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• Electricity is a general term that encompasses a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. • Electricity is a form of energy. It is the flow of electrons.
HOW DOES POWER REACH US?
• Electric power is normally generated at 11-25kV in a power station. To transmit over long distances, it is then stepped-up to 400kV, 220kV or 132kV as necessary. Power is carried through a transmission network of high voltage lines. Usually, these lines run into hundreds of kilometres and deliver the power into a common power pool called the grid. The grid is connected to load centres (cities) through a sub-transmission network of normally 33kV (or sometimes 66kV) lines. These lines terminate into a 33kV (or 66kV) substation, where the voltage is stepped-down to 11kV for power distribution to load points through a distribution network of lines at 11kV and lower.
HOW DOES POWER REACH US?
• The power network, which generally concerns the common man, is the distribution network of 11kV lines or feeders downstream of the 33kV substation. Each 11kV feeder which emanates from the 33kV substation branches further into several subsidiary 11kV feeders to carry power close to the load points (localities, industrial areas, villages, etc.,). At these load points, a transformer further reduces the voltage from 11kV to 415V to provide the last-mile connection through 415V feeders (also called as Low Tension (LT) feeders) to individual customers, either at 240V (as single-phase supply) or at 415V (as three-phase supply). A feeder could be either an overhead line or an underground cable. In urban areas, owing to the density of customers, the length of an 11kV feeder is generally up to 3 km. On the other hand, in rural areas, the feeder length is much larger (up to 20 km). A 415V feeder should normally be restricted to about 0.51.0 km. Unduly long feeders lead to low voltage at the consumer end.
Typical Power Transmission and Distribution Scenario with DA components
Electricity How it Works
Single-phase electricity is what you have in your house. You generally talk about household electrical service as single-phase, 120-volt AC service. If you use an oscilloscope and look at the power found at a normal wallplate outlet in your house, what you will find is that the power at the wall plate looks like a sine wave, and that wave oscillates between -170 volts and 170 volts (the peaks are indeed at 170 volts; it is the effective (rms) voltage that is 120 volts). The rate of oscillation for the sine wave is 60 cycles per second. Oscillating power like this is generally referred to as AC, or alternating current. The alternative to AC is DC, or direct current. Batteries produce DC: A steady stream of electrons flows in one direction only, from the negative to the positive terminal of the battery.
Electricity How it Works in The Power Plant: Three-phase Power
• The power plant produces three different phases of AC power simultaneously, and the three phases are offset 120 degrees from each other. There are four wires coming out of every power plant: the three phases plus a neutral or ground common to all three. If you were to look at the three phases on a graph, they would look like this relative to ground: Electricity How It Works - There is nothing magical about threephase power. It is simply three single phases synchronized and offset by 120 degrees. Why three phases? Why not one or two or four? In 1-phase and 2phase electricity, there are 120 moments per second when a sine wave is crossing zero volts. In 3-phase power, at any given moment one of the three phases is nearing a peak. High-power 3-phase motors (used in industrial applications) and things like 3-phase welding equipment therefore have even power output. Four phases would not significantly improve things but would add a fourth wire, so 3-phase is the natural settling point.
HOW IS POWER MEASURED?
• Power is measured in units of power called watts. It was named to honor James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. One watt is a very small amount of power. It would require nearly 750 watts to equal one horsepower. A kilowatt represents 1,000 watts. A kilowatt-hour (kWh) is equal to the energy of 1,000 watts working for one hour. The amount of power a power plant generates or a customer uses over a period of time is measured in kilowatthours (kWh). Kilowatthours are determined by multiplying the number of kW's required by the number of hours of use. For example, if you use a 40-watt light bulb 5 hours a day, you have used 200 watts of power, or .2 kilowatthours of electrical energy..
ELECTRICAL –BYLAWS *The electrical wiring or cables shall be laid in a separate duct. The duct shall be sealed at every alternate floor with non –combustable materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct. *Water mains, telephone lines, intercom lines, gas pipes or any other service line shall not be laid in the duct for electric cables. *The inspection panel door and any other opening in the shaft shall be provided with air tight fire doors having a resistance of not less than 2 hrs. *Medium and low voltage wiring running in shafts ,and within a false ceiling ,shall run in metal conduits. *An independent and well ventilated service room shall be provide on the ground floor with direct access from the corridor for the purpose of termination of electric supply cables. The door provided for the service room shall have fire resistance of not less than 2 hrs. *If the licensees agree to provide meters on upper floors the licensees cables shall be segregated from consumers cables by a partition in the duct.Metre rooms on upper floors shall not open into staircase enclosures an shall be ventilated directly to open air outside. *PVC cables should have an additional sheathing or protection provide by compounds sprayed on after installation.
What is a Substation?
An electrical substation is an electrical transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformer. Transformation may take place in several stages in sequence, starting at the generating plant where the voltage is increased for transmission purposes and is then progressively reduced to the voltage required for household or industrial use. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution.
Types of substation :Depending upon the type of operation:
A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for maintenance. Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A small "switching station" may be little more than a bus plus some circuit breakers. The largest transmission substations can cover a large area with multiple voltage levels, and a large amount of protection and control equipments.
2)Distribution substation: A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the high-voltage main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of energy; so the distribution station reduces voltage to a value suitable for local distribution. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub transmission lines. The feeders will then run overhead, along streets (or under streets, in a city) and eventually power the distribution transformers at or near the customer premises. Besides changing the voltage, the job of the distribution substation is to isolate faults in either the transmission or distribution systems.
3)Collector substation: In distributed generation projects such as a wind farm, a collector substation may be required. It somewhat resembles a distribution substation although power flow is in the opposite direction, from many wind turbines up into the transmission grid. The collector substation also provides metering and control of the wind farm.
Depending upon the location and mounting they are classified as: 1)Indoor type of substation 2)Outdoor type of substation 3)Pole mounted substation 1)Indoor type of substation: Frequently installed in industrial and big cities where load requirement is heavy and continuity of supply is very important. The substation must be constructed providing the necessary accommodation for the transformer ,HT and LT switchgear and cable trenches for incoming and outgoing cables. Room housing the transformer should be spacious and sufficiently high. Sufficient clearance between the walls and the equipment be provided. Adequate provision for ventilation for free circulation of air. Cables run in overhead trays and cleats indoors. 2)Outdoor type of substation: Substations comprised of external fenced area . Provided in an dedicated enclosure,pole mounted or ground mounded. Enclosures must be of weather proof design ,suitable for all relevant external influences. Cables run in trenches or ducts for outdoor substation.
3)Pole mounted substation: These substations most often used to supply isolated rural consumers from overhead line distribution system. Transformers of low rating are mounted on MS channels which are rigidly fastened to a two pole structure economical for rural electrification. SAFETY MEASURES: Fire fighting equipments should be provided. Standard first aid boxes should be provided in front of main switchboard and other control `equipment. Danger sign plates be provided on HV and MV equipment. Should provide easy access to personnel for equipment maintenance,but should also keep common man away by means of proper fencing to avoid fatal accidents.
Design Of Substation: The first step in planning a substation layout is the preparation of a one-line diagram which shows in simplified form the switching and protection arrangement required, as well as the incoming supply lines and outgoing feeders or transmission lines arranged on the page similar to the way the apparatus would be laid out in the actual station. Sufficient land area is required for installation of equipment with necessary clearances for electrical safety, and for access to maintain large apparatus such as transformers. The site must have room for expansion due to load growth or planned transmission additions. Environmental effects of the substation must be considered, such as drainage, noise and road traffic effects. Grounding (earthing) and ground potential rise must be calculated to protect passers-by during a short-circuit in the transmission system. The substation site must be reasonably central to the distribution area to be served.
BY-LAWS FOR ELECTRIC SUBSTATION In every case of development/redevelopment of any land, building or premises, provision for electric substations may be permitted as under, if the requirement for the same is considered necessary by the concerned power supply authority:-
Maximum requirements depending on Land
Plot upto 500sq.m. each
One single transformer sub-station of 5m.x5m. And height of not more than 5m. the
Plots of about 501 sq.m. One single transforemer sub-station of to 1500sq.m. 8mX5m. And height of not more than 5m. Plots of 1501 sq.m. to 3000sq.m. One or more transformer sub-stations Of the size of 12mx5.5m and height of not more than 5m. Two numbers,single or two sub-stations Or combination thereof of the size stipulated in serial no. 3 above.
Plots of 3001 sq.m. upto 2ha.
Layout or sub-division of a A suitable site for an electric sub-i plot measuring 2ha. or more station (11KV/110KV)as decided by the Commissioner
BY LAWS FOR ELECTRIC SUBSTATION
Provided that the sub-station is constructed in such a manner that it is away from the main building at a distance of at least 3m. And in general does not affect the required side margin open spaces or prescribed width or internal access or larger open space, or as may be decided by the commissioner.
In the largest stations, incoming lines will almost always have a disconnect switch and a circuit breaker. In some cases, the lines will not have both; with either a switch or a circuit breaker being all that is considered necessary. These devices are used as isolation and protection devices. A disconnect switch is almost always used solely to provide isolation, due to it not being rated for breaking a loaded circuit, whilst a circuit breaker is often used both as an isolation element as well as a protection device.[clarify] Where a large fault current flows through the circuit break this may be detected through the use of current transformers. The magnitude of the current transformer outputs may be used to 'trip' the circuit breaker resulting in a disconnection of the load supplied by the circuit break from the feeding point. This seeks to isolate the fault point from the rest of the system, and allow the system to continue operating with minimal impact. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 Ã— 2448 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 Ã— 2448 pixel, file size: 3. ... A 2 pole miniature circuit breaker A circuit breaker is an automaticallyoperated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. ... Once past the switching components, the lines of a given voltage all tie in to a common bus. This is a number of thick metal bus bars, in most cases there are three bars, since three-phase electrical power distribution is largely universal around the world. An electrical bus (sometimes spelled buss) is a physical electrical interface where many devices share the same electric connection. ... Three phase systems have 3 waveforms (usually carrying power) that are 2/3π radians (120 degrees,1/3 of a cycle) offset in time. ... Substations that require additional reliability often have a double bus or even a double ring bus, in which the bus system is actually duplicated, with each feeder (and all or most outgoers) having a connection to each separate bus. Most substations will not have this, as it is mainly for reliability in substations whose failure would bring down a substantial part of the system, or whose load is of vital importance. Other compromises between a single and double bus can be found; for example, the breaker-and-a-half setup. Once having established buses for the various voltage levels, transformers may be connected between the voltage levels. These will again have a circuit breaker, much like transmission lines, in case a transformer has a fault (commonly called a 'short circuit'). Along with this, a substation always has control circuitry needed to command the various breakers to open in case of the failure of some component.
• The transformer is not a power source. It functions like a lever to convert a small voltage pushing a large electric current into a large voltage pushing a small electric current or vice versa. The power in an electric circuit is equal to the voltage multiplied by the current. For a perfect transformer, all the power that enters comes back out. If the transformer is not perfect, a portion of the power that enters is converted to heat. The transformer is intended for use only with an alternating current while the current induced in the power lines as a result of space weather disturbances is a direct current. The transformer, which usually operates with 99% efficiency, begins to malfunction. Magnetic flux ceases to be concentrated inside the iron core of the transformer and impinges on regions that were not designed to withstand this. Power begins to be converted into heat. The transformer moans and creaks loudly and overheats. Oil fires and melt-down of transformer components can occur. This happens not just to one transformer but at the same time to all affected transformers on the grid. Some transformers may burn up. Others experience significantly shortened lifetimes following damage during magnetic storm events but don't fail outright.
• THE TRANSFORMER IS A STATIC MACHINERY AND THERE IS NO WEAR AND TEAR OF IT AND NO FRICTION LOSSES MAINTENANCE COST IS LOW. VOITAGE OR HIGH VOLTAGE CAN BE TRANSFORMED EASILY BY PROVIDING A GOOD INSULATION TO ITS WINDING
• • • • • • ACCORDING TO CORE 1)CORE TYPE 2)SHELL TYPE 3)BERRY TYPE ACCORDING TO THE VOLTAGE 1)STEP UP 2)STEP DOWN ACCORDING TO THE PHASES 1)SINGLE 2)THREE ACCORDING TO THE POWER 1)LIGHTING 2)POWER ACCORDING TO THE COOLING
# If transformers are housed in a basement, they shall be necessarily in the first basement in a separate fire resisting room of four hours rating at the periphery of the basement. #Direct access to the transformer room shall be provided preferably from outside #If housed in basement, the transformer shall be protected by an automatic high pressure water spray system #They shall not be housed on upper floors. #The tank of R.C.C construction of capacity capable of accommodating the entire oil of a transformer shall be provided at lower level, to collect the oil from the catch-pit in an emergency.
Feeder pillars are mainly used for housing or installing various equipments or street lighting units. Low-voltage feeder pillars form a basic part of most public and many private distribution networks. Feeder pillars are connected to the distribution board.
Materials Used Feeder pillars are usually made of strong and weather proof materials. Some of the materials used to make feeder pillars include: -Galvanised sheet steel -Stainless steel
Construction The body of the feeder pillar is made of 2 mm thick Steel, specially treated and power coated to last for years. High quality Fiber Glass supports are used for Insulation throughout for longevity and safety. Neutral The neutral Busbar is conveniently provided near the exit of the cables. Incoming A 400/600-Ampere, 80kA Switch Fuse Unit is provided in the front of the feeder pillar for providing localized isolation and protection for all outgoing connections. Busbars High capacity copper busbars are pre-wired and pre-connected for 4 outgoing connections. Each busbar is colour coded by phase. Outgoing Each outgoing connection is though a 125 Ampere, 80kA Switch Fuse Unit. This way, each connection can be isolated individually if required and each phase of each connection gets adequate protection.
Feeder pillars are usually earth stud and provided with backboard. They can be Painted and finished as per requirement Provided with fully enclosed switchgear. They needs to be extended for the full pillar width and 600mm from the face of the pillar. They must be provided with a concrete foundation, which can be free standing, along with necessary ducts for incoming and outgoing cables and sealed with bitumen compounds
Uses & Applications Feeder pillars are mainly used in electrical installations. Some of its common uses are: Street lighting Telephone systems Distribution units Fuse links Fuse holders Power systems
AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER
#circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electric circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. #Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. #Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city
SWITCH FUSE UNIT. IT IS USED FOR PROTECTING POWER AND CONTROL CIRCUIT DEPENDS ON THE CURRENT RATING REQUIRED. Switch Fuse Units are specially designed for industrial and commercial applications where heavy on-load switching duties are required. They are also ideal and effective for repeated switching operation for domestic purposes Switch fuse units are with HRC or re-wirable porcelain fuses Extensively used as industrial main control switch
Miniature circuit breaker
A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.
Moulded Case Circuit Breakers
• The moulded-case circuit-breakers are used in industrial and civil low voltage plants with service currents from 1 to 1000 A. • They are used in direct and alternating current distribution switchgear, for motor protection (Motor Control Center), generators, capacitors and for end users.
Earth leakage circuit breaker
• • • • • Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) is a safety device used in electrical installations with high earth impedance to prevent shock These installations are dangerous and a safety risk if a live to earth fault current flows. Because earth impedance is high, not enough current exists to trip a fuse or circuit breaker, so the condition persists uncleared indefinitely the high impedance earth cannot keep the voltage of all exposed metal to a safe voltage, all such metalwork may rise to close to live conductor voltage. The ELCB makes such installations much safer by cutting the power if these dangerous conditions occur.
• An isolator switch is part of an electrical circuit and is most often found in industrial applications, however they are commonly fitted to domestic extractor fans when used in bathrooms in the UK. Isolator switches may be fitted with the ability for the switch to padlock such that inadvertent operation is not possible (see: Lock and tag). In some designs the isolator switch has the additional ability to earth the isolated circuit thereby providing additional safety. Such an arrangement would apply to circuits which inter-connect power distribution systems where both end of the circuit need to be isolated. Major difference between isolator and circuit breaker is that isolator is an offload device, whereas circuit breaker is an on-load device.
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• • • • • • •
High integration: up to 4 isolation channels in a single package High-speed operation: DC – 150 Mbps Wide operating supply voltage: 2.375-5.5 V Low power Precise timing No start-up initialization required Applications
UPS systems Motor control Isolated point-to-point communications Plasma TVs Operator interface controls Isolation Example circuit applications
WIRES AND CABLES
• BASICALLY THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CABLE AND WIRE . THE TERM “CABLE” USED FOR ALL HEAVY SECTION INSULATE CONDUCTOR WHERE AS A “WIRE”MEANS A THIN SECTION INSULATED CONDUCTOR USED FOR CARRYING CURRENT FROM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER POINT.
WIRES AND CABLES
• Two common single conductors are type THW and type THWN/THHN. Both are rated for either dry and wet locations and for temperatures up to 75 degrees Centigrade (167 degrees Fahrenheit). Typically, you run these individual wires inside protective metal or plastic conduit. You can buy either solid-core or stranded wire; solid-core is stiffer, which makes it more difficult to snake through conduit, but it makes better connections. Wire is usually sold by the foot and in 50- to 500foot spools. Cable typically combines a neutral wire, one or two "hot" wires, and a grounding wire inside a plastic or metal covering. The individual conductors within a cable are usually insulated from one another by a color-coded thermoplastic material that doesn't carry current (we say usually because a grounding wire may be bare, particularly when it is contained within a cable). White or gray insulation indicates neutral wires, green is used for grounding wires, and all other colors (black, red, blue, etc.) are used to identify hot wires.
WIRES AND CABLES
• Several types of cable are shown here. Type NM (nonmetallic sheathed cable) is the standard choice for most interior projects; it's sold by the foot or in boxes that house from 25 to 250 feet of coiled cable. The current version, called NM-B, is rated for dry locations only and temperatures to 60 degrees Centigrade (140 degrees Fahrenheit)--even though it houses 90-degree conductors. A beefier, black- sheathed version, sometimes called large appliance cable, has stranded wires to facilitate bending. Durable AC (armored cable) and its updated cousin, MC, are still used for some interior jobs but are expensive. In addition to type of use, cable is identified by the number and size of the conductors it contains. For example, a cable with two #14 wires (one neutral and one hot) and a grounding wire is called two-wire cable or, more specifically, 14-2 with ground. The number 14 is an American Wire Gauge (AWG) designation that refers to the diameter of the metal conductor not including the insulation. The larger the wire's diameter, the larger its current-carrying capacity, or ampacity, and the lower its gauge number. These numbers appear on the cable sheathing, as well as on the individual wires protected within. Although copper is the best and most commonly used metal for conductors, aluminum and copper-clad aluminum are also sometimes used. Because aluminum is not as efficient a conductor as copper, an aluminum or copper-clad aluminum wire must be larger than a copper wire in order to conduct the same amount of electricity. If you're considering one of these wires, first check your local electrical codes.
WIRES AND CABLES
• TYPES OF WIRE
• 1)V. I. R.WIRES (VULCANISED INDIA RUBBLE): USED FOR GENERAL ELECTRICAL WIRING EG. CONDUIT WIRING • 2)C.T.S.\T.R.S. WIRE(CAB TYRE SHEATHED\ TOUGH RUBBLE SHEATHED) THIS WIRES ARE MOISTURE PROOF THESE ARE AVAILABLE SINGLE CORE, TWIN CORE, THREE CORE, • 3)LEAD SHEATHED WIRE:THESE TYPES OF WIRES ARE SAME AS T.R.S. , THESE WIRES USED FOR THE SNOWFALL AREA • 4)P.V.C. WIRES(POLY VINYL CHLORIDE)IN THESE TYPE OF WIRES CONDUCTOR ARE INSULATED WITH P.V.C. INSULATION USED CASING CAPPING , CONDUIT WIRING
• • • • • • • •
1) COTTON :LARGELY USED FOR LOW VOLTAGE INSULATION 2)SILK:IT IS USED IN THE FORM OF SHEET 3)PAPER:MADE FROM FIBRES,WOOD PULP,COTTON RAGS 4) HARD FIBRE:USED FOR WASHERS 5)RUBBER:USED CHIEFLY FOR THE INSULATION OF LOW VOLTAGE WIRE & CABLE. 6)MICA:IS A MINERAL CONSISTING CHIEFLY OF A DOUBLE SILICATE OF ALUMINIUM &POTASSIUM 7)ASBESTOS:SEVERED AS A LINING & PARTITIONS IN SWITCH. 8)GLASS:IT HAS A HIGH THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY & CAN BE OPPERATED AT HIGH TEMPERATION WITHOUT DETERIORATION.
STAIRCASE AND CORRIDOR LIGHTING
The staircase and corridor lighting shall be on separate circuits and shall be independently connected so that they could be operated by one switch installation on the ground floor easily accessible to fire fighting staff at any time irrespective of the position of the individual control of the light points, if any. Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be connected to alternate supply as defined in sub-regulation Double throw switches should be installed in a service room to terminate the stand by supply. Emergency lights shall be provided in staircase/corridors for multi-storeyed high rise.
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ALTERNATE SOURCE OF ELCTRICAL SUPPLY
A stand by electric generator shall be installed to supply power to staircase and corridor lighting circuit, fire lifts, the stand by fire pump, smoke extraction and damper system in case of failure of normals electric supply The generator shall be capable of taking starting current of all the machine and circuits stated above simultaneously.
A. H. U. (AIR HANDLING UNIT)
• An air handler, or air handling unit (often abbreviated to AHU), is a device used to condition and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. • Usually, an air handler is a large metal box containing a blower, heating and/or cooling elements, filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. • Air handlers usually connect to ductwork that distributes the conditioned air through the building, and returns it to the AHU.
• Sometimes AHUs discharge (supply) and admit (return) air directly to and from the space served, without ductwork. • Small air handlers, for local use, are called terminal units, and may only include an air filter, coil, and blower; these simple terminal units are called blower coils or fan coil units. • A larger air handler that conditions 100% outside air, and no recirculated air, is known as a makeup air unit (MAU). • An air handler designed for outdoor use, typically on roofs, is known as a packaged unit (PU) or rooftop unit (RTU).
Air handler components
• • • • • • • Blower/fan Heating and/or cooling elements Filters Humidifier Mixing chamber Controls Vibration isolators
An air handling unit; air flow is from the right to left in this case. Some AHU components shown are: 1 - Supply duct 2 - Fan compartment 3 - Vibration isolator ('flex joint') 4 - Heating and/or cooling coil 5 - Filter compartment 6 - Mixed (recirculated + outside) air duct
• • • • • • Air handlers typically employ a large squirrel cage blower driven by an AC induction electric motor to move the air. The blower may operate at a single speed, offer a variety of pre-set speeds, or be driven by a Variable Frequency Drive so as to allow a wide range of air flow rates. Flow rate may also be controlled by inlet vanes or outlet dampers on the fan. Some residential air handlers (central 'furnaces' or 'air conditioners') use a brushless DC electric motor that has variable speed capabilities. In large commercial air handling units, multiple blowers may be present, typically placed at the end of the AHU and the beginning of the supply ductwork (therefore also called "supply fans"). They are often augmented by fans in the return air duct ("return fans"), pushing the air into the AHU.
Heating and/or cooling elements
• Depending on the location and the application, air handlers may need to provide heating, or cooling, or both to change the supply air temperature. • Smaller air handlers may contain a fuel-burning heater or a refrigeration evaporator, placed directly in the air stream. • Electric resistance and heat pumps are used too. Evaporative cooling is possible in dry climates too. • Large commercial air handling units contain coils that circulate hot water or steam for heating, and chilled water for cooling. • The hot water or steam is provided by a central boiler, and the chilled water is provided by a central chiller.
• Humidification is often necessary in colder climates where continuous heating will make the air drier, resulting in uncomfortable air quality and increased static electricity. Various types of humidification may be used: • Evaporative: dry air blown over a reservoir will evaporate some of the water. The rate of evaporation can be increased by spraying the water onto baffles in the air stream. • Vaporizer: steam or vapour from a boiler is blown directly into the air stream. • Spray mist: water is diffused either by a nozzle or other mechanical means into fine droplets and carried by the air.
• The blowers in an air handler can create substantial vibration and the large area of the duct system would transmit this noise and vibration to the occupants of the building. • To avoid this, vibration isolators (flexible sections) are normally inserted into the duct immediately before and after the air handler and often also between the fan compartment and the rest of the AHU. • The rubberized canvas-like material of these sections allow the air handler to vibrate without transmitting much vibration to the attached ducts. • The fan compartment can be further isolated by placing it on a spring suspension, which will mitigate the transfer of vibration through the floor.
• In order to maintain indoor air quality, air handlers commonly have provisions to allow the introduction of outside air into, and the exhausting of air from the building. • In temperate climates, mixing the right amount of cooler outside air with warmer return air can be used to approach the desired supply air temperature. • A mixing chamber is therefore used which has dampers controlling the ratio between the return, outside, and exhaust air. • A heat recovery heat exchanger, of many types, may be fitted to the air handler for energy savings and increasing capacity.
• Controls are necessary to regulate every aspect of an air handler, such as: rate of air flow, supply air temperature, mixed air temperature, humidity, air quality. • They may be as simple as an off/on thermostat or as complex as a building automation system using BACnet or LonWorks, for example. • Common control components include temperature sensors, humidity sensors, sail switches, actuators, motors, and controllers.
• Air filtration is almost always present in order to provide clean dust-free air to the building occupants. • It may be via simple low-MERV pleated media, HEPA, electrostatic, or a combination of techniques. • Gas-phase and ultraviolet air treatments may be employed as well. • It is typically placed first in the AHU in order to keep all its components clean.
• Isolate the mains supply before carrying out any maintenance procedure. The air handling unit only requires general cleaning to ensure it function at its optimum. Apart from the filter; there is no user serviceable part. • Filter Change After a period of 5 years, the status light on the user control will flash red to indicate the filters require changing.
• To change the filters, isolate the power supply and remove
• Make sure that the filters are installed in the correct orientation. Filters have an arrow on the side indicating the direction of the air flow. These arrows should be pointing towards the coil box in the middle of the AHU’s.
AHU Electrical details
Voltage: 230V 1phase 50Hz Consumption: 130W (max) Fuse rating: 3 Amp
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Air-conditioning (a)Escape routes like staircases, common corridors, lift lobbies etc. shall not be used as return air passages. (b)The ducting shall be constructed of substantial gauge metal in accordance with IS:655-1963 Metal Air Ducts(Revised). (c)Whenever the ducts pass through fire-walls or floors, the opening around the ducts shall be sealed with fire-resisting materials such as asbestos rope or vermiculite concrete glass wool. (d)As far as possible, metallic ducts shall be used even for the return air instead of space above the false ceiling. (e)The materials used for insulating the duct system (inside or outside) shall be of non-combustible materials such as glass wool,spun glass with neoprene facing. (f)Area more than 750 sq.m on an individual floor shall be segregated by a fire wall and automatic fire dampers for isolation shall be provided where the ducts pass through fire walls. (g)Air ducts serving main floor areas, corridor etc. shall not pass through the stairecase enclosure. (h)The air handling units shall as far as possible be separate for each floor and air ducts for every floor shall be separate and in no way interconnected with the ducting of any other floors. (i)Automatic fire dampers shall be provided at the inlet of the fresh air duct and the return air duct of each compartment on every floor. (j)If the air handling unit serves more than one floor , the requirements given above shall be complied with in addition to the conditions given below-When the automatic fire alarm operates, the respective air handling units of the air-conditioning system shall automatically be switched off. -The air filters of air-handling units shall be of non-combustible materials. -The air handling unit room shall be not used for storage of any combustible materials. -Ispection panels shall be provided in main trunking to facilitate the cleaning of the duct of accumulated dust and to obtain access for maintenance of fire dampers. -No combustible material shall be fixed nearer than 15cm.to any duct unless such duct is properly enclosed and protected with non-combustible material at least 3.2 mm. thick and which does not readily conduct heat. -Materials used for false ceiling, runners and suspenders shall be of non-combustible type.
CENTRAL CONTROL ROOM
What is Central Control Room(CCR)?
• Central Control Room(CCR) functions as a ‘Building Management System’ (BMS) • It controls and monitors all utilities and services present in the mall. • It is predominantly handled by the IT department of Inorbit Mall.
• Central control station room is located on the Ground floor of the mall with a door leading into the parking lot. • The room is accessible directly from the basement. • The central control station room is a restricted area. • Unauthorised entry is prohibited • Entry only by showing of access card
BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
• The Building Management system consists of the following services :2.Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) 3. Public Address System (PAS) 4. Access Control Systems (ACS) 5. Fire Alarm System (FAS)
CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION (CCTV)
•The Closed Circuit Television System (CCTV system) provides an on-line display of video images on monitor. • The primary objective of implementing a CCTV system is to ensure effective surveillance of an area and also create a record for post event analysis. EQUIPMENT The CCTV System shall comprise of Dome Cameras, CCD Cameras, Weather proof housings, Weather proof Pan/Tilt unit, Multiplexer, Matrix Switcher, Time Lapse VCR and other associated accessories.
• The monitoring Cameras are present at 3.All entrances and exits 4.Elevators. 5.Elevator lobbies. 6. Corridors. 7. Exit Stairways. 8. Food court
MONITOR •The Monochrome monitor which is suitable with the standards of the selected cameras. •All controls for brightness, contrast etc. shall be provided on the front panel for readily adjusting the levels of the video signal. •The video monitors installed shall be atleast 12” size or more and shall comply with the specification
•Fixed Dome Camera unit •MONOCHROME CAMERA - ‘C/CS’ MOUNT
CyberDome (all models)
DIGITAL VIDEO RECORDING (DVR) •These systems are used to record the video images which are taken by the cameras. •A DVR have the capacity to keep record of maximum 16 cameras. •provide multiplexed field recording of upto sixteen monochrome video inputs. •The unit shall provide a user-programmable twelve character title for each camera and shall also record time and date with each video image.
TYPICAL DEPLOYMENT SCHEME FOR DVR SYSTEM
PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM
• All voice evacuation and public address systems shall operate from the Information Desk 1 (ID1) situated near the CCR on the Ground floor. • Manual control of evacuation tone signals, alert tone signals, and voice evacuation shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis. • In malls generally these systems are also used for playing music.
PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM
• Alert tones and voice instructions shall be provided to the Amplifiers in the following areas: • Elevators. • Elevator lobbies. • Corridors. • Exit Stairways. • Individual shops • Areas of rescue assistance
ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM (ACS)
• The Access Control Systems monitors the movement of people in the restricted areas of the Mall • This includes the Mall Office , Meter Room , Central Control Room , Power Room • These areas can only be accessed by authorized personnel with the help of access cards. • The entry and exit is recorded by this system in the database of the mall. CCR does have records of each access control door.
System Components : Readers
• Proximity Readers • Biometric Readers
– Fingerprint Scanners – Hand Geometry Readers – Face Recognition Readers
• Smart Card Readers
– Read only Readers – Read and Write – Readers
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS (FAS)
• The Control Room consists of the Fire alarm Panel. • Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be annunciated in the central control station by means of an audible and visual indicator. • There are 2 types of FAS 1 Conventional 2 Addressed system • Inorbit Mall follows the Addressed System of Fire detection • In this system the exact location of the smoke can be detected • Here, the Fire Alarm Panel is connected to a electronic flow chart which indicates the no. & position of the smoke detector.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS (FAS) For the purpose of detection, zoning shall be in accordance with the following: Each floor of a building shall be considered as a separate zone. Each floor of a building is divided into two separate zones Identification of the type of alarm, initiation devices such as manual , automatic, sprinkler water flow, etc. shall be separately indicated on electrically supervised initiating circuits to the main fire alarm control unit. Detection panels shall be graphic to clearly indicate the layout of the building.
Intelligent Fire Detection System
• Fire department communication system shall be provided for fire department use. • Fire detection System No. of Smoke detectors: 192 nos. Fire Extinguishers ABC Type: 112 nos. CO2 Type: 30 nos.
Building floor plans shall be permanently mounted on an interior wall within the central control station. Plans shall include the following: • Stairways. • Areas of rescue assistance. • Shafts. • Corridors. • Elevators. • Emergency generator and fuel locations. • Fire pump. • Smoke control supply and exhaust ducts. • Mechanical rooms, gas, water, electrical, fire sprinklers. • Detectors.
ELEVATION OF A CCR WORKSTATION
WHAT IS WI-FI
•It is a Wireless network is set up by using radio signal frequency to communicate among computers and other network devices. •Sometimes it’s also referred to as WLAN. •You can connect computers anywhere in your home without the need for wires. WORKING •When the computer send out the data, the binary data will be encoded to radio frequency and transmitted via wireless router. •The receiving computer will then decode the signal back to binary data. •wireless hotspot, means that location is equipped with wireless devices for you and others to join the network. •The two main components are wireless router or access point and wireless clients.
PURPOSE OF WI-FI
• The purpose of Wi-Fi is to provide wireless access to digital content. This content may include applications, audio and visual media, Internet connectivity, or other data. Wi-Fi generally makes access to information easier, as it can eliminate some of the physical restraints of wiring; this can be especially true for mobile devices. Routers which incorporate a DSL-modem or a cable-modem and a Wi-Fi access point, often set up in homes and other premises, provide Internet-access and internetworking to all devices connected (wirelessly or by cable) to them. One can also connect Wi-Fi devices in ad-hoc mode for client-to-client connections without a router. Wi-Fi also enables places which would traditionally not have network to be connected, for example bathrooms, kitchens and garden sheds.
•A router is a computer whose software and hardware are usually tailored to the tasks of routing and forwarding information. For example on the internet information gets routed to different places using routers. Types of routers •Routers for Internet connectivity and internal use •Small Office Home Office (SOHO) connectivity •Enterprise Routers
• • A router is a computer whose software and hardware are usually tailored to the tasks of routing and forwarding information. For example on the internet information gets routed to different places using routers. Routers connect two or more logical subnets, which do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router. The term "layer 3 switch" often is used interchangeably with router, but switch is a general term without a rigorous technical definition. In marketing usage, it is generally optimized for Ethernet LAN interfaces and may not have other physical interface types. In comparison a network hub does not do any routing, instead every packet it receives on one network line gets forwarded to the other network lines.
• • • Routers operate in two different planes : Control Plane, in which the router learns the outgoing interface that is most appropriate for forwarding specific packets to specific destinations, Forwarding Plane, which is responsible for the actual process of sending a packet received on a logical interface to an outbound logical interface.
CISCO 1800 ROUTER
CISCO 7600 ROUTER