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MEAT PROCESSING PRACTICES

AT

Keels Food Product Limited

Minuwangoda Road,
Ekala , Ja-ela.

By

B.M.W.G.Jayawardhana,

(02/AG/A/009)

2008

Department of Livestock Production


Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka.
Belihuloya.
MEAT PROCESSING PRACTICES
AT
KEELS FOOD PRODUCT LIMITED
BY

B.M.W.G. Jayawardhana.
(02/AG/A/009)

This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of

B.Sc. (Agricultural Sciences)


(Specialized in Livestock Production)
Of
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
Belihuloya
Sri Lanka
2008
Approved by

Internal supervisor,
Dr. T.S.P.Jayaweera,
Senior Lecturer,
Department of Livestock Production,
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
Belihuloya.

……………………………………..
External supervisor,
Mr. Anton Kalubowila,
Purchasing Manager – Livestock,
Keels Food Products Limited,
Ekala, Ja- Ela.

……………………………………..
Dr. Anil Gunaratne,
Head of the Department,
Department of Livestock Production,
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
Belihuloya.
………………………...................... Date: ………………….................

Synopsis

Keells Food Products Limited – Ekala, is the todays leader of the meat processing industry in
Sri Lanka which has 70% of market share. KFPL produces processed meat products as Keells
range products and battered and crumbed products as Krest range products. Sausages, meat balls,
ham, bacon, bomb products, fresh meat cuts etc. are some Keells range products, and Chinese
rolls, drumsticks, nuggets, fish burger, fish finger etc are some of the Krest range products. I
had a great opportunity to do my in-plant training in those factories and I gained ample
knowledge about processing and quality control practices of processed meat products.

The factory has a receiving bay in which all raw meat are received and dry ingredients are
bought through dry stores and other ingredients are sent to freezes or chiller. They also receive
live pigs and slaughter them in the slaughter house in the factory premises. After slaughtering
pigs and other received carcasses are sent to de- boning section for de- bone according to the
production requirement. From that variety of products are made and stored in freezers until sent
to ‘Finley’ cold stores.

In krest factory, battered and crumbed meat products are produced and marketed as Krest range
products. Further more the factory has its own waste water and water treatment plant and waste
disposal system which does not release hazards to the environment

Apart from that quality control department of KFPL is doing a great job to assure the safety of
customers via maintaining the quality of the food. They perform microbiological, chemical
testing according to SLS methods and sensory evaluations to ensure product safety.

I got familiarized with all the production procedures are well as quality assurance in KFPL.
Apart from that I carried out many case studies and most of those were based on swab sample
testing method.
Acknowledgement

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my internal supervisor Dr. T.S.P. Jayaweera
(Senior lecturer, Department of Livestock Production, Faculty of Agricultural sciences,
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka) for giving his assistance to undertake this study and his
valuable guidance in carrying out this training successfully.
At the same time , I wish to acknowledge my gratitude to the external
supervisor Mr. Anton Kalubowila (Manager – Livestock Purchasing, KFPL) for his valuable
guidance, constructive criticism and invaluable assistance given for the successful completion of
this program.
Secondly I would like to thank Dr. Jagath Munasinghe (Coordinator- industrial training program,
Department of Livestock Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa
University of Sri Lanka) , Dr. D.M.A. Gunaratne , Head of the department of Livestock
Production and all the academic non academic staff of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka for their guidance and help extended me in numerous
ways.
I offer my special thanks to Mr. Lasath Ratnayake (Head-Qulity Assurance of the KFPL) and all
the executives, supervisors and workers of the KFPL for their valuable contribution and
necessary advices in completing my training period.
Finally I would like to extend my sincere thanks to parent, my colleagues for their kind co-
operation to make this study progressively.
Table of content

Content Page number

Synopsis ………………………………………………………………………i
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………… ii
Table of content …............................................................................................iii
List of figures …………………………………………………………………iv
List of tables …………………………………………………………………..v

Chapter 1
1.1Introduction …………………………………………………………………
1.2 History of the company ……………………………………………………
1.3 Organization structure of the Keells Food Products Limited ……………..
1.4 Policies of the company ……………………………………………………
1.5 Management Hierarchy of the company …………………………………..
1.6 Objectives ………………………………………………………………….
1.7 Nature of the training ……………………………………………………….
1.8 Distribution and marketing of Keells products …………………………….

Chapter 2
Receiving bay, Slaughter house and de-boning section of KFPL

2.1 Receiving bay …………………………………………………………………

2.1.1 Purchasing of live animals …………………………………………….


2.1.2 Purchasing of raw meat and fish ………………………………………
2.2 General procedure while receiving live animals and raw meat………………….

2.2.1 Receiving of live animals ………………………………………………


2.2.2 Receiving of pork carcasses (leg and loin) and beef carcasses (forequarter and
hindquarter) and mutton …………………………………..
2.2.3 Receiving of beef …………………………………………………
2.2.4 Receiving of chicken …………………………………………………..
2.2.5 Receiving of fish ……………………………………………………….
2.2.6 Receiving of non meat ingredients ……………………………………….
2.3 Ingredients used in processing of meat products ……………………………………
2.3.1 Non meat Ingredients ………………………………………………..
2.4.2 Special steps that are strictly controlled in slaughter house ……………..
2.4 Slaughter house operations …………………………………………………………
2.4.1 Slaughtering of animals in KFPL ……………………………………..
2.5 De-boning of carcasses ……………………………………………………………

Chapter 3
Processing section of Keells factory

3.1 Meat processing equipments and utensils ………………………………………..


3.2 Meat processing methods ………………………………………………………….
3.3 Different meat products ……………………………………………………………..
3.4 Processing of Krest products ……………………………………………………..
3.4.1 Production of formed products ……………………………………….

Chapter 4
Packing Section

4.1 Concept – (FIFO) …………………………………………………………………


4.2 Good manufacturing practices at KFPL …………………………………………..
4.3 Equipments used in packing section ………………………………………………
4.4 Packing materials ………………………………………………………………….
4.5 Processes involve in packing………………………………………………………
4.6 Color code system for finished product bundles………………………………….

Chapter 5
Handling and storage of raw materials and finished products at KFPL

5.1 Concept: First In First Out (FIFO)


5.2 Handling and storage of raw materials
5.3 Handling and storage of half processed products
5.4 Handling and storage of finished products
5.5 Steps should be followed when products are stored in plate freezer
Chapter 6
Quality Assurance Department

6.1 The routine schedule of quality assurance department


6.2 Media preparation
6.2.1 Potato Dextrose agar (PDA) media
6.2.3 Baired Parker media
6.2.2 Mac Conkey Broth
6.2.3 Baired Parker media
6.2.4 Peptone Broth
6.2.5 Sellanite Cystene broth
6.3 Microbiological Tests
6.4 Chemical Analysis
6.5 Sensory Evaluation

Chapter 10
Discussion

10.1 Strengths
10.2 Weaknesses
10.3 Recommendations

List of figures
Figures Page numbers

Figure 1: Contribution of different sectors to John Keells Holdings group………….


Figure 2: Contribution of different sectors to Food and Beverage sector of JKH……

Figure 3: Management Hierarchy of John Keels Holdings Group …………………..

Figure 4: Operational involvement of different units if KFPL ………………………

Figure 5: Role of nitrite, ascorbate and heat in cured meat pigment formation ……

Figure 6: Ingredients used in KFPL for the production of processed meat products..

Figure 7: Zones of hygiene in pigs slaughtering and processing …………………..

Figure 8: Pork primal cuts ……………………………………………………………

Figure 9: Different types of casings ………………………………………………….

Figure10: Different meat product at KFPL …………………………………………

Figure 11: Flow of production of formed products …………………………………

Figure 12: Flow of production of formed products …………………………………

Figure 13: Waste water treatment system at KFPL …………………………………

Figure 14: Potable water treatment system at KFPL …………………………………


List of tables

Table Page number

Table 1: Color code system for finished product bundles …………………..

Table 2 : Different types of chillers and freezers in the factory ……………..

Table 3: Microbial counts of samples with brine A (Purac) sodium lactate…

Table 4. : Microbial counts of samples with brine B sodium lactate …………


List of abbreviation

AOAC -

FIFO - First In First Out

HACCP - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

IPA - Iso Propyl Alcohol

ISO -

KFPL - Keells Food Products Limited

LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria

MDM - Mechanically De-boned Meat

MSM - Mechanically Separated meat

PDA - Potato Dextrose Agar

SLS - Sri Lanka Standards

SLSI - Sri Lanka Standards Institute

TPC - Total Plate Count

TVP - Texturized Vegetable Protein


Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction

John Keells Holdings PLC (JKH) specializes in the sectors of Food & Beverage, Transport,
Leisure, Information Technology, BPO, Financial Services, Property Development, Plantation
and Investor Services. JKH preserves the identity of each sector group, yet successfully bring
them together as John Keells Holdings PLC.
The Food & Beverage Sector Group is home to a portfolio of leading brands in the
Beverage, Frozen Confectionary, and Processed Meats categories which include "Elephant"
carbonated soft drinks, "Elephant House" Ice Creams, and the "Keells" and "Krest" ranges of
Processed Meats. All brands are market leaders in their respective categories and are supported
by a well-established distribution channel of almost 80,000 Outlets Island wide.
Keells Food Products PLC is presently Sri Lanka’s market leader in the processed meat
industry and enjoys a market share of approximately 70%. A subsidiary company of John Keells
Holdings, KFP PLC started its operations in the year 1983, and today takes the pride being solely
responsible in developing the Sri Lankan Processed Meats industry to its current heights.

KFP PLC have kept abreast of the industry through strategic investments in state-of-the-art food
processing technology, quality control systems, an aggressive companywide R&D orientation
and ground breaking marketing leadership in the food industry of Sri Lanka.

‘Keells’ world class Sausages, Meat Balls, Hams, Bacons, Cold meats and ‘Krest’ battered and
crumbed delicacies combine gourmet taste, nutrition and offer superior quality. The range offers
convenience to meet today’s demanding lifestyles of consumers all over the world.

KFP PLC, the first meat further processing company with SLS product certification, ISO
9001:2000 and HACCP certification, today it serves local markets, super markets, hospitality
industries as well as certain markets in India, United Arab Emirates & Maldives
1.3 Organization structure of the Keells Food Products Limited

Strategic reinvention and diversification for over 130 years has enabled John Keells to become
Sri Lanka's largest business group and a leading investor in the country's economy. They
specialize in the sectors of Food & Beverage, Transport, Leisure, Information Technology, BPO,
Financial Services, Property Development, Plantation and Investor Services and successfully
bring them together as John Keells Holdings PLC. Among all the sectors of JKH, Keells Food
products PLC contribute 8% to the total by producing wide range of products under the popular
brand names of Keells, Krest and Elephant House.

Food and Beverage 8%

Plantation 19%

Transport and
Infrastructure 17%

John Keells
Financial service 9% Holdings

Leisure 27%

Trade and Export 3%

Information Technology
2%

Figure 1: Contribution of different sectors to John Keells Holdings group.


Food and Beverage Sector (8%)

Keells Krest battered and Elephant Elephant


processed meat crumbed products carbonated soft House ice
products drinks cream

Keells Food
Products PLC

Figure 2: Contribution of different sectors to Food and Beverage sector of JKH.

1.4 Policies of the company

• Mission of the company

“To be the largest provider of value added meat, fish and vegetable products in Sri Lanka while
establishing regional brand presence and catering to international markets with Asian
communities, environmental friendly technology.’

• Vision of the company

“Our passion is to deliver pleasure and nutrition throughout peoples lives, through exciting and
superior products, whenever and wherever they choose to eat and drink”

• Food safety policy


“Keells food is committed to continually improve its processes to align itself changing consumer
perceptions. Through our competent staff, we offer safe, nutritious, trendy and convenient meat,
fish and vegetable pasted products consistently meeting on exceeding the consumer demand
1.5 Management Hierarchy of the company

John Keells Holding


Group

Chief Executive Officer

Assistant Vice President (Head of operation)

Marketing Livestock Quality Human Factory Maintenanc Financial


Manager Purchasing Assurance Resource Manager e Manager Manager
Manager Manager Manager

Sales Brand Quality Assurance Assistant Production Accountants


Manager Manager Executives Managers

Production Stores
Executives Executives
Figure 3: Management Hierarchy of John Keels Holdings Group

1.6 Objectives

Specific Objectives
• To be familiarized with the safe and hygienic production procedures from raw materials
to finished products at Keells Food Products PLC.
• To be familiarized with the quality assurance practices and laboratory testing those are
applied for raw and finished products.

General Objectives
• To familiarized with the general working procedure and basic manufacturing practices
and to obtain practical experiences and knowledge on quality assurance, research and
development and other functional and operational aspects of the meat processing plant.
• To develop personal skills such as problem solving ability, interpersonal skills,
leadership, ability to work as a team to achieve targets, that are demanded by the current
organization atmosphere.
• To identify the strengths and limitations the plant as well as to point suggestions for the
improvement of the factory.

1.7 Nature of the training

During my training period I gathered knowledge on all the production procedures including
receiving, processing, packing and distribution, quality assurance procedures, laboratory testing,
water and waste water treatment, incineration practices and waste disposal procedures of the
factory.
1.8 Distribution and marketing of Keells products

Keells and Krest companies produce wide range of processed meat and battered and crumbed
products respectively. Raw materials are received from local as well as international suppliers
and then those are sending to processing section after quality inspection. Finished products are
sent to Finely cold storage after giving assurance for quality. From Finely cold stores, products
are distributed to local markets, hotels and super markets as well as international markets.
Product complaints are come back to the factory in an opposite way to product flow. Customer
complaint sheets are distributed to shop keepers and they collect complaint. Monthly evaluations
and remedial actions are under taken by the department of quality assurance.

Receiving

Quality inspection

Quality assurance
Processing department

Final product
Customer complaints

Quality inspection Customers

Finely cold stores Distribution /


Market returns
Figure 4. Operational involvement of different units if KFPL
Chapter 2
Receiving bay, Slaughter house and de-boning section of KFPL

2.1 Receiving bay

Raw meats are received to the receiving bay. Meat and related products are stored in storage
freezer or cold stores at (-18 to -30) 0C. Meat and non meat ingredients are stored and dispatched
using first-in-first-out system to the production unit when it is necessary. Purchasing of live
animals (pigs) are undertaken by the inspectors in the receiving bay. Receiving bay is one of the
critical point that leads contamination. If the initial contamination is high, keeping quality of raw
meat as well as the end product is very less. Therefore quality inspection is critically done for
raw materials in order to achieve high quality end products.

2.1.1 Purchasing of live animals


KFPL purchases live pigs from local farmers. The company provides technical knowledge and
financial assistance to the farmers, and purchase their product at a reasonable price. Pork
carcasses (after slaughtering live animals) are graded according to weight and fat basis and paid
accordingly. Registered farmers directly supply the live pigs to the company through the
approval of veterinary surgeons. To receive best quality meat farmers should satisfy company
requirements as follows;
• Adequate water should be provided to animal prior to transportation.
• Animals should transport in a manner that reduce the stress
• During loading and unloading animal should be handled carefully.
• Well ventilated, comfortable vehicle should be used to transport animals.
• Proper spacing and well bedded floor should be provided during transportation.
• Both unnecessary delay and high speed should be avoided during transportation.
2.1.2 Purchasing of raw meat and fish
Raw meat and fish are purchased from local and international farms. KFPL purchase pork, beef,
chicken, lamb and mutton in raw form to produce various processed meat products. Major
suppliers of raw meat are Maxies Company (pvt.) Ltd. , Pussellawa farms, Chutiduwa farms,
Nelna Farm etc.. Some frozen raw meat, MSM and other some materials are imported from
foreign countries, only after the approval of quarantine center. All carcasses are visually
inspected and samples obtained are subjected to chemical and microbiological testing by the
quality assurance department at the receiving point to ensure that they meet the required
company standards. During transportation following conditions should be satisfied;
• Vehicle should have a freeze or at least chill conditions.
• All raw meat should be packed in baskets and covered well.
• Raw meat should supply to receiving bay as soon as possible.
• Raw meat should be free from foreign materials, bad odor and discolorations.

2.2 General procedure while receiving live animals and raw meat

2.2.1 Receiving of live animals

• Ante mortem inspection


• Weighing and tattooing of pigs
• Grading according to sex and age
• Adequate water and feed is given if animals are kept more than 24 hours
• Cool water is sprayed to reduce the stress.

2.2.2 Receiving of pork carcasses (leg and loin) and beef carcasses (forequarter and
hindquarter) and mutton

KFPL has its own slaughter house in the factory premises but total requirement for the
production cannot be fulfilled by themselves. Because they slaughter only 255 pigs per week.
Therefore they purchase pork leg & loins and legs from outside farms. Following procedure is
followed when carcasses are received.
• Unloading of leg & loins and hang on trolleys.
• Inspection for bad odors, foreign matters, wounds, blood patches and discolorations.
• Removing of foreign materials from the carcasses.
• Weighing of carcasses
• Spraying of disinfectant solutions on carcasses
• Washing of carcasses after 15 minutes.
• Spraying of lactic acid solution on carcasses
• Collecting samples for microbial analysis.
• Storing carcasses in the slaughter chill room until they will be taken to the de- boning
section.

2.2.3 Receiving of beef


• Unloading of beef cuts and Inspection for discolorations and bad odors
• Removing of unwanted fat, foreign materials and bones in beef only.
• Spraying of disinfectant solutions on carcasses
• Putting in to water tub and wash with water.
• Sort out meat cuts for different products.
E.g. Top side, Silver side, Knuckle, Strip loin, Fillet, Rump
• Weighing separately.
• Collecting samples for microbial analysis.
• Storing in chill room.

2.2.4 Receiving of chicken

• Unloading of chicken meat (boneless meat, loose meat, MSM, breast meat)
• Sorting out different types of chicken meat.
• Weighing separately
• Collecting samples for microbial analysis.
• Storing in the main freezer.

2.2.5 Receiving of fish

• Unloading of fish to the receiving table


• Inspection for bad odors, foreign matters and discolorations.
• Trimming of unwanted skin parts, discolored parts and bones.
• Dipping of fish in disinfectant solution and mixing with ice.
• Collecting samples for microbial analysis.
• Packing of fish in polythene bags.
• Storing in freezer

2.2.6 Receiving of non meat ingredients

Non meat raw materials (ingredients, packing materials, casings and other) are inspected for
quality, quantity, date of expiry, grade, origin and other required information. Then the samples
are drawn according to the sampling plan for further testing.
E.g.
• Bread crumbs - Tested for particle size, moisture, yeas and mold count
• Packing materials - Measured the width, length and thickness and compared
with the specifications
• Spices - Analyze for moisture, ash content and sensory attributes

2.3 Ingredients used in processing of meat products

2.3.1 Non meat Ingredients

2.3.1.1 Salt (Sodium Chloride)


Principle function of salt is to, solubilize and extract the myofibrilla protein needed to form a
bind during cooking. By dehydrating and altering osmotic pressure, salt inhibits bacterial growth
and subsequent spoilage. Other than that it maintains taste of the final product

2.3.1.2 Nitrite salt (NaNO2)

However salt is used along with curing salts (NaNO 3, NaNO2) which stabilize the cured color
and flavor, inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum and retard development of rancidity. In
order to fix the color of the meat, the nitrite must convert in to nitric oxide which actually
combines with myoglobin to form a pink- red nitrosylmyoglobin or pigment of cured meat.
Conversion of nitrite in to nitric oxide can be accelerated by adding reductants like ascorbic acid.

Myoglobin
Nitrite
Met myoglobin Ascorbate
Nitric oxide
Nitrosyl metmyoglobin
Or SH - group
Nitrosilmyoglobin
Heat
Nitrosilmyochrome

Figure 5 . Role of nitrite, ascorbate and heat in cured meat pigment formation.

Approximately 10 to 30% of the added nitrite remains intact as residual nitrite, 45% is consumed
for curing color and nitrite formation, while the reminder is involved in other actions. According
to SLSI guild lines residual amount of the finished product should not exceed 125 ppm. However
usage of nitrite has been questioned, as it reacts with secondary and tertiary amines in meat and
produce carcinogenic nitrosoamines.
2.3.1.3 Binders

Binders or extenders are referred to as fillers, emulsifiers or stabilizers. Those are added to,
improve, flavor, cooking yield, slicing characters, protein content, emulsion stability fat binding
and water binding and reduce the formulation cost. Binders are portentous substances which
contribute to structural, emulsifying, binding and gelling qualities as well as color and flavor of a
product. Fillers are carbohydrate products able to adsorb extensive quantities of water
E.g.: Modified corn starch, Milk powder, isolated soy protein, Rusk powder

2.3.1.4. Antioxidants

Foods, containing fats and oils, are prone to oxidative deterioration as a consequence of contact
with atmospheric oxygen during processing and storage. When oxidation occurs in food, it
causes a development of an unpleasant smell, taste and loss of nutritive value. The most effective
way to delay the onset of oxidative rancidity and to obtain the desired shelf life is addition of
minute quantities of antioxidants. BHA, BHT E300 and E301 are the antioxidants used in KFPL.

2.3.1.5 Texturized Vegetable Protein

Meat and marine products are the most desirable and prestigious source of high quality animal
protein for man. But its limited availability and high costs reduces its consumption Therefore
food industry has made a meat substitute from vegetable sources fortified with vitamins, amino
acids, etc. TVP does not alter the texture, palatability and nutritional value of meat products.
Rate of substitution varies from product to product.

2.3.1.6 Spices

E.g.: Black pepper, white pepper, chille, cinnamon, cardamom, cumin, clove, coriander, nutmeg,
maze, ginger, curry powder, herbs etc.
Most of the spices add to the flavor to the product while certain spices act as antioxidants
retarding the rate of oxidative changes in processed meat products. (Onion, rosemary, sage,
thyme, ginger, black pepper, garlic, clove etc.) Cinnamon, onion, garlic and a number of other
spices are able inhibit proliferation of distinctive micro organisms.

2.3.1.7 Sweeteners (Sucrose, Dextrose, Sugar syrup etc.)

Sugar is added to meat as an adjunct to counteract the salty taste to give flavor and to serve as a
substrate tfor bacterial acid production. Browning compounds which produce due to melting of
sugar with amino acid add color and flavor to the product.

2.3.1.8 Ascorbis acid (Sodium ascorbate / Erytrobate)

Reductants react with nitrite to give nitric oxide thus fastening the development of pink red color
in cured meat products. Ascorbete apperently rapidly reduce metmyoglobin to myoglobin and
secondly reacts wih nitrite to produce nitric oxide more efficiently.

2.3.1.9 Phosphates

Phosphate salts elevate the pH of meat, thus improving it’s water binding capasity. It also acts as
a buffer and raaises the ionic strengh of he slutions while retard the devekopment of oxidative
ransidity n meat products.
E.g.: Terasodium pyrophosphate, Sodium hexametaphosphate ect..

2.3.1.10 Flavor enhacers

Flovor enhancers are used to enhance the meat flovor of the processed products.
E.g.: IMP, GMP, MSG

2.3.2Meat Ingredients

KFPL uses different types of meat and meat cuts as ingredients during process flow.. Following
figure illustrate all types of meat ingredients used for processing of Keells foods.
2.3.2.1 MSM/ MDM
Mechanically separated meat or mechanically deboned meat, are used as an ingredient in
processed meat products. Those are ground, frozen, compact meat ingredients and can be
produce from Beef, Pork, Poultry and Mutton

Meat Ingredients

Poultry Mutton Beef Lamb Pork Fish

Chicken Turkey Cuts Leg & loin 1. Whole carcass 1.Sappars


2. Leg & loin 2.Coppara
1. Boneless 1.Silver side 3. Shoulder 3.Prawn
2. Loose meat 2. Top side 4.Cuttle fish
3. Fillet 3. Knuckle
4. Brest meat 4. Fillet
5. Liver 5. Eye of round
6. Gizzard 6. Strip loin
7. Skin 7. Rump

Figure 6. : Ingredients used in KFPL for the production of processed meat products

2.4Slaughter house operations

2.4.1 Slaughtering of animals in KFPL

After purchasing pigs, they are kept in well maintained pens. Adequate water and feed are given
if they are kept more than one day. Cool water sprayer reduces the stress of them due to
traveling. Stressed animals give low quality carcasses. In KFPL only pigs are slaughtered.
However maximum time of keeping pigs in pens is two days. Pigs are come to the stunning area
in a queue, one by one. That also reduces the stress of them because they cannot see the process
inside.

2.4.1.1 Stunning (Making animal unconscious)


Before stunning pigs are cleaned well with water. Then animal is made unconscious by using
240V DC current for about 15 seconds. For this purpose, a pair of stunning tons is used. In
KFPL, head to head stunning is done. That is the most effective way of stunning.

2.4.1.2 Sticking (Removing blood from the animal)

Blood should be removed within 15 seconds after stunning. Sticking knife is sterilized by using
100 0C boiling water.Pig is hanged by its’ hind leg and carotid artery is damaged by using
sticking knife. Bleeding is done for 3 to 4 minutes.

2.4.1.3 De-hairng (Scalding), Scraping and Singing


Animal is kept in de-hairing machine for 3 minutes at 65 – 75 0C water are spred and rubber
fingers are rotating then heirs are removed. Then remain hair on its’ body are scraped by using a
shapend knife. But some hair may remain on the skin.Therefore the balance hair which is on the
body is removed by a flame. This also help to sterilize the carcasses.

2.4.1.4 Eviseration

Evisceration is the removal of viscera (internal organs, especially those in the abdominal cavity).
The abdomen is opened from the top to bottom where the internal organs are loosened and
removed from the body. The abdominal organs are inspected and the stomach and intestine are
emptied of manure. Digestive track is removed without any contamination with the carcasses. If
carcass is contaminated with the faces, the carcasses are washed and cleaned immediately. A
clean bung end holder is used to prevent the coming of faeces from the anus. Removed digestive
track is then put in to relevant baskets and small intestine is separated to use as casing in
preparation for lingus. Other than that following internal parts (Red offal) are used as by
products.
Lungs – not use for processed meat products
Heart - Use in making processed meat products
Liver – Use in make red head and cheese with blood
Tongue – Use to make processed meat products
Kidney - Use to make processed meat products

2.4.1.5 Scoring

The central bone is marked using a small cut from tail to head. Then a deep cut is made to some
extent from both sides of the central back bone. This facilitates the removal of back bone during
de- boning.

2.4.1.6 Splitting
Carcasses are separated in to two halves through the back bone.

2.4.1.7Jowl separation
Jowl is separated from the head of the animal. This facilitates the handling of carcasses when
those are hanged.

2.4.1.8 Final Washing, Lactic acid treatment and weighing of the carcasses
Whole carcass is then washed with pressurized water flow. Next 2% lactic acid solution is
sprayed on to the carcass to reduce the initial microbial count of the carcass and finally weight
and grade of the carcass are recorded before it is sent to the chilling room.

2.4.1.9 Chilling
Clean carcasses are then conveyed to a cold storage area for rapid chilling. Carcasses are chilled
in chill room until those are taken in to de- boning section. Since new carcasses are come to chill
room following a slaughtering of new animal, carcasses are not kept in chill room more than 3
days.

2.4.2 Special steps that are strictly controlled in slaughter house

2.4.2.1 Ante-mortem inspection

Animals are inspected for following aspects before slaughtering. Skin damages, wounds, leg
damages, age, body conformation, physiological status, health, cleanliness, nutritional status,
respiration, behavior, gait, posture and discharges.

2.4.2.2. Post- mortem inspection


After slaughtering of animals, internal organs are inspected to check whether they have disease
conditions or not. In addition to that, degree of bleeding and color of animal are checked. Fat
thickness and body weight give a clear idea of the age of the animal. Followings are some
disease conditions of animals.
E.g. : Lungs – If attached to ribs, Pneumonia
Liver - White /milk spots, Worm infection
Kidney –If water bubbles present, Kidney disease
Fat content – Measure at 5th rib,
Fat thickness: (5-20) mm – Grade A , (20-30) mm- Grade B
More than 30 mm – Grade
2.4.3 The zones of hygiene in pig Slaughtering and processing

Unclean side clean side

Receiving Chilling

Cleaning
De-boning

Stunning
Processing

Sticking
Packaging

Scalding
Storage

Scraping

Dispatch
Singing

Evisceration

Post mortem
inspection

Splitting
Final washing

Lactic acid treatment

Figure 7. : Zones of hygiene in pigs slaughtering and processing

2.5 De-boning of carcasses

Beef and pork carcasses are de-boned at the de-boning section of KFPL. Pork carcasses are come
to the de-boning section from the chill room after slaughtering. Whole carcass is then divided in
to three main parts as shoulder, middle and leg. From each part different products are prepared.
For instance shoulder is used for the production of shoulder ham, green gammon etc., middle
part is used for the production of back bacon and streaky bacon, fillets etc., From the leg, pork
cuts (Knuckle, silver side, top side, Eye of round), various products of ham such as special
cooked ham, cottage ham, honey roast ham, palmer ham, millennium ham, smoked leg of ham
are prepared.
Figure 8 : Pork primal cuts

Chapter 3
Processing section of Keells factory

3.1 Meat processing equipments and utensils


Meat processing equipment and utensils used in industry must have some special characteristics
such as they should be made of appropriate materials to avoid corrosion and should have rugged
construction to minimize maintenance, satisfactorily designed to limit the handling of meat and
to facilitate thorough cleaning after using and capacity to meet any expected production
requirement. All these requirements should be provided with necessary safeguard to ensure that
they are not harmful to the labors.

• Jig-saw
Electrically operated device, consists of a rotating blade which saw off the pork carcass across
the hard bone fragments located in the legs and shoulders.

• Band saw
Band saw is used to trim off the frozen carcass or meat chunks in to small pieces/ chops of meat.
Band saws use thin, flexible, continuous steel strips with cutting teeth on one edge. The blade
runs on two pulleys, driver and idler and through a work table where material is manually fed.

• De- render
This machine is to skin off the pork primal cuts with very small fat thickness, which is difficult
to remove out with the knife.
• Gilatin.
This is used to cut frozen MSM and cheese

• Multi needle injecting machine


This machine is used to inject brine to bacon, ham and English gammon. A pump in the machine
sucks brine in the brine holding tank through a series of filters and takes it to the injecting
needles via a regulating valve. Brine which comes first through the injecting needle, is injected
to meat by needles which move up and down and penetrated to the muscle component in exact
amounts. Brine which is not injected, is flows back in to the brine tank. Conveyor belt facilitates
forward movement of meat cubes since belt moves forward when needles are in a higher
position from meat cube.

• Tumbler
Tumbler rotates around its horizontal axis. It contains identically spaced rods inside the drum
adjacent to its periphery and parallel to its rotation. Rods contain teeth which produces mass of
small cuts on the surface of the meat. Tumbling and formation of small cuts increases the
exposure of myosin protein at the surface and thereby penetration of brine in to the meat cubes.

• Mincer
This machine is used to grind or mince ingredients. Loose meat and de-boned meat are grind into
very small particles which are then used for the production of sausages, meat balls etc.

• Ball chopper
Bowl choppers are essentially composed of a horizontally revolving metal bowl equipped with a
set of curved very sharp knives, mounted on a horizontal axle rotating at high speed. The high
speed blades cut the meat with less friction and heat production than a conventional meat grinder.
The chopper can emulsify meat by continuing to chop until the product reaches batter –like
consistency. Temperature control is important during emulsifying. The batter must warm enough
to allow microscopic fat particles to be encapsulated by the meat proteins.
• Vacuum filler machine
This machine is basically equipped with a feeding hopper, vacuum chamber, filling device and
twisting device. When the meat mixture is sent through the vacuum chamber, air and excess
moisture removes out. Then the pressurized meat mixture goes through the pressure tube to the
filling tube, by means of a pump wheel and a pinion. According to the diameter of the sausage,
the filling tube can be replaced. There is a pressure sensor, which is requested to be fed with the
constant filling pressure. Twisting g occurs according to the filling weight, speed and pressure,
which are manipulated by a computerized programme.

• Cooking / Smoking chamber


The chambers are used for thermal processing such as cooking, smoking, baking and drying of
sausages, meat balls, ham, bacon and bomb products. Smoke is produced by using hardwood saw
dust and bacon is a smoked product. The smoke gives desirable flavor and color to the product.
Temperature of the chamber can be altered according to the product but most commonly used
temperature range is 65 to 72 0C. Sausage, meat ball and bacon are cooked products. These
products are cooked until its’ core temperature reaches to 72 0C.

• Peeler
The peeler machine peels the non edible casing of the cooked chicken sausages. Cooked
sausages are entered to the machine from one end and it pass through a chamber with steam and
then through the blade, which peels the casing and peeled sausages are then drop on to a
conveyer travel to the packing section.

• Slicer machine
This is used to slice the final products such as ham, bacon, chicken roll etc. Product is mounted
vertically on a spiked platform which slowly revolves. A sharpened rotating disk blade is then
cuts the product in to required size. Cut pieces are then send to packing table via a conveyor.
• Multivac packing machine
Machine has multiple functions such as forming, vacuuming and sealing of the retail packages.
Manually filled packs are vacuum packed by using this machine. There are adjustable blocks to
maintain the package sizes in the forming machine.

• Metal detector
Each and every product, after packing, is sent through the metal detector. If the quantity of
metals exceeds the standard limit , it gives a signal and blocks the passage of packs. Then the
sample with high amount of metal can be identified and suitable action can be taken. Accuracy of
the detector is checked by passing a metal sample which is 2.5 mm in thickness through the
detector twice a day.

3.2 Meat processing methods

• Fermentation
The main desirable effect of starter micro organisms on flavor and taste of fermented meats are
formation of lactic acid, trans formation of compounds from abiotic breakdown of lipids,
degradation of peptides and amino acids by meat proteases

• Curing
Curing adds various flavors and taste to foods and also it is a preservation method especially of
meat or fish, by the addition of a combination of salt, sugar and either nitrate or nitrite. Curing
with salt and sugar is called as salt curing. Curing in water solution or brine is called wet curing
or pickling or brining.

• Smoking
Smoking has been used as a preservation method since ancient time. Smoke preserves food via,
protecting from oxidation, developing aroma, flavor and developing new compounds. In addition
it produces color and form protective skin on emulsion type sausages.
3.3 Different meat products

• Fresh meat items


Local meat and some imported raw meat cuts are directly packed after deboning, are called as
fresh meat cuts.
E.g. : Curry pork, Lamb chops, Local mutton cubes, Mutton and Pork chops

• Sausages
Sausages are a unique type of comminuted meat product that are usually spiced or seasoned to
obtain various flavor intensities and profiles. According to the classification, sausages can be
categorized as fresh, cured, cooked and fermented sausages. Cooked items are divided in to two,
as skin on and skin less. Sausages with edible casings are not peeled during processing and
packed with the casing itself but inedible casings are peeled off before packing of sausages

Inedible Viscofan, Nojax

Casings
Artificial Devro

Edible

Natural Sheep and pig casings

Figure 9. Different types of casings


• Meat balls
Meat balls are another type of comminuted, cooked meat product, the production is similar to the
sausage production except usage of casings.

• Cured and smoked products

All range of hams, bacons, smoked products and roasted products are included to this group.
Those are Chicken tondorey, smoke chicken breast, spicy chicken breast, smokes beef etc.
Roasted products are roasted pork, roasted turkey etc.

• Bomb product

The production procedure is similar to the production of sausages but the mixture is filled in to
large casings and prepared as bombs. After cooking casing is peeled off and bomb is sliced and
packed.

• Bacon
Properly trimmed pork loins and bellies are cured in pickle solutions and processed with or
without smoking. The major types of products are back bacon, streaky bacon beef bacon and
bacon ends. Back bacon is prepared from pork loins, streaky bacon from pork bellies, beef bacon
from beef sir loin and bacon ends are produces from end cut of bacon during slicing.

• Ham
There are different types of ham varieties such as, special cooked ham, chicken ham, beef ham,
honey roast ham etc. Most important steps of manufacturing of ham are pickle curing and
tumbling to get the desired texture. Typical ham is cured with a mixture of Salt, sugar, nitrite,
ascorbic acid and phosphates.
Meat Products

Cured and Fresh meat Bomb Items Sausage range Meat balls
smoked meat Items Products

Bacon Skinless

Ham Raw cuts Cooked


Skin on
Smoked products Cut Products

Roasted Products

Figure10. : Different meat product at KFPL

3.4 Processing of Krest products

3.4.1 Production of formed products

There are number of formed products such as fish cake, fish finger, nuggets, burger etc.
Production procedure for all products is similar except the shape of the products. For instance
burgers are round in shape, fingers are cylindrical, nuggets are irregular in shape etc. To change
the shape of the product different forming plates are fixed to the machine with relevant shape.
Preparation of Insert the Forming of products
meat mixture mixture to the
machine

Frying Crumbling Battering

Packing Pre cooling Store in blast freezer

Store in transit
freezer Final packing

Figure 11. : Flow of production of formed products

3.4.2 Production of Chinese rolls

Preparation of filling Formation of pan cake Rolling

Frying Crumbling Battering

Packing Pre -cooling Store in a blast freezer

Store in transit freezer Final packing


Figure 12. : Flow of production of formed products

Chapter 4
Packing Section

4.1 Concept – (FIFO)


KFPL follows first In First Out concept (FIFO). Products that comes first, pack first and release
to the market firstly.

4.2 Good manufacturing practices at KFPL

 Caps, marks, gloves should be worn correctly. For instance ears should be covered by cap.
Nose e and mouth should be covered by marks.
 Boots should be worn and cleaned with a sanitizing agent
 Hands should be washed before enter to the packing section, after coughing, sneezing and
after going to toilet.
 Hands should be washed with soap and dried using paper towels.
 No jewelry policy.
 Food which is on the floor should not be used.
 Clean baskets and tubs should be used.
 Baskets should not be allowed to touch the floor.
 Used caps, masks, gloves muse put in to dustbins without putting everywhere.
 The surroundings should be cleaned well.
 .Peeler, Slicer, slicer table. Packing table should be cleaned using iso propyl alcohol.
 Be silent in the section.
4.3 Equipments used in packing section

• Sealer
Sealer is used to prepare the seal when producing polythene bags.

• Vacuum sealer
Packed products can be vacuum pack and seal by vacuum sealer. Gas in the pack is sucked by
the machine and creates a vacuum condition while sealing.

• Thermo sealer
This is an automated machine which is used to pack the products at high speed. There are two
types of seals, top reel and bottom reel. Bottom reel passes through the forming mold and it
forms as polythene containers. Then products are packed in to containers manually. After that it
passes through the sealing mold and it is sealed with the top reel while creating vacuum
condition in the pack.

4.4 Packing materials

 Bags -a. Printed retail pack


b. Unprinted bundle bags
 Polyethylene reels – top reels and bottom reels
 Card board boxes - a. printed boxes
b. Unprinted boxes
 Labels

4.5 Processes involve in packing.


• Vacuum packing
Raw meat products and processed meat products are prone to spoilage specially due to aerobic
micro organisms. Vacuum packs are used to remove aerobic conditions in packs and it creates an
anaerobic condition which elongates the shelf life of raw and processed meat products.

• Non Vacuum packing


Products like roasted duck, roasted lamb etc. don’t prefer vacuum condition. Therefore those
products are wrapped in flexible films and packed in cardboard boxes where there are holes to
facilitate air circulation.
• Information on the package
Information which is important to customer should be included on the main panel and other
panel of the package according to the SLS standards. For instance common name of the product,
brand name, ingredients, price, date of expiry, date of manufacture, net weight, batch number,
storage instructions, instructions to preparation, nutritional claims etc.

4.6 Color code system for finished product bundles


A color code system is used to identify the products, which is produced in relevant month. A
color tapes, which are specified for a relevant month, are bind around the product bundles. Then
products can be easily identified.

Table 1: Color code system for finished product bundles

Month Color
January Orange
February Green
March Red
April Blue
May White
June Black
July Light green
August Pink
September Yellow
October Light blue
November Beige
December Transparent

Chapter 10
Discussion
Keells Food Products PLC is today’s market leader of meat processing industry which processes
a range of innovative meat products contributing to 70% of market share. During the period of
my in- plant training I was able to gather experiences on all the functional and operational
aspects of the organization as well as to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of the factory.

10.1 Strengths
• KFPL has its own well equipped production facilities to efficient production and ensure
product safety.
• Present Sri Lanka’s market leader in the processed meat industry and it owns a market share
of approximately 70%.
• Keells world class Sausages, Meat Balls, Hams, Bacons, Cold meats and Krest battered and
crumbed delicacies combine gourmet taste, nutrition and offer superior quality.
• The range offers convenience to meet today’s demanding lifestyles of consumers all over the
world.
• Products are made at a factory accredited with ISO 9001: 2000 for Quality Management and
ISO 22000:2005 for Food Safety Management
• The manufacturing process which is semi automated takes place in a sterile environment.
• Hygiene and sanitation is well maintained in packing sections of the Keels and Krest factory.
• Company supplies its products to international markets such as India, United Arab Emirates
& Maldives according to their requirements.
• KFPL has well equipped laboratory which make sure that the products conform to pre
determined and regulatory standards. All procedures are sensory evaluated, chemically and
microbiologically assessed to ensure that consistent levels of quality parameters are
determined.
• Company has requisite blast freezing, chilling and other storage facilities which ensure
products, maintained at the desired freshness till reach to consumers.
• KFPL handles customer complaints and take remedial actions to correct it.
• No jewelry policy and no food policy while working.

10.2 Weaknesses
• Wastage is high during production process in the keels plant. Reasons are careless of the
workers, wreaked machineries and malfunctioning machines.
• Not required space in the processing area of the keels plant to the workers to do their job
well. Then wastage is high, Efficiency of production process goes down.
• Flore is not good enough for food handling factories. (Slippery flore) ,Sharp edges, broken
edges, difficult to properly clean.
• Even there is a queue to enter the animal to stunning area more than one animal is entered to
that section. Animals are struggled and lead to skin damages, leg damages as well as animals
get stressed. Finally it produces low quality meat with low pH value. ( Final pH is less than
5.5)
• In some occasions kept stunning tons to every where without considering head to head
stunning. It also produces low quality meat with less pH because animal get stressed.
• Cross contaminations are possible for raw materials and finished products.
• Fryers in Krest factory emits large amount of heat. Even there is a heat removing system, hot
condition is present in the factory. Due to that some workers complain that it is difficult to
wear masks for long time.
• Even though company follows GMP , microbial contaminations are possible for finished
products.
• Bio gas is produced by the anaerobic digester of waste water treatment plant. But it is
released the environment without getting any use.

10.3 Recommendations
• At one time one animal should be taken in to stunning area to minimize stress.
• Stunning tons should be kept behind the eye and below the ear correctly for 10 to
15 seconds.
• Workers should be advocated and educated regarding safe processing practices.
• Responsible people should monitor whether the workers follow all the safety measures.
• Workers who work in separate areas not be allowed to enter to other areas in which cross
contaminations are possible. For instance workers in slaughter house should not be allowed
to enter packing area.
• All workers in processing and packing areas should wear caps, masks, gloves and boots.
• All who enter to processing section must go through foot dips.
• Workers should change gloves immediately, when necessary.
• Swab sampling tests should be done frequently to check the cleanliness and hygienic
condition of workers and factory environment.
• Fryers in Krest factory should be isolated in an insulated room in the factory and rest of the
factory can be air conditioned.
• Bio gas can be used as an alternative for fuel requirement of the factory which is a cost
effective way.
• Implementation and maintenance of quality management systems (total quality management,
environmental management, food safety management – HACCP) is essential to improve the
quality of the products as well as the credibility of the company.