protection of the unit is accomplished by the <I>. It is simply an operators/technicians interface to the Mark V control panel(s) with which it communicates. <I>s are connected to a Mark V turbine control panel(s) with coaxial cable using ARCNET LAN (Local Area Network) communication-style interface. This connection between <I>s and Mark V control panels is called the Stage Link. In some cases, the Stage Link may include fiber optic cables and repeaters in order to accommodate long distances between the <I> computer(s) and the turbine control panel. Figure 1-1 shows an installation in which three <I>s are used to control two turbines and their driven devices. An <I> can also be used to configure or modify the control, protection, monitoring, and logging functions of the Mark V Turbine Control System using programs supplied on the <I> computer. The ability to modify or configure these Mark V functions is password protected. Options available for the <I> include color printers and laser printers. The Mark V control system has powerful features for customizing control strategy for each site. For example, one <I> can interface with up to eight gas or steam turbines (or any combination thereof). In addition, more than one <I> can be used (each interfacing with up to eight turbines or a subset of the eight, if desired). A hierarchy of control can be programmed onsite when multiple <I>s are used.

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<I> 1 Mk V A

Turbine/Driven Device - A

<I> 2

Mk V <I> 3
Stage Link Cable

Turbine/Driven Device - B B

Turbine/Driven Device Interconnecting Wiring

Figure 1-1. Multi-Unit Installation Employing Three <I>s

1-2.2. Backup Operator Interface Panel - <BOI> The Mark V System also provides a secondary means of monitoring/controlling the turbine functions. This ancillary device is known as the Backup Operator Interface or <BOI>. The <BOI> has its own communications link which is directly connected to the three control processors <R>, <S>, and<T>. An LCD panel with a keypad, this device is usually mounted on the control panel. It also can be used to start and stop the unit, load or unload it, silence acknowledge alarms, reset process alarms, and monitor unit operation.

1-2.3. Control Panel Configurations The Mark V control panel is supplied in one of two configurations: triple modular redundant (TMR) or single modular (Simplex). Refer to Figure 1-2. New gas turbine units almost always use a TMR control panel, while most existing gas turbine control system retrofit applications can be equipped with either a TMR or a Simplex control panel. New steam turbine units can be equipped with either a TMR or Simplex control panel. Existing steam turbines can also be retrofitted with either TMR or Simplex control panels. Printed circuit cards and terminal boards in a Mark V control panel are contained in or are mounted on cores. Cores are sheetmetal housings that can have stationary and movable printed circuit card holders called card carriers. The cores have a maximum of five printed circuit cards mounted on the card carriers. In addition, up to four I/O terminal boards (printed circuit cards with high-density terminal boards) can be mounted on a single core.

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<S>

<R>

<C>

<R>

<C>

<T>

<P>

<PD>

<P>

<PD>

<QD1>

<CD>

<QD1>

<CD>

Mark V TMR Control Panel

Mark V SIMPLEX Control Panel

<C> <S> <P>

- Communicator Core - Redundant Control Processor Core - Protective Core

<R> <T>

- (Redundant) Control Processor Core - Redundant Control Processor Core

<PD> - Power Distribution Core <CD> - Communicator Digital I/O Core

<QD1>- Digital I/O Core for Control Processor(s)

Figure 1-2. Typical Control Panel Layouts for TMR and Simplex Control Panel Components (Cores)
The TMR control panel employs three identical control processors, <R>, <S>, and <T> (collective ly referred to as <Q>), to monitor, control, and protect the unit. The three control processors each perform identical operations. The majority of the inputs to the three control processors are voted, as are the majority of the outputs. The Simplex control panel consists of a single control processor, <R>. As such, it does not employ SIFT technology nor is it capable of controlling or protecting a turbine while its single control processor is taken out of service for repairs. Other cores which make up a typical Mark V control panel include a communicator processor, <C>; a protective core, <P>; a power distribution core, <PD>; a communicator processor digital I/O core, <CD>; and a control processor digital I/O core, <QD1>. Optional cores that are available are a backup communicator processor, <D>, and additional digital I/O core(s), <QD2> .

1-2.4.

Location of Turbine Control

The <I> can be remotely located from the turbine (up to a maximum of 6000 meters in some cases). Additionally, through an <I>, a unit(s) can be controlled from a separate control system . For example, a distributed control system (DCS) using MODBUS protocol over a serial communication link or a TCP/IP protocol over an Ethernet communication link. The Mark V control panel may be located near the unit or in a control room close to the unit (the distance limitation is defined by the amount of wire and cable needed to interconnect the control panel and unit).

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CHAPTER 2 CONTROL SYSTEM HARDWARE


2-1. MARK V DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Information is communicated, shared, and acted upon in the Mark V Control System via three separate networks. The one external network, the Stage Link, is the primary means of communication between the Operator Interface (<I>) and the common data processor (<C>) of the control panel. This link is of the ARCNET configuration. The data exchange network (DENET) is an ARCNET type communication network internal to the Mark V control panel. The function of the DENET is to provide a communication link between the internal processors of the control panel. In a TMR panel, it is the foundation for the voting process which takes place on control signals.

Stage Link R DENET IONET Stage Link <I> R = termination resistor * = optional components DENET

<C>

<R>

<S>

<T>

IONET Digital I/O <CD> Protection (TCEA) Protection (TCEA) Protection (TCEA)

Digital I/O <QD1>

Digital I/O <QD1>

Digital I/O <QD1>

Digital I/O <QD2> *

Digital I/O <QD2> *

Digital I/O <QD2> *

Power Load Unbalance <PLU> *

Power Load Unbalance <PLU> *

Power Load Unbalance <PLU> *

Figure 2-1. Mark V Network Communications

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The third internal network is known as the I/O network (IONET). The IONET is a serial communications network that is connected in a daisy chain configuration. Its function is to communicate I/O signals between the control processor (DCCA), the protection core (<P>), and digital I/O core (<QD1>). The IONET is identical in all processors with the exception of <C>. The <C> core has no direct link to the <P>, therefore, the IONET communicates only between <C> and the digital I/O board. With this configuration, a TMR panel has four independent IONETs (<R>, <S>, <T>, and <C>) while the Simplex panel has two (<R>, and <C>).

2-2. STAGE LINK The Stage Link consists of a coax cable that is terminated at both ends with BNC connectors. It runs from the ARCNET interface card in the <I> to <C> in the Control Panel. The ARCNET interface card is a high impedance source that enables the <I> to communicate on the Stage Link. Connection to the Stage Link hardware requires the use of a "T" type BNC connector. This device also permits the Stage Link to continue to further processors on the network. Due to design parameters, it is necessary to terminate the cable of the last <I> on the link with a 93 ohm termination resistor on the open connection of the "T" type BNC connector.

Stage Link

Stage Link

Port

Port

Processor
Figure 2-2. Three Port Active Repeater

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The Stage Link connection on the <C> core is an active three port repeater (see Figure 2-2). This device consists of three ports (two external and one internal). The internal port communicates from the processor to the external ports. Either external port receives a signal, amplifies it, and then passes it to the <C> core and the other external port. Similarly, a signal originating in the core is amplified and sent out both external ports. In the event of interrupted power to the repeater, a bypass relay provides continuation of the Stage Link. In the event of a loss of power to <C>, the turbine continues to operate as critical turbine functions are handled by <R>, <S>, and <T> (cumulatively known as <Q>). However, loss of the <C> core results in a loss of communication between the control panel and the affected <I>s on the Stage Link. Due to the three port repeater design of <C>, the Stage Link continues to operate between other devices, but is not able to communicate with the affected control panel. A TMR panel may contain a redundant common data processor, <D>. This backup core provides continued Stage Link communication if there is a failure in <C>. The <D> core is identical to that of <C>, except that it is not capable of monitoring <C> I/O (non-critical I/O). The turbine can continue to operate with the temporary loss of non-critical I/O.

2-3. DATA EXCHANGE NETWORK Within a TMR control panel, each of the <Q> cores independently read inputs from the driven device. A critical input, such as turbine speed, is read from three independent sensors. Less critical signals are obtained through a single sensor connected to all three processors. Logic signals are received by the DCCA card, which in turn acts as a data manager and storage area for all I/O signals (see Figure 2-3). Signals are then sent from the DCCA card to the LCCB card, and onto the DENET. Once the information is on the DENET, each processor retrieves all three values (one from <R>, <S> and <T> respectively) and performs a two out of three software vote. Each core performs the voting task individually on the LCCB card. The voted values are stored on the DCCA card of each processor where they can be applied for use in unit operation. This configuration ensures that all three cores use the same values for internal calculations on current data. Information on the DENET is also read by the <C> core, which independently performs a two out of three vote. The DENET pre-vote data from <Q> is made available to the DCCA card in <C>. Voting mismatches in any of the cores are picked up by the DCCA card in <C>. As a result, a diagnostic alarm is annunciated. The process described above compares to the manner in which analog signals are handled in the panel. Values for <Q> are read into all three cores where the median value is selected. The median value is stored on the DCCA card and made available for use in performing calculations critical to turbine operation. Voting mismatches in any of the cores are noted by the DCCA card in <C>. As a result, a diagnostic alarm is annunciated. This control scheme, Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT), ensures that all values used in turbine control calculations are consistent within all three processors. For example, a sensor input failure to <S> does not cause the processor to incorporate the faulty value into its calculations as it is effectively masked by the software vote. Instead <S> uses the voted value of the three processors and proceeds with the calculation. Therefore, different pre-vote turbine trip signals in multiple processors do not cause a turbine trip. The configuration of the Mark V control panel allows on-line maintenance or replacement of any board in a core while the unit is running. The DENET cabling is connected to the TCQC cards of <Q> and to the LCCB card of <C> and <D>. The TCQC cards are a passive connection point which forms the hub of a six port passive bridge. NOTE If a TCQC card is removed for service or troubleshooting from <R>, the DENET does not communicate to <S> and <T>. Without this communication link the Mark V continues to operate, but commands issued from the <I> will not be passed to <S> or <T>. For this reason, it is recommended that a TCQC card removed for troubleshooting be replaced immediately. Commands may be issued from the <BOI> without the TCQC card as it does not use the DENET.

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TCQA DCCA TCDA

TCEA LCCB DENET IONET 3PL Cable

TCQC

Figure 2-3. Typical <Q> Processor Setup

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DENET

DENET

DENET

DENET

TCQC

TCQC

TCQC

LCCB <C>

LCCB <R>

LCCB <S>

LCCB <T>

LCCB <D>

DCC

To DCC <R>

To DCC <S>

To DCC <T>

DCC

TCC DENET Stage Link Stage Link

TCC

Figure 2-4. Control Processor Internal Communications


2-4. IONET The I/O Network (IONET) is a communication network internal to the Mark V panel that permits data exchange between the I/O Master (DCCA) and the TCDA and TCEA cards. This network allows the control to perform I/O (TCDA) and protection (TCEA) related functions. Information transmitted over the network is address-specific. As a result, data is sent to either the TCDA or TCEA cards according to their hardware jumper address settings. On start-up of the control panel, the DCCA card downloads unit parameters to the TCDA and TCEA cards for I/O configuration and internal diagnostics. During operation, operating parameters from these cards are sequentially exchanged with the DCCA over the IONET for unit control. The configuration explained above allows TCEA and TCDA cards to be added to the network as necessary. Termination of the IONET is accomplished by setting the hardware jumpers on the last TCDA card of the network. See the Application Manual, GEH-6195, Appendix A for hardware jumper setting information). Each card must have a specific network address, also set by hardware jumpers, that matches a software description. If a board needs to be removed for service, the network connection is broken at that point. This does not cause a problem in a TMR panel because the IONET continually serves each processor and the unit continues to operate with one processor shut down). In both TMR and Simplex control panels, three TCEA cards (known as X, Y, and Z) are required in the <P> core. The TMR panel has a TCEA card for each of the <Q> cores. These cards communicate with the individual DCCA card of their respective cores. The Simplex control panel also has three TCEA cards mounted in <P> which are linked in a daisy chain configuration. All of these cards operate on the same IONET and all communicate with the <R> core.

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2-5. THE ARCNET INTERFACE BOARD The ARCNET interface board is a device that allows the <I> to communicate with the Mark V control panel via the Stage Link network. Located in a spare 16-bit slot in the PC, the board passes signals onto the network through a "T" type BNC connector (this latter device is located at the back of the PC). The last connection on the Stage Link requires a 93 ohm termination resistor on the open end of the "T" type connector. All supported ARCNET interface boards (several ARCNET boards are supported) are high impedance "BUS" type cards. (For installation, see Chapter 5 of this manual).

< Q > Core

< P > Core

< QD1 > Core HJ

DCCA

TCQC

TCEA

TCDA

IONET HJ Hardware Jumper

Terminal Board

Terminal Board

Figure 2-5. TMR IONET Configuration (Typical of <R>, <S> or <T>)

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< Q > Core

< P > Core

< QD1 > Core HJ

DCCA

TCQC

TCEA

TCEA

TCEA

TCDA

IONET HJ Hardware Jumper

Terminal Board

Terminal Board

Figure 2-6. Simplex IONET Configuration

2-5.1. Hardware Configuration Supported ARCNET controller boards may implement hardware jumpers or switches for hardware configuration. Each of these boards retains the ability to configure the dual-ported memory base address, the I/O base address, the PCs ARCNET address, and the interrupt request level (IRQ). Other selectable features are card specific. Information regarding configuration of specific cards is provided by the IDP_CARD diskette. This information is supplied with each <I> processor and replacement I/O card ordered through GE. The IDP_CARD diskette contains a README.TXT file that describes supported I/O cards and references the card-specific hardware setup. Refer to the files on IDP_CARD for further information on hardware setup.

2.6. ALERT BOX FUNCTION The ALERT BOX is an optional process alarm annunciator box that will provide a set of contacts and generate a tone whenever a new unacknowledged alarm is added to the <I> process alarm queue. The Alert Box generates a one second pulse (contacts and tone) as its alert. The <I> creates an alert whenever a new unacknowledged alarm is added to the process alarm queue in order to inform operators to look at the process alarm screen. The contacts may be fed to a DCS to allow it to annunciate a change to the <I> alarm queue as well. NOTE The <I> being used to control the Alert Box must be using IDP version 3.5 or later in order to operate. The alert pulses do not stack up and can not be used to count additions into the alarm queue. If multiple alarms are added to the queue at the same time a one second alert pulse will be generated. If already in the alert state, the one second pulse is stretched each time a new alarm is added to the process alarm queue - if 2 alarms are added, 1/2 second apart, the alert pulse would be seen as a 1 1/2 second pulse.

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An <I> processor can support more than one Alert Box. All Alert Boxes are treated identically; particular units can not be assigned to particular Alert Boxes. No filters are available in the <I> to mask particular alarms from generating alert pulses; however, process alarms that are locked out will not generate alert pulses as they do not meet the criteria of being a new alarm that is unacknowledged. The Alert Box supports inputs from up to eight <I> processors. These inputs are in parallel, so that simultaneous alarms from multiple <I> processors will create a single pulse which ends one second after the last alarm input.

2-6.1. Adding an Alert Box to the <I> Processor The three steps for adding an Alert box to an <I> processor are: 1. 2. Choose an unused RS-232 port, probably a DigiBoard port. Connect the selected port from the first < I> to port A on the Alert Box. Subsequent <I>s may be added to remaining ports. Edit the F:\IO_PORTS.DAT file to: a) Define the <I>s unused serial ports BASE-PORT address. b) Assign the <I>s unused serial port as an ALERT port. Restart the <I> using either RUN_IDP or Ctrl/Alt/Delete to make the changes made in IO_PORTS.DAT take effect.

3.

2-6.2. Modifications To F:\IO_PORTS.DAT In the section that defines which ports that IDOS is to use, the port(s) that the alert box(es) use must be included. If this is the only port used on a DigiBoard, make sure that IDOS has been told to take over the DigiBoard. Do this by uncommenting the DigiBoard port definition in IO_PORTS.DAT. The baud rate and parity of the alert box port are not important for the ALERT functions. In the section that defines LOGICAL PRINTERS, a logical name must be created to point to each Alert Box that is to be used. Multiple Alert Box ports are allowed, but more than one logical printer should not be pointed to the same port. The name of the logical printers can be of the form ALM$ALERT (used for the primary or single alert box) or ALM$ALERTn, with n being a digit from 0 to 9. Contained in Figure 2-7 is a sample F:\IO_PORTS.DAT (using D1 for a second printer, D2 for a MODBUS, and D3 as the ALM$ALERT port.

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; ; Section 1 - SERIAL PORT DEFINITIONS ; P1 IRQ 7 BASE_PORT 0378 ; DIGIBOARD STATUS_PORT 0140 IRQ 9 D1 BASE_PORT 0100 BAUD 9600 D2 BASE_PORT 0108 BAUD 9600 PARITY NONE MODBUS D3 BASE_PORT 0110 D4 BASE_PORT 0118 D5 BASE_PORT 0120 D6 BASE_PORT 0128 D7 BASE_PORT 0130 D8 BASE_PORT 0138 ; ; ; LOGICAL PRINTER ASSIGNMENTS ; ASSIGN SYS$PRINT P1 ASSIGN DOS$PRINT P1 ASSIGN EPA$PRINT P1 ; ASSIGN DOT_MATRIX P1 ASSIGN HPLASERJET D1 ; ASSIGN ALM$ALERT D3 ; ; DEFINE MODBUS PARAMETERS ; MODBUS PORT D2 SLAVE 1 UNIT T1 MODE NATIVE MODBUS PORT D2 SLAVE 2 UNIT T2 MODE NATIVE

Figure 2-7. Sample F:\IO_PORTS.DAT

2-6.3. Using the Alert Box After the <I> is connected to the alert box, connect the power source to the box and turn on the unit with the power switch. The green power LED should light. The green/red LEDs associated with each port are for diagnostic purposes and do not indicate that the alert box is on, since they are powered through the communication port. During normal operation, the port LED for each port in use will be green. When an ALERT is received on that port, the LED will turn red for the duration of the alert. During the ALERT time, the audible alarm and the red alarm LED will pulse and the external normally open contact will be closed. Rebooting an <I> or entering RUN_IDP on the <I> will only create an ALERT if there is an unacknowledged alarm in the alarm queue. If there are unacknowledged alarms, one ALERT will be generated.

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CHAPTER 3 <I> SOFTWARE STRUCTURE


3-1. INTRODUCTION Software that allows a properly configured 386 or 486 IBM TM compatible personal computer to be used as an <I> runs under a proprietary disk-operating system known as IDOS. The software is stored in two groups on the <I>s hard disk drive. The two groups, product-specific software and site-specific software, are divided on pseudo or substitute drives. The F: drive contains the site-specific software in various subdirectories. The software common to all turbine control panels is stored in subdirectories on drive G:. The hard drive for a typical factory-configured <I> computer is partitioned to be one logical drive, C:. The following shows a directory tree for C: of a typical <I> computer: C: DOS IDP CONFIG RUNTIME UNIT1 PROM USER DATA EXEC LOG UTILITY CUSTOM The following shows a directory tree for the pseudo drive F: F: RUNTIME UNIT1 PROM USER The following shows a directory tree for the pseudo drive G: G: CONFIG DATA EXEC LOG

As shown in the directory trees, drives F: and G: are actually subdirectories of the IDP directory of the C: drive. The pseudo drives are established by commands in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file which is executed when <I> is started. Programs running under IDOS require the above pseudo drive and directory structure for proper operation of the <I> and the transmission of data to and from the unit control panel(s).

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3-2. IDOSTHE <I>'s COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM IDOS schedules the <I>s microprocessor tasks in order to support the operation, control and protection of the turbine and driven device. IDOS is priority-based and interrupt-driven with preemptive scheduling. Tasks are scheduled with a priority code of 0 to 15, with priority 0 as the lowest and priority 15 the highest. Because of its interrupt-driven, preemptive nature, an interrupt with a higher priority code takes precedence over other tasks being executed at the time the interrupt is received. MS-DOS, which runs under IDOS on the <I>, has a priority code of 4. Optimum priority scheduling is done by GEDS and cannot be configured by the user. When invoked during the start-up (via the AUTOEXEC.BAT file), IDOS becomes the top-level operating system. Its main purpose is to enable real-time communications with the control panel(s), particularly for alarm annunciation purposes. Several precautions should be taken when loading and running other DOS-based programs on the <I>. The use of RAM disks is not recommended as the amount of extended memory available on a typical factory-configured <I> does not accommodate RAM disks. <I> operation is not increased by expanded or extended memory managers and they are not recommended.

CAUTION
The use of RAM disks, memory managers, and programs requiring expanded or extended memory may cause memory resource allocation problems when run under IDOS and is not recommended. Installation of software not supplied or authorized by GEDS may adversely affect system performance.

3-2.1. Root Directory The top level or root directory of the <I> systems C: drive contains the following minimum files: AUTOEXEC.BAT is the batch file executed automatically upon start-up to run the IDOS operating system and enable the menu and display system of <I>. COMMAND.COM is the command processor that reads, analyzes and performs computer instructions entered from the keyboard at the DOS prompt ( > ). MSMOUSE.COM is used to enable the mouse or trackball. CONFIG.SYS contains PC configuration commands. NOTE Modifying the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, the CONFIG.SYS file, or deleting, renaming or moving files or directories provided with the <I> without the consent of GEDS is not recommended.

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3-2.1.1. DRIVE F: FILES. The top level of the pseudo drive F: contains the following site-specific configuration files:

CONFIG.DAT is the master site configuration file. It specifies items such as how many units exist on the site and the unit names and subdirectory names containing all the unit specific information. It also contains network information about what communication links exist out of the <I> and which units can be reached on those links. ARCNET.DAT contains information necessary for configuring/enabling the ARCNET card for communication with the Mark V through the Stage Link. IO_PORTS.DAT contains information about the configuration of the parallel and serial ports of the <I> for communicating with printers and MODBUS communication links. DYNAMIC.BIN contains dynamic system settings such as logging, passwords, etc.
3-2.1.2. DRIVE F: SUBDIRECTORIES. Subdirectories on the drive F: contain the following information/files:

\RUNTIME contains all the runtime data files created by programs running under IDOS. Programs check this directory for display-related data files (User Defined Displays, Main Menu, Logic Forcing recall points, Trip History data, etc.). Configuration files in the F:\RUNTIME subdirectory include: *.A0, A1, A2,...A8 contain specific code defining the animated displays. A0 A1 A2 A8 Generic Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 8

MENU.DAT contains information defining the layout and the displays available from the Main Menu. DEMANDnn.BIN contains user-defined Display Menu definitions \USER is the default subdirectory specified in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file run during start-up of the <I>. Some programs create data files in the current default directory such as screen copy programs. If the current default directory has not changed, the data files output by these programs could be found here. \UNITn is created for each unit being controlled by an <I>, where n is equal to the unit designator number (up to a maximum of eight units/subdirectories). Files which make up the Data Dictionary and EEPROM images for a unit are stored in its unitspecific directory and should always be kept there. The files in each unit-specific subdirectory which comprise the Data Dictionary for each unit are as follows: SCLEDATA.DAT contains the pointname scaling data information used to convert signal data from raw binary units to engineering units for display on the <I>. UNITDATA.DAT contains basic information about each signal (logic or real) of the unit, including its name, memory location, point type, scale code, command information, and internal point number. ENUMDATA.DAT contains the enumerated data strings for the enumerated data types. Enumerated data is used to "describe" the operational state of the unit such as OFF, SYNCHRONIZING, LOADING, COOLDOWN ON, etc. ALARM.DAT contains the text messages for each Process Alarm drop and for each Diagnostic Alarm drop. \UNITn\PROM are Mark V Control Panel processor PROM-related files. They are used by IDOS programs such as the I/O Configurator, the CSP Documenter, the Control Sequence Editor, the Control Sequence Compiler, and others. The files in

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this sub-directory must match the BBL and memory location information stored in the processor PROMs for proper configuration and operation of the Mark V Control Panel.
3-2.1.3. DRIVE G: SUBDIRECTORIES. Subdirectories on drive G: contain the following information/files:

\EXEC contains all the executable files/programs that form the basic <I> and any batch files used during start-up or execution. \DATA contains any data files which programs require that are not site-specific. It also contains any generic data files which might be used before any site-specific data files are created. Programs using data files look for and use any files found in site-specific directories on drive F: first. They only use the generic data files if no site-specific files can be found. \LOG contains the output from various programs which might be important for debugging or troubleshooting purposes. Error log files and normal start-up files are stored here. \CONFIG contains the site and unit configuration files. See Section 3.2.1.1.

3-3. <I> HARD DISK BACK-UP To prevent permanent loss of valuable data and work, backup the <I> hard disk drive routinely. There are three levels of back-up that are recommended: Complete hard disk drive. Backup all of the C: drive after installation is complete and if changes are made to the operating system with disks supplied from GEDS. Since the F: and G: drives are pseudo drives assigned as a subdirectory of C:, the data in these directories is saved at the same time. This back-up could be used to rebuild the system after a catastrophic loss of the hard disk. F:\UNITn Unit configuration files on the F: pseudo drive. This directory (or directories) should be backed-up after any configuration or sequencing changes, such as new I/O points added, Control Sequence Editor changes, or a control constant change. F:\RUNTIME and F:\USER should be routinely backed-up for display modifications and any screen images that were saved.

CAUTION

During the back-up or restoration of a hard disk, that specific <I> cannot be controlling the turbine(s). If it is necessary to run the turbine(s) during this time, other control systems such as other <I>s or <BOI>s must be utilized. It is necessary to exit the IDOS operating system to perform any back-up. To exit IDOS, type IDOSEXIT at the DOS prompt. Once the back-up is complete, type RUN_IDP to return to the IDOS system or turn off the <I> momentarily. Before backing up the hard disk, it is recommended that a system disk is made. This disk can be made by typing SYS A: at the DOS prompt with a new floppy disk in the A: drive. The system disk should include the following files: COMMAND.COM, IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS - these should be copied by the SYS command AUTOEXEC.BAT, CONFIG.SYS, MSMOUSE.COM - these files are needed to initialize the <I> MSBACKUP*.* - with DOS version 6 or later (or BACKUP.* and RESTORE.* with versions less than 6) are the programs necessary to restore the hard disk MSAV*.* - anti-virus software to protect the system from computer viruses (DOS version 6 or later)

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Various methods are available to back-up the hard disk drive. For computers using versions of DOS before 6.0, the DOS BACKUP command is available in the C:\DOS subdirectory. Consult the DOS documentation for details or type BACKUP /? at the DOS prompt. The DOS RESTORE command is the complement to the BACKUP command; RESTORE rebuilds the C: drive to the configuration that was saved using the BACKUP command. Consult the DOS documentation or type RESTORE /? at the DOS prompt. For computers using DOS version 6.0 or later, the equivalent command is MSBACKUP, which is available in the C:\DOS subdirectory. For details, consult the DOS 6.0 documentation or type MSBACKUP at the DOS prompt. The DOS backup utilities will not work with puesdo or substituted drives (F: or G:); remove the substitutations before doing a backup. The substitutions can be removed by entering SUBST /D at the C:> prompt. File compression software reduces the size of some of the files and therefore, the number of disks needed to back-up the hard disk. See the manufacturers directions. Although other methods, such as removable hard disk drives, magnetic tape units, and commercially available back-up software may also be used, none are supported by GEDS.

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CHAPTER 4 SOFTWARE TOOLS


4-1. INTRODUCTION The operator interface uses software (program) to troubleshoot and set up the Mark V control system. This Chapter describes several of these software "tools." They are not arranged in any particular order, because different situations may require the use of one or more of these tools in a different sequence.

4-2. DYNAMIC RUNG DISPLAY The Dynamic Rung Display locates and monitors the values of all parameters ("passed" or "automatic" / "logic" or "analog") that are used on any specific block of Big Block Language (BBL) code. BBL consists of primitive, generic and application specific big blocks. A big block is a section or sub-routine of software that performs a specific function. Therefore, the Dynamic Rung Display is an excellent tool for stepping through the control programming of a Mark V. The following sections describe how to use the program. For additional information on BBLs, see Chapter 5 (Control Sequence Editor) and Appendix C of the Turbine Control Application Manual, GEH-6195. Unlike the Control Sequence Editor, the Dynamic Rung Display is used for monitoring purposes only. The units control sequence program cannot be altered using this program. The following sections define the operation of the Dynamic Rung Display.

4-2.1. BBL (Sequencing/Non-sequencing) BBL is a programming language that uses blocks of standardized control functions consisting of parameters ("passed" and/or "automatic"), and/or Primitives. BBLs are used for a specific application or function and can be defined as either sequencing or non-sequencing. Sequencing BBLs consist entirely of Relay Ladder Diagrams (RLDs). These diagrams may be used in conjunction with Primitives. They are the only BBLs that have sub-rungs associated with them. Selecting the source code (SRC) target changes the display currently shown to a dynamic "picture" of the logic used within the sub-rung. This picture is derived from the SRC or source/picture code (SPC) files and are accessed by the dynamic rung display. Since the BBL: ALARMS_MISC_L1 shown in Figure 4-1 consists entirely of RLDs and Primitives, it is considered a sequencing BBL. NOTE To view the "picture" of a sequencing BBL, use the Dynamic Rung Display to access the SRC or SPC file.

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L30TF

L30TFX

L63TFH1

Primitive: TMV L63TH1H_ALM K63TF1H_ALM T63TF1H_ALM 0.0 sec 0.0 sec

PIC L30RHFLT L30RHFLTX

L26CTH

L26CTH_ALM

L26BT1H L27MC1N

L26BT1H_ALM Primitive: TMV L27MC1N_ALM K27MC1N_ALM T27MC1N_ALM 0.0 sec 0.0 sec

PIC L49X L49X_ALM

L27BLN

L27MC1N

Primitive: TMV L27BLN_ALM K27BLN_ALM K27BLN_ALM 0.0 sec 0.0 sec PIC

L64D_P

L41FY

L64D

L64D_N

L27DZ

Primitive: TMV 0.0 sec 0.0 sec PIC

L27DZ_ALM

L4

Primitive: CMP L49X TNH TNL 0.00% 0.00% PIC

LSC1

L64F

Figure 4-1. Sequencing BBL: ALARMS_MISC_L1


Non-sequencing BBLs are used to perform "analog" type calculations. Non-sequencing BBLs usually consist of several parameters (passed and/or automatic) that are manipulated by one or more Primitives. The BBL: FSRMANV2 in Figure 4-2, uses various inputs and Primitives such as clamps and multipliers to calculate desired outputs. Non-sequencing BBLs do not have sub-rungs associated with them. Instead, they have PIC files that can be accessed by clicking on the PIC target.

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NOTE Non-sequencing BBLs have F:\UNITn\PROM\*.PIC files that permit viewing picture files. These PIC files are available for printout.
FSRMANV2 - MANUAL FUEL STROKE REFERENCE FSRMAX >A L60FSRG cur_seg_time A>B-< > B FSKRMAN1 max >clmp -1 min x _ / + MED FSRMAN FSRMAN_CMD + _/ OSEL//< >O + 0 - -1 Z pup-init FSRMAX L43FSRS >( FSR > (/ /

Figure 4-2. BBL: FSRMANV2


4-2.1.1. PRIMITIVE. Primitive is a software construction that consists of parameters (passed and/or automatic), and relatively

simple algorithms such as Add, Subtract, Multiply, Time Delay (TMV), Compare (A>B), and such. Primitives are used as "modules" within BBLs and RLDs to simplify the programming process.
4-2.1.2. PARAMETERS -PASSED/AUTOMATIC. Parameters are signal point names that can be either passed or automatic

parameters. Both are used in BBLs (sequencing and non-sequencing) and Primitives. Passed Parameters are signal points that are passed to and from BBLs and Primitives. They are user-definable in the Control Sequence Editor and are shown by the Dynamic Rung Display as merely parameters (parameters = passed parameters). They are accessed by selecting the PAR target. Automatic Parameters are not user-definable and are configured by GEDS. These signal points are shown by the Dynamic Rung Display as automatics (Automatics = automatic parameters). They can be accessed by selecting the AUTO target.
4-2.1.3. PARAMETERS -ANALOG/LOGIC. Analog parameters (passed or automatic) are signal point definitions having values other than zero or one. The range can vary and is determined by its scaling. Logic parameters (passed or automatic) can have values of one or zero only. They are typically used to define logic states such as ON and OFF. 4-2.1.4. LOGIC STATES. A parameter that is a software "logic" can have several different states other than "picked up" or

"dropped out." The Dynamic Rung Display only displays the value of the logical parameter as it relates to the value in <C>. It does not matter what value the parameter has in <R>, <S>, and <T>. The following are descriptions of all the possible states a logic can be in as well as the Dynamic Rung Displays representation of each of these states. A white on black contact or coil indicates no power flow in the normal state. A solid green box or circle indicates power flow through any contact or coil.

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A solid green box or circle with an "F" (or ">") in the middle indicates Forced power flow through the contact or coil. An empty yellow box or circle with an "F" (or ">") in the middle indicates no power flow due to a Force. A "?" indicates that the logical name is not defined in the database. An inverted coil is shown as a coil with a "/" through it. An inverted coil with a <C> value of "0" is considered to be picked up and therefore is shown as a solid green coil with a "/" through it. A contact from an inverted coil is shown as normal. For example, if an inverted coil has a <C> value of "0" then a normally open contact would appear to be open (no green), and a normally closed contact would appear closed (with a green identifier). NOTE The Dynamic Rung Display only shows the logic states of parameters as they relate to their current value in <C>.

4-2.2. Position Indicator The position indicator is the area under the User-defined Display that refers to either: The position of the current rung within its segment. For example, the caption Segment 2 of 3 SEQU_XX: 2 of 5 reveals that the BBL currently being viewed is in the second segment (2 of 3), and that it is the second of five rungs (see Figure 4-6). The position of the current sub-rung within the sequencing rung (BBL). For example, selecting SRC while viewing the main display of BBL: ALARMS_MISC_L1 would show a position indicator Sequencing BBL ALARMSL1.SRC : 1 of 12 indicating that the sub-rungs in the sequencing BBL: ALARMSL1.SPC are being viewed and this sub-rung is one of 12 sub-rungs.

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4-2.3. User Status Box The User Status Box available in the Dynamic Rung Display is the rectangular area in Figure 4-3 that contains TNH, FSR, TTXM, CPD, CSGV and their respective values. It is shown in all Rungs and Sub-rungs, except when viewing PIC files. The User Status Box is user programmable utilizing the format as described in Chapter 5 of the Applications Manual, GEH-6195. The User Status Box can contain any of the supported animator items, text or graphics. The file F:\RUNTIME\USER.A defines what is displayed in the User Status Box. Improper use of the F:\RUNTIME\USER.A file causes unpredictable displays such as overwriting of variables and graphics.

4-2.4. Positioning Targets Positioning targets locate and view specific segments, rungs, BBLs, Primitives, or parameters. The Dynamic Rung Displays positioning targets are as follows: Goto Jump jumps the display to the specified rung number. If the number is greater than the number of rungs in the current segment, the next segment is used. If the number is preceded by a plus or minus (+ or -), the number is used as a relative value, for example, +5 = 5. Press Enter (not Execute), for the Dynamic Rung Display to accept a Goto Jump command. If this target is not selected within five seconds of Goto Jump, the process is aborted. Search Name: enters the name to be searched. All letters (A-Z and a-z) and numbers (0-9) are valid entries. In addition, wild card characters are permitted (*/?). For example, both L30* or K?8 are both valid entries. Press Enter (not Execute), to accept Search Name:. If this target is not selected within five seconds of an entry, the process is aborted. Once a valid Search Name is entered, select Find Coil or Find All to carry out the search. The Execute function key must then be used to Find Coil or Find All. Find Coil searches for coils only. When selected, this target instructs the Dynamic Rung Display to search for the name of the coil entered in Search Name:. Find Coil is used only to find a coil of an RLD. It is not used to find where a Parameter is written to. If Find Coil is used while viewing rungs, only the coils in the RLD rungs are found. To find where a Parameter is written to, the user must click on the Find All target repeatedly, and then click on either the PIC or SRC targets to look at the particular Parameter (see section 4-2.8). The Find Coil function can only be effectively used when looking for coils in RLD rungs or after selecting SRC, thereby looking at the RLD sub-rungs. Find All searches for the next occurrence of the name entered into the Search Name: field. The search includes all segments downward from the displays current position. If the name is found, the rung is displayed and the name highlighted. BBL, Primitives, and parameters can be searched. Comments cannot be searched. Press any key, except ESC, F1, F8, or a non-target, to abort a search. Goto Top returns the display to the first rung of the first segment (the top of the file). Prev Rung displays the previous rung, same as the Page Up function. Next Rung displays the next rung, same as the Page Down function. Prev Seg moves the display to the first rung in the previous segment. Next Seg moves the display to the first rung in the next segment. Return Main is displayed after selecting the SRC target. It returns user to the main BBL Display of the sequencing BBL. Rung Display is displayed after the PIC target is selected. It returns to the rung display from a PIC display. Show Name shows the names of all passed parameters.

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Show Value shows the values of all passed parameters. If a picture is too large to show on the screen, the following four targets enable viewing of the entire PIC file. They are displayed only after the PIC target is selected. Scroll Right moves to the right on the PIC display. Scroll Left moves to the left on the PIC display. Scroll Up moves upward on the PIC display. Scroll Down moves downward on the PIC display.

4-2.5. Parameter/Picture Targets Parameter/Picture targets are located in the lower right-hand corner of the display just above the position indicator. AUTO displays the automatics of the algorithm. MORE views more parameters (passed or automatic) of the current BBL when it contains more than 57. Continually clicking on the MORE target while viewing a particular BBL results in a scrolling through of all the parameters (passed or automatic) of that BBL. PAR displays the passed parameters of a particular BBL. PIC displays the respective *.PIC file. SRC displays either the source file (*.SRC) or source/picture file (*.SPC) depending on which one exists.

4-2.6. Executing/Exiting Dynamic Rung Display To start the Dynamic Rung Display, select RUNG DISPLAY from the main menu, or type Anim Rung at the DOS prompt.

To exit the Dynamic Rung Display, press F1 or the Esc key, or click on EXIT, MAIN DISPLAY, or ALARM DISPLAY. The following sections show how targets affect the Dynamic Rung Display. The screens represent actual Dynamic Rung Displays, however, the data shown such as BBLs, Primitives, RLDs, parameters, comments, and such is furnished as an example only.

4-2.6.1. FINDING BBL. To reach the main display of non-sequencing BBL: L39VV5 perform the following steps.

1. Start the Dynamic Rung Display (see section 4-2.6). 2. Click on Search Name: and type L39VV* or L39VV5 and press Enter. 3. Click on Find All then EXECUTE COMMAND . This reveals the screen in Figure 4-3. For other methods on finding BBLs, Primitives, and parameters using the Dynamic Rung Display see section 4-2.13.

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Figure 4-3. Non-sequencing BBL:L39VV5


4-2.6.2. SELECTING AUTO. From the screen shown in Figure 4-3, select AUTO. This reveals the screen shown in Figure

4-4. When viewing the Automatics, PAR can be selected to view the "passed" parameters. Likewise, when viewing "passed" parameters , AUTO can be selected to view the Automatics. Both parameters and Automatics cannot be viewed simultaneously with the Dynamic Rung Display.

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Figure 4-4. Automatics of Non-sequencing BBL: L39VV5


4-2.6.3. SELECTING MORE. From the screen shown in Figure 4-4, select MORE. This reveals the screen shown in Figure

4-5. The Dynamic Rung Display shows only 57 parameters. If a BBL has more than 57 parameters such as BBL: L39VV5 with 109 Automatics (see Figure 4-5), a MORE target appears that allows the user to view Automatics 58 to 114. The MORE target appears for both passed and automatic parameters as needed.

4-2.6.4. SELECTING PAR. From the screen shown in Figure 4-5, select MORE. This reveals the screen in Figure 4-3.

Selecting AUTO then PAR merely toggles the viewing area between the two displays.

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Figure 4-5. More Automatics of Non-sequencing BBL: L39W5


4-2.7. Segments, Rungs, and Sub-rungs Protecting and controlling a turbine requires using BBLs (sequencing and non-sequencing). Understanding how BBLs are defined, arranged, and ordered is imperative for effective use of the Dynamic Rung Display. Further, since the Dynamic Rung Display is primarily used for monitoring and locating BBLs and their corresponding parameters, the user must understand how to move from one BBL to another in relation to both Segments and Sub-Rungs. BBLs are arranged and ordered in the Dynamic Rung Display much like a "tree" structure in DOS. However, instead of directories, files, and contents, the Dynamic Rung Display uses segments, rungs, and sub-rungs respectively. Figure 4-6 shows the layout of several BBLs and their relationship to the various segments and sub-rungs. It is for demonstration purposes only and is not related to any jobs specific Segments, Rungs, and Sub-Rungs.

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GEH-5980E SEG# ---1. Segments -------Rung# Rungs ----- ----Sub-Rung# ---------

Maintenance Manual Sub-Rungs ---------

SEQ_Q 1TITLE 2RLD 3sequencing BBL 1TITLE 2RLD 3RLD W/ Primitive * 11TITLE 4RLD SEQ_XX 1non-sequencing BBL 2non-sequencing BBL 3RLD 4sequencing BBL 1TITLE 2RLD * 8TITLE 5TITLE SEQU_B 1TITLE 2non-sequencing BBL 3TITLE

2.

3.

Figure 4-6. Segments, Rungs, and Sub-Rungs


Each BBL corresponds to a certain rung within a segment. All BBLs are considered rungs and are contained within a given segment. However, not all rungs are BBLs. For example, rung 2 of segment 1 is a RLD and therefore is not considered a BBL. Also, depending on whether the BBL is a sequencing BBL or non-sequencing BBL determines whether it has subrungs. The non-sequencing BBL which is Rung 1 of 5 in Segment SEQU_XX (Segment 2 of 3) has no Sub-Rungs. However, the sequencing BBL in Rung 3 of Segment 1 has Sub-Rungs. This method of segments, rungs, and sub-rungs serves only to keep track of all the BBLs in an orderly fashion.
4-2.7.1. SEGMENTS. A segment is a collection of rungs (BBLs, titles, or RLDs) much like a DOS directory is a collection of files. For example, Segment: SEQU_Q may have 9 Rungs and Segment: SEQU_Z may have 130 Rungs much like a DOS directory called C:\DOS may have 69 files stored in it.

The file that defines and determines which Segments are used and the order they are executed in the Dynamic Rung Display is F:\UNITn\MSTR_SEQ.CFG . Part of the MSTR_SEQ.CFG file is as follows: F:\UNITn\MSTR_SEQ.CFG #Segment #Segment #Segment SEQU_Q SEQU_XX SEQU_B

The following numerical assignments show how the Dynamic Rung Display orders the Segments being used. SEQU_Q is Segment 1 of 3 SEQU_XX is Segment 2 of 3 SEQU_B is Segment 3 of 3

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4-2.7.2. RUNGS. A Rung can be one of four things:

A sequencing BBL (with Sub-rungs), see section 4-2.7.4. A non-sequencing BBL (with no Sub-rungs), see section 4-2.7.5. A title, text message, or some kind of "comment", see section 4-2.7.6. A RLD consisting of contacts, coils, and possibly Primitives, see section 4-2.7.7.

A sequencing BBL_Rung can consist of "passed" parameters, automatics, or both. Also, a sequencing BBL consists of SubRungs. The Sub-Rungs contain the dynamic "pictures" of the RLDs and show the actual arrangement of the contacts and coils as well as the current state of each. The Sub-rungs are accessed selecting the SRC target. When SRC is selected, the Dynamic Rung Display no longer looks at a Rung to Segment positioning indicator. The Dynamic Rung Display now looks at a Sub-rung to Rung positioning indicator. In order to return to the Rung to Segment positioning it is necessary to select Return Main (see Figure 4-9). Section 4-2.7.4 is an example using BBL: L43_AUX_LOGIC to show the effect of selecting SRC from the Main Display.
4-2.7.3. SUB-RUNGS. Sequencing BBLs is the only type of Rung that has Sub-rungs associated with it. Sub-rungs are

accessed by selecting the SRC target when viewing a sequencing BBL. The Sub-rungs are then ordered from beginning to end with the current position being displayed by the position indicator. Select Goto Main to exit Rungs.
4-2.7.4. SELECTING SRC IN A SEQUENCING BBL. From the screen shown in Figure 4-3, perform the following steps to retrieve BBL: L43_AUX_LOGIC, shown in Figure 4-7.

1. Select Goto Top 2. Select Search Name: 3. Type L43_AU* and press Enter. 4. Select Find All

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Figure 4-7. Main Display of Sequencing BBL: L43_AUX_LOGIC


Select SRC, to reach the screen shown in Figure 4-8.

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Figure 4-8. Text Message (Sub-rung 1 of 11) of File L43AUXL1.SPC


The Next Rung target actually performs a "Next Sub-Rung" operation here because while viewing an SRC or SPC file the Sub-rungs are subsets of the Rung. Normally the Rungs are viewed as subsets of Segments. The following steps reveal subrung 5 of 11, shown in Figure 4-9. 1. Select Goto Jump 2. Type 5 and press Enter Next Rung, Prev Rung, PAGE UP, and PAGE DOWN are all targets that scroll through the RLD Sub-rungs of a sequencing BBL. While viewing the Sub-rungs within a sequencing BBL the position indicator Sequencing BBL L43AUXL1.SPC: 5 of 11 is referring only to the Sub-rungs within the BBL (not to the BBLs position within the Segment).

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Figure 4-9. Sub-rung 5 of SRC (L43AUXL1.SPC) File


To return to the main menu where the SRC command was selected , select Return Main. The screen as shown in Figure 4-7 is retrieved. Return Main moves back one level (going from viewing Sub-rungs to viewing Rungs).
4-2.7.5. PIC FILE IN A NON-SEQUENCING BBL. A non-sequencing BBL has no Sub-rungs and therefore the Dynamic

Rung Display provides no SRC target. However, non-sequencing BBLs have related PIC files that are accessible by selecting the PIC target. Once the user selects PIC,the picture file is displayed along with two to seven additional targets. The two targets that are always displayed after selecting PIC are Rung Display and Show Value. NOTE The following section shows how targets affect the Dynamic Rung Display. The screens represent actual Dynamic Rung Displays; however, the data shown such as BBLs, Primitives, RLDs, parameters, comments, and such is furnished as an example only.

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Since BBL: L43_AUX_LOGIC is Rung 6 of 11 in Segment 1 of 3 (see Figure 4-7) and BBL: CMDSTATE is Rung 5 of the same segment, select Prev Rung to reach the Main Display of non-sequencing BBL: CMDSTATE. Figure 4-10 is revealed.

Figure 4-10. Main Display of Non-sequencing BBL: CMDSTATE


Select PIC, Figure 4-11 the PIC file of Non-sequencing BBL: CMSTATE is revealed.

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Figure 4-11. PIC File of Non-sequencing BBL: CMDSTATE


To show the values of passed parameters, select Show Value (see Figure 4-12).

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Figure 4-12. Parameters (passed) of Non-sequencing BBL:CMDSTATE


To return to the Main Display, select Rung Display. Figure 4-10 is revealed.

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4-2.7.6. TEXT MESSAGE. If a Text Message Rung is defined by the sequence editor as a "text message" or "comment", it is displayed by the Dynamic Rung Display in exactly the same manner as it was defined in the Sequence Editor. There are no additional parameter/picture targets (AUTO, PAR, SRC, or PIC). Only the positioning targets are shown (see Figure 4-13).

To reach the Text Message select Goto Top. This is the first display shown when starting the Dynamic Rung Display (Rung 1 of Segment 1).

Figure 4-13. Dynamic Rung Display Text Message (Rung 1 of Segment 1)

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4-2.7.7. RLD RUNG. If an RLD Rung contains contacts, coils, and possibly Primitives, it is displayed by the Dynamic Rung

Display as shown in Figures 4-14 and 4-15. Although this type of BBL Rung looks similar to the Sub-rung structure, it is not considered a Sub-rung since it is not contained within a sequencing BBL. Therefore, it is not necessary to select SRC to view these type of Rungs. However, if the RLD contains a Primitive, the Primitives PIC file can be accessed by selecting the PIC target as shown in Figure 4-14. For an explanation of the "F"s shown in the contacts see section 4-2.1.4. From the screen in Figure 4-13, perform the following steps to reach RLD Rung. 1. Select EXIT or type F8, 2. Restart the Dynamic Rung Display (see section 4-2.6). 3. Select Goto Jump 4. Type 7 and press Enter. Figure 4-14 is revealed.

Figure 4-14. RLD Rung: (Rung 7 of Segment 1).


Select PIC, to reach Figure 4-15, the PIC file of Primitive: CMP.

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Figure 4-15. Primitive: CMP in User-Defined "Ladder Logic" Rung


The parameter/picture target displayed by the Dynamic Rung Display depends on the type of category (one of four) to which a particular Rung belongs. However, the same positioning targets are always displayed with the following exceptions: at Rung 1 of Segment 1 there are no Prev Rung, Prev Seg, or Page Up targets (conditions do not exist) at the last Rung of the last Segment there are no Next Rung, Next Seg, or Page Down targets (conditions do not exist)

The User Display, Alarm Display, and Function targets are always displayed in the same manner regardless of what type of Rung is being viewed.

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4-2.8. Using "Find All" to Find Parameters The positioning targets described in sections 4-2.4 and 4-2.5 are extremely useful to search for a given Parameter and determine what is causing that Parameter to be a certain value or state. For example, to find out why L26CTH is currently a logic "1" the following steps are used: 1. Start the Dynamic Rung Display (see section 4-2.6). 2. Select Search Name: and type L26CTH, press Enter 3. Select Find All. Figure 4-16 is revealed.

Although all the previous examples used Find All to find specific BBLs or Primitives, the example in this section uses Find All to find a specific Parameter. This "chases" a particular Parameter and determines what is causing the Parameter to be the value or state it is. It also enables the user to find what effect this Parameter is having on other parameters. NOTE When selecting Find All and/or Find Coil the Dynamic Rung Display searches from the current position to the end of the file. Therefore, select Goto Top, before selecting Find All or Find Coil, to ensure that all points are found during the search.

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Figure 4-16. Logical Parameter L26CTH


From Figure 4-16, select SRC, Figure 4-17 is revealed. At this point selecting Find Coil would find the coil of L26CTH only if it existed in the Sub-rungs of Sequencing BBL: ALARMSL1.SPC. Selecting Find All finds every place that either a coil or a contact of L26CTH is used in the Sub-rungs of this BBL.

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Figure 4-17. Sub-rung of Logical Parameter L26CTH


Select Find All to find every place that either a coil or a contact of L26CTH is used in the Sub-rung of this BBL (see Figure 4-17). It also shows what is causing the L26CTH coil to be a "1", only if its coil is located within this particular BBL: ALARMS_MISC_L1. Select Find All again, Figure 4-18 is revealed.

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Figure 4-18. Use of the Find All command to find a coil


By selecting Find All the coil of L26CTH was found. Since Primitive: CMP (A>B) is enabled by contact LTRUE (always "1"), and since 77 deg F > 0 deg F, L26CTH is picked up (a "1"). The Dynamic Rung Display shows this by filling in the coil with a solid green color. Select Find All again, Figure 4-19 is revealed.

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Figure 4-19. Use of Find All Target


Selecting "Find All" again shows that L26CTH has a normally open contact in series with a coil: L26CTH_ALM. Since L26CTH is a "1", L26CTH_ALM is driven to a "1" (see Figure 4-20). Select Find All again, Figure 4-20 is revealed.

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Figure 4-20. "No More Occurrences" of Finding Logical Parameter L26CTH


After selecting Find All (again), "No more occurrences" appears below the positioning targets. This means that L26CTH is not used between Sub-rung 6 and 12 of Sequencing BBL: ALARMSL1.SPC. It does not mean that L26CTH is not used in another rung below BBL: ALARMS_MISC_L1. To check for this circumstance, the target Return Main must be selected, followed by successive Find All selections. Search Name: target can be used to find BBLs, parameters (passed or automatic) and Primitives. NOTE When searching for BBLs, and Primitives you must use "Find All" instead of "Find Coil". "Find Coil" is only used to find a coil of a RLD. If "Find Coil" is used while viewing Rungs only coils in RLD Rungs are found. If "Find Coil" is used while viewing Sub-rungs only coils in RLD Sub-rungs are found.

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4-2.9. Files Used by the Dynamic Rung Display \UNITn\Rung.A \UNITn\USER.A \UNITn\MSTR_SEQ.CFG \UNITn\*.SRC \UNITn\Rung_TMP.A \UNITn\Rung.ERR \UNITn\PIC_TMP.A \UNITn\PROM\BIGBLOCK.DEF \UNITn\PROM\PRIMITIVE.DEF \UNITn\PROM\*.PIC \UNITn\PROM\*.SPC (referenced from segment source files) (sequence BBL source files) (from MSTR_SEQ.CFG) (created/deleted by the Dynamic Rung Display) (created by the Dynamic Rung Display. All errors are logged to this file.) (created/deleted by the Dynamic Rung Display) (text file with "Rung" in it used by animator) (called from Rung.A used by animator)

4-3. DIAGNOSTIC DATA DISPLAY (DIAGC) The Diagnostic Data Display (DIAGC) is a view-only program used for troubleshooting and/or statistical data gathering purposes. It permits I/O card data not defined in the control signal database (CDB) to be viewed. Not all data is defined in the CDB because data must be processed or scaled before it can be used by the Turbine Control programs or it is data created by the operating or communication systems of the I/O cards for troubleshooting purposes.

4-3.1. Executing DIAGC The DIAGC can be executed from a menu pick on the Main Menu or from the DOS prompt using the command: DIAGC is located within the <I> product code in the G:\EXEC subdirectory. DIAGC.

When first executed, the DIAGC program displays the following message reminding the user that only qualified individuals should access the software: "DIAGC "is a diagnostic tool for firmware designers and field personnel only. Its purpose is to assist firmware designers in the performance evaluation of the EPROM based programming and to assist field personnel in problem diagnosis. While the program is a "display only" program that poses no threat to the operation of the turbine control, it does not provide Turbine Operation information and should be run by authorized personnel only.

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Figure 4-21. Main Display Menu


4-3.2. Menus The DIAGC is organized in two menu levels. The Main Menu level displays a list of cards from which to select. This menu varies for different applications depending on which cards are in the system and which cards have a diagnostic data interface information coded in PROM. Not all cards in a given system may appear here, some I/O cards (such as the TCDA) perform very little data preprocessing. The Main Menu shows the amount of free memory available in the upper right corner of the display (see Figure 4-21). The amount of free memory does not matter unless it falls below the minimum required to run DIAGC. This could be due to other applications still resident in memory. If there is insufficient free memory the program refuses to enter displays, an error message is displayed, and the user is exited to the DOS prompt or the original program.

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The Main Menu shows the list of cards that are predefined as active cards for this display. Some of these cards have PROM revisions defined in the title such as TCQAG1A (F1AEA v5.1) Diagnostics. If this list shows an incorrect revision of PROM to that identified by the PROM labels, contact the factory for a new data file. PROM revision information is displayed in the Main Menu. Cards are defined in this list by the lowest common revision for which the display works. The display is only correctly defined for the DS200TCQAG1A board with PROM firmware labelled DS200TCQAF1AEA (see Figure 4-22). This means version 5.1 of the TCQA firmware. Another of the menu picks may be for Drive Control Card (DCC) diagnostics. This means that the display is correct for all revisions of the DS200DCCx board and associated firmware.
4-3.2.1. SUB-MENUS. Selecting a card from the menu produces a second level menu or Submenu. Submenus show the

individual data displays available for that particular card (see Figure 4-22). Available displays at this level are predefined by the structure of the data that the card has been preprogrammed to send back to the <I>. Therefore, they vary considerably from card to card.

Figure 4-22. Submenu

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There are two types of Submenu picks: I/O data read in by the data acquisition portion of the I/O card software such as the LVDT data for the TCQA board. performance information gathering software for advanced troubleshooting use only, such as the LCC ARCNET counter display. Consult Product Service Engineering for details. GE Industrial Control Systems Product Service Engineering, Rm. 191 1501 Roanoke Blvd. Salem, VA 24153-6592 USA (540) 387-7595

4-3.2.2. POSITIONING TARGETS. Some positioning targets are standard throughout the <I> operating system. Standard

targets used by DIAGC are as follows: ALARM DISPLAY moves to the <I> alarm display. EXIT moves out of DIAGC to where the program was initiated such as Main Menu or the DOS prompt. MORE OPTIONS shows additional targets to select. MAIN DISPLAY shows list of cards to select. PRINT IMAGE captures a snapshot of the screen and sends it to the printer spooler. SAVE IMAGE stores a copy of the display to the disk. The following targets are defined specifically for DIAGC: MENU returns to the Main Menu. NEXT sequences through Submenu displays. NEXT PRCESSR selects the next processor such as <R>, <S>, or <T>. SUBMENU returns to the Submenu of the selected card. SUBMENU retrieves Submenu of selected card. VIEW shows next Submenu data. At the lower end of the screen is the standard alarm window. Alarms can be silenced by clicking anywhere in the blue area and can be acknowledged by clicking on the alarm status target.

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Figure 4-23. Power Supply Data


4-3.2.3. SELECTING A DISPLAY. Selecting a particular display causes the <I> to establish a communication link to the card

in question and ask for the PROM previously defined data associated with this display. The top right of a display shows the processor that is currently communicating with <I> (in Figure 4-23, it is the <R> processor). The next line shows the number of replies received from the processor. This number increments approximately once per-second as the replies come back from the linked processor or card. This counter returns to zero when 256 replies have been received. If the communication link is not established or the I/O card or communication link fails, the Reply received section turns red to indicate that the data is either stale or invalid. The Reply received section also turns red if the data received is invalid. Contact GEDS Product Service Engineering for assistance.

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Figure 4-24. Milliamp Inputs


The Data shown must be understood before it is assumed valid or invalid. For example, not all power supplies are used in all applications and the P125V and N125V measures these points to ground. In Figure 4-24, not all milliamp inputs are used. Proper interpretation of DIAGC data requires comprehensive system knowledge.

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4-3.3. Associated Files The DIAGC Display is driven by the data file DIAGC.DAT in the PROM subdirectory of the UNITn directory for the given unit. This data file contains all of the screen definitions and the menu structure. For each display, there are text definitions of each line. Included in these text definitions is the scaling information on how to display the fixed point integers reported back by the I/O cards as floating point displays. Instructions on how these are formatted are included in the comments in the data file. This file does not need to be edited on-site as the data is PROM firmware dependent and not site-dependent. When new PROMs are installed in the unit, ones that make changes to the data supplied for the Diagnostic Data Display, a new DIAGC.DAT file may also be required. 4-4. EEPROM DOWNLOADER Control Sequence Programs, Control Constants, Totalizer Data, I/O Configuration information, and point lists for various displays, loggers, and options are some of the critical data stored on EEPROM chips in the Mark V Control Panel. Each processor has one EEPROM chip, located on the DCC card, which holds the information needed by that processor. When the processor is started, information from the EEPROM is copied to RAM, where it used to control and monitor the turbine (see Figure 4-26). The EEPROM Downloader program, run from the Main Menu on the <I>, is used to transfer data to and from the Mark Vs EEPROM chip(s). The critical data is stored on the EEPROM chip in hexadecimal format. With the exception of the I/O configuration information, the data must be compiled to convert from ASCII text to hexadecimal format. Modifications to the Control Sequence Program file(s) must be compiled using the Control Sequence Compiler, while modifications to all the other EEPROM information files are compiled using the Table Compiler TABLE_C. This section describes the EEPROM information file transfer process.

NOTE For modifications downloaded with the EEPROM Downloader to take effect, the processor(s) must be restarted in order for the new information on the EEPROM chip to be transferred to RAM for use by the processor in controlling and/or monitoring the unit.

Upon accessing the EEPROM Downloader from the Main Menu, the user is out of the <I> menu system. EEPROM is an executable file run as an IDOS task.

CAUTION
When running EEPROM Downloader, the <I> is not controlling the turbine. However, the turbine continues to operate at the last setpoint and all Mark V protective functions are operational.

4-4.1. Executing EEPROM Downloader The EEPROM Downloader can be executed from a menu pick of the Main Menu or from the DOS prompt using the command: EEPROM Downloader. Once executed, a Help screen is available at any time by typing HELP at the EEPROM Downloader> prompt. To return to the Main Display from the EEPROM Downloader program, after the prompt EEPROM Downloader> , type EXIT Once in EEPROM, use the format specified in the Help screen (Figure 4-25) to perform one of the options of EEPROM . Enter the two character unit name of the Control Panel using EEPROM. This information is in the CONFIG.DAT file on F: and also in the EEPROM program by typing the wildcard character " ? " for the unit name and processor name in a command. For example, to obtain a list of the valid unit names for the <I>, type the following command after the prompt EEPROM Downloader> DIR ?? ?

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------------------------------------------------------------------Mark V EEPROM downloader, Version 2.2 EEPROM <option> <unit_name> <proc> <sections> Where: <option> is one of { UP | DOWN | DIR | CHECK | NOCHECK } <unit_name> is the name of the desired unit. <proc> is the processor to talk to, one of { R | S | T | C | D } <sections> is ALL or a list of EEPROM partitions, partitions are: FORMAT - Formats (initializes) EEPROM. [Not in USER category] SEQ- Contains sequencing. CONST - Contains control constants. IOCFG - Contains IO configuration. UBBL - Contains User BBL library. HIST - Contains point list for history log. EPA - Contains point list for EPA log. MAOUT - Contains point list for 4-20 Ma outputs. EVENT - Contains point list for events. CHNG - Contains point list for change detection. BOI - Contains point list for backup operator display. TOTT - Contains point list for totalized data. TOTD - Contains totalized data.[Not in USER category] CBLR - Contains point list for cable remote. ------------------------------------------------------------------Figure 4-25 . HELP Screen After obtaining the unit name(s), information can be transferred between <I> and the unit Control Panels. For example, to replace the EEPROM chip in <C> of the Control Panel of Unit Name " T1 ", type the following command at the prompt EEPROM Downloader> DOWN T1 C ALL As in the above example, download all EEPROM information immediately after formatting the EEPROM chip of any processor.

4-4.2. EEPROM Downloader Command <option> The following section describes EEPROM Downloader command options and their uses. UP uploads or transfers point lists and data from the various partitions of the EEPROM chip in the desired processor to the hard-disk files of <I>. Data can be uploaded for back-up purposes, when the EEPROM chip or the DCC card is being replaced, or to prepare the point lists or data for modification, when possible. NOTE Periodically, the Totalizer Data, point list files, and formatting information should be uploaded to the <I>s hard disk using EEPROM Downloader. If a card failure (DCC Card) should occur, this information can be downloaded in order to restore this critical data.

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EEPROM DOWNLOADER

Formats, Sequencing, Control Constants, Data, and Point Lists

Processor EEPROM Chip


All information transferred to RAM on power-up or re-boot of processor

Control Constants and Totalizer Data ONLY stored on EEPROM by commands

EEPROM Update

Operator-initiated command Automatic command

CONTROL CONSTANT Adjust

Processor RAM

Totalizer Data gathered from and acted on in RAM

TOTALIZER

Control Constants modified in RAM

CONTROL

LOGGING

MONITORING

PROTECTION

11

Figure 4-26. Processor EEPROM to RAM Data Transfer and Storage

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CBLR_*.SRC TOTT_*.SRC BIO_Q*.SRC CHNG_*.SRC EVENT_*.SRC MAOUT_*.SRC EPA_*.SRC QSEG_0n.SRC HIST_*.SRC BSEG_0n.SRC CONST_*.SRC

Maintenance Manual

CFG.DAT IO_CFG.DAT

CONTROL SEQUENCE COMPILER


SEQ_B.DAT SEQ_Q.DAT

TABLE COMPILER

I/O CONFIGURATOR

CONST_*.DAT HIST_*.DAT EPA_*.DAT MAOUT_*.DAT T EVENT_*.DAT CHNG_*.DAT BIO_Q*.DAT TOTT_*.DAT CBLR_*.DAT UBBL_*.DAT

IOCFG_D.DAT IOCFG_CDAT IOCFG_Q.DAT

TOTD_*.DAT

FORMAT_*.DAT

* B or Q

EEPROM DOWNLOADER

Processor EEPROM Chip


Figure 4-27. EEPROM Downloader

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DOWN downloads or transfers point lists and data which are to be stored in the EEPROM chip from <I> to the EEPROM chip in the desired processor. Data may be downloaded to the EEPROM chip on the DCC card after the EEPROM chip or the DCC card is replaced, after modification and compilation of the point lists or data, to initialize a new EEPROM chip being installed on a DCC card, or to reinitialize an existing EEPROM, when necessary. NOTE Prior to downloading, data must be compiled to convert the information to a hexadecimal format. Failure to compile the modified files results in the downloading of old information to the EEPROM rather than the modified point lists or data files. DIR provides a list including the date when each EEPROM section file was compiled. This option lists the information for all sections as follows. DIR T1 S DIRECTORY OF UNIT T1 PROCESSOR S: Partition offset size --------date-------SEQ 4000 07F2 18-OCT-1991 14:33:20 CONST 1000 07DC 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 IOCFG 2000 031A 22-OCT-1991 09:21:00 UBBL 0000 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 HIST 0000 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 EPA 0000 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 MAOUT 0000 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 EVENT 0000 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 CHNG 0000 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 BOI 0900 0002 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 TOTT 0D00 0016 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 TOTD 3000 0FE8 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 CBLR 0E00 0006 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 22 -OCT-1991 10:00:19 cksum -id50F1 SEQ 0A33 CNST CACC IO 0000 UBL 0000 HIST 0000 EPA 0000 4-20 0000 EVNT 0000 CHNG CAFE BOI 0385 TOTT CAFE TOTD 0000 CBLR

CHECK performs a checksum comparison of all of the EEPROM section files and lists the results. This option lists the information for all of the sections as follows: CHECK T1 S CHECKSUM TEST Partition SEQ CONST IOCFG UBBL HIST EPA MAOUT EVENT CHNG BOI TOTT TOTD CBLR OF UNIT offset 4000 1000 2000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0900 0D00 3000 0E00 T1 PROCESSOR S: size --------date-------07F2 18-OCT-1991 14:33:20 07DC 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 031A 22-OCT-1991 09:21:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0002 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0016 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0FE8 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0006 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 22 -OCT-1991 10:00:51 cksum -id- -status50F1 SEQ OK 0A33 CNST OK CACC IO OK 0000 UBL <NO DATA> 0000 HIST <NO DATA> 0000 EPA <NO DATA> 0000 4-20 <NO DATA> 0000 EVNT <NO DATA> 0000 CHNG <NO DATA> CAFE BOI OK 0385 TOTT OK CAFE TOTD OK CAFE CBLR OK

NOCHECK disables a checksum comparison of the defined section. For example, type the following command after the prompt EEPROM Download> NOCHECK T1 S CBLR The following message would appear on the screen: CBLR OK Checksums will not be done for this partition.

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and a subsequent command to perform a checksum comparison gives the following display: CHECKSUM TEST Partition SEQ CONST IOCFG UBBL HIST EPA MAOUT EVENT CHNG BOI TOTT TOTD CBLR OF UNIT offset 4000 1000 2000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0900 0D00 3000 0E00 T1 PROCESSOR S: size --------date-------07F2 18-OCT-1991 14:33:20 07DC 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 031A 22-OCT-1991 09:21:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0000 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0002 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0016 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0FE8 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 0006 01-JAN-1980 00:00:00 22 -OCT-1991 10:00:51 cksum -id- -status50F1 SEQ OK 0A33 CNST OK CACC IO OK 0000 UBL <NO DATA> 0000 HIST <NO DATA> 0000 EPA <NO DATA> 0000 4-20 <NO DATA> 0000 EVNT <NO DATA> 0000 CHNG <NO DATA> CAFE BOI OK 0385 TOTT OK CAFE TOTD OK CAFE CBLR <NO CHKSM>

To re-enable the checksum comparison download the section information using the DOWN option. This option has no effect on turbine operation or control and may be useful only in certain troubleshooting situations. EEPROM UNIT NAME must be specified for each application. Unit name(s) are found in the file CONFIG.DAT on the F: drive. The section of the CONFIG.DAT file that defines the unit names/numbers is shown as follows (the site is a single unit steam turbine installation, and the unit name assigned to the steam turbine is S1): ; ;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------; ; This section defines the unit numbers, unit names, and the path to the ; directory that contains the unit information. Each line contains the ; unit number (decimal), the unit name (2 char max), and the path to the ; unit configuration data (64 char max). The unit numbers should be in ; order, and if a unit number is repeated, the last entry wins. ; ; UNIT UNIT PATH TO ; NUMBER NAME CONFIG DATA ; --------------------------------UNIT_DATA 1 S1 F:\UNIT1 ; ;----------------------------------------------------------------------------; EEPROM DOWNLOADER PROCESSOR NAME specifies the processor for information to be uploaded, downloaded, or otherwise acted on each time a command is executed using EEPROM.

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4-4.3. EEPROM Downloader Command <sections> Four types of information are saved to the EEPROM chip by EEPROM Downloader. The following section describes command sections and their uses. For more information see the Application Manual, GEH-6195, Chapter 3. Control Sequence Files SEQ is specified to download or upload the Control Sequence files, SEQ_B.DAT and/or SEQ_Q.DAT. Table Files Table files start as ASCII text files (*.SRC) and are compiled using the table compiler program (TABLE_C). The following commands can be specified to transfer data to and from the <I> using EEPROM. Command CONST HIST EPA MAOUT EVENT CHNG BOI TOTT CBLR Transfers Data Files Control Constants that are used to configure and tune-up. CONST_B.DAT CONST_Q.DAT Point list data files for the historical log. HIST_B.DAT HIST_Q.DAT Point list data file for emissions monitoring EPA_B.DAT EPA_Q.DAT User defined 4-20 mA analog output. MAOUT_B.DAT MAOUT_Q.DAT Point list data file for event log. EVENT_B.DAT EVENT_Q.DAT Point list data file for analog change detection. CHNG_B.DAT CHNG_Q.DAT User defined modifications to the back-up operator display. BOI_B.DAT BOI_Q.DAT Point list data file for totalizer data information. TOTT_B.DAT TOTT_Q.DAT Point list data files for cable remote. CBLR_B.DAT CBLR_Q.DAT

I/O Configuration Files IOCFG is specified to download I/O Configuration information to the individual processors from <I> using files IOCFG_D.DAT, IOCFG_C.DAT, and/or IOCFG_Q.DAT

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Special Functions and Data Command FORMAT Transfers Data Files Prepare the EEPROM chips to receive data, similar to the DOS command all information on the disk is lost. FORMAT_B.DAT FORMAT_Q.DAT Transfers user specific BBLs from <I> to the Control Panel. UBBL_B.DAT UBBL_Q.DAT Transfers totalizer data such as unit timers, counters, fuel flows, and steam flows. TOTD_B.DAT TOTD_Q.DAT NOTE When an EEPROM chip is formatted, all existing data is lost and the related processor can no longer be used to control a turbine. It is imperative that the EEPROM DOWN command be executed successfully before it is possible to return the processor to service. To simplify and modernize the downloading process, two special commands were developed. ALL is specified to download or upload, ALL the sections in the unit name specified. Steps that occur include, EPROM chips are formatted and all files are transferred to and from <I>. This section is especially useful in performing EEPROM back-ups to the <I>s hard-disk files. USER is specified in the section command to download or upload all of the above sections (with the exception of FORMAT and TOTD). It is similar to the ALL command, except it does not format the EEPROM chip or overwrite the totalizer data. This section is useful in downloading the "user" modifiable files at unit start-up or when changes to multiple sections have been performed. The following are examples in using the <section> commands. To download Control Constants to <S> processor of unit named S1, type the following command after the prompt EEPROM Downloader> DOWN S1 S CONST where DOWN is the direction of the flow of information (from <I> to the EEPROM), S1 is the Unit Name (from the file CONFIG.DAT), S is the processor location, and CONST is the operation the user is performing. Modified Control Constants can be backed-up from the processor to <I> using the UP option. For example, to back-up Control Constants modified in <C> of unit name T2, type the following command after the prompt EEPROM Downloader> UP T2 C CONST To format the EEPROM chip on <C> with unit name T1, type the following after the prompt EEPROM Downloader> DOWN T1 C FORMAT. To download the historical log point list or the <C> processor of the unit named S1, type the following command after the prompt EEPROM Downloader> DOWN S1 C HIST Historical log point list(s) may be backed-up to <I> using the UP option. To download I/O Configuration information/changes to <T> processor of unit name T3, type the following command after the prompt EEPROM Downloader> DOWN T3 T IOCFG.

UBBL TOTD

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4-5. REVERSE TABLE COMPILER The Reverse Table Compiler is an <I> processor tool that allows the user to convert binary data files (*.DAT) retrieved from Mark V panel EEPROM memory into source files (.SRC). Using an ASCII text editor, these files can be read and if necessary, altered. NOTE Comments included in EEPROM source files are lost when the file is compiled to be downloaded. Files received from EEPROM memory and converted to a .SRC format through the Reverse Table Compiler are also without comments.

4-5.1. Executing Reverse Table Compiler Executing the Reverse Table Compiler requires Maintenance level password enabling. The program can be executed from a menu pick in the Main Menu or from the DOS prompt, type REVX_TAB. In both procedures the Help screen in Figure 428 is displayed. REVX_TAB: Reverse table compiler for Mark V EEPROM. Command format: REVX_TAB <table> <table> V1.1

<table> ... <table> /SCALE=<scalefile>

Where <table> can be "ALL", or any of the following data tables: CONST - Contains control constants data. HIST - Contains point data for history log. EPA - Contains point data for EPA log. MAOUT - Contains point data for 4-20 mA outputs. EVENT - Contains point data for events. CHNG - Contains point data for change detection. BOI - Contains point data for backup operator interface. TOTT - Contains point data for totalized data. CBLR - Contains point data for cable remote. Where /SCALE=<scalefile> is optional and will default if omitted to file "ENGLISH.SCA" for scaling information. No spaces are permitted in the string "/SCALE=<scalefile>". Example: REVX_TAB CONST EPA CBLR /SCALE=METRIC.SCA

Figure 4-28. Help Screen


Use the format specified in the Help screen to convert uploaded EEPROM data. Type REVX_TAB followed by one or more of the listed table definitions, CONST, HIST, EPA, MAOUT, EVENT, and so on. The final parameter to be entered is the scaling information. Select one of the four available scaling options, ENGLISH, METRIC, CUSTOM, or HARDWARE . Omitting the scaling option causes the program to default to the English scale type when converting the EEPROM data file (see Figure 4-28). When the program has completed the conversion process, it displays the following message: <*.SRC> Building <#> entries from filename <"filename"> REVX_TAB processing complete If the program was unable to locate the EEPROM data file to execute the conversion, the following warning is displayed: <filename.SRC> WARNING: Skipping file creation: null data file encountered

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Inserting a scale command in the REVX_TAB command line that has no corresponding scale file (*.SCA) causes the following error message: <filename> ERROR: Unable to read scale data file <file.SCA>

4-6. MK5MAKE.BAT Any time changes are made to any of the assignment files, the source Table Files, or the CSP segment source files, the changes must be incorporated into the files which will ultimately be downloaded to the Mark V control panel. Several programs must usually be manually executed in a specific order from the DOS command line of the unit-specific directory. Some have the names of files or options specified on the command line in order for the changes to become effective. MK5MAKE.BAT is a batch file which automatically executes those programs in succession with the proper filenames and options. MK5MAKE.BAT must be executed in the unit-specific directory as it uses and creates files in the unit-specific directory, and uses files in the unit-specific PROM subdirectory. The flow-chart in Figure 4-30 illustrates the programs executed by MK5MAKE.BAT.

4-6.1. OPERATION When run from the DOS command line of the unit-specific directory, MK5MAKE.BAT first executes the program DDLOCATE.EXE and specifies four assignment files to be used by DDLOCATE; IO.ASG, FACTORY.ASG, ALLOCSSP.ASG, and SITE.ASG. DDLOCATE uses the specified assignment files, the ENGLISH.SCA scale code file, and accesses three files in the PROM subdirectory in order to create a new unsorted, un-validity-checked UNITDATA.DAT file. Any messages generated by DDLOCATE are reported to the screen and written to a log file, MK5MAKE.LOG. This log file, which contains any messages generated by the programs executed by MK5MAKE.BAT can be viewed using any ASCII text editor and printed, if necesssary. Next, MK5MAKE.BAT executes the program DDUTIL.EXE with the sort option specified. DDUTIL sorts the UNITDATA.DAT file and validity-checks it to determine if the same CDB pointname has been used for more than one CDB memory location/point. It writes the results of the sorting into a new UNITDATA.DAT file. Any error or warning messages generated as a result of the sorting and validity-checking are reported to the screen and written to MK5MAKE.LOG.

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MK5MAKE.BAT

ENGLISH.SCA DDLOCATE IO.ASG FACTORY.ASG ALLOCSSP.ASG SITE.ASG Creates unsorted, un-validity-checked UNITDATA.DAT PROM\UNITDATA.TPL PROM\UNITFREE.TPL PROM\UNITMAP.TPL

DDUTIL SORT Creates sorted, validity-checked UNITDATA.DAT

TABLE_C ALL Compiles all source Table Files

ALARM_L Creates Alarm Cross-Reference file ALARM.LST No response in 30 seconds? Compile Control Sequence Program? YES

NO

COMP_SEQ Compiled CSP Segments COMPLETE

Program messages written to MK5MAKE.LOG

Figure 4-30. MK5MAKE.BAT Execution


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MK5MAKE.BAT then executes the Table Compiler program, TABLE_C.EXE with the ALL option specified on the command line. The ALL option directs the Table Compiler to compile (convert from ASCII text hexadecimal) all the source Table Files (BOI_?.SRC, CBLR_?.SRC, CHNG_?.SRC, CONST_?.SRC, EPA_?.SRC, EVENT_?.SRC, HIST_?.SRC, MAOUT_?.SRC, TOTT_?.SRC). Any messages generated as a result of compiling the Table files are reported to the screen, and also written to the log file, MK5MAKE.LOG. Next, MK5MAKE.BAT executes ALARM_L.EXE. This program generates the Alarm Cross-Reference List, ALARM.LST, from the UNITDATA.DAT and the alarm text message file, ALARM.DAT. Any messages generated as a result of running ALARM_L is reported to the screen and written to MK5MAKE.LOG. Finally, MK5MAKE.BAT asks the user if he/she wishes to compile the Control Sequence Program segment source files. The user has thirty seconds to respond. If no response is detected within thirty seconds MK5MAKE executes the CSP Compiler. If the user responds affirmatively to the prompt within thirty seconds by pressing " Y ", MK5MAKE executes the CSP Compiler and creates the downloadable hex format CSP files from the source CSP segment files. Any messages generated as a result of compiling the CSP is reported to the screen and written to MK5MAKE.LOG. If the user responds negatively to the prompt within thirty seconds by pressing " N ", MK5MAKE does not execute the CSP. If the user responds negatively, a message is reported to the screen and written to the log file indicating that the user elected not to compile the CSP. If no response is detected in thirty seconds, MK5MAKE executes the CSP Compiler, and a message indicating the CSP Compiler was automatically executed along with any messages generated as a result of running the compiler is written to MK5MAKE.LOG. It is also reported to the screen.

4-6.2.

MK5MAKE.LOG File

The log file, MK5MAKE.LOG, is created each time MK5MAKE.BAT is executed. As detailed in section 4-6.1, any messages generated by the programs executed when MK5MAKE is executed, are reported to the screen and written to the log file for later viewing and/or printing. This file can be very useful in troubleshooting and resolving warning or error messages generated by the execution of programs by MK5MAKE. It can be viewed using any ASCII text editor and printed the same as any ASCII text file.

4-7. Alarm Help Alarm Help is a program to display context sensitive help screens for diagnostic and process alarms. It displays the correct section of contents from ASCII text files for a specific alarm. The files and their type of alarm is listed below. File in the F:\UNITn directory HELP_QP.DAT HELP_BP.DAT HELP_QD.DAT HELP_BD.DAT is the Help text file for this type of alarm <R>, <S>, and <T> cores process alarms <C> and optional <D> cores process alarms <R>, <S>, and <T> cores diagnostic alarms <C> and optional <D> cores diagnostic alarms

The process alarm files (HELP_QP.DAT and HELP_BP.DAT) can be edited and printed for a specific application using any ASCII text editor. The diagnostic alarm files (HELP_QD.DAT and HELP_BD.DAT) are created by GEDS and should not be edited. The Mark V can provide help text on any alarm that is active on the ALARM or DIAGNOSTIC ALARM display by selecting an alarm and clicking on the "EXPLAIN" target on the bottom of the screen. If the alarm drop number is in the ASCII text file listed above, the help explanation will be copied from the file to the screen. If the drop number is not in the file, a default message will be displayed.

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Figure 4-31. Control Constants Master List Display


4-8. CONTROL CONSTANT ADJUSTMENT Control Constants are tune-up parameters and variables that change with each application. They are set during start-up to fine-tune the turbine to the specific site. Control constants are not changed unless certain critical components are changed, system parameters are changed, or additions are made to the system. Control constants set parameters such as scaling of feedback devices, setting of protective functions, monitoring setpoints, and alarm setpoints and definitions. The Control Constant Master List is an alphanumeric list containing all applicable Control Constants with associated values and units used on that particular application/unit (see Figure 4-31). From the Main Menu, select CONTROL CONSTANTS. When the Adjustment Displays are first accessed Control Constant values are displayed on the screen in grey (normal display color). If there is a disagreement between controller RAM values, EEPROM values, or between controller and <I> downloader values the value is displayed in red.

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Figure 4-32. Control Constant Adjust Point Display


By selecting PREV PAGE or NEXT PAGE (or press F4 or F5, respectively), the user can scroll through the list one screen at a time until the desired Control Constant is found. Selecting the desired Control Constant reveals the screen to the Control Constants Adjust Point Display (see Figure 4-32). If the Control Constant value is displayed in red on the Master List Display, the disagreeing controller(s) can be determined from the RAM values on the Adjust Point Display. The Control Constants Adjust Point Display shows the current values of the selected Control Constant in RAM, EEPROM, and <I> downloader. The RAM values are the Control Constant values in <Q> which each controller is using for control, protection, and/or monitoring for the selected Control Constant. The EEPROM values are the Control Constant values stored in the back-up EEPROMs of <B> or <Q>. The downloader value is the Control Constant values stored in the <I>s downloader (which is transmitted to <B> or <Q> during a download operation).

NOTE Control Constant modifications are not automatically backed-up. They must be uploaded to the <I>s hard-disk files using EEPROM to make permanent.

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4-8.1. Modifying A Control Constant To change a Control Constant: 1. 2. 3. Select CONTROL CONSTANT ADJUST DISPLAY from the Main Menu. Select NEXT PAGE or PREV PAGE (or press F4 or F5) to scroll through the Master List Displays. Select the desired Control Constant. The screen changes to the Control Constants Adjust Point Display for that Control Constant (refer to Figure 4-35).

The processor(s) use the RAM value(s) of the Control Constant to control, monitor, or protect the unit. The steps involved in changing the RAM value are as follows: 1. 2. Change the NEW VALUE to the desired value of the Control Constant. Change the RAM VALUE by either stepping or ramping to equal the NEW VALUE

4-8.1.1. CHANGING THE NEW VALUE. To change the NEW VALUE of the Control Constant, select ENTER VALUE.

The background color changes to light blue and the text changes to VALUE. Type the new value of the Control Constant, within five seconds, and press ENTER, or the target background reverts to white and the action is terminated. The new value appears in the NEW VALUE field of the Control Constant Adjust Point Display (see Figure 4-35). The NEW VALUE field can also be changed by selecting any of the RAISE/LOWER targets on the Adjust Point Display. Selecting the RAISE or LOWER target causes the NEW VALUE to increment or decrement by one unit corresponding to the least significant digit of the Control Constants value. Selecting on the RAISE 10X or LOWER 10X targets causes the NEW VALUE to increment or decrement by ten times one unit of the least significant digit of the Control Constants value. Selecting RAISE 100X or LOWER 100X causes the NEW VALUE to change by 100 times one unit of the least significant digit of the value. For example, in Figure 4-35, the least significant digit of the Control Constant CAKCPD is 0.1, or tenths. Selecting RAISE increments the NEW VALUE by 0.1 psi. Selecting RAISE 10X increments the NEW VALUE by 1.0 psi and selecting LOWER 100X decrements the NEW VALUE by 10.0 psi.
4-8.1.2. CHANGING THE RAM VALUE. After entering the NEW VALUE for the Control Constant to be modified, change the RAM VALUE(s) to equal the NEW VALUE to change unit operation. You may either step (instantly change) or ramp the RAM VALUE to the NEW VALUE.

To step the RAM VALUE(s) to the NEW VALUE, select STEP CHANGE. This turns the target background to light blue, indicating the step change action is armed. Then select EXECUTE, or press F6. This changes both target backgrounds to purple, indicating the step change action was sent to the Control Panel. They then revert to normal colors. The RAM values for the Control Constant changes instantly to equal the new value and the controllers (<Q>) use the new RAM VALUE for control, protection and/or monitoring. STEP CHANGE is enabled only when the turbine is off-line. Another method of changing Control Constants is the ramp change, where the RAM values are incremented or decremented slowly to equal the New Value instead of instantly. Ramp change is the only method of changing Control Constants when the turbine is on-line, but can be used when the turbine is off-line also.

WARNING

Changing Control Constants while the turbine is running could interrupt turbine operation and should only be done by authorized personnel knowledgeable in turbine control and protection.

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To ramp the RAM VALUE to equal the NEW VALUE, select START RAMP. This changes the targets background to light blue to arm the action. Then select EXECUTE COMMAND or press F6. This changes both targets backgrounds to purple indicating the action was sent to the Control Panel. The RAM values begin to increase or decrease at the rate of approximately one unit of the least significant digit of the Control Constants value per second until the RAM values equals the NEW VALUE. The ramp change can be stopped at any point, by selecting STOP RAMP, which aborts the ramp change at that value. It can be restarted in the normal manner. The ramp change is aborted also if the Adjust Point Display is left to view any other display except the Alarm Display. Therefore, it is recommended that while making Control Constant changes, particularly while the turbine is on-line, the technician not change displays until the RAM values equal the NEW VALUE to ensure the change action is completed fully. During the ramp change, the text of the START RAMP target changes to yellow to indicate that a change is in progress and reverts to its original color when the ramp is complete.

4-8.2. Saving Control Constant Modifications To make Control Constant change(s) "permanent" in the Control Panels EEPROM memory, select EEPROM UPDATE (see Figure 4-32) to arm the action. Then select EXECUTE, or press F6. The RAM values of all Control Constants in each controller are copied to its own EEPROM for backup purposes. All Control Constants are copied during a EEPROM update action, not just the single Control Constant modified from the Adjust Point Display. Therefore, if other Control Constants were modified temporarily, such as during startup testing and tuning, but were not backed-up with a EEPROM update, they are copied to EEPROM during any subsequent update before they are returned to their normal values. For maximum back-up protection, modified Control Constants are uploaded to the <I> hard-disk memory files using the EEPROM Downloader Function accessible via the Main Menu. A flow chart is provided for quick reference in adjusting Control Constants from the <I> (see Figure 4-33).

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Start

From the main Menu, Click on CONTROL CONSTANT ADJUST

Control Constants Master List Display appears

Use NEXT PAGE or PREV PAGE to locate, then click on desired Control Constant

Click on RAISE or LOWER to change new value

Click on ENTER VALUE then type in desired value and press ENTER

Is the turbine running?

No

Click on STEP CHANGE to change the value in RAM instantly

Yes Click on START RAMP to slowly change the RAM value tothe new value

Execute Control Adjust?

No

Allow the ARM/EXECUTE timer to expire by not clicking on EXECUTE COMMAND target

Yes

Control Constant not changed, Action Terminated

Using Ramp function or Step function?

Step

Ramp Ramp chang may be interrupted by clicking on STOP RAMP target and re-started by clicking on START RAMP & EXECUTE

Click on EXECUTE

Control Constant changed in RAM. Refer to GEH-6195 section 3-11. for making changes permanent.

Figure 4-33. Control Constant Adjust Flowchart

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4-9. LOGIC FORCING The Logic Forcing Display, accessed from the Main Menu, allows authorized personnel to force any logic data point in the databases(s). Forcing a point changes and/or maintains the logic state such as" 0 " or " 1 " of a logic data point regardless of the permissives driving the logic data point.

CAUTION
Only qualified personnel knowledgeable about turbine control and protection should use the Logic Forcing functions. Improper use may adversely affect the control and protective features of the control system.

4-9.1. Executing Logic Forcing During maintenance or troubleshooting it may be necessary to have the Control Panel "believe" that a certain valve is in a particular position (as indicated by a position limit switch on the valve). A simple approach is to use the Logic Forcing capability of the Control Panel. For example, from the Main Menu on the <I>, select LOGIC FORCING. Insert the desired logic data pointname anywhere on the Logic Forcing Display. The pointname and the current voted value(s) of the <C> and <RST> processors appear (see Figure 4-34). Select a pointname for forcing. The display color of the pointname changes from light gray to yellow. Forcing a logic data point requires an ARM/EXECUTE action. To arm the action, select the desired command target on the right side of the Logic Forcing Display, either FORCE TO ONE or FORCE TO ZERO. The command target background changes to light blue. Select EXECUTE, or press F6, within five seconds, to complete the forcing action. If the forcing is not complete before the ARM/EXECUTE timer expires, the action is automatically terminated. NOTE This procedure for confirming a forcing action prevents false commands from being executed.

If the EXECUTE command target is selected before the command target background reverts to green, both target backgrounds change to purple indicating that the action was executed and sent to the Control Panel. The <RST> logic values of the pointname is preceded by a " >", indicating the logic data point is forced. Refer to Figure 4-37. When a logic data point is forced (to either a logic " 1 " or " 0 "), it remains forced even when another display is accessed such as Main Display or Alarm Display. It reappears on the Logic Forcing Display when reaccessed. While performing a forcing action, other pointnames (including real data pointnames) may be added to the Logic Forcing Display for viewing. However, when the Logic Forcing Display is left to view another display, only logic data points which are forced automatically reappear when the Logic Forcing Display is reaccessed.

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4-9.2. Unforcing A Logic Pointname To unforce a single logic data point, select the pointname. Select UNFORCE SINGLE. Select EXECUTE, or press F6 before the UNFORCE SINGLE target background reverts from blue to green. Failure to complete the unforcing action before the ARM/EXECUTE timer expires automatically terminates the process. NOTE This procedure for confirming a forcing action prevents false commands from being executed.

Figure 4-34. Logic Forcing Display - L3STCK Forced To " 0 "


To simultaneously unforce all logic data points which are currently forced (to either logic " 1 " or " 0 "), select UNFORCE ALL to arm the action. Select EXECUTE, or press F6 to execute the action.

4-10. PREVOTE DATA The Prevote Data Display, accessible from the Main Menu, enables the technician to view logic and analog I/O values before the three independent processors have selected a value through voting. This display is useful for troubleshooting voting mismatches or control I/O discrepancies. When a signal enters a TMR control panel, the <Q> processors perform a two out of three vote and use the voted value in all three processors. If one of the three inputs is not consistent with the other two, it is ignored in the calculations and a voting mismatch alarm is annunciated. When investigating the cause of a voting mismatch alarm it is useful to know the values in all three processors before the voting operation.

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4-10.1. Executing Prevote Data To access this display, select PREVOTE DATA DISPLAY (see Figure 4-35). A list of logic, analog and spare I/O points appears on the screen, with the current page number displayed in the upper left corner. To scroll through the pages to view additional points, select PREV PAGE or NEXT PAGE or press F4 or F5. The point name and the prevoted values for <R>, <S>, <T>, and the voted value are shown. The ability to freeze the input values of the display is a useful troubleshooting tool for viewing fluctuating values. To hold the current data on the screen until changing the page, select FREEZE DATA or press F3, or select the same display target. The target turns yellow. NOTE If the FREEZE DATA target is left active when changing pages, the input values are not displayed on the following pages.

When the heading of the <Q> columns (<R>VAL, <S>VAL, <T>VAL) appears in white text, this indicates that the processor(s) is communicating with the voter network and participating in the voting process. If the heading of any of the three processor columns appears in blue text, the processor is not participating in the voting process, typically caused by failure of communication with the voter network (DENET).

Figure 4-35. Page 1 of a Prevote Data Display

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4-11. COMMAND TARGETS Commands to start, stop, raise speed, or lower load are issued from the <I> to the unit control panel through command targets. The targets are located on the right-hand side of any User Defined Displays. The name of the command issued to the unit appears in the command targets box. A User Defined Display may have any combination of the three types of command targets and up to a maximum of 12 command targets. The three types of command targets are: ARM/EXECUTE SETPOINT IMMEDIATE ACTION The color of the target background can immediately determine the type of command target. ARM/EXECUTE command target backgrounds are green, SETPOINT backgrounds are grey, and IMMEDIATE ACTION backgrounds are red.

4-11.1. Executing Command Targets ARM/EXECUTE and SETPOINT require an "arm-execute" action to send the command to the unit. Select the command target to "arm" and then select EXECUTE COMMAND or press F6 within five seconds to "execute" the command, sending it to the control panel. Selecting the ARM/EXECUTE or SETPOINT command changes the background color to cyan (light blue), indicating the command target is armed, and starts the arm/execute timer. If the wrong ARM/EXECUTE or SETPOINT command target is selected, the operator can cancel the command by waiting for the arm/execute timer to expire. Do not select the EXECUTE target or press F6. The background color returns to its normal color, indicating the command target is no longer armed. NOTE This procedure for confirming a command action prevents false commands from being executed. The command target, IMMEDIATE ACTION, does not require an arm\execute action to send the setpoint to the control panel. The command is sent immediately from the <I> to the control panel. Command targets may be added, modified, or deleted by qualified personnel to any User Defined Display using the Edit Form screen.

CAUTION
Only qualified personnel knowledgeable about turbine control and protection should add, modify, or delete command targets.

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4-11.2 Edit Form Screen To access the Edit Form screen, select MORE OPTIONS or press F2, then select EDIT FORM or press F3. The Edit Form screen for the current User Defined Display, complete with the Alarm Window, lists the five groups of target definition fields (see Figure 4-36). The five groups of fields for each command target are: Command Pointname Value Feedback Signal (optional) Target Type Target Name

The cyan fields are used to enter information for each command target. To enter information select the desired field. The field background changes to white, and information may be typed in from the keyboard. Press ENTER or select another field to complete the action. To correct, change, or delete information in a selected field, use the backspace key to erase one character at a time beginning with the last character on the line, or press CTRL U to erase the entire field. In the Edit Form screen, select DATA DISPLAY or press F3, to return to the current User Defined Display. Select CHECK FORM or press F4, to check changes to the edit form for accuracy. (Modifications errors are in yellow.)

Figure 4-36. Edit Form Screen

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4-11.2.1. COMMAND POINTNAME FIELDS. The two fields in this group indicate the unit name (in a multi-unit application)

and the pointname of the logic signal which receives the command in the unit control panel. The unit name field is only filled in if there are commands which need to be sent to a different unit/location than the currently selected unit in a multi-unit installation. For example, on a multi-unit installation being controlled by one <I> in a central location, it may be necessary to have a breaker control signal acting on a breaker in a central highyard on a particular User Defined Display for each unit. Signal pointnames that are valid and receive command targets, are found in the UNITDATA.DAT file. To verify a signal pointname, select CHECK FORM o r press F4. If the command pointname is valid, one of the following four messages appears directly beneath the field: Pushbutton Logic state Analog setpoint Enumerated state

When the signal pointname is invalid, it either displays with a yellow background or the error message, Not a command. If the pointname is displayed with a yellow background, it could not be found in the Data Dictionary. If the pointname was found in the Data Dictionary but is not a valid signal pointname, the above error message is displayed.
4-11.2.2. VALUE FIELDS . Two fields are used to specify the type of value and the actual value to send to the current unit control panel. Therefore, these fields are only applicable when predetermined values or setpoint changes are sent to the unit when a command target is selected or executed.

There are three value types: = For logic state, analog setpoint, and enumerated state command pointnames this value type tells the <I> computer to read the current value of the command pointname from the unit control panel into its memory, replace it with value from the value field to the right, and send the new value to the unit control panel to be acted upon. When the command pointname is a pushbutton, this value type tells the <I> computer to set and hold the command pointname equal to a logic " 1 " for the number of scans in the value field to the right. By default, when the command pointname is a pushbutton, the value type is set to " = " and the value field is set to " 4 ", meaning that the pushbutton command pointname is set for four scans of the unit control panel. This value type can only be used with analog setpoint command and tells the <I> computer to read the current value of the command pointname from the unit control panel into its memory, add the value from the value field to the right, and send the new value to the unit control panel to be acted upon. This value type can only be used with analog setpoint command and tells the <I> computer to read the current value of the command pointname from the unit control panel into its memory, subtract the value from the value field to the right, and send the new value to the unit control panel to be acted upon.

Values entered and shown in the value field are HEX values. Once a value is entered into this field, the line directly below the field contains the engineering units conversion of the HEX value. This conversion is only done if a valid command pointname is entered into the command pointname field.
4-11.2.3. FEEDBACK SIGNAL FIELDS. This option changes the color of the command target text to yellow based on the logic state of the command pointname. For example, the text of ARM/EXECUTE targets, used to select or change the operating state of a turbine, change to yellow as an extra indication of the current operating state. This is the most common usage of this option. The three fields in this option are feedback sense of the signal pointname such as " 0 " or " 1 ", unit number/designation (the two character designator for the desired unit), and the signal pointname whose feedback sense is used to set the color of the text of the command target. If logic " 1 " is selected as the feedback sense, when the feedback signal pointname is a logic " 1 " the text of the target is displayed in yellow.

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4-11.2.4. TARGET TYPE FIELD . This field is used to specify the type of target and the background color (see section 4-11).

The following values are used in this single character field to specify the type of target on this line: ? # ! specifies an ARM/EXECUTE target. specifies a SETPOINT target. specifies an IMMEDIATE ACTION target.

4-11.2.5. TARGET NAME. The target name is the text appearing in the target on the display and can have a maximum of two lines of eight characters per line. However, to allow for the outline around the target, the first character in each line should be a blank space, permitting only seven characters per line. The main function of the target or the most descriptive term is placed on the upper line of the target. Setpoint command targets, which prompt the operator for a value, use the lower line of the target for the entry.

4-11.3. Command Target Additions, Modifications, Deletions Command targets operate on pointnames predefined to accept, initiate, and/or complete four types of commands: pushbutton (Stop, Speed/Load Raise/Lower, Cooldown On, Synchronize) logic state (Voltage Control Command, Inlet Pressure Control Command) analog setpoint (Inlet Guide Vane Reference, VAR Control Reference) enumerated setpoint (Load, Peak, Auto, Crank)

Adding a new command target requires: selecting the appropriate command type pointname from the UNITDATA.DAT file (pushbutton, logic state, analog setpoint, or enumerated state command) determining the type of command target (Arm/Execute, Setpoint, or Immediate Action) using the Edit Form screen of the User Defined Display where the new command target is to be added and entering the appropriate information in the various group fields performing an UPDATE DISPLAY action followed by a SAVE FILE action to make the changes to the display permanent, by saving them to the <I> computer's hard-disk files.

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4-11.3.1. COMMAND TYPE POINTNAMES. Command target additions must be made from the available command type

pointnames found in the UNITDATA.DAT file (see Figure 4-37). Using your ASCII text editor to view the file, the rightmost character of the seventh column of the file, Flags (Hex), contains the code which identifies the pointname command type. The codes for the command types are as follows: 2 3 4 5 6 7 A B <B> point, pushbutton command <Q> point, pushbutton command <B> point, logic state command <Q> point, logic state command <B> point, analog setpoint command <Q> point, analog setpoint command <B> point, enumerated state command <Q> point, enumerated state command

For example, in Figure 4-37, the signal CA43ISL (Cable Remote Isochronous Setpoint Lower) is a pushbutton command in <Q>. The right-most character/least significant bit of the Flags column value for the pointname is " 3 ". Pointname CSRGVAUT is an invalid point for use as a command target. Its Flag code is a " 1 ". Only Flag codes appearing in the table above are valid command pointnames. ; ; Name No. ; <> <--> #unit_data GT 1 ; #point_data ; ; Memory Offset (Hex) ------------------------------------+ ; Memory Segment (Hex) -----------------------------+ | ; Flags (Hex) --------------------------------+ | | ; High/low limits type -----------------+ | | | ; Plotting limits type -----------+ | | | | ; Scale code type ----------+ | | | | | ; Point type ---------+ | | | | | | ; Point Number -+ | | | | | | | ; Name | | | | | | | | <----------> <---> <-> <--> <--> <--> <--> <--> <--> CA43ISL CSRGV CSRGVAUT L43BW_CMD SC43 480 4363 4788 535 4354 001 002 002 001 009 0002 0011 0011 0002 0002 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0003 0007 0001 0005 000B 0 060 0060 0060 0060 0060 01E0 1216 1568 0217 1204

Figure 4-37. Part of UNITDATA.DAT Showing Different Command Types

4-11.3.2. COMMAND TARGET SELECTION GUIDELINES. The following are guidelines for adding or modifying command

targets: Use Arm/Execute command targets for the majority of commands to prevent false or unintended commands from being issued (see section 4-11.1). Setpoint command targets should only be used with analog setpoint command pointnames. Use Immediate action command targets for commands which do not cause an unintended process disturbance when issued (such as issuing a Raise Speed/Load Setpoint Command).

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4-12. LAN CONTROL CARD (LCC) The 80186 and 80196 micro-processors in the Mark V Turbine Control Panel have associated states to inform of the operating status of a particular core. The state possibilities, A0 through A9 are described in this section and can be used as a guide when troubleshooting Mark V failures. Power is applied to the 80196 and 80186 processors, with the following powerup sequence results.

A0 80186 cold start initialization A1 80196 cold start initialization A2 80196 warm start initialization

processor initializes its half of the dual ported memory. initializes its half of the dual ported memory, if successful go to state A4 . failure in the 80196 processor, when it loses synchronization with the 80186 processor. The 80186 ignores all signals being sent from the 80196. The 80196 should re-initialize and return to state A4. failure in the 80186 processor when it loses synchronization with the 80196 processor. The 80196 ignores all signals being sent from the 80186. The 80186 should re-initialize and return to state A4. basic message service is initialized, communications channels tested and checks of ARCNET addresses for the DENET and Stage Link. checks all I/O configuration, current revision, and dual ported memory. synchronization of the voter network. All cards need to reach state A6 before any can reach A7. Once all cards have reached state A6 and voting is synchronized, all cards go to state A7. If a card loses state A7, the other cards remain at state A7 while the suspect card re-initializes and attempts to return to state A7.

A3 80186 warm start initialization

A4 80186 BMS initialization

A5 80196 I/O configuration A6 Agent Synchronization

This is the normal sequence of sequencer power-up, with all cards reaching state A7. A failure during the power-up sequence or during operation causes the processor to return to states A2 or A3. A failure of the 80196 initiates a return to state A2 and a failure of the 80186 returns to state A3. Additional states indicating a failure: A8 I/O card initialization failure A9 I/O card not used I/O card does not match type specified in configuration file.

failure when no I/O card is present.

4-13. TERMINAL INTERFACE MONITOR (TIMN) The terminal interface monitor (TIMN) is a software program in the Mark V control panel. Although typically used by factory personnel, certain program functions can assist customers in troubleshooting hardware and software problems. Using a laptop or other suitable computer terminal (one that is equipped with a telecommunications software package), it is possible to access TIMN through the RS-232 Serial 9-pin connectors located on the I/O terminal boards of the processor cores, <Q> and <C>.

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4-13.1. Set-up/Operation Gaining access to TIMN requires a connection between the serial port of a computer (or terminalequipped with a telecommunications software package) and the 9-pin connector of the processor core(s) in the control panel. A "straightthrough" serial cable will require a null modem for proper communication. A specially made cable with two DB-9 connectors (assuming the computer/terminal has a DB-9 RS-232 serial port) would require only three connections: pin 2 to pin 3, pin 3 to pin 2, and pin 5 to pin 5. This type of cable eliminates the need for a null modem. NOTE Only one CPU unit can be connected to an individual panel circuit board at a time; multiple connections are not possible. 9-Pin Connector (Computer/ Terminal) TXD RXD GND 2 3 5 9-Pin Connector (Mark V Processor) 3 2 5 RXD TXD GND

Figure 4-38. Pinout Connections for DB-9 to DB-9 TIMN Interface Cable
A communications software package or computer terminal using the above communications configuration can access the TIMN program. The link requires no parity, eight data bits, and one stop bit. The BAUD rate may be set from 300 to 9600 through the on-line Help menu screen. To activate the TIMN editor, from the DOS prompt, press CTRL+Z. The screen displays the program version, the core which the connection was made, the time/dates of the PROM set and the BBL library. The current time and date is also displayed. To access the on-line Help menu, press H then press Enter.

To access the Status display, press S. Once in the status display, press H to obtain an additional Status Help menu. To exit TIMN, press CTRL+Z, or X+Enter, or Q+Enter. 4-13.2. TIMN Commands The following is the Status Command menu pick in the TIMN Help menu. Each command may be executed once by selecting the appropriate letter and press Enter. For continuous monitoring of a specific process, press U+ the letter of the function.

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Status> H Enter B := C := D := E := I := L := M := P := Q := R := S := U := V := X := Z := selection: BMS qst entries counters Dpm system errors I/O status voter error log memory tables rtos profiler quit/exit BMS LST summary BMS sockets update command voter status quit/exit zero counters

4-13.2.1. I/O STATUS . Each card has a micro-processor controlling the I/O of that card. The Card name column lists the state of that card. (****, indicates that the card is listed in the configuration file but not responding over the link). The DCC card is an exception, the 80186 micro-processor handles all I/O functions. (see I/O configuration and I/O states below)

Status> I obj card maj min I/O cfg qst cfg cfg eep rsp msg ID name rev rev stat stat ID flgs tics ofst type seq -----------------------------------------------------------1 **** 00 00 A1 00 22 80 0011 00 00 0000 4 **** 00 00 A2 00 21 00 0000 00 00 0000 8 LCCq 00 02 A7 D0 20 01 3D01 275 05 0005 12 DCCq 01 01 A7 D0 27 01 0001 2B3 05 0002 13 IOMA 01 01 A7 D0 21 05 0020 00 04 0000 15 TCE1 01 01 A7 D0 21 05 0040 00 04 0000 I/O configuration states -----------------------I/O configuration in progress No BMS socket for config message EEPROM image has not been downloaded EEPROM image has an invalid voter ID LCC card does not conform to network EEPROM missing stage link ARCNET ID BMS type mismatch on a config msg BMS seq number mismatch on a config msg Config message returned a bad status Config message not received in 10 secs Card is of higher rev than download Configuration completed successfully

0xC0 0xC1 0xC2 0xC3 0xC4 0xC5 0xC6 0xC7 0xC8 0xC9 0xCA 0xD0

::::::::::::-

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0xA0 0xA1 0xA2 0xA3 0xA4 0xA5 0xA6 0xA7 0xA8 0xA9 0xAA

:::::::::::-

I/O states ----------186 started cold start init 196 started cold start init 196 not responding - warm start requested 186 not responding - warm start requested BMS/DPM is being initialized 196 card is being configured via BMS msgs I/O card is doing only inputs I/O card is doing normal I/O operations Error detected in cold start init I/O card not included in EEPROM cfg I/O card in QC test mode

4-13.2.2. PROFILER. Execution distribution of tasks in percentages, identified by priority, lower number tasks have higher

priority. Status> P --- RTOS profiler --... gathering samples ... --> Total Samples: 5121 task( 45) - 3785 hits 74% ||************************************* voter - 327 hits 6% ||*** seg ( 1) - 316 hits 6% ||*** kernel - 186 hits 4% ||** task( 10) - 132 hits 3% ||* task( 33) 89 hits 2% ||* task( 20) 72 hits 1% || task( 8) 70 hits 1% || task( 44) 49 hits 1% || task( 25) 29 hits 1% ||

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4-13.2.3. UPDATE COMMAND. When the update command is typed before any of the commands with a space, it periodically updates that display. For example, u v, periodically updates the voter display.

Status> U V Agent: R I/O state: A7 I/O ready: yes Frame Rate: 16 Hz State: 0430 State: 0440 Conforming: 03 Agent rdy: yes Voting Mode: TMR Active: 2 BMS OK: 0 T:1F - C:DF D:00 missed cntr: 0 missed cntr: 0 Bad type: 0 Dec 17, 1991 - 8:54:12 Voter busy: 53% Voting Agents: CRST

DCC voter: LCC voter:

Status: 0 Status: 2

VDP: R TDP: C Present: R:3F S:1F Time stats: Status: 00 OK cntr: 328 Vote stats: Status: 04 OK cntr: 328 Voter buffs: Current: 5 Total: 1645 Misc counters: DCC OK: 329 DCC aborted: 0 LCC degenerate votes: 0 DCC stand alone passes: 0 LCC sequence error: 0 LCC lost time sync: 0 DCC frame_overrun: 0

4-13.2.4. ZERO COUNTERS. Sets all diagnostic counters to 0. Counting resumes immediately.

Status> Z 8 system errors cleared


4-13.2.5. DUAL PORTED MEMORY (DPM). Shows shared memory information on the card indicated and the 80186 micro-

processor. I/O state refers to the state of the I/O card as seen by the 80186. The BMS Mask column is a hex code indicating the amount of dpm available. A value of " 00 " is an indication of a memory problem. Status> D card I/O cfg BMS rset Hmsg Hmsg Hsig Hsig Imsg Imsg Isig pend pend int int name stat stat mask cnt sema cnt sema cnt sema cnt sema 186 196 186 196 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------IOMA A7 D0 7F 0 00 0 00 19 00 0 00 00 00 00 00 LCCq A7 D0 07 1 00 113 00 0 00 236 00 00 00 00 00 **** A1 00 00 0 00 0 00 42 00 0 00 00 02 00 02

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4-13.2.6. ERROR. Continuous count of diagnostic errors that occur on the 80186 micro-processor. Look to diagnostic alarm page for more detailed explanation of alarms

Status> E ---- System error counters ---System error cntr 7: 1 System error cntr 17: 2 System error cntr 19: 2 System error cntr 33: 1 ::::QST DPM timeout Missing IO card IO CFG failed IO card reset

4-13.2.7. FACTORY USE ONLY COMMANDS. The following commands are for factory use only or under the direction of GEDS personnel. They can be viewed on the Help screen.

Command Basic Message Service (BMS)

Description Lists the queue server IDs of messages waiting to be sent out to the networks of the control panel. No "que entries" indicates that all messages were successfully sent to the appointed destination. A large queue may indicate a data communication problem. Cumulative count of BMS messages sent and received. Counters roll over to 0 after it reaches 65,535. A log of events and/or errors that occur during the voting cycle Availability of the memory manager buffers (DEAD = available BABE = inuse) Listing of process IDs and socket IDs supported by the core that is being looked at. Gives indication of what the current process can support. Lists features on voting status such as, frame rate of DCC voter, designated voting processor, time designator, processor with time functions and miscellaneous counters.

Counters Voter Error Log Memory Tables BMS Sockets Voter Status

4-14. HOLD LIST The Hold List supports the Mark V large steam turbine control. It is needed on control systems that have Automatic Turbine Startup. (ATS). ATS is active only when the AUTOMATIC mode is selected. The program for ATS resides in PROM in the <C> processor only. The purpose of ATS is to set speed control targets and valve positions based on various inputs such as steam temperatures and pressures, metal temperatures, and speed and operating mode. Turbine operating conditions may cause a hold which prevents ATS from setting the speed or load target to a higher value. In the <I> processor, the Hold List Display allows the operator to view the current points on the Hold List and to override any or all hold points. Overriding a hold allows the ATS to advance its targets as operating conditions permit.

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4-14.1. Points The points for the Hold List are listed in the <I> processor F:\UNITn\TOTT_B.SCR file. The list can hold a maximum of 64 points. The points are either Alarms or Events and appear on the Alarm Event logger. This file must be compiled by the table compiler, G:EXEC\TABLE_C.EXE. The point list is then downloaded to <C> and <D> processors with the EEPROM downloader, G:\EXEC\EEPROM.EXE. Select TOTT for the section to download. Reboot the processors to make any list change active.

4-14.2. Programs The Hold List is maintained in the <C> and <D> processors by programs in PROM. To activate the Hold List in the <I>, it must contain the following. In F:\CONFIG.DAT , under OPTIONS In G:\EXEC\RUN_IDP.BAT , HOLD_LIST =YES

::------------------------------------------------------------------------::Programs enabled by the F:\CONFIG.DAT option line: "HOLD = Yes" :: G:\EXEC\ALMRCV HOLD >>G:\LOG\STARTUP.LOG :: ::------------------------------------------------------------------------F:\RUNTIME\MENU.DAT needs the following line for the display program "ATS Hold List", >>G\LOG\STARTUP.LOG

4-14-.3. Conditions A Hold List is maintained as follows: A point that is picked up is entered in the hold List (0 -> 1). A point that picks up and drops out remains in the Hold List until it is reset by an operator command. Hold List entries must be acknowledged. Unacknowledged entries have a * character next to its status. A picked up point may be overridden by an operator command. Overridden points display a "V" as their status. An overridden point loses its override when it drops out (1 -> 0) The Hold List has the time of the initial pickup, unit, current state and override status, and the short and long name of each point.

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4-14-4. Display Targets The following "global" targets are active when no hold is selected. EXIT MORE OPTIONS EXIT MORE OPTIONS SAVE REPORT PRINT REPORT SAVE IMAGE PRINT IMAGE ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY ACK ALL RESET ALL TRACK LATEST ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY

The following "selected" targets are available after a hold is selected. EXIT MORE OPTIONS EXIT MORE OPTIONS OVERRIDE HOLD CANCEL OVERRIDE TRACK LATEST ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY ACK HOLD RESET HOLD TRACK LATEST ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY

EXIT MORE OPTIONS PREV PAGE NEXT PAGE FIRST HOLD TRACK LATEST ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY

EXIT MORE OPTIONS SAVE REPORT PRINT REPORT SAVE IMAGE PRINT IMAGE ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY

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EXIT MORE OPTIONS TRACK LATEST ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY SAVE REPORT PRINT REPORT SAVE IMAGE PRINT IMAGE ACK ALL RESET ALL ACK HOLD RESET HOLD OVERRIDE HOLD

leaves the Hold List Display. scrolls to the next target bank. displays the global targets and shows the newest list entries. switches to the process Alarm Display. calls the Main Display. saves a copy of the entire hold list to F:\USER\##.TXT. sends a copy of the entire Hold List to the printer. saves a copy of the screen image to F:\USER\##.IMG. saves a copy of the screen image to the printer acknowledges all list entries. reset all list entries that have been acknowledged and have a zero state (dropped out). acknowledges the selected list entry. reset the selected list entry that has been acknowledged and has a zero state (dropped out). overrides the selected list entry if it is picked up. If this was the only active entry, ATS is free to continue. Overridden points display a "V" as their status. cancels the override on the selected list entry. changes the display to the previous page. changes the display to the next page (if one exists). selects the newest Hold List entry.

CANCEL HOLD PREV PAGE NEXT PAGE FIRST HOLD

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CHAPTER 5 INSTALLATION AND INITIAL STARTUP


5-1. INTRODUCTION This Chapter is a general guide to the installation of a Mark V Control system. As a guide, it does not purport to cover all the details of every start-up. Each installation is different and requires a thorough system knowledge to successfully startup.

WARNING
Danger of shock, burn or other trauma exists if necessary safety precautions are not taken. These startup procedures should be done only by personnel knowledgeable in the Mark V control system and the turbine control philosophies. This Chapter does not cover every detail of all start -ups.

5-1.1. Receiving & Handling

CAUTION
Immediately upon receiving the system, place it under adequate cover to protect it from ad verse conditions. Packing cases are not suitable for outdoor or unprotected storage. Shock caused by rough handling can damage electrical equipment. To prevent such damage when moving the equipment, observe normal precautions along with all handling instructions printed on the case. GE carefully inspects and packs all equipment before shipping it from the factory. A packing list, which itemizes the contents of each package, is attached to the side of each case of the equipment. Upon receipt, carefully examine the contents of each shipment and check them with the packing list. Immediately report any shortage, damage, or visual indication of rough handling to the carrier. Then notify both the transportation company and GE Industrial Control Systems. Be sure to include the serial number, part (model) number, drive code, GE requisition number, and case number when identifying the missing or damaged part. If assistance is needed, contact: GE Industrial Control Systems Product Service Engineering, Rm. 191 1501 Roanoke Blvd. Salem, Virginia 24153-6592 USA (540) 387-7595

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5-1.2. Unpacking & Storage It is good practice to not completely unpack the equipment until it has been placed as near as possible to its permanent location. When unpacking, check the contents of each case against the packing list. Report any shortage or damage to GE Industrial Control Systems. Save all instruction books, disks, and documentation provided. If the system is not installed immediately upon receipt, it must be stored properly to prevent corrosion and deterioration. Since packing cases do not protect the equipment for outdoor storage, the customer must provide a clean, dry place free of temperature variations, high humidity, and dust. Additional details are available in Chapter 2 of the Application Manual, GEH-6195.

5-2. <I> INSTALLATION AND STARTUP This section describes how to assemble and configure a single and multi-unit <I>. It discusses how <I> communication is established with a Mark V <C> or <D> processor. Read and understand all the instructions before starting assembly and setup. All devices must be properly connected and configured to function as the Mark V Turbine Control <I>.

5-2.1. Equipment Overview A standard <I> consists of: IBM-compatible PC with color monitor (rack mounted or freestanding "desk top" model), a keyboard, and a central processing unit (CPU). The CPU contains: - ARCNET interface card - Two RS-232 serial ports - One parallel port (LPT1) Cursor Positioning Device (CPD) trackball, mouse and/or a touch screen monitor dot matrix printer Options may include: serial port expander card additional dot matrix printer(s), laser printer(s) and/or color printer(s) long distance data set(s) (LDDS) modem(s) computer "operator station" such as a PC desk The Mark V Stage Link (see Application Manual GEH-6195, Chapter 9) is the communication link between a turbine control panel and the <I>. This includes an ARCNET interface card in the CPU and may also contain at least one Ethernet interface card if communication capability with a GE Smart Remote, Historian, or plant distributed control system (DCS) LAN is necessary. Communication with a DCS can also be accomplished using MODBUS protocol over a serial communication link through LDDSs or modems. See the Applications Manual, GEH-6195, Chapter 10. Alarm and event logging is accomplished using a dot matrix printer. Optionally, additional dot matrix printer(s), laser printer(s), and/or color printer(s) may be supplied. Alarms, events, and/or normal printing functions can be directed to one or more printers connected to the <I> CPU.

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NOTE The auxiliary components of an <I> such as printer(s), LDDS(s), and Ethernet card(s) may not be the same for all <I>s on a particular site.

5-2.2. Installation and Initial Startup The following sections describe the assembly and connection of the <I>s main components such as CPU, monitor, CPD, and printer. Schematics of the connection of these devices to form a complete <I> system is provided as part of the core documentation. If an operator station/desk was supplied as part of the requisition, assemble it and place the <I> components on it. Use the following steps and begin connecting the components using the cables supplied. 1. 2. 3. Connect the keyboards cable to the CPU. Connect the monitor to the CPU using the 15-pin connectors. If the monitor is a touch screen model use the 9-pin serial cable and connect it to the COM1 serial port. Connect the CPD (trackball or mouse) to COM1 of the CPU. If the monitor is a touch screen model use the COM2. 3.1. If the <I> has more than two RS-232 serial components to be connected to the CPU, a serial port expander card is needed. The card provides additional connections for printers, LDDS, and modems (see section 5-4). Connect the dot matrix printer to the LPT1 parallel port on the CPU.

4.

CAUTION
Check the dot matrix printers nameplate for ac power frequency and voltage. Verify that the printer supplied is designed to operate on the sites ac power frequency and voltage. Obtain a replacement from GEDS Product Service if it is not.

5-2.2.1. HARDWARE CONFIGURATION. Some of the <I>s main components have small switches and/or hardware jumpers

that must be set to function properly. Most of these switches are preset before shipping. Verify the switch settings prior to applying power to the <I>.

CAUTION
Failure to check and properly set the switches on the components prior to energization can result in damage to the equipment.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Monitor must be set to enable the proper video input. Consult the monitor manufacturers instructions concerning the positions of the switches for the particular application. CPU switches and/or jumpers have been preset before shipping. If problems are encountered later in the start-up, it may be necessary to verify them. If so, details will be given then. Note the manufacturer, model number, and serial number of the ARCNET interface card. ARCNET Interface Card is factory preset and should not need to be changed.

Each node on a Stage Link must have its own unique Stage Link ID. Mark V gas turbine control panel <C> and <D> processor(s), Mark V steam turbine control panel <C> and D processor(s), and <I> CPU(s) have ranges which their Stage Link IDs must be chosen. Stage Link IDs are expressed in hexadecimal format. <I> CPU Stage Link IDs are in the range

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from 01 hexadecimal to 2F hexadecimal, beginning with 2F for the first <I>, 2E for the second <I>, 2D for the third <I>, and so on. For example, the first <I> CPU in a Stage Link would be assigned a Stage Link ID of 2F. To set the switches to an ID of 2F to a CPU, convert 2F from hexadecimal to decimal (2F hexadecimal = 47 decimal). Then move the switches so that the sum of the switch values equals 47 decimal. There are eight numbered switches on the edge of the card. The switches each have the values as follows: DIP Switch Value 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 8 5 16 6 32 7 64 8 128

To enable a switchs value (to add that switchs value to the total value), move the switch to the UP position. Using the Stage Link ID example above of 2F hexadecimal (47 decimal = 32+8+4+2+1), switches 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 should be moved to the " 1 " position and switches 5, 7, and 8 should be in the " 0 " position. Set the Stage Link ID for the first <I> to be 2F (hexadecimal), 2E for the second, and so on by moving the switches on the ARCNET interface card to settings/values which equal the desired Stage Link ID value. Refer to the ARCNET interface card manufacturers instructions for more information. 9. If an Ethernet interface card is provided, it has jumpers which are preset. These should only be checked when troubleshooting the Ethernet communication network. NOTE For more specific information about ARCNET and Ethernet interface cards and the settings of their switches and/or hardware jumpers, new <I>s shipped after approximately September 1994 will be shipped with a separate floppy disk labelled "IDP_CARD". An ASCII text file located on the disk will provide information about their configuration, as well as serial port expander cards, and any other auxiliary cards which might be provided with an <I> CPU.

5-2.2.2. STARTUP.

10.

Connect the <I> components to site AC power and turn them on. The monitor should display a series of DOS commands and stop at a normal DOS prompt. (for example, C:\> )

CAUTION
If an operating system change or error occurs the computer might automatically invoke the Configuration Utility program. DO NOT shut off the system, or restart using Ctrl+Alt+Del or by pressing the RESET button. Restarting the CPU by any action while in the Configuration Utility program could cause all information in the program to be lost or erased. To exit, press ESC or F10. If the program information is lost or erased, it must be manually re-entered. A printout of the Configuration Utility program is included with the CPU instructions.

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5-2.2.3. SET CLOCK/DATE 11. Check the CPU clock and date by using the DOS TIME and DATE commands. For details, see the DOS documentation. 5-2.2.4. CALIBRATE TOUCH SCREEN 12. If a touch screen monitor is provided, the touch screen program requires calibration. 12.1. Change to the root directory of the C: drive. 12.2. At the DOS prompt type ELOCALIB and press ENTER. Follow the commands on the screen. For more information about the touch screen, its care, maintenance, and calibration, refer to the manufacturers instructions. 5-2.2.5. CONFIGURE DOT MATRIX PRINTER 13. Configure the dot matrix printer to print in compressed mode (132 characters per line) in order to print all the text associated with an alarm or event on an individual line. For specific instructions, refer to the manufacturers instructions.

5-2.3. Load Requisition and Product Specific Software There are several types of software that are necessary to operate the computer as an <I>. Generic, Product Specific, and Requisition Specific. 14. Generic software, (DOS, trackball or mouse, touch screen, etc.) are pre-loaded and it should not be necessary to re-load them. The floppy disks are included with the computer and should be kept with the other software in a safe place.

Product and Requisition Specific software is not usually loaded onto the hard disk, or, if it is loaded, it might be a previous revision. It is recommended that they be reloaded at this time. 15. Place the first Product Specific software floppy disk in the A: drive. 15.1. At the C: prompt, type A:INSTALL and press ENTER. 15.2. Repeat previous step for all Product Specific floppy disks. Place the Requisition Specific software floppy disk in the A: drive. 16.1. At the C: prompt, type A:INSTALL and press ENTER.

16.

The software is automatically installed and over-writes any necessary existing software on the <I> hard disk. 17. The CHECKCRC batch file is available to verify that the <I> Product Code disk files are all present, are the correct version, and have not been corrupted. To run this check, type CHECKCRC at the DOS prompt. 18. Restart the computer by pressing the RESET button next to the A: drive. At the completion of the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, the units MAIN DISPLAY should be shown on the monitor. 19. Check cursor operation while in the MAIN DISPLAY. Using the CPD, select a display target. Selecting should initiate the targets function. If there is difficulty with the operation of the trackball or mouse, refer to the manufacturers documentation for further troubleshooting instructions. 19.1. If the monitor is a touch screen model, select a display with the fingertip. The function initiates when the fingertip is withdrawn from the screen. Refer to the manufacturers documentation for troubleshooting instructions. NOTE After loading software onto the hard disk, write-protect the disk(s) and store in a secure location. The disks may be necessary in the event of a catastrophic loss of the hard disk. Refer to Chapter 3, for more information on performing a hard disk backup to the <I>.

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5-2.4. Get Configuration Information 20. 21. 22. 23. From the Main Menu of the <I>, exit to DOS. (It may be necessary to enable Maintenance Password Level or above from the Password Administration Display of the Main Menu in order to exit to DOS.) Change to the root directory of the F: drive. Open the file F:\ARCNET.DAT with an ASCII text editor and scroll to the bottom of the file. Any lines in the file which begin with a semicolon are comments and are ignored by the operating system. Verify that the lines which do not start with a semicolon are for the ARCNET interface card supplied in the <I> CPU. The configuration information for older ARCNET cards should match the table below. Parameter Name CONTROLLER IRQ IO_BASE MEMORY_BASE MEMORY_SIZE DIAGNOSTICS pcARC-AT/20 90C198 15 2B0 D000 4K OFF CN190SBT 90C98 15 2A0 D000 8K OFF PCA-CXS 90C198 15 2B0 D000 8K ON

23.1 If the file does not contain information for the card supplied, check the README.TXT file on the IDP_CARD floppy disk. This README.TXT file contains information about all the supported ARCNET cards and sample data files which can be copied into the F:\ARCNET.DAT file. 23.2 Check the G:\DATA\ARCNET.DAT file for additional comments and data files. This file can be copied to F:\ARCNET.DAT for the most recent data files, but semicolons will need to be added to "comment out" incorrect setup lines. 24. Close the F:\ARCNET.DAT file, saving the changes. 25. Open the F:\CONFIG.DAT file with a text editor. 25.1 Note the value of the variable called "LUN" (Logical Unit Number) which is the same as the Stage Link ID. This value will be needed in future steps. 26. Close the F:\CONFIG.DAT file. No changes should have been done, so saving it is not necessary. 27. Open the F:\IO_PORTS.DAT file with a text editor. 27.1 Copy down or print the contents of this file for later use. 28. If modifications were made to the F:\ARCNET.DAT file, press the RESET button next to the A: floppy drive in order for the changes to take effect. Before any more start-up functions can be done on the <I>, the Mark V control panel must be energized.

5-3. CONTROL PANEL INSTALLATION AND STARTUP This section describes control panel inspection, and initial energization. For information on control panel hardware location and cable or wire routing, refer to the core drawings on the back of each cores door. These instructions require that at least one <I> has been successfully started up in accordance with the previous sections of this Chapter.

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WARNING
This equipment contains a potential hazard of electrical shock or burn. Power is provided by the Mark V to various input and output devices. External sources of power may be present in the Mark V panel that are NOT switched by the control power circuit breaker(s). Before handling or connecting any conductors to the equipment, use proper safety precautions to insure all power is turned off.

5-3.1. Control Panel Inspection 29. Inspect the control panel components for any damage which might have occurred during shipping. Check for loose cables or wires, connections or loose components such as relays or retainer clips. Report any damage that may have occurred during shipping to GEDS Product Service. The ground lug in the bottom of the Mark V control panel must be connected to a suitable ground point, preferably plant ground grid. For more information see the Installation Guidance Service Manual, GEH-6011.

30.

5-3.1.1. CARD INSPECTIONS

31. 32. 33.

Inspect the printed circuit cards in each core checking for loose or damaged components. Verify all plug in relays are firmly connected into their sockets. Check to see that each card is held firmly. Check ribbon cables and wire harnesses. Verify all ribbon cables are securely connected. 33.1 If it is necessary to unplug the connector, use the pull tabs on each ribbon cable to remove them. DO NOT pull directly on the ribbon cables or wires. 33.2 Note the orientation of the ribbon cable or wire harness "trace". (Trace is the colored wire on the edge of the ribbon cable, or the "odd"-colored wire on the edge of the wire harness.) 33.3 Check each wire harness power cable for proper location, checking the cable ID tag against the connector ID printed on the card and the drawings.

CAUTION
Ribbon cables and wire harnesses are always oriented with the trace connected to pin 1 of the receptacle. Refer to the core drawings for more information. Incorrect connection could damage card(s). Many ribbon cable connectors are not keyed. Use caution when connecting them. The connectors which do not fit into a receptacle must be aligned properly leaving no pins exposed. 34. Verify that the card hardware jumpers match the drawings supplied with the Mark V and move the jumper(s) if necessary. The jumpers in the digital output circuits can provide power to an external device from the Mark V (solenoid output) or they can be configured as "dry" contacts, i.e: power provided by an external source. Verify each digital output has only one source of power. If any questions arise, contact GEDS Product Service. 35. Use appropriate caution while replacing each card carrier when the core inspection is complete. Avoid binding, pinching, or chafing the ribbon cables and wire harnesses. Prior to closing the core door, push in the two silver retaining clips at the lower front corners of the core to lock the card carriers in place.
5-3.1.2. CONTROL PANEL INITIAL ENERGIZATION

36. 37.

Verify no grounds exist in the control wiring. Verify only one ground exists in the control panel by lifting the braided conductor and capacitor that connect CCOM to the panel ground. Measure with an ohmmeter between the CCOM bus and panel ground. If the ohms measured are low,

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38.

resolve any extra grounds before continuing. Be sure the ground reference jumper in the <PD> core is in the correct position. Reconnect the ground braided conductor and capacitor.

CAUTION
Failure to check and resolve grounds on field-connected wiring and cabling can cause damage to either Mark V Turbine Control System components or field devices, or both. Do not connect the output of a battery charger directly to the Mark V turbine control panel without the battery being connected to the charger; serious damage can result to the Mark V power supplies. 39. 40. 41. Verify polarity and voltage of dc and/or ac supplies. If the battery system is referenced to ground, verify in accordance with plant drawings. Apply power to the control panel cores one at a time while monitoring source voltage. (Turn one on, check voltages, turn it off. Turn on next one, etc.) If a ground exists, resolve before continuing. Verify LEDs and fuses in the <PD> core. See Appendix E of the Application Manual, GEH-6195.

5-3.2. Control Processor Startup 42. 43. Energize the processors (<R>, <S>, <T>, <C>, and/or <D>). The LCC display should indicate state A4, A5, A6, or A7 and possibly displays several error messages. See Chapter 4 for additional information on the LCC display. If desired or necessary, the voltages of the individual power supplies can be checked using Table 5-1.

5-3.2.1. VERIFY VOTER ID

44.

Using the LCC display and the drawings supplied with the panel, match the Voter IDs of each processor. 44.1 Press NORM button on the LCC keypad. If the Voter IDs match the prints in every processor, continue with panel initialization procedure. 44.2 If any processors Voter ID does not agree with the core drawings, change Voter ID using the following steps: 44.2.1 Press DCC on the LCC keypad. 44.2.2 Press INC until VOTER ID is displayed. 44.2.3 Press ENTER. The current Voter ID is shown on the display. 44.2.4 To change the Voter ID, press and hold SHIFT while pressing the appropriate Voter ID character. If a valid Voter ID is entered, the message OK FINE is shown. 44.2.5 If an invalid key sequence is entered, repeat the last four steps. 44.2.6 Turn off the core,then restart. (Newer panels have switches in the <PD> core for each core. Older cards need to be unplugged or turned off at the control power circuit breaker.)

5-3.2.2. VERIFY STAGE LINK ID.

45.

Using the LCC display and the drawings supplied with the panel, match the Stage Link ID(s) of each communication processor. To verify the Stage Link ID of <C> (and <D>, if equipped): 45.1 Press DCC on the LCC keypad. "186 MONITOR" appears on the display. 45.2 Press INC until STAGE LINK ID is displayed. 45.3 Press ENTER. The current Stage Link ID is shown on the display. 45.4 If the Stage Link ID conforms to the proper address range described above and matches the variable called "LUN" (Lan Unit Number) in F:\CONFIG.DAT, press NORMAL and continue with panel initialization procedure. If the Stage Link ID does not match the "LUN" variable in the F:\CONFIG.DAT file, perform the following steps.

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45.4.1 To change the Stage Link ID, press and hold SHIFT while pressing the appropriate Stage Link ID character. If a valid Stage Link ID is entered, the message OK FINE is shown. 45.4.2 If an invalid key sequence is entered, repeat the last 4 steps. 45.4.3 Turn off the core, then restart. (Newer panels have switches in the <PD> core for each core. Older cards need to be unplugged or turned off at the control power circuit breaker.)

Although the LCC displays of the <Q> control processors have a menu selection for Stage Link ID, it is not necessary to set the Stage Link IDs for them. The control processors do not communicate directly with <I>s, but with <C> and/or <D> which in turn communicate with the <I>s.

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Core

Card

AC or DC

Nominal

TP-Test Point, PL-Plug, ST- Screw Terminal

Regulated? Yes or No

Acceptable Range

Fuse number, if applicable or other comments

Positive or "Hot" PD DC AC AC R, S, T, C, D DCCA TCPS DC DC DC DC DC DC DC DC PLU P TCPA TCEA DC DC DC DC DC DC DC 125 120/240 120/240 +15 -15 +24 +5 -24 +5 +15 -15 +5 -15 +15 +5 +24 +24 +335 ST-DCHI ST-AC1H ST-AC2H TP-P15 TP-N15 TP-+24V TP-+5V TP--24V TP-P5 TP-P15 TP-N15 TP-P5 TP-N15 TP-P15 TP-P5 TP-P24 TP-P24A PL-JW1

Negative or Neutral ST-DCLOW ST-AC1N ST-AC2N TP-DCOM TP-DCOM TP-DCOM TP-DCOM TP--24V TP-DCOM TP-DCOM TP-DCOM TP-DCOM TP-COM TP-COM TP-COM TP-COM TP-N24A PL-JW2 No No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No 100-144 108-132/ 216/264 108-132/ 216/264 12.75 - 17.25 -17.25 - -12.75 21.6 - 32 4.85 - 5.25 -32 - -21.6 4.8 - 5.5 12.75 - 17.25 -17.25 - -12.75 4.85 - 5.25 -17.25 - -12.75 12.75 - 17.25 4.85 - 5.25 21.6 - 32 21.6 - 32 300 - 400 FU1 - 5A FU3 - 8A FU2 - 1.5A These voltages are developed on the TCPS card and wired to the DCCA card. User supplied User supplied User supplied

Table 5-1. Power Supply voltages and test points

5-3.3. Establish ARCNET Communications Additional information on the Stage Link and topologies can be found in the Application Manual, GEH-6195, Chapter 9. 46. Connect the Stage Link cable to <C> and <I>. Connect one end to the JAI OR JAJ connector of the CTBA card in location six of the <C> core and the other to the tee adapter on the ARCNET interface card on the back of the computer. If the control panel is equipped with a <D>, only connect the Stage Link cable to <C> at this time. Verify a termination resistor is present at the end of the Stage Link.

47.

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48.

49.

Verify Stage Link communications. On the <I>s Main Display, the time shown in the upper right corner is incrementing and is shown in white numbers on a black background. 48.1 If the time displays in red or the message NO VALID DATA is displayed, the ARCNET communication has failed or has not been established. Verify the following are correct: 48.1.1 Cable and connector integrity 48.1.2 Tee adapter and 93 ohm termination resistor are installed correctly. 48.1.3 Stage Link ID and LUN match. 48.1.4 Topologies are as defined in Application Manual, Chapter 9. 48.1.5 Verify the switches and jumpers on the ARCNET interface card are correct; see step 8.. 48.1.6 If problems persist, execute the stand-alone utility program I_ARCWHO. (At the DOS prompt, type G:\SA\I_ARCWHO and press ENTER.) The Stage Link ID of the <I> is displayed, with the Stage Link IDs of any other node(s) on the Stage Link. Additionally, if the Stage Link network is experiencing problems, a message similar "The network is unstable." to is displayed. If a <D> processor is provided, repeat the previous steps for it with the <C> Stage Link disconnected to ensure communication with <D>. Be sure the <D> Stage Link ID is different from the <C> Stage Link ID.

5-3.4. Download Configuration Files to the Mark V 50. 51. 52. Format EEPROM, see Chapter 4 for directions. Download Configuration files, see Chapter 4 for directions. Cycle power to the processors to make the changes active.

5-3.5. Set Control Panel Date and Time 53. 54. 55. Set the Mark V Control Panels time and date to that of the <I> CPU. From the MAIN MENU, select TIMESET. The IDOS date and time is transmitted to the control panel processors. To verify, view the LCC monitor of any processor in the Mark V control panel. 55.1 Press the NORMAL button. The time displayed should be the same as that on the <I>s MAIN DISPLAY.

5-4. AUXILIARY COMPONENT CONNECTIONS This section includes accesory components connected to the <I> and the Mark V panel.

5-4.1 Operator Interface Auxiliaries Auxiliary components can be connected to the CPU through serial ports and configured for proper operation. Such components might include: Printers; dot matrix, laser, or color Modems and/or Long Distance Data Sets (LDDS) Auxiliary Audible Alarm

56.

57.

Using the F:\IO_PORTS.DAT information (see step 0), connect dot matrix printer(s), laser printer(s), color printers, LDDS(s) and modems, using the RS-232 serial cable(s) provided. The file IO_PORTS.DAT also specifies baud rate, parity, and other serial port configuration information. These must agree with the desired parameters of the device being connected. Consult the manufacturers instructions for the auxiliary component for required serial communication configuration parameters and ensure that the information in F:\IO_PORTS.DAT and the configuration of the device agree.

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58.

Modems and/or LDDS(s) are necessary to communicate with the plant DCS system. (LDDSs are necessary if the total distance from the CPU to the plant distributed control system (DCS) exceeds 50 feet.) One Modem or LDDS is connected to a serial port of the CPU and the other is connected to the plant DCS computer. See Application Manual, GEH-6195, Chapter 10, for additional information.

5-4.2. Backup Operator Interface (<BOI>) NOTE This procedure is necessary only the first time the <BOI> is energized or if a unit is replaced. This is normally done during GEDS factory tests unless the <BOI> is shipped not installed (separately). 59. The <BOI> must be configured before initial operation. The BOI vendor default factory configuration (RS-232) will not work. The sequence is simple but requires power to be cycled on the <BOI>. With power OFF, press ESC and hold while power is applied and until the display reads "LCD VIEWING ANGLE". 59.1 Each configurable feature is displayed sequentially on the LCD display. The options are selected by pressing "." or "9". The features are scrolled by pressing "ENTER". To return the option to its current default press "CLEAR". To exit the setup routine press "SCROLL UP". FEATURE LCD viewing angle Serial Mode Baud rate Parity Data/stop bits Handshaking Turn around Op mode Line terminator Local echo Delayed LF Tab width Cursor Keyboard Lower case Key click Local setup Setup correct? Save the setup? OPTION 1 RS-485 9600 None 8/1 XON/XOFF No delay Interactive CRLF Disabled Disabled 1 space Underline Enabled Enabled Enabled Enabled YES/NO Select YES if correct, NO if additional change is necessary. YES/NO Select YES to save the setup and return to normal operation, select NO to exit without saving.

5-5. FORMAT DISK AS SYSTEM DISK A floppy disk with the DOS system must be used to start the computer if the hard disk is damaged or the CPU is not able to start from its hard disk. This floppy disk can be very helpful when troubleshooting CPU problems such as "No boot device available". 60. Insert a new 3.5-inch disk into the A: drive.

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61. 62.

From the DOS prompt, type FORMAT A: /S and press ENTER. When complete label this disk as a system disk, write-protect it, and store it in a secure place.

5-6. MAKE A BACKUP OF THE <I>S HARD DISK Follow the procedures of Chapter 3 to make a backup copy of the complete hard disk. Although a time consuming process, backup floppy disks can save considerable effort in the unlikely event of a hard disk problem.

5-7. SERVO-VALVE AUTOMATIC CALIBRATION The Mark V Automatic Calibrate (AUTOCAL) function establishes the relationship between the position of the servo-valve and feedback voltage. AUTOCAL calibrates the feedback signals in the position control sections of the various Servo Valve Outputs (SVO)s. Calibration means to calculate the values of I/O Configuration Constants used to scale the input voltage signals from the position of the device to the proportional voltage from the feedback devices, Linear Variable Differential Transfer/Reactor (LCDT/R). Prior to performing an automatic calibration, the actuator or device must be mechanically adjusted, the mechanical end stops set correctly, and the LVDT/R must be adjusted to the correct minimum voltage position. AUTOCAL is designed to be used: during initial unit start-up and commissioning activities after an LVDT/R is replaced or repaired after reassembly of the actuator or driven device that was disassembled for maintenance or repair to verify Under Position Control as a maintenance tool to check mechanical devices, such as the servo-valve, actuator, or driven device for mechanical binding or sticking to verify Under Current Control the linearities of the LVDT/R(s) feedback signal to manually position the device to a user-defined position for testing or maintenance

It is not necessary to use AUTOCAL to recalibrate the feedback signal(s) of the LVDT/R(s) whose faulty servo-valve has been replaced, unless the servo-valve itself has a LVDT/R(s) attached (as on some medium steam turbine applications).

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Figure 5-1. AUTOCAL Display


5-7.1. AUTOCAL Display This section describes the format of the data file, ACALIB.DAT. The program ACALIB.EXE executes the AUTOCAL function. ACALIB.DAT defines the calibration parameters and the format of the screen display for each SVO. A typical AUTOCAL display is shown in Figure 5-1.ACALIB.DAT must be located in the unit configuration directory, F:\UNITn. (For further information on directories, see Chapter 3.)The three main sections to this data file are Status Codes, Trace Information, and Display Definitions. Status Codes converts I/O card status codes to text. These are used to decipher the hexadecimal I/O card state information to text for ease of understanding. Trace Information defines how many position traces are to be shown for each regulator type when displaying a Verify Under Current Control or Verify Under Position Control plot. Display Definitions section defines all the different AUTOCAL displays for each regulator. Each definition includes items such as the processor, I/O card, I/O processor number, regulator number, positions at current saturation, logic permissive for sending commands, and the data to be displayed. When AUTOCAL is run, it displays a list of the regulators. The user selects a regulator and the definition of the regulator is used to control the AUTOCAL functions and provide data to display. The AUTOCAL function changes only the TCQA RAM values of the I/O Configuration Constants; it does not modify the I/O Configuration Constants in EEPROM or the <I>. This means that if the processor(s) is re-booted after AUTOCAL is executed, the previous I/O Configuration Constants are copied to TCQA RAM overwriting the new values stored in TCQA RAM by AUTOCAL. It is designed this way to prevent automatically losing valuable data. The newly calculated I/O

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Configuration Constant values must be written down or printed from the AUTOCAL display, entered into the I/O Configurator, and downloaded to EEPROM in the processor(s) in the Mark V control panel. This is the only method of making the EEPROM and RAM values equal.

5-7.2. Operation The AUTOCAL Display starts by reading ACALIB.DAT for the current unit. (The current unit is the unit selected from the main menu. The data file defines all the SVOs that require calibration and presents a menu of the defined SVO. Once the desired SVO is selected, information is displayed on the screen. However, no commands can be sent to the unit until the permissive logic signal is met. If the Mark V does not respond or the AUTOCAL function is being used by another <I>, the data fields remain blank. The data file can define a logic PERMISSIVE signal that must be in a required state before calibration commands can be sent to the Mark V. If the data file defines a signal name that does not exist for this unit, the display issues an error message about an invalid PERMISSIVE signal name and refuses to enable commands. To enable commands the data file must add the PERMISSIVE signal and the logic that drives it to the Mark V. If the user has the required privilege and the permissive signal is found to be valid, a warning message is displayed.
5-7.2.1. AUTOCAL TARGETS. When AUTOCAL is enabled the following seven targets appear.

START CALIBRATE sends the command to the Mark V to start AUTOCAL. This executes the position calibrate function and reports the resulting information on the display. When all required permissives are met and hydraulic operation of the valve is possible, AUTOCAL controls the servo-valve output current(s) to the servo-valve device to position the actuator or device. The Mark V then measures the feedback voltages and calculates I/O Configuration Constants. The currents determined during the AUTOCAL procedure are stored in TCQA RAM. VERIFY POSITION starts the "verify under position" control function. This function ramps the actuator from actuator mechanical minimum travel to mechanical maximum travel then ramps back again at a constant rate (for example, constant inches per minute). While verifying under position control, AUTOCAL causes the servo-valve output current to increase or decrease as necessary to maintain the fixed rate of travel as indicated by the LVDT/R feedback signal(s). Servo current data is collected at 128 Hz rate and is placed in the Mark Vs buffer. If the servo-valve, the actuator, or device is not mechanically binding or sticking, the amount of current required to maintain the fixed rate of travel should be constant. Such mechanical binding could be caused by such things as valve packing, a scored hydraulic actuator cylinder, or a damaged valve stem. The results of verifying under position control can be plotted on the <I> and printed for further analysis. VERIFY CURRENT starts the "verify under current" control function. This function causes AUTOCAL to output a fixed servo-valve output current that causes the device to move at a constant rate of approximately 30% travel-per-second from actuator minimum mechanical to maximum mechanical travel and back. If the processor is re-booted or another valve calibrated, the current values from the most recent AUTOCAL procedure are lost. If no values exist in TCQA RAM for moving the device at the 30% per second rate, a message is displayed indicating that the device must be calibrated before the operation can occur. The current for each direction is different because of the null bias current required to overcome the failsafe spring bias in the servo-valve MANUAL SETPOINT defines the position reference if manual control is enabled. Manual control is used to check the accuracy of calibration or to hold the device in some position for mechanical inspection or maintenance. The desired position is entered, ENABLE MANUAL is selected, then the valve is driven to the setpoint position. Changing the MANUAL SETPOINT when manual control is enabled ramps the device at a fixed 30% stroke-per-second rate to the new setpoint. IDLE halts any calibration, verify, or manual control and clears any status or error condition from a previous command. VIEW VERIFY is used to collect and plot data in the capture buffer.

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5-7.3. Precautions/Preliminary Steps

WARNING
Personnel should keep clear of the area during an automatic calibration sequence or when one of the automatic calibration options is executed. The hydraulic actuator is moving the device from mechanical stop to mechanical stop at rates as quick as approximately 4 seconds using full hydraulic pressure. 63. Safety concerns and precautions. To enable AUTOCAL, high-pressure shaft turbine speed must be below 28%, meaning the unit must be off-line, shut down, or on crank in certain applications. Insure LVDT is in the linear region and that the minimum travel is set (see Figure 5-2). LVDT/Rs are usually specified so that the linear range of output voltage is slightly greater than the mechanical range of travel of the actuator or device. Since the output voltages of LVDT/Rs are non-linear at the extreme ends of travel, it is important to mechanically adjust the LVDT/Rs so that at its minimum travel, such as at one of the mechanical stops of the actuator or devicer, the output voltage is in the linear range. See documentation for minimum travel voltage.

64.

LVDT/R Range of Travel Actuator/ Device Range of Travel Effective Stroke

LVDT/R Output Voltage

The graph represents a plot of position versus voltage. The LVDT/R is usually adjusted such that its output is linear over the mechanical range of travel of the actuator/device. In some cases, the effective stroke of the device may be less (or more) than the actuator/ device range of travel.

Range of Travel

Figure 5-2. Voltage vs Range of Travel Curve


65. 66. Verify pretravel. Pretravel dimensions are defined and explained in the turbine manual. Understand difference between LVDT range of travel, Actuator range of travel, and actual mechanical range of travel. The following information must be known before AUTOCAL can calibrate LVDT/R position feedback signal(s) from a device: (see Figure 5-3)

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

LVDT Mechanical Minimum Travel LVDT Minimum Voltage Actuator Mechanical Minimum Travel (distance between 3 and 4 is called "pretravel") Device Mechanical Minimum Travel (distance between 4 and 5 is "effective travel or stroke") Device Mechanical Maximum Travel or Normal Operating Maximum Position (distance between 3 and 5 is actual mechanical range of travel) Actuator Mechanical Maximum Travel LVDT Maximum Voltage LVDT Mechanical Maximum Travel actual mechanical range of travel of the device/actuator, such as closed-end mechanical stop to open-end mechanical stop, in engineering units (inches, centimeters, degrees of angle, etc.) Position of Actuator or LVDT
Operating Range

----------------------| 1 | 2 | | 3 4

---------------------| 5 | 6 | 7 | 8

Figure 5-3. Linear Representation of Travel Terms (see definitions above)


The effective travel of the device whose LVDT/R(s) is being calibrated is very important when it is not equal to the actual mechanical range of travel. For many steam turbine applications, the effective travel of a steam valve is equal to the actual mechanical range of travel. However, many heavy duty gas turbines employ an actuator for the Gas Control Valve which has a maximum mechanical range of travel of approximately 2.40 inches, but the effective range of travel is only 1.75 inches. At 1.75 the flow characteristics of the valves internal plug and seat might cause the maximum expected fuel flow for that unit. In this case, the control system is calibrated so that the 100% travel for the valve (effective travel) is when the valve is at 1.75 inches. The "effective travel" of the device being calibrated is usually defined in either the units Control Specifications, Lineup Instructions, or unit instruction manuals. If the devices effective travel is different than its mechanical range of travel, the actual mechanical range of travel must be known and entered into the unit-specific ACALIB.DAT file on the <I>. While the mechanical range of travel is usually listed in the units documentation, it is best to actually measure the range of travel using a dial indicator, a machinists rule, a machinists protractor, or some appropriate measuring instrument. Once the actual mechanical range of travel is known for a particular actuator or device, it can be entered into the unitspecific file and does not need to be changed unless the actuator or device is replaced or has been disassembled for repair or maintenance. The values for POSITION-POS-SAT and POSITION-NEG-SAT can be entered in inches, millimeters, or other convenient units of measure. Often they are expressed as a percentage of effective travel or device mechanical maximum travel. This is probably the easiest to understand, but does require the user to know on what the value is based. 67. 68. Enable Maintenance level Password or above Gather the necessary data from Figure 5-3 and from ACALIB.DAT file: 68.1 Saturation position values 68.2 CDB logic signal for AUTOCAL permissive Establish Hydraulic pressure. In order to use AUTOCAL, the unit must be shut down and the hydraulic system of the unit must be placed in operation by the user. Any dump valves or trip solenoids must be in the correct position to allow the operation of the hydraulic system. AUTOCAL does not enable the hydraulic system automatically. For example, in some heavy-duty gas turbines without motor-driven hydraulic pumps, the unit has to be cranked to establish hydraulic pressure. Consult the documentation to determine how to enable the hydraulics. Forcing points to enable AUTOCAL. In most cases, the AUTOCAL function requires that a particular CDB logic point be in a specific state in order to enable AUTOCAL. The CDB logic signal pointname is displayed on the AUTOCAL screen for the device being calibrated. If there is any question about whether a logic permissive has been specified for

69.

70.

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the device, the CDB pointname and the required state of the logic signal can be viewed in the unit-specific ACALIB.DAT file. Most applications use the CDB logic signal L3ADJ for the AUTOCAL permissive and require it to be a logic " 1 ". By reviewing the units Control Sequence Program, the conditions which make L3ADJ (or the particular specified CDB logic signal point) a logic " 1 " can be determined.

5-7.4. Executing AUTOCAL The following procedures can be used to calibrate the Servo Valve Outputs: Procedure 1 when a LVDT is replaced or repaired. Procedure 2 verify calibration or check mechanical systems. PROCEDURE 1 To calibrate a new, repaired, or replaced LVDT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Follow directions under Precautions/preliminary steps in section 5-7.3. Enable AUTOCAL by setting the AUTOCAL permissive CDB pointname; may have to use the CSP, Dynamic Rung display, or Logic forcing. See Step 8 in Section 5-7.3. Select AUTOCALIBRATE on the Main Menu, then select the device to be calibrated/verified. Select ENABLE COMMANDS . Read and heed the warnings. Click on OK to enable AUTOCAL.

WARNING
Confirm that all personnel and mechanical obstructions are clear of the valve area. The Mark V will move the valve quickly from actuator mechanical minimum travel to actuator mechanical maximum travel. Also, sudden loss of oil pressure could result in rapid movement. Click on START - CALIB , then EXECUTE COMMAND . Click on MANUAL SETPOINT , enter 128, click on EXECUTE. Click on ENABLE MANUAL , then EXECUTE COMMAND . Measure and record actuator or driven device mechanical range of travel and position at end of travel (this value will be POSITION_POS_SAT ). 10. Click on MANUAL SETPOINT , enter -128, click on EXECUTE. 11. Measure and record actuator or driven device actual range of travel and position (this value will be POSITION_NEG_SAT ). 12. Click on IDLE. 13. Edit ACALIB.DAT, entering the values measured above. Values can be entered in inches, millimeters, degrees, or percent of "effective travel" position. Percent values are recommended. 14. Return to the AUTOCAL display for the device being tested. 15. Select ENABLE COMMANDS, click on OK to enable AUTOCAL. 16. Click on START - CALIB , then EXECUTE COMMAND. 17. Click on VERIFY - POSN. 18. When complete, click on VIEW - VERIFY for each processor. Click on OK when finished. 19. If the plot of current versus time is not linear, (see Figure 5-4) a problem might exist. Shut down test, make hydraulic system safe, and investigate. 20. Click on VERIFY - CURRENT. 21. When complete, click on VIEW - VERIFY for each processor. Click on OK when finished. 22. If the plot of position versus time is not linear, (see Figure 5-4) a problem might exist. Shut down test, make hydraulic system safe, and investigate. 23. Click on PRINT IMG to print the screen. 24. Click on MANUAL SETPOINT , enter 0, click on OK. 25. Measure and Record the LVDT feedback ac voltage on the terminal board in <R>. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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27. 28. 29.

Click on MANUAL SETPOINT , enter the value for maximum valve position in the same units used for POSITION_POS_SAT. (For example, if percent was used before, use 100 here. If inches were used before, use the value in inches for maximum valve position.) Click on OK. Measure and Record the LVDT feedback AC voltage using the DIAGC utility. See Chapter 4 for details.. Click on IDLE. The AUTOCAL testing is finished. Return system to normal. 29.1. Remove any logic forcing installed to execute test. 29.2. Return hydraulic system to normal. Test is now complete. If the new values are to be made permanent, continue; if not stop here. Edit the I/O Configurator, TCQA card, for the regulator just tested. Enter the median values of <R>, <S>, and <T> from the print out and the 0% and 100% position AC voltage readings. Click on VERIFY SCREEN , then EXIT CARD DEF. Click on SAVE CHANGES . This will save the new values on THIS <I>. Click on EEPROM DOWNLOADER and follow the directions in Chapter 4 to save the new values to EEPROM in each processor. Reset (push white reset button on DCC card) the processors to update the RAM with the EEPROM values. If there is more than one <I> on the system that could be used for future maintenance, this same information should be stored on the other <I>s hard disk(s). This can be done one of three ways: 36.1. Execute steps 33, 34 and 35 for each <I>. It is not necessary to download to EEPROMs again (step 36). 36.4. Copy the file IOCFG_.DAT from the <I> used for the test onto a floppy disk and then copy the file from the floppy disk to the other <I>s hard disk(s). 36.5. Use the EEPROM UP feature. See Chapter 4 for details. Remember that the EEPROM uploader will not save any comments in the files.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

or or

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PROCEDURE 2 To verify existing calibration or check mechanical systems 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Follow directions under Precautions/preliminary steps in section 5-7.3. Enable AUTOCAL by setting the AUTOCAL permissive CDB pointname; may have to use the CSP, Dynamic Rung display, or logic forcing. See Step 8 in Section 5-7.3. Select AUTOCALIBRATE on the Main Menu, then select the device to be calibrated/verified Select ENABLE COMMANDS Read and heed warnings Click on OK to enable AUTOCAL

WARNING

Confirm all personnel and mechanical obstructions are clear of the valve area. The Mark V will move the valve quickly from actuator mechanical minimum travel to actuator mechanical maximum travel. Also, sudden loss of oil pressure could result in rapid movement., 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Click on START - CALIB , then EXECUTE COMMAND. Click on VERIFY - POSN. When complete, click on VIEW - VERIFY for each processor. Click on OK when finished. If the plot of current versus time is not linear, (see Figure 5-4) a problem might exist. Shut down test, make hydraulic system safe, and investigate. Click on VERIFY - CURRENT. When complete, click on VIEW - VERIFY for each processor. Click on OK when finished. If the plot of position versus time is not linear, (see Figure 5-4) a problem might exist. Shut down test, make hydraulic system safe, and investigate. Click on PRINT IMG to print the screen. Click on IDLE. The AUTOCAL verifying is finished. Return system to normal. 15.1. Remove any logic forcing installed to execute test. 15.2. Return hydraulic system to normal. Test is now complete.

16.

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CHAPTER 6 DATA DISPLAY TOOLS


6-1. INTRODUCTION The <I> gathers data from the CDB of the control processor, scales it, and displays it with the correct units. This chapter will describe the programs that the <I> uses to gather data, scale it in English, metric, or custom units, and display the data in several different ways, including triggered and real-time plots. Some of these features are cost options however, and may not be available on all operator interfaces.

6-2. DATA COLLECTION PROGRAMS There are several useful data-collecting programs available for troubleshooting purposes. These programs can be used to collect data from CDB pointnames, logics and/or variables, some can be saved to an ASCII text file, and they can be used to collect data from more than one unit when executed on a multi-unit <I> (an <I> capable of controlling/monitoring multiple units). The following sections define these programs and give further details on its operation.

6-2.1.

VIEW1.EXE

VIEW1.EXE is executed from the DOS command line of an <I> while IDOS is running. While VIEW1.EXE program is collecting data, the <I> is dedicated to this task. If necessary, control commands may be issued froma ntoher <I> or <BOI>. The program is manually initiated, not by an event or predetermined time. (See VIEW2T.) VIEW1.EXE can collects data at a once-per-second rate (1 Hz). To view the startup screen, type VIEW1.EXE at the DOS prompt and press Enter. This reveals the information shown in Figure 6-1.

To also send output to a file, enter filename as a program parameter. Eight points can print on the screen, up to 29 points go into the file. To read point list from a file, enter @filename as a program parameter. Default unit is T1. Enter pointname[1]:

Figure 6-1. VIEW1.EXE Startup Screen

When executing VIEW1.EXE on a multi-unit <I>, it collects data from the currently selected <I> unit unless a unit name prefix is supplied. To collect data from units other than the currently selected unit, use the unit name followed by a colon as a prefix to the CDB pointname. For example, to collect data for CDB pointname L4 for unit T2, enter the pointname at the prompt or in the pointlist file as T2:L4.

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The following list of CDB pointnames could be used by VIEW1.EXE to gather data from multiple units (in this example T1 is the currently selected unit when the file is executed.) TNH FSR CPD T3:L3STCK T2:L4 This is regardless of the drive/directory from which the program was executed. The currently selected unit is the one whose Main Menu was switched to or was being viewed at the time the user exited to DOS. A sample of data collected by running VIEW1.EXE with three data points specified is shown in Fig. 6-2.

To also send output to a file, enter filename as a program parameter. Eight points can print on the screen, up to 29 points go into the file. To read point list from a file, enter @filename as a program parameter. Default unit is T1. Enter pointname[1]: ## Unit Pointname -- ---- -----------1 T1 TNH 2 T1 FSR 3 T1 CPD

Scale ----% % psi 83.20 83.17 87.96 79.45 78.76 82.38 84.78

TIME is <I> processor time, not unit time. 13-JUL 13:35:14 100.37 15.70 13-JUL 13:35:15 101.35 15.60 13-JUL 13:35:16 101.99 17.60 13-JUL 13:35:17 100.06 14.30 13-JUL 13:35:18 98.94 13.90 13-JUL 13:35:19 99.57 15.36 13-JUL 13:35:20 100.04 16.01

Figure 6-2. Sample of VIEW1.EXE Output File

The time for each data sample in Figure 6-2 is the time in the <I>, used to execute VIEW1.EXE. It is not the time in the Mark V Control Panel(s) from which the data was collected.
6-2.1.1.

output.

VIEW1.EXE OPTIONS. The options available give two ways to enter the pointnames and two ways to direct the VIEW1 [output_file] [@pointlist]

Entering pointnames: If no options are specified, the program prompts the user to enter the pointnames. Use a pointlist file, (@pointlist) where pointlist is the name of the ASCII text file containing the pointnames for the data to be gathered. Pointnames used by VIEW1.EXE are listed in an ASCII text file created prior to executing VIEW1.EXE. Directing the output: The data collected is displayed to the <I> CRT only (default).

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The data collected is displayed to the <I> CRT and written to the output filename specified when VIEW1.EXE is executed. If a file has the same name as the output file when VIEW1.EXE is executed, it is overwritten. Data that is collected by VIEW1.EXE and written to disk can be viewed and printed using an ASCII text editor. Vendors have other programs available that are able to import ASCII text data in order to convert it to a chart, graphs, or other readable formats. If desired, an ASCII text file can be specified which defines a list of CDB pointnames to collect data from when VIEW1.EXE is executed. The file must exist prior to executing VIEW1.EXE. A maximum of 29 CDB pointnames can be listed in the file. However, only eight can be displayed on the screen at a time. The data for the first eight CDB pointnames can be displayed on the <I> CRT. The file which lists CDB pointnames to be used by VIEW1.EXE should be created with one pointname per line. When VIEW1.EXE is being executed, the CDB pointlist filename must be preceded with the "@" symbol. Execute VIEW1.EXE in the USER directory on the F: drive, particularly if collected data is saved to a file on the <I> hard disk. Since data files created by VIEW1.EXE could be very large and are only used in troubleshooting, it is not recommended that VIEW1.EXE data files be created or stored in unit-specific directories. Archiving such files is unnecessary and consumes a lot of disk space. Additionally, once they have served their purpose VIEW1.EXE data files can easily be deleted from F:\USER without the possibility of accidentally deleting unit-specific files.

Press any key to stop VIEW1.EXE. Do not leave VIEW1.EXE running unattended for long periods of time if collected data is being written to the hard disk and <I> hard disk space is limited. The flowchart (displayed in Figures 6-3 and 6-4) details the steps involved in executing VIEW1.EXE.

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START Data Collection using VIEW1.EXE

Is access to DOS enabled? YES If <I> is multi-unit, change to unit from which data is primarily collected

NO

From MAIN MENU, click on Password Administration, enable Maintenance Password Level (or greater), and return to MAIN MENU

Exit to DOS command line

output_file

Determine name of file where collected data is written

YES

Is collected data written to an output file?

NO

Will a pointlist file specify CDB pointnames?

NO

YES

Will a pointlist file specify CDB pointnames?

YES NO Use an ASCII text editor to create pointlist file of CDB pointnames See Note 1 A B C Use an ASCII text editor to create pointlist file of CDB pointnames See Note 1 D

filename

filename

6-4

Figure 6-3. Flow-Chart for Using

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Begin data collection by executing VIEW1 with the following command: VIEW1 @filename output_file

Begin data collection by executing VIEW1 with the following command: VIEW1 @filename

Execute VIEW1 with the following command: VIEW1 output_file

Execute VIEW1 with the following command: VIEW1

Press ENTER after typing each pointname; press ENTER a second time to begin data collection See Note 1

Press ENTER after typing each pointname; press ENTER a second time to begin data collection See Note 1

All data will be displayed to <I> CRT and written to output file. Press any key to terminate data collection.

Collected data is only displayed to <I> CRT; press any key to terminate data collection.

All data will be displayed to <I> CRT and written to output file Press any key to terminate data collection

Collected data will only be displayed to <I> CRT; press any key to terminate data collection

Data Collection using VIEW1 COMPLETE

NOTE 1 On multi-unit <I>s, CDB pointnames from units other than currently selected unit must be preceded with the two-character unitname and a colon; e.g., T3:

Figure 6-4. Flow-chart For Using

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6-2.2.

VIEW2.EXE

The program VIEW2.EXE can also be a very useful data-collecting tool for troubleshooting purposes. It is very similar to VIEW1.EXE (see the previous section) except VIEW2.EXE has different options, it must output to a file, and it stops differently. VIEW2.EXE can collect data for a specified period or be left to continue until the <I>s RAM is full. When full, the program terminates and writes the data from RAM to a file. The programs execution can be terminated at any time by pressing any key. All data collected until that time is written to an ASCII text file. The command line format/syntax for VIEW2.EXE and its options are shown in the Help screen in Figure 6-5.

Command format: VIEW2 [options] [@pointlist_file] Options are: /PROC=c where "c" is { R | S | T | C | D } /SCAN=n where n is CPU ticks, (1..65535) /SAMPLES=n where n is maximum number of samples

output_file [Default is C] [Default is 1 for 32 Hz] [Default is all memory]

Figure 6-5. Help Screen

6-2.2.1.

VIEW2.EXE OPTIONS. The various options that can be specified when running VIEW2.EXE are detailed as follows: (VIEW2.EXE uses default values for any options not specified.) /PROC instructs VIEW2.EXE to collect data for the specified CDB pointnames from a particular processor in the Mark V control panel. If no processor is specified when VIEW2.EXE is executed, it collects data from its default processor, <C>. In a TMR Mark V control panel, data is usually collected from the <S> or <T> processors rather than from <C> or <R> because all the information in <C>s control signal database is not updated as quickly as that in the <Q>, and it is desirable to keep the <R>s processing load as light as possible. Choosing <S> or <T> results in "fresher" data and does not increase the processing load on <R>. In a Simplex Mark V control panel, data is collected from <R>, if possible. There are instances, however, when data is collected from <C>, such as when there are troubleshooting problems with the <C> I/O.

/SCAN is the "scan rate," or rate at which data is collected by VIEW2. It is defined by specifying a value for this option. The actual rate of data collection is usually defined in Hz or the number of times-per-second that data is gathered and stored. The corresponding "scan rate" of data collection is calculated using the formula: scan rate = (32 / Hz) For example, if data is collected at an 8 Hz rate (8 times-per-second), the scan rate value to be specified when executing VIEW2.EXE would be 4. If no scan rate is specified when VIEW2.EXE is executed, it collects data at the default scan rate of 1 (32 Hz). /SAMPLES defines the number of times (samples) data is collected by VIEW2. This option can define the length of time (in seconds) the data is collected using the following formula: time = samples / (32 / scan rate) Solving for samples, the above formula becomes: samples = time * (32 / scan rate) For example, if data were to be collected at a scan rate of 4 (8 Hz rate), for 2 minutes (120 seconds), the value of samples to be specified when executing VIEW2.EXE would be 9600. If no number of samples is specified when VIEW2.EXE is executed, it collects data until the available memory in the first 640K of <I> RAM is full, writes the data to a file on the hard disk, and terminates itself.

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The command for executing VIEW2.EXE to collect data from the <S> processor of a TMR Mark V control panel at an 8 Hz rate for a period of 2 minutes using the CDB point(s) listed in the file VIEW2.LST and stored in the file VIEW2.DAT is: VIEW2.EXE /PROC=S /SCAN=4 /SAMPLES=9600 @VIEW2.LST VIEW2.DAT The ASCII text file which defines the list of CDB pointnames may be specified when VIEW2.EXE is executed. The file must exist prior to executing VIEW2.EXE. A maximum of 29 CDB pointnames can be listed in the file. The list is created with one pointname per line. If the Synonym Feature is enabled, pointname synonyms can be used instead of CDB pointnames. When specifying the CDB pointlist filename, it must be preceded with the " @ " symbol. The data collected by VIEW2.EXE is written to a specific file by supplying a filename when VIEW2.EXE is executed. If a file with the same name as the output file already exists when VIEW2.EXE is executed, it is overwritten. A flowchart detailing the steps involved in executing VIEW2.EXE is shown in Figures 6-6 and 6-7. VIEW2ASC - VIEW TO ASCII FILE CONVERSION UTILITY. This utility will take the results of a VIEW1 or a VIEW2.EXE data file and format it so that the data can be imported into most spreadsheet or database programs. The time is converted into a raw number of seconds. The data is left untouched. Many spreadsheets can not accept as many numbers as are in the data file because of memory limitations. Therefore, the user must specify which points are to be included in the output file. Type VIEW2ASC with no parameters and the following help screen will appear:
6-2.2.2.

VIEW2ASC pt1,pt2,...pt_x infile outfile where: pt1 is the first point number to be included in the output file pt2 is the second point number to be included in the output file pt_x is the last point number to included in the output file infile is the name of the input data file outfile is the name of the output file where the data will be formatted to The list of point numbers must be one word (that is, no spaces allowed with only numbers separated by commas).
6-2.2.3. VIEW2T - VIEW HIGH SPEED TRIGGERED MARK V DATA. This program will collect high speed data from the

Mark V and save it in a circular memory buffer. When the first logic point specified makes a transition, VIEW2T will collect a user-defined number of post-trigger records and write that data into a file for analysis. It can collect data at up to 32 Hz from any processor. Type VIEW2T with no parameters and the following help screen will appear: VIEW2T [options] [@pointlist_file] output_file

where: Options are: /PROC=c where "c" is { R | S | T | C | D } [Default is C] /SCAN=n where n is CPU ticks, (1..65535) [Default is 1 for 32 Hz] /SAMPLES=n where n is maximum number of samples [Default is all memory] /POST=n where n is number of samples after trigger [Default = 1] /TRIG=0 Trigger upon dropout of the first signal /TRIG=1 Trigger upon pickup of the first signal [Default = 1] @pointlist_file is the file with the list of points to collect data from output_file is the file to which the data will be written to

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START Data collection using VIEW2.EXE From MAIN MENU, click on Password Administration, enable Maintenance Password Level (or greater), and return to MAIN MENU

Is access to DOS enabled? YES

NO

If <I> is multi-unit, change to unit from which data is gathered Exit to DOS command line

Determine name of file where output_file collected data is written Determine the rate (in Hz) at which data is collected, then calculate scan rate value

/SCAN = (32 /Hz)

pointlist_file

Use ASCII text editor tocreate poinlist file of CDB pointnames for which data is collected

YES

Use a pointlist file to specify pointname?

NO

Will data NO be collected for a specific period of time? (i.e. number of samples) YES

YES

Will data be collected for a specific period of time? (i.e. number of samples)

NO Determine the time in seconds, for which data is gathered, then calculate the number of samples collected. /SAMPLES = time * (32/scan) A B C D Determine the time in seconds, for which data is gathered, then calculate the number of samples collected. /SAMPLES = time * (32/scan)

Figure 6-6. Flow-Chart for Using VIEW2.EXE (Sheet 1 of 2)

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YES

Is Mark V control panel TMR?

NO YES

Is Mark V control panel TMR?

NO

Execute VIEW2 with the following command: VIEW2 /PROC=S /SCAN=n @pointlist_file output_file See Note 1 YES Is Mark V control panel TMR? NO

Execute VIEW2 with the following command: VIEW2 /PROC=R /SCAN=n @pointlist_file output_file See Note 1

Execute VIEW2 with the following command:

Execute VIEW2 with the following command:

VIEW2 /PROC=S /SCAN=n @output_file See Note 1

VIEW2 /PROC=R /SCAN=n @output_file See Note 1

Press any key to terminate and write collected data to file

YES

Is Mark V control panel TMR?

NO

Press any key to terminate and write collected data to file

Execute VIEW2 with the following command: VIEW2 /PROC=S /SCAN=n /SAMPLES=x @pointlist_file output_file Execute VIEW2 with the following command: VIEW2 /PROC=R /SCAN=n /SAMPLES=x @pointlist_file output_file

Execute VIEW2 with the following command: VIEW2 /PROC=S /SCAN=n /SAMPLES=x @output_file Execute VIEW2 with the following command: VIEW2 /PROC=R /SCAN=n /SAMPLES=x @output_file

Collected data is written to file after specified number of samples have been collected

Collected data is written to file after specified number of samples have been collected NOTE 1 Depending on the circumstances it may be advantageous to choose <C> as processor from which data is gathered

Data-collection using VIEW2 COMPLETE

Data-collection using VIEW2 COMPLETE

Figure 6-7. Flow-Chart for Using VIEW2.EXE (Sheet 2 of 2)


See Section 6-2.2.1 for an explanation of /PROC, /SCAN, and /SAMPLES. The "@" is necessary before the pointlist name. Help is available on-line by typing VIEW2T at the DOS prompt.
6-2.2.4. VIEWPV - VIEW PREVOTE DATA. This program will collect user-selected fast-voted signals and write them to an

ASCII data file for analysis. In other words, this program will take input before it is voted upon by the processors and write it to a file for analysis. It can collect data at up to 32 Hz. Type VIEWPV with no parameters and the following help screen will appear: VIEWPV [options] [@pointlist_file] output_file where: Options are: /PROC=c where "c" is { B | C | D } [Default is /SCAN=n where n is CPU ticks, (1..65535) [ Default is /SAMPLES=n where n is maximum number of samples [ Default is /[NO]SEP [NOT] show separators in output file [ Default is @pointlist_file is the file with the list of points to collect output_file is the file to which the data will be written to

B] 1 for 32 Hz] all memory] /SEP] data from

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See Section 6-2.2.1 for an explanation of /PROC, /SCAN, and /SAMPLES. The @ is necessary before the pointlist name. Help is available on-line by typing VIEWPV at the DOS prompt.
6-2.2.5. VIEWQ - VIEW <Q> DATA. This program will collect selected points from the CDB from each of the <Q> processors and write the data to a file for analysis. It can collect data at up to 32 Hz. Type VIEWQ with no parameters and the following help screen will appear:

VIEWQ [options] [@pointlist_file] output_file where: Options are: /SCAN=n where n is CPU ticks, (1..65535) [ Default is 1 for 32 Hz] /SAMPLES=n where n is +maximum number of samples [ Default is all memory] /[NO]SEP [NOT] show separators in output file [ Default is /SEP] /[NO]SORT defines if output is time sorted [ Default is /SORT] @pointlist_file is the file with the list of points to collect data from output_file is the file to which the data will be written to Because the data can arrive out of order, VIEWQ will sort the output according to time and processor instead of displaying it in the order received. To prevent the data from being sorted, use the /NOSORT option. See Section 6-2.2.1 for an explanation of /SCAN and /SAMPLES. The "@" is necessary before the pointlist name. Help is available on-line by typing VIEWQ at the DOS prompt.
6-2.2.6. VIEW_LIM - VIEW FILE LIMITS ANALYSIS. This program will take the output from VIEW1.EXE or VIEW2.EXE and for each point will determine its minimum and maximum values. The time of the min/max will also be shown to assist in further analysis. The format of the command is:

VIEW_LIM filename The resulting report is written to standard output. To transfer the report to a file, use the standard redirectioning commands in DOS, for example, VIEW_LIM filename > report_filename . Help is available on-line by typing VIEW_LIM at the DOS prompt.

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6-2.2.7. VIEW_SD - ANALYZE VIEW OUTPUT FOR STANDARD DEVIATION. This program will take the output from

VIEW1.EXE or VIEW2.EXE and for each point will determine the mean value and standard deviation. The format of the command is: VIEW_SD filename The resulting report is written to standard output. To transfer the report to a file, use the standard redirectioning commands in DOS (for example, VIEW_SD filename > report_filename ). Help is available on-line by typing VIEW_SD at the DOS prompt.
6-2.2.8. VIEWHD - VIEW HISTORICAL DATA. This program polls a Historian for historical data and displays the data on a

point by point basis, with a time and value for each historical record. The format for this command is: VIEWHD [\CALL] [filename] where: \CALL uses the call level interface to the Historian and filename is the name of an output file to write the historical data to. Both the filename and \CALL are optional. \CALL sends the data one value at a time rather than in a large batch. There is a danger of losing communications with this method. When the command is entered, it will ask for a start time and an end time (both in the format DD-MM-YYYY HH:MM:SS ) and then it will ask for a unit and its pointname. The data will then be displayed in a list format. On-line help is available by typing VIEWHD /? at the DOS prompt.
6-2.2.9. VIEWST - VIEW DATA IN THE SHORT-TERM TREND QUEUES. This program writes the contents of the Short-

Term Trend circular queues to a data file ( VIEWST.OUT). Output is on a point by point basis, giving a time and a value for each short-term trend data record. The format is as follows: VIEWST [/REAL] where: /REAL includes the Real Time Plot points in the data file

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6-3. SHORT-TERM TRENDING The Real Time Plot program on the Mark V <I> processor shows the user a plot of data points versus time. Normally when a point is chosen for a Real Time Plot, it starts plotting at the current time. No point information is available before the point was chosen. Short-Term Trending, an optional product for the <I> processor, allows the user to specify up to 64 points to be collected all the time. If any of these points are plotted on the Real Time Plot, information on their short-term history is available. This means a point plotted will show a history of the point leading up to the present in addition to new data as the plot progresses. The rate of collection (in seconds) and the amount of time to hold the data can be specified for each point.

6-3.1. Theory of Operation An IDOS background task (STTREND) is started as part of the normal RUN_IDP startup. This task collects and stores the data in memory. This short-term data memory area is organized in a set of data queues, one queue for each point being saved. Each queue has a period, which defines how often to write a data sample into the queue. The period is defined in seconds, and can range from 1 to 32767 seconds. Each queue also has a depth, which defines how many data samples are stored in the queue, and can range from 10 to 1800 samples. The queue is circular in nature, so once the queue is full the new value overwrites the oldest value in the queue. For example: If a queue has a period of 1, and a depth of 600, it will hold one point sample per second for 10 minutes. If a queue has a period of 60, and a depth of 180, it will hold one point sample per minute for 3 hours.

The STTREND task reads a data file which defines the points, periods, and depths of the queues. STTREND creates the global section to hold this data and proceeds to collect and store the desired data. When a point is plotted on a Real Time Plot, the plotting program will look into the global section to see if the point was saved in short-term trending. If it was, the plot will show the values leading up to the current reading. 6-3.2. Adding Short-Term Trending The first step is to enable the Short-Term Trending Option. The F:\CONFIG.DAT file defines what options are enabled at each site. Edit this file's options section to include the line: ST_TREND = Yes If this line is not included, a reduced size section of memory is reserved to hold just the information for the six points currently being displayed on the Real Time Plot. The second step is to reserve memory for holding the short-term trending queues. By default the <I> will reserve 1 MByte of memory for short-term trend data queues. Always use the default first, and only change the size if there is an insufficient memory error. If the <I> does not have 1 MByte of memory available, the size of the global section can be reduced by adding the option line: ST_TREND_SIZE = 512 The size given is the number of KBytes of memory to reserve for the short-term trend data. The default value (used if this line does not appear) is 1024, which reserves 1 MByte of memory. Next, the points to be included in the short-term queues need to be defined. The Short-Term Trend package uses the file F:\RUNTIME\ST_TREND.DAT to define which points are to be included in the short-term data queues; up to 64 points can be included. The total size of all the data collected must fit within the memory allocated for the short-term trend data. Figure 6-8 contains a sample point definition file.

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; This file is used to define what points are to be ; included in the Short Term Trend data queues. ; ;Pointname Period Depth ;Comments ;-----------------FE:TNH 1 600 ;Every sec for 10 min FE:WATT 1 600 ; FE:DEAR 1 600 ; FE:TTXM 1 600 ; FE:B_MAX 5 120 ;Every 5 sec for 10 min FE:CSGV 10 360 ;Every 10 sec for 1 hour FE:TTWS1AO1 60 60 ;Every minute for 1 hour

Figure 6-8. F:\RUNTIME\ST_TREND.DAT

Once this file has been edited, a report can be generated on the points in the ST_TREND.DAT file. This report is generated by the trending administration (TADMIN) program; to generate a report, enter the command: F:\RUNTIME> TADMIN /LIST TADMIN will read the system options from F:\CONFIG.DAT and the point list definition from the F:\RUNTIME\ST_TREND.DAT file and prepare a report similar to Figure 6-9.

--- SHORT TERM TREND POINT AND QUEUE INFORMATION --Pointname Period Depth Total time -----------------------------------FE:TNH 1 600 0000 00:10:00 FE:DWATT 1 600 0000 00:10:00 FE:DVAR 1 600 0000 00:10:00 FE:TTXM 1 600 0000 00:10:00 FE:BB_MAX 5 120 0000 00:10:00 FE:CSGV 10 360 0000 01:00:00 FE:TTWS1AO1 60 60 0000 01:00:00 -----------------------------------TADMIN-INFO, You have used 7 out of 64 possible points. TADMIN-INFO, You have used 11% of the global section space.

Figure 6-9. Sample TADMIN Report

If all the desired information has been received, the size of the reserved memory may be reduced as shown above. This will free up some memory for other IDOS functions. NOTE The six points available on the Real Time Plot program are NOT included in the count of the number of points used, but ARE included in the percent of the global section used. Even if a file is reduced to zero points, about 8 percent of the global section will be used.

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6-4. REAL TIME PLOT The real time plot program (RTPLOT) provides real time plot capability for all <I> processors, plotting up to six points versus time. The time scale can be adjusted by the user, from a minimum of two (2) minutes up to many hours.

6-4.1 Format RTPLOT uses a data entry form similar to the forms used elsewhere in the <I> processor to specify plotting parameters. The parameters for the real time plot are as follows: Elapsed time: Enter the desired elapsed time on the plot in hours and minutes. The minimum time is 2 minutes. The plot allows for a range of up to 99 hours, but typically the range will not be more than one hour. (See the short term trending option in Section 6-3.) Unit Names and Point Names: Enter the unit name and point name for each point (up to six) to be plotted. If the unit name is left off, the current selected unit will be used. Unit names must be specified in order to see information from more than one unit at once. (Example: MW and MVAR output from multiple turbines.) Low and High Plotting limits: Enter the engineering units values for the low and high plotting limits for each point. The graphs will be drawn with the axis labeled according to these low and high plotting limits.

6-4.2. Notes and Considerations The CHECK FORM target can be used to check the data entered on the form. Invalid fields will be highlighted in yellow. To draw the plots, choose the DRAW PLOT target. The DRAW PLOT target will do a CHECK FORM first, and only draw the plot if all fields are valid. When drawing the real time plot, the current value will always be plotted in the right side of the graph. When the trace reaches the right axis, the graph will "roll back" so that the current trace is shown in the right side of the graph, and the left side of the graph is back-filled with the previous data. For plots of up to one hour, the rollback time will be half the total time. For plots of over one hour, the rollback time will be 30 minutes. An option in the <I> processor is a special package called Short-Term Trending (see Section 6-3). Once the ST_TREND.DAT file is edited, the <I> starts collecting data on the points in the file. When Real Time Plot is selected, the <I> uses the values stored in memory to fill up the graph to the current time. If points not in ST_TREND.DAT are selected for Real Time Plot, there will be no history available, but they will be plotted starting when DRAW PLOT is clicked upon. The real time plot uses the time of the <I> processor to draw the initial time axis. Make sure that the time of the <I> processor is close to the time set in the units (within a minute) so that the information shown on the real time plot starts near the midpoint of the graph when the program is first run. If the <I> processor is ahead of the unit time, the real time plot will start too far to the left, possibly even off the graph. If points are plotted from multiple units and the times in the Mark Vs are not set the same, the X-AXIS position of the points being plotted will be different. The real time plot program will roll back the graph to when the first point hits the right axis. If communication is lost with a unit, all points plotted from that unit will have their point names shown in reverse video. When communication is re-established, the point name will revert to normal video. Targets are included for PRINT REPORT and SAVE REPORT. The reports contain a list of times and values that were used to make the graph. These reports are in ASCII form, and can be imported by some computer systems for further analysis. To add the real time plot to the main menu, edit the F:\RUNTIME\MENU.DAT file to include the following line: " REAL TIME PLOT" "g:\exec\rtplot.exe"

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The real time plot program can also start with the data plot instead of the form displayed by having the parameter "/GO" added to the menu data file. The program will check the form, and if all entries are valid it will present the plot instead of the form. If any entry is invalid, the program will highlight the field and remain in the form. The resulting menu file would be as follows: " REAL TIME PLOT" "g:\exec\rtplot.exe" "/GO"

6-4.3. Loading of PreSaved Forms into the Real Time Plot The Real Time Plot program produces a form on which the user can indicate the elapsed time of the plot and the points to be plotted. A new option allows a set of these forms to be saved in an ASCII file. When the Real Time Plot program is started, the name of one of these PreSaved Forms can be passed to it as a command line parameter. The program will look for that form definition in the file, and if it finds it will go directly to the plot.
6-4.3.1. THEORY OF OPERATION. The Real Time Plot program looks to see if a command line option was included when the program was invoked. If no command line options are found it proceeds to put up the user input form. The contents of the form will be the contents of the form from when the user last ran the program. If a command line option was included on the command line, it will be taken to be the name of a PreSaved Form. PreSaved Forms are defined in a special PreSaved Form file located in the F:\RUNTIME directory. This ASCII file defines a list of PreSaved Forms, which include information to fill in the Title, Elapsed Time, and point list to be entered onto the user entry form. The form is then checked for validity. If any fields on the form are invalid (such as an invalid point name), the user will be left editing the form with the invalid fields highlighted. If all fields in the form are valid, the plot will be displayed.

The PreSaved Form file for the Real Time Plot program is an ASCII file ( F:\RUNTIME\RTPLOT.PSF ). This file should be edited using an ASCII editor to define the PreSaved Forms desired for each site. There is no limit to the number of PreSaved Forms that can be put in this file. Each PreSaved Form is given an OPTION name, which is used as the command line parameter to the Real Time Plot program.
6-4.3.2. FORMAT. The F:\RUNTIME\RTPLOT.PSF file contains a set of PreSaved Forms in an ASCII format. Each PreSaved Form is started with an OPTION line which specifies the name of this PreSaved Form. The OPTION line starts with the keyword OPTION in column one (1). The name of the option follows inside a set of quotes. (Quoted strings are used because the option can include embedded spaces.)

OPTION

"Option name"

Each OPTION has a set of parameter lines that follow to define the various parameters used to fill in the form. These lines must be indented by at least one space under the OPTION line. The parameter lines include:

TITLE

"<title>"

The TITLE line defines the title centered at the top of the screen. It is a quoted string that can be up to 32 characters long.

ELAPSED

"<delta time>"

The ELAPSED line defines the elapsed time of the plot. The <delta time> parameter is a normal delta time string. It is enclosed in quotes since delta times do include a space. The format of a delta time is: DDDD HH:MM:SS.CC. The delta times for real time plots usually range from 2 to 60 minutes. POINT "<unit>" "<signal>" <low_counts> <high_counts>

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The POINT line defines a trace to be included on the plot. The definition of the point matches the fields of the form. One POINT line is included for each trace on the plot. The <unit> parameter is the name of the desired unit. If this is not included, then the point will be displayed from the currently selected unit. This is a quoted string since the unit name can be blank. The <signal> parameter is the name of the signal to plot. This must be the Mark V signal name; it cannot be a synonym. (The synonym name, however, is what the user will see on the screen.) The <low_counts> and <high_counts> parameters are the raw counts for the range of the Y axis. These are specified in raw counts so that the values are valid no matter what engineering units the user has selected. Figure 6-10 is a sample PreSaved Form data file (F:\RUNTIME\RTPLOT.PSF ) that defines a plot of the Plant Output to be the MW and MVAR traces of the two units over a half-hour period. Lines that start with a semicolon are taken to be comment lines and are ignored.

; This file holds the PreSaved Forms for the Real Time Plot ; program. OPTION "Plant Output" TITLE "Plant Output" ELAPSED "0000 00:30:00.0" POINT "T1" "MW" -1280 12800 ; -10..100 MW POINT "T2" "MW" -1280 12800 POINT "T1" "MVAR" -3840 7680 ; -30..60 MVAR POINT "T2" "MVAR" -3840 7680

Figure 6-10. Sample Data File

6-4.3.3. USE OF THE PRESAVED FORM IN THE MAIN MENU. To create a main menu option that includes the use of a

PreSaved Form, include the name of the PreSaved Form as a parameter to the Real Time Plot (RTPLOT) program. The PreSaved Form name is not case sensitive, so that upper, lower, or mixed case can be used. For example, to create a main menu option for the Plant Output sample in Figure 6-10, the following addition to the main menu data file (F:\RUNTIME\MENU.DAT ) would be made: " Plant Output Plot" "g:\exec\rtplot.exe" "Plant Output"

6-5. TRIGGERED PLOT The Triggered Plot program on the Mark V <I> processor shows the user a plot of up to two data points versus time. These data points are collected at a sample rate of eight times per second for an elapsed time of 1 to 120 seconds. The plot is triggered by specifying a logic signal and its desired state to trigger the plot. The user may also specify two push buttons for sending commands to the unit, and up to eight status points to be displayed. The status points are updated on the screen once per second.

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PLOT

; Data file for Triggered Plots "Control test #1" TITLE "Speed and Watts" BUTTON_1 ? l43dwfr = 4 " LOAD " " ON " BUTTON_2 ! l43dwfc = 4 " LOAD " " OFF " TRIGGER L1X 1 LAXIS_PT TN_RPM 0 30000 RAXIS_PT DW_DPY 0 20000 ELAPSED_TIME 60 STATUS 1 TN_RPM STATUS 2 DW_DPY STATUS 3 L1X STATUS 4 DV STATUS 5 T1:DF STATUS 6 T2:L1X ;can be different unit than current STATUS 7 DF STATUS 8 L52GX LINE TN_RPM RD 10 500 40 15000 ;test lines, no significance LINE DW_DPY BL 25 5000 60 20000

Figure 6-11 Sample F:\UNITn\TPLOT.DAT File


6-5.1. Defining The Display The definition of each triggered data plot display is defined in a configuration data file. The data file defines the following for each display: display titles plot point name(s) plot point range(s) plot point position(s) on the graph (left or right axis) elapsed time status point names (0-8 status points) push button definitions (0-2 push buttons) trigger signal name and value reference line information

One data file per unit is kept in the units configuration directory. Figure 6-11 shows a data file that defines one triggered data plot display. Each data file may contain up to 40 display definitions. Each new plot is started by a PLOT line starting in column one. Each item included in the definition of that plot starts indented by one or more spaces or tabs. Lines that start with a semicolon are comment lines. Figure 6-12 shows a sample data file containing the display specifications and explanations. The user can save or print a copy of the screen image using the PRINT SCREEN key, the SAVE IMAGE target, or the PRINT IMAGE target. If a copy of the raw data used to produce the plot is desired, it can be printed using the PRINT REPORT target, or saved into an ASCII text file using the SAVE REPORT target. The SAVE REPORT and PRINT REPORT targets become active only when the plotting has completed.

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; Data file for Triggered Plots ; Title displayed on the menu screen. PLOT "Control test #1" ; Title to be displayed at the top of the screen. TITLE "Speed and Watts" ; Two push buttons are available on this display. ; BUTTON_1 is ARM/EXECUTE (start test) ; BUTTON_2 is IMMEDIATE (stop test) ; type pt. value title (line 1) (line 2) BUTTON_1 ? l43dwfr = 4 " LOAD " " ON " BUTTON_2 ! l43dwfc = 4 " LOAD " " OFF " ; The trigger is the name of the variable that determines the ; beginning of the test. The selected plot points will be ; plotted from the time the trigger first reaches the specified ; state until the end of the entered elapsed time. ; This definition is NOT optional if a plot is desired. ; pt. desired state TRIGGER L1X 1 ; Plot points for the left axis and/or right axis. A valid ; point and valid range (in raw counts) must be entered. ; pt. lowplot highplot LAXIS_PT TN_RPM 0 30000 RAXIS_PT DW_DPY 0 20000 ; ELAPSED_TIME may range from 1 through 120 seconds. Time values ; outside this range are clamped to either the upper or lower ; limit. ELAPSED_TIME 60 ; A maximum of 8 status points may be entered. The point ; position on the display is determined by the number field ; after STATUS. STATUS 1 TN_RPM STATUS 2 DW_DPY STATUS 3 L1X STATUS 4 DV STATUS 5 T1:DF STATUS 6 T2:L1X ;can be different unit than current STATUS 7 DF STATUS 8 L52GX ;Reference line definition. The point reference for the line must ;be one of the plot points. A valid color must be listed or the ;default foreground color is used. Both endpoints of the line ;must be inside the plot window or no line will be displayed. ;X coordinates must be specified as the number of seconds after ;the plot start and must be less than the elapsed time. ;Y coordinates must be given as raw counts and may not go out of ;the low and high plot counts given for the referenced point. ; Valid colors: ; BK, RD, GR, BL, MG, CY, YL, WH, DG, LG, LB, LC, LR, BR, DF, DB ; pt_name color x1 y1 x2 y2 LINE TN_RPM RD 10 500 40 10000 LINE DW_DPY BL 20 300 60 20000 "Control test #2" TITLE "Test no. 2 title" +------------------------------------------------------------------+ PLOT

Figure 6-12. Sample Display Data File

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6-5.2. Program Operation To include the Triggered Data Plot program on the main menu, add the following line to MENU.DAT file in F:\RUNTIME: " TRIGGERED DATA PLOT" "g:\exec\tplot.exe"

When the program is run a display select menu will be presented. Clicking on the desired display choice will start the program. Point plotting begins as soon as the trigger condition is met. The plot start time is defined as the time when the trigger condition was first met; the elapsed time will be added to determine the end plot time. The display select menu can be bypassed by passing the name of the desired display to the program as a command line option. This allows access to a specific display directly from the main menu. Example: To access the " Control test #1 "-triggered plot directly from the Main Menu, add the following line to the main menu data file (F:\RUNTIME\MENU.DAT ): " Speed and Watts Plot" "g:\exec\tplot.exe" "Control test #1"

The push-buttons are active at all times but do not directly start or stop the plotting. Once plotting begins it will continue until the elapsed time has passed. Plotting may be stopped at any time by exiting to the MENU or MAIN DISPLAY or by normal EXIT. The SAVE REPORT and PRINT REPORT targets become active only after all data for the plot is collected and the plotting has completed. Exiting to the ALARM DISPLAY will not stop the plot but will cause gaps in the plot graph. NOTE Plot Data is NOT collected while in the alarm display.

6-6. SCALING DISPLAYED DATA Switching scale sets while running the <I> processor is done through the use of a program called SCALESET. This program allows dynamic switching between English, Metric, Hardware, Custom, and any site-specific sets. To switch scale sets from the DOS prompt, enter the DOS command: SCALESET scale where: scale is English, Metric, Hardware, Custom, or the name of any site specific set. To add this as a main menu option, add the following lines to the main menu definition file (F:\RUNTIME\MENU.DAT ): " " English Scale Codes" Metric Scale Codes" "g:\exec\scaleset.exe" "g:\exec\scaleset.exe" "english" "metric"

CAUTION

Make sure the scale set that is specified has been defined for each unit in a multi-unit <I>.

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6-7. PERFORMANCE MONITOR A Simple Cycle Performance Monitor package is available for the Mark V gas turbines. This package includes special low-drift sensors for the turbine, and a software package for the <I> processor. Once installed, the performance monitor package detects and documents losses in efficiency found in the turbine/generator performance. These losses are documented against the output obtained from the time the turbine was installed or last overhauled. The output of the performance run can be used as an aide to schedule maintenance actions, and can give an idea of the possible payback of these actions.

6-7.1. Method of Operation Upon the initial installation or after a major overhaul, the turbine is taken to base load and allowed to stabilize there for a period of 15 minutes. A performance BASELINE RUN is then done. This Baseline Run is the point against which all future runs will be measured. A normal PERFORMANCE RUN can be done whenever the unit is at base load (or reasonably close) and stabilized there for 15 minutes. The Performance Monitor program then calculates the operation of the unit relative to the performance during the Baseline Run, and produces its report. Most of the data used in the performance runs is read directly from the turbine control. Special low-drift sensors are purchased when the performance package is to be run on a turbine control to obtain higher quality data. Some values required for the performance calculations are not available from the turbine control. These include items such as the BTU content of the fuel and the fuel composition. The performance package will ask the user for these values via a data input form when either the Baseline Run or a Performance Run is requested.

6-7.2. Simulation Feature Normally the data used for the Baseline Run and each Performance Run come directly from the sensors in the turbine control. A special Simulation mode (Simulation data form) has been added to allow the user to override or change the values that the program uses to complete its run. This is often used to override the value from a sensor that is known to be drifting and requires calibration. Normally this is only used in doing a simulated Performance Run, but it can also be used as part of a simulated Baseline Run. NOTE If Simulation mode is used to create a simulated Baseline Run, the user will NOT be able to save this as the Baseline Run for the unit. It can be used for "local" runs (or "what if" types of analysis) but only the actual turbine data can be saved as the Baseline Run data. If a Simulated Baseline Run is done, all performance runs will be done against that simulated Baseline until the Simulation Mode is exited by leaving the program, or by returning to the top level and choosing the PERFORMANCE RUN option instead of the SIMULATE option.

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6-7.3. Adding the Performance Monitor to a Mark V Adding the performance monitor is a four-step process.
6-7.3.1. LOW DRIFT SENSOR PACKAGE. When ordering the turbine unit, the special low-drift sensor package must be

included.
6-7.3.2. PERFORMANCE MONITOR DATA FILES. The Performance Monitor requires three special data files that hold information about the actual turbine. These include the names of the sensors used to collect data, constants specific to each turbine/generator set, and default values for the simulation mode. These files will be supplied by the turbine vendor.

Examples of these files can be seen in Figures 6-13, 6-14, and 6-15. (These are only examples, and should not be used at any actual site.) F:\UNITn\PERF1.DAT - Lists signals used in calculations F:\UNITn\PERF2.DAT - Lists turbine-specific constants F:\UNITn\PERF3.DAT - Lists simulation initial values NOTE The Performance Monitor also produces a binary output file ( F:\RUNTIME\PERF.Bn ) in which the baseline run, last performance run, and last simulation form values are stored. It is extremely important not to lose this file, as it contains the only record of the units baseline run. Without maintaining the same baseline run, performance results would be useless.

6-7.3.3. ENABLE THE <I> PERFORMANCE MONITOR PACKAGE. This is done via an OPTION in the <I> main

configuration file. Edit the OPTIONS section in the F:\CONFIG.DAT file to include the line: OPTIONS PERFORMANCE = Yes

6-7.3.4. ADD TO MAIN MENU. The Performance Monitor program should be added to the main menu by adding the

following line to the F:\RUNTIME\MENU.DAT file: "Performance Monitor" "g:\exec\perf.exe"

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; Mark V Performance Monitor data file ; ; +--- Performance program label DO NOT CHANGE except to add/delete ; ; | +--- MARK V unit, optional, use if sensor is from another unit ; | | +--- MARK V Point name ; | | | +--- semicolon for comment ; | | | | ; V V V V ;CTD FE:CTD ; Point name for compressor discharge temperature.deg F TC ; ; ***** MEASURED POINTS ***** ; ; The Mark V controller must contain the following data ; points for the Performance Monitor. ; ;SYM Point Description EngU MK5 Scal ;-------------------------------------------------- -------CTIM CTIM ; Point name for compressor inlet temperature. deg F TC CTD CTD ; Point name for compressor dischg. temperature. deg F TC TTXM TTXM ; Point name for Exhaust temperature. deg F TC CPD CPD ; Point name for compressor discharge pressure. psi(g) PRESS AFPAP AFPAP ; Point name for Barometric pressure. in Hg DP_HG AFPEP AFPEP ; Point name for Exhaust Duct drop. psi AFPCS AFPCS ; Point name for Inlet drop. psi AFPBD AFPBD ; Point name for Compressor throat drop. inH2O DPH2O DWATT DWATT ; Point name for Generator Power. MW MWATT FQG GAS_FLOW ; Point name for Fuel Flow. lb/s ;LHV GAS_BTU_LB ; Point name for Lower Heating Value. BTU/lb BTU_# ; ;RATIO ---- ; Point name for Atoms of H/ Atoms of C. (Ratio H/C) WQJ WQJ ; Point name for Steam Nox flow. (Lb/s ) SPSJ SPSJ ; Point name for Steam Nox pressure. (PsiA ) STSJ STSJ ; Point name for Steam Nox temperature. (Deg F) ;WQJA WQJA ; Point name for Steam Augmentation flow. (Lb/s ) ;SPAJ SPAJ ; Point name for Steam Augmentation pressure. (PsiA ) ;STAJ STAJ ; Point name for Steam Augmentation temperature. (Deg F) ;WIF ---- ; Point name for Water Injection Flow. (Lb/s ) ;WIT ---- ; Point name for Water Injection Temperature. (Deg F)

Figure 6-13. F:\UNITn\PERF1.DAT

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; PERF2.DAT Mark V Performance Monitor data file ; ; The following represent turbine and compressor ; constants that must be supplied by Gas Turbine for ; the performance program to make its calculations. ; ; +--- Performance program internal label ; | +--- Constant value ; | | +--- semicolon for comment ; | | | +-- Constant description ; V V V V ;COMPCOEF1 0.2739370 ; COMPCOEF1. ; ; Generator_Type = 7H2 DEFEXHDRP 0.0 ; Default value for Exhaust Duct Drop. BELLMOUTH 2689.0 ; Inlet Annulus flow constant K. y NCC 0.9880 ; Ncc constant. K8 3.1500E-06 ; K8 constant. KB 9.6000 ; Kb constant. ; COMPCOEF1 0.2739370 ; COMPCOEF1. COMPCOEF2 2.7851590E-03 ; COMPCOEF2. COMPCOEF3 -5.1460185E-05 ; COMPCOEF3. COMPCOEF4 -0.3147956 ; COMPCOEF4. COMPCOEF5 -2.5918689E-06 ; COMPCOEF5. COMPCOEF6 8.2511512E-08 ; COMPCOEF6. COMPCOEF7 5.0612923E-04 ; COMPCOEF7. TURBCOEF1 1.404470 ; TURBCOEF1. TURBCOEF2 -1.1544063E-04 ; TURBCOEF2. TURBCOEF3 -2.7475037E-04 ; TURBCOEF3. TURBCOEF4 -0.8814492 ; TURBCOEF4. TURBCOEF5 -6.2203992E-07 ; TURBCOEF5. TURBCOEF6 3.9133459E-07 ; TURBCOEF6. TURBCOEF7 1.2844708E-03 ; TURBCOEF7. CFLOWCOEF1 0.1955100 ; CFLOWCOEF1. CFLOWCOEF2 1.880579 ; CFLOWCOEF2. CFLOWCOEF3 -1.023240 ; CFLOWCOEF3. CFLOWCOEF4 -4.3079383E-03 ; CFLOWCOEF4. LOSSCOEF1 945947.6 ; LOSSCOEF1. LOSSCOEF2 8.9997863E-03 ; LOSSCOEF2. LOSSCOEF3 5.5138370E-11 ; LOSSCOEF3. ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; E N D O F S A M P L E ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

GEH-5980E

Figure 6-14. F:\UNITn\PERF2.DAT

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; Mark V Performance Monitor data file ; ***** SIMULATION VALUES ***** ; The following "ideal" performance data must be provided ; by turbine to support the simulation portion of the program. ; Warning : Eng units must match those of data dictionary points displayed ; INLET_TEMP 59.0 deg f ; deg F Compressor Inlet Temperature DSCHG_TEMP 674.8 deg f ; deg F Compressor Discharge Temperature EXH_TEMP 987.3 deg f ; deg F Turbine Exhaust Temperature DSCHG_PRES 173.4 psi ; PSIG Compressor Discharge Pressure ATM_PRES 29.92 in hg ; in Hg Barometric Pressure EXH_DROP 0.144 in h20 ; 0.144 PSI - 3.99 in-h20 Exhaust Duct Drop INLET_DROP 0.72 in h20 ; 0.072 PSI - 1.99 in-h20 Inlet Drop THROAT_DROP 59.43 in h20 ; 2.147 PSI - 59.43 in-h20 Compressor Throat Drop MEGA_WATTS 90.885 mw ; Mw Generator Power HEAT_VALUE 21515.0 btu/lb ; B/LB Lower Heating Value COMPOSITION 4.000 ; Ratio Atoms of H / Atoms of C FUEL_FLOW 11.839 lb/s ; 11.839 lb/s Fuel Flow NOX_FLOW 14.97 lb/s ; Lb/s Nox Steam Flow NOX_PRESS 565.0 psi ; PSIA Nox Steam Pressure NOX_TEMP 522.0 deg f ; DEG F Nox Steam Temperature AUG_FLOW 0.0 lb/s ; LB/S Augmentation Steam Flow AUG_PRESS 565.0 psi ; PSIA Augmentation Steam Pressure AUG_TEMP 750.0 deg f ; DEG F Augmentation Steam Temperature WATER_FLOW 0.0 lb/s ; LB/S Water Flow WATER_TEMP 0.0 deg f ; DEG F Water Temperature ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; E N D O F S A M P L E ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

Figure 6-15. F:\UNITn\PERF3.DAT

6-7.4. Performance Monitor Operation The following sections give a more detailed explanation of how to operate the different features of the Performance Monitor.
6-7.4.1. MAIN SCREEN. Clicking on the main menu item "performance monitor" brings up the performance monitor main screen. The display shows the unit name and the realtime values of the Mark V input points and offers the user the following choices:

EXIT MORE OPTIONS SIMULATE RUN DO PERF RUN ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY

- Leave the program - Review the Baseline run report or last Performance run report. - Go to the Simulation Data Entry Form. - Start a baseline run or performance run. Go to the fuel data entry form. - Go to the Alarm Display. - Go to the Main Display.

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6-7.4.2 MAKING A PERFORMANCE OR BASELINE RUN. The user should select DO PERF RUN on the performance

monitor main screen to start a baseline run or performance run. The Fuel Data Form is presented. Use the keyboard to input the current fuel properties. The following options will be available from the current screen: EXIT ABORT RUN BASELINE RUN DO PERF RUN ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY - Leave the program - Cancel the run. Go to the performance monitor main screen. - Start a baseline run. - Start a performance run. - Go to the Alarm Display. - Go to the Main Display.

Selecting baseline run or performance run uses the real time measurements from an operating gas turbine and fuel data values to calculate the baseline or deviation parameters descriptive of the condition of the gas path of the turbine.
6-7.4.3. REQUIRED TURBINE CONDITIONS. To do a baseline or performance run, the turbine being measured must be

operating at sufficient load to have the exhaust temperature above 850F. The IGV must be completely open (that is, 84 degrees on 7001E). For combined cycle machines with IGV temperature control, this means the turbine is essentially on temperature control. For proper comparisons the gas turbine heat soak must be completed. One good measure of heat soak is the wheelspace temperatures; have they come to a steady-state temperature for the load being generated?
6-7.4.4. COMPLETING THE CALCULATIONS. When a successful baseline or performance run is complete, the calculated

performance deviations and turbine operating conditions will be presented in tabular form on the screen. Performance deviations are not displayed for a baseline run. The following options will be available: EXIT MORE OPTIONS SAVE RESULTS NEW RUN ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY - Leave the program - Save the Baseline run report or last Performance run report. - Save the Baseline run. (not available on performance runs.) - Go to the performance monitor main screen. - Go to the Alarm Display. - Go to the Main Display.

For a baseline run, SAVE RESULTS will save the baseline run. If there is an existing baseline, it will be replaced by the new one. MORE OPTIONS allows the user to save or print a text report or save or print a screen copy. Successful performance runs should be printed and saved to disk under MORE OPTIONS on the results screen. There is no automatic historical storage or archiving of performance run results. The latest successful baseline and performance run will automatically be available for recall under MORE OPTIONS on the performance monitor main screen. Example Baseline and Performance runs can be seen in Figures 6-16 and 6-17.

NOTE A baseline run should be run and saved only when the machine is new or upgraded. Maintaining the same baseline is the ONLY way to assure meaningful data from performance runs.

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GE_TEST UNIT T1

PERFORMANCE MONITOR 10-AUG-1993 11:30:47 GAS TURBINE DATA AND PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS BASELINE RUN

Barometric Pressure Compressor Inlet Temperature Discharge Temperature Inlet Pressure Discharge Pressure Pressure Ratio Air Flow Turbine Exhaust Pressure Exhaust Temperature Effective Nozzle Area Fuel Flow Lower Heating Value Fuel Composition Generator Power Heat Rate (Uncorrected)

29.9 59 675 14.6 173.4 12.87 607 14.8 987 316 11.84 21515 4.000 90.9 10089

in Hg deg F deg F psi psi lb/sec psi deg F in2 #/sec BTU/LB RATIO MW BTU/KWH

Nox Steam Flow Pressure Temperature

14.97 565.0 522

#/sec psi deg F

Figure 6-16. Sample Baseline Run


6-7.4.5. FAILED RUNS. An unsuccessful performance run will result in an error message appearing on the screen. Calculations may be aborted for a number of reasons such as any of the following:

incorrect values for fuel composition imbalances in thermodynamic calculations failed turbine sensors stale data no baseline exists (performance run only)

The actual abort message will yield more information about the nature of the failure. A review of input data and subsequent trials on the performance simulation may yield insight into failed thermodynamic calculations. The user may select his options from the following: EXIT NEW RUN ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY - Leave the program. - Cancel the run. Go to the performance monitor main screen. - Go to the Alarm Display. - Go to the Main Display.

6-7.4.6. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION. The performance program has the ability to let the user do a baseline and

performance run with "test" inputs. To begin the simulation, choose the SIMULATE RUN option from the main performance screen. The user is presented with a form to enter data for the performance calculation. Any and all values on the form may be modified. It is important to enter sets of data that are consistent. For example, if the data for compressor discharge pressure were increased, it is likely that in a real turbine this would be accompanied by changes in other parameters such as the compressor discharge temperature increase, fuel flow increase, and others. One measure of consistency is the value of expected generator output (power balance). Proper sets of data should maintain a very low Expected Generator Output (power balance) deviation, generally five percent or less. The user has the following choices:

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GE_TEST UNIT T1

PERFORMANCE MONITOR 14-SEP-1993 11:49:14 GAS TURBINE DATA AND PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS PERFORMANCE RUN

Barometric Pressure Compressor Inlet Temperature Discharge Temperature Inlet Pressure Discharge Pressure Pressure Ratio Air Flow Turbine Exhaust Pressure Exhaust Temperature Effective Nozzle Area Fuel Flow Lower Heating Value Fuel Composition Generator Power Heat Rate (Uncorrected)

29.9 70 679 14.6 175.2 12.99 601 14.8 990 310 11.89 21515 4.000 90.2 10210

in Hg deg F deg F psi psi lb/sec psi deg F in2 #/sec BTU/LB RATIO MW BTU/KWH

Nox Steam Flow Pressure Temperature

14.97 565.0 522

#/sec psi deg F

Percent Deviations from Baseline (Corrected to Baseline Conditions) Heat Rate 1 % Compressor Flow 2 % Inlet Drop -3 % Exhaust Drop 6 % Compressor Efficiency 3 % Turbine Efficiency 1 % Effective Nozzle Area -2 % Expected Generator Output -4 %

Figure 6-17. Sample Performance Run

EXIT MORE OPTIONS CHECK FORM LEAVE SIMULATE SIMULATE BASELINE SIMULATE RUN ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY

- Leave the program. - Fill in the form with current real time data from the unit or default values from the data file. - Check the form for invalid characters, and so on. - Go to the performance monitor main screen. - Create a baseline run to use for the simulation. - Do a simulated performance run. - Go to the Alarm Display. - Go to the Main Display.

Normally the user will want to do a simulated performance run against the actual baseline run. If no actual baseline run exists, or if the user wishes to use a "what if" baseline, then a simulated baseline can be created. The user may then do a simulated performance run against the simulated baseline run. Simulated baseline runs are lost when the user returns to the performance monitor main screen or exits the program.

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6-7.4.7. COMPLETING SIMULATED CALCULATIONS. For simulation runs, the data from the form is used in the performance calculation. When a successful simulated baseline or performance run is complete, the calculated performance deviations and turbine operating conditions will be presented in tabular form on the screen. Performance deviations are not displayed for a simulated baseline run. The simulation results are available for review on the screen, but cannot be saved or printed. The results screen offers the following choices:

EXIT LEAVE SIMULATE NEW SIM RUN ALARM DISPLAY MAIN DISPLAY

- Leave the program - Go to the performance monitor main screen. - Go to the simulation data entry form screen. - Go to the Alarm Display. - Go to the Main Display.

6-7.4.8. FAILED SIMULATION RUNS. An unsuccessful simulation run will result in an error message appearing on the

screen. Calculations may be aborted for a number of reasons such as any of the following: incorrect values for fuel composition imbalances in thermodynamic calculations bad simulated sensor data. no existing baseline (simulated performance run only)

6-7.5. Performance Monitor Output and Interpretation At the completion of each performance run, the results of the comparison with the baseline are presented in tabular fashion. (See Figure 6-17.) Input data is displayed as part of the report. These reports can be printed, saved to disk, or discarded. Reports from previous runs may be viewed with a text editor or printed. Results from simulation runs cannot be saved. Results of the last successful performance run and baseline run may be viewed directly from the program. It is important to know how to interpret these results so that problems can be detected and fixed quickly and efficiently.
6-7.5.1. RELATIVE DATA PRESENTED. Absolute values for calculated parameters are not presented because the air flow

measurement uses the gas turbines' uncalibrated inlet bell mouth as the measuring orifice. By calculating deviations from the base line, useful results are obtained if the sensors are sufficiently stable and quite independent of the absolute accuracy of measurements. The performance monitor compares current performance against a baseline run which must have been previously made for each turbine in the plant. Results are given in percent deviation from the baseline run. When a baseline run is completed it is saved, and future performance runs will be compared to this base. If something is wrong with the baseline run, it can be done over; only the latest base line run is saved.
6-7.5.2. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS. The programs used to calculate the deviations are complex, making use of proprietary information about the internal design of specific General Electric gas turbines. Over the range of operation, the calculations are generally accurate to 1 percent with occasional instances of 2 percent error where operation is far from design point. For this reason output deviations are rounded to 1 percent. The accuracy of the results is the combination of this calculation inaccuracy and that introduced by the drifting of sensors over the comparison period. Sensor drift can be controlled by an effective sensor calibration program. Program output gives the deviations from the baseline run for the following parameters:

heat rate inlet drop compressor efficiency effective nozzle area compressor flow exhaust drop turbine efficiency

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Expected generator outputThese percentage deviations are calculated by the equation: [(performance run) - (baseline run)] / (baseline run) For example, if the baseline run inlet filter drop was 0.1 psid, a performance run was made, and the inlet filter drop was measured at 0.15, the inlet filter drop deviation presented in the table would be +50 percent. This indicates an increase in filter pressure drop of 50 percent. The calculations for the gas turbine performance rely mostly on the basic thermodynamic laws of conservation of mass and energy and on the usual definitions for compressor and turbine efficiency. Compressor air flow is determined from the compressor bell mouth pressure drop. This is compared to an expected value using the baseline run corrected for actual inlet temperature and pressure conditions. This means that the compressor airflow deviation calculation is independent of the inlet pressure drop. In other words, a high inlet pressure drop, which reduces actual flow, will still result in zero deviation in compressor flow if the compressor is in like-new condition. This is generally true of all deviation outputs except heat rate: they are independent of each other.
6-7.5.3. EXPECTED GENERATOR OUTPUT - POWER BALANCE. Expected Generator Output (power balance) is

calculated by two different methods from sensor data and directly compared; the deviation of this power balance is presented. The power balance deviation is a measure of the validity and accuracy of the sensor data used in the calculations. High Expected Generator Output (power balance) deviation is often a result of miscalibrated sensors. If a problem exists or is suspected, the operator can apply some common-sense procedures to obtain additional information. For instance, if it exceeds 5 percent deviation, some of the data input values can be changed by using the simulator. Make the changes one at a time to see what effect it has on the calculation output. In this way, the operator can determine which transducers might need recalibration. Inputs with a significant influence on Expected Generator Output (power balance) deviation include inlet temperature, exhaust temperature, barometric pressure, bell mouth pressure drop, output power, fuel flow, lower heating value, and injection steam flows. The Expected Generator Output (power balance) should be 5 percent or less.
6-7.5.4. INLET AND EXHAUST DROP DEVIATIONS. Two of the deviations are direct measurements and do not involve

calculation other than scaling and comparison with the base line: the performance inlet drop deviation and performance exhaust drop deviation. Inlet drop is an indication of the state of the inlet filtration, or other obstruction to inlet flow such as icing. Exhaust pressure drop is a measure of pressure drop in the waste heat recovery system. Turbines without waste heat recovery will not have the exhaust pressure transducer. Thus the values of deviation mean different things for different categories. A difference of 2 percent from the new and clean condition for the inlet pressure drop and exhaust pressure drop is of little consequence. A deviation of 50 percent might mean it is time to consider cleaning the appropriate section, although letting this go to 100 percent is not unreasonable since the only effect is a loss in output capability provided absolute limits of pressure drop are not exceeded. A deviation of 100 percent means the pressure drop has doubled.
6-7.5.5. HEAT RATE DEVIATION. In the remaining deviations, a consistent deviation of 0.05 is cause for concern while a deviation of 0.10 is cause for action. If the calculation for power balance is high, or other deviations have shown up positive, transducer and other input data should be checked. Heat rate deviation is a measure of overall turbine performance which is broken down into some of its contributing causes by the other parameters presented. A significant deviation (like 0.05) that shows up consistently in heat rate indicates that the turbine is sick, and the compressor and turbine efficiency deviations show why. 6-7.5.6. COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY DEVIATION & COMPRESSOR FLOW DEVIATION. Compressor efficiency deviation is a measure of the compressor performance. A negative deviation in compressor flow or efficiency usually is a result of compressor fouling and is an indication that cleaning is needed. If cleaning does not improve the situation, a search for foreign object damage is indicated. Low flow might also be caused by incorrect inlet guide vane position, very severe plugging of the inlet filters, or significant icing.

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6-7.5.7. EFFECTIVE NOZZLE AREA DEVIATION. The effective nozzle area deviation is another indicator. On heavy fuel machines, nozzle plugging can cause this parameter to decrease. Some machines are equipped to wash the turbine, which reduces this plugging. Erosion can cause it to increase. 6-7.5.8. TURBINE EFFICIENCY DEVIATION. The turbine efficiency is also influenced by plugging; a negative deviation of turbine efficiency might be caused by deposits and indicates a need for cleaning.

6-8. SYNONYMS The use of synonyms is described in the Users Manual (GEH-5979). This section will explain how to edit synonyms.

6-8.1. The SYNONYM.DAT File Synonyms for signal pointnames are contained in a file called SYNONYM.DAT. This file must be in the unit-specific directory (that is, F:\UNIT1, and so on). If the file does not exist, one may be created using an ASCII text editor. The file contains two columns of entries where the left column contains the signal pointname and the right column the corresponding synonym. These columns must be separated by at least one space; tabs may also be used. A sample portion of a SYNONYM.DAT file is shown in Figure 6-18. ; ; SYNONYM.DAT File ; ;POINTNAME SYNONYM ;-----------------------------TNH HP_SPEED_% TNH_RPM HP_RPM TTXM EXH_TEMP BB1 #1_BRG_VIB ;L52G GEN_BRKR L28FDA FLAME_#_CAN

Figure 6-18. SYNONYM.DAT File Display


Note that lines which begin with a semi-colon ( ; ) in the figure above are treated by the Data Dictionary Loader program as comments and are ignored.

6-8.2. Adding, Modifying, or Deleting Synonyms To assign a synonym to a Mark V CDB signal pointname, use an ASCII text editor to edit SYNONYM.DAT in the unitspecific directory. Add a line with the signal pointname followed by its synonym. The two should be separated by at least one space or a tab. Synonyms can have a maximum length of 12 characters, cannot contain any spaces between characters, and cannot begin with a semicolon. Once the change(s) are made to SYNONYM.DAT, save the change(s) and then exit the ASCII text editor. The <I> computer must then be rebooted to load the new synonyms into the computers memory and to replace the CDB signal pointnames on the displays.

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NOTE Synonyms can only be assigned to one pointname, and a pointname can have only one synonym. If the SYNONYM.DAT file is large, use the search function of the text editor to check that the signal pointname does not already have a synonym defined and that the synonym has not already been assigned to another signal pointname. To change or modify an existing synonym, use an ASCII text editor to locate the signal pointname/synonym in the SYNONYM.DAT file and then change the synonym entry to the desired synonym. Save the change(s) to the file when exiting the ASCII text editor, then re-boot the <I> for the change(s) to become effective. To delete a synonym, use an ASCII text editor to search the SYNONYM.DAT file for the appropriate synonym text. When the desired synonym is found, delete the line with the signal pointname and its synonym from the file or insert a semi-colon at the beginning of the line. Inserting a semicolon will cause the Data Dictionary Loader to ignore the line when loading the synonyms into the <I>s RAM. Save the change(s) to the file before exiting the ASCII text editor and then reboot the <I> for the change(s) to become effective. Synonyms can also consist of foreign language characters from a foreign language character set. The DOS commands KEYB.SYS or KEYB.COM must be understood and followed.

6-9. CUSTOMIZING THE TRIP LOG DISPLAY The use of the Trip Log Display is explained in the Users Manual (GEH-5979). This section will describe how to customize the Trip Log Display for different applications. 6-9.1 The HIST_B.SRC File This file is located in the F:\UNITn directory and may be accessed by exiting the Menu system to the DOS command line. Figure 6-19 is the HIST_B.SRC file that generates the pre-trip and post-trip screens:
;SIGNAL NAME ;----------; HIS_AGE ; THIS POINT MAY NOT BE DELETED. DWATT TNH FSR L52GX L14HR

Figure 6-19. Sample HIST_B.SRC File Display


Although individual Control Signal Database points defined in the file may vary, the file structure as represented should remain fixed. Signal points should be defined in vertical succession in the order in which it is desired they should appear in the Trip Log Display. Vertical spaces may be inserted between signal points, though each point must occupy its own command line. NOTE A maximum of sixty-four (64) total points may be defined in the HIST_B.SRC file. Also, the HIS_AGE signal point must ALWAYS be defined and must ALWAYS occupy the first position in the point list.

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New points defined in HIST_B.SRC will be implemented only after the file is compiled, downloaded to the <C> processor, and the <C> processor rebooted. For additional details, see Chapter 4 of this manual, and Chapter 3 of the application manual (GEH-6195). NOTE Use of the table compiler prohibits the use of synonyms; therefore, synonyms are not permitted in HIST_B.SRC, but the synonym name will be on the display.

6-10. EPA DATA DISPLAY The use of the EPA Data Display is explained in the Users Manual (GEH-5979). This section describes how to edit the EPA Data Display. 6-10.1. Defining EPA Data Points To define Mark V Control Data Points for the EPA screen, the user must modify the F:\UNITn\EPA_B.SRC source file. This can be done by exiting the Menu system to the DOS command line and running an ASCII text editor. With the use of the editor, control data points can be added or removed from the file. The following is a sample EPA_B.SRC source file:

; ----------------------------EPA_B.SRC------------------------; Note that the TIME column header does not have to be defined in this file. : The header is automatically created when the program is run. ; ; SIGNAL NAME ; ----------DWATT CTIM TTXM WXJ WXC FQG FQL CMHUM ;END OF FILE

Figure 6-20. Sample EPA_B.SRC Source File

NOTE Although any valid Mark V data point may be defined for the EPA Display, it is required that both WXJ (ACTUAL FUEL/WATER-STEAM RATIO) and WXC (required FUEL/WATER-STEAM RATIO) control data points be included in all EPA displays. In addition, it is required that the points WXJ and WXC be defined for the FOURTH and FIFTH positions (from the left) of the display respectively. Therefore, they must be in the fourth and fifth positions from the top in EPA_B.SRC.

Once the correct points have been added to the EPA_B.SRC file, the file must be compiled and downloaded to the <C> processor. For more details on compiling and downloading, see Chapter 4 of this manual and Chapter 3 of the application manual (GEH-6195).

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CHAPTER 7 FUSE RATINGS

7-1. POWER DISTRIBUTION TCPD


FUSE NUMBER FU1 FU2 FU3 FU4 FU5 FU6 FU7 FU8 FU9 FU10 FU13 FU14 FU15 FU16 FU17 FU18 FU19 FU20 FU21 FU22 FU23 FU24 FU25 FU26 FU27 FU28 FU29 FU30 FU31 FU32 FU34 FU35 FU36 FU37 FU38 FU39 CURRENT RATING 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 1.5 Amps 1.5 Amps 1.5 Amps 1.5 Amps 1.5 Amps 1.5 Amps 3.2 Amps 3.2 Amps 15 Amps 5 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps 5 Amps CHARACTERISTIC Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Time Lag Time Lag Time Lag Time Lag Time Lag Time Lag Time Delay Time Delay Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting VOLTAGE RATING 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts 125 Volts VENDOR CATALOG NUMBER Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-15A Bussman GMA-15A Bussman GMA-15A Bussman GMA-15A Bussman GMA-15A Bussman GMA-15A Bussman GMA-15A Bussman GMA-15A Bussman GMC-1.5A Bussman GMC-1.5A Bussman GMC-1.5A Bussman GMC-1.5A Bussman GMC-1.5A Bussman GMC-1.5A Bussman MDL-3.2A Bussman MDL-3.2A Bussman ABC-15 Bussman ABC-5 Bussman ABC-15 Bussman ABC-15 Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A Bussman GMA-5A

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7-2. POWER SUPPLY - TCPS


FUSE NUMBER FU1 FU2 FU3 FU4 CURRENT RATING 5 Amps 1.5 Amps 8 Amps 1.5 Amps CHARACTERISTIC Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting Fast Acting VOLTAGE RATING 125 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts VENDOR CATALOG NUMBER Littlefuse 225005 Littlefuse 22501.5 Buss 3AG Littlefuse 22501.5

7-3. POWER SUPPLY TCEA


FUSE NUMBER FU1 FU3 FU4 CURRENT RATING 1.5 Amps 1.5 Amps 1.5 Amps CHARACTERISTIC Time Lag Time Lag Time Lag VOLTAGE RATING 125 Volts 250 Volts 250 Volts VENDOR CATALOG NUMBER Bussman GMC-1.5A Bussman GMC-1.5A Bussman GMC-1.5A

7-2

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