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Simulation and Modeling

Simulation and Modeling

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Published by H.J.Prabhu
Process modeling and simulation is an useful exercise.
Process modeling and simulation is an useful exercise.

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Published by: H.J.Prabhu on Jan 05, 2014
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Lecture-01

Outline
Modeling and Simulation What? Why? Uses Taxonomy Model Development Life Cycle

Modeling and Simulation
Model
A

model (usually miniatu e! is a ep esentation of the const uction and "o #ing of some system of inte est $t is simila to %ut simple than the system it ep esents A good model is a t adeoff %et"een ealism and simplicity&

Modeling and Simulation
(Cont…)
$t

is desc iption of o%se ved %ehavio ' simplified %y igno ing ce tain details& Models allo" complex systems to %e unde stood and thei %ehavio p edicted "ithin the scope of the model' %ut may give inco ect desc iptions and p edictions fo situations outside the ealism of thei intended use&

Modeling and Simulation
(Cont…)
Simulation
simulation is a tool to evaluate the performance

of a system e!isting or proposed under different configurations of interest and over long periods of real time" Simulation of a system is the operation of a model of the system" #he operation of the model can $e studied and hence properties concerning the $ehavior of the actual system or its su$systems can $e inferred"

%hy Simulate&
't may $e too difficult dangerous or e!pensive to o$serve

a real operational system (arts of the system may not $e o$serva$le (e"g" internals of a silicon chip or $iological system) )ses of simulations * +naly,e systems $efore they are $uilt
 -educe num$er of design mista.es Optimi,e design +naly,e operational capa$ilities of systems Create virtual environments for training entertainment

+pplications/ System +nalysis
0Classical1 application of simulation #elecommunication net2or.s #ransportation systems 3lectronic systems (e"g" microelectronics computer systems) 4attlefield simulations Manufacturing systems Logistics

+pplications

5irtual 3nvironments
)ses/ training (e"g" military medicine

emergency planning) entertainment Simulations are often used in virtual environments to create dynamic computer generated entities
+dversaries and helpers in video games 6efense/ Computer generated forces (C78)

+utomated forces  Semi9automated forces

5irtual 3nvironments
(Cont…)
(hysical phenomena

#ra:ectory of pro:ectiles  4uildings 0$lo2ing up1  3nvironmental effects on environment (e"g" rain 2ashing out terrain)

3!amples

Simulation 8undamentals
+ computer simulation is a computer program

that models the $ehavior of a physical system over time"
(rogram varia$les (state varia$les) represent

the current state of the physical system Simulation program modifies state varia$les to model the evolution of the physical system over time"

6efense Simulations
#ypes of simulation Constructive/ simulated people operating simulated e;uipment 5irtual/ real people operating simulated e;uipment Live/ real people operating real e;uipment Ma:or application areas
+nalysis %ar gaming logistics

6efense Simulations
#raining
(latform level Command level

#est and evaluation <ard2are9in9the9loop

#ypes of Simulation Models

Stochastic vs" 6eterministic
Stochastic simulation/ a simulation that

contains random (pro$a$ilistic) elements e"g"
3!amples

'nter9arrival time or service time of customers at a restaurant or store  +mount of time re;uired to serve a customer

Output is a random ;uantity (multiple runs

re;uired analy,e output)

Stochastic vs" 6eterministic
6eterministic simulation/ a simulation

containing no random elements
3!amples

Simulation of a digital circuit  Simulation of a chemical reaction $ased on differential e;uations

Output is deterministic for a given set of inputs

Static vs" 6ynamic Models
Static models Model 2here time is not a significant varia$le 3!amples

6etermine the pro$a$ility of a 2inning solitaire hand Statistical sampling to develop appro!imate solutions to numerical pro$lems

Static = stochastic > Monte Carlo simulation

6ynamic models Model focusing on the evolution of the system under investigation over time

Continuous vs" 6iscrete
6iscrete
State of the system is vie2ed as changing at

discrete points in time +n event is associated 2ith each state transition

3vents contain time stamp

Continuous
State of the system is vie2ed as changing

continuously across time System typically descri$ed $y a set of differential e;uations

Overall 5ie2 of M?S

Model 6evelopment Life Cycle

6etermine 7oals and O$:ectives
%hat do you (or the customers) hope to

accomplish 2ith the model
May $e an end in itself

(redict the 2eather  #rain personnel to develop certain s.ills (e"g" driving)

More often a means to an end

Optimi,e a manufacturing process or develop the most cost effective means to reduce traffic congestion in some part of a city

6etermine 7oals and O$:ectives
Often re;uires developing a $usiness case to

:ustify the cost
'mproved efficiency 2ill save the company

money 3ven so may $e hard to :ustify in lean times

7oals may not $e .no2n 2hen you start the

pro:ect@
One often learns things along the 2ay

6evelop Conceptual Model
+n a$stract (i"e" not directly e!ecuta$le)

representation of the system %hat should $e included in model& %hat can $e left out& %hat a$stractions should $e used
Level of detail Often a variation on standard a$stractions

6evelop Conceptual Model
3!ample/ transportation

8luid flo2&  Aueuing net2or.&  Cellular automata&

%hat metrics 2ill $e produced $y the model& +ppropriate choice depends on the purpose of

the model

6evelop Computational Model
 3!ecuta$le simulation model  Soft2are approach
 7eneral purpose programming language  Special purpose simulation language  Simulation pac.age

 +pproach often depends on need for customi,ation and

economics  %here do you ma.e your money&  6efense vs" commercial industry  Other (non9functional) re;uirements  (erformance  'nteropera$ility 2ith other modelsBtoolsBdata

5erification
6id ' $uild the model right& 6oes the computational model match the

specification model& Largely a soft2are engineering activity (de$ugging) Cot to $e confused 2ith correctness (see model validation)@

5alidation
 6id ' $uild the right model&  6oes the computational model match the actual (or

envisioned) system&  #ypically compare against  Measurements of actual system  +n analytic (mathematical) model of the system  +nother simulation model  4y necessity al2ays an incomplete activity@  Often can only validate portions of the model  'f you can validate the simulation 2ith 100D certainty 2hy $uild the simulation&

Steps in Model 6evelopment

Summary
Modeling and simulation is an important 2idely

used techni;ue 2ith a 2ide range of applications
Computation po2er increases (MooreEs la2) have

made it more pervasive 'n some cases it has $ecome essential (e"g" to $e economically competitive) -ich variety of types of models applications uses

+s easy (actually easier@) to get 2rong or

misleading ans2ers as it is to get useful results +ppropriate methodologies re;uired to protect against ma:or mista.es" 3ven so…

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