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By Rabbi Benyomin Hoffman PRODUCED BY: HEIMISHHOUSE.COM
In memory of: Ephraim ben Avrohom (Fred Hoffman) Chaya bas Avrohom (Irene Hoffman)
MATH IN THE Parsha
Math concepts with the Parsha are designed to offer the student a challenging new approach toward thinking about the weekly Parsha. Hebrew math problems are designed to offer the student a unique means of understanding the weekly Torah Parsha, plus challenging questions. Answer key and additional information provided on a separate page.
Purpose: Students will solve each parsha math questions using analytical and problem-solving skills,
drawing on the information provided. Excitement generated by the additional math information within and outside of the Torah, requiring thought and review.
Grade Level: Middle and High School grades (sixth through twelfth grades) Variation:
Can be utilized as part of a weekly fun packet. Further usage suggested as part of activity center as an enrichment tool.
Table of Contents
25% (VaYikra) Salting Meat (Tzav) Eight Eights (Shmini) 180 (Tazria) Tav 400 (Metzora) 20 (Acharei) 60 (Kedoshim) These are My Holidays (Emor) Shabbos Shabboson (Behar) Ratios (Bechukosai) Pages 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 21-22
Thus. the added “fifth” is actually one-fifth of the final total (and not of the original amount). making a total of 5. For example. X =4. in the above example. Therefore. In simple algebra the formula would be (1)X + (1/4)X = (5/4)X. if one steals. we mean adding 20% more. and then. Thus. thus 5 + (1/5*5) = (6/5)5 = 6. if one has 4 items. if we usually receive 5 in a package. then 1/5 of the original total (1/5 of 5 = 1) additional item is added. X = 5. Original amount is 40 Amount of total to be paid = Amount of the additional fifth = __________ 3 . which is to add ( חומשיוa “fifth”). in the above example. and needs to add a “fifth”. adds a “fifth” part. the added amount in a “fifth” of the original value (or 20% of the original amount or )מלגב However. ( מלברfrom the outside). and the package now offers a fifth more. or if one eats Terumah.PATTERNS IN PLACE – 25% In many instances the Torah provides an additional requirement when one wishes make amends. Original amount is 160 Amount of total to be paid = Amount of the additional fifth = II. in our common usage. Thus. In simple algebra the formula is (1)X + (1/5)X = (6/5)X. Thus. one takes the original amount. Thus. making a total of 6. when we refer to adding a fifth. divides it into 4 parts. Example: Original amount is 100 Must pay an additional “fifth” 100+25=125 25 is 1/5 of 125 or 25 = 25% of 100 Please complete the following based on above example of a “fifth” I. the added amount is a “fifth” of the result (or 25% of the original amount). meaning a “fifth” from the final result. thus 4 + (1/4*4) = 5/4(4) = 5. the Rabbis explain that when the Torah uses the concept of a “fifth”. one would add an additional one item. Therefore. they mean a different concept. Thus. Usually. and swears falsely.
NOTES FOR TEACHER OR PARENT Age group – 12 years and up Objective of this lesson: Appreciate math in the Parsha Introduction to concepts within Judaism of 25% and adding a “fifth” ANSWERS Original amount is 160 Amount of total to be paid = Amount of additional fifth = Original amount is 40 Amount of total to be paid = Amount of additional fifth = 200 40 50 10 4 .
See the Aruch Hashulchan 69:34-37 for another novel reason for waiting 1 hour.שיעור למיל is the amount of time it takes an average person to walk 2000 אמותת (about one kilometer). 2 2) The Gilyon Maharsha brings the Pri Chadash who that a שיעור מילis 24 minutes. The Rambam learns that this is a . The standard process of salting meat involves a first washing of the meat. HALACHA 69:6 The source for the amount of time that meat must be salted is found in the Ba’ha’g. The mnemonic for this amount is (“ ויקרא פרק ב יג( במלח תִמלחOne should salt it ָ ְ ַ ֶ ַּ (the Korban) with salt”. In this aspect of halacha regarding salting of meat to take out the blood. However.SALTING MEAT ויקרא פרק ז כז כל-נ ֶפש אֲשר-תאכל כל-דם ו ְנ ִכ ְר ְתה הַנ ֶפש הַהוא ִ ֶ ָ ָ ָ ַ ֹ ֶ ֶ ָ :מעמיה ָ ֶ ַ ֵ We salt meat ( )מליחהin order to avoid the Biblical prohibition of eating blood. we are stringent in regards to the שיעור מילto use an excessive amount of time. At least this one aspect related below reveals mathematical patterns. so there will be no question.1 He says that the meat must be salted for the amount of time it takes to roast. the Chazon Ish (Orach Chaim Siman 123 seif 1) says that b’dieved we can rely on the opinions that a שיעור למילis 18 minutes. even when koshering a large piece of meat. An entire section of Yoreh Deah concentrates on this process. the Mishna Brura 459:15 (biur halacha )יהוsays even b’dieved the salt must be on for at least 22½ minutes.2 1 Ba’al 2 שיעור מיל Halachos Gedolos – one of the Geonim who lived in the 7th century. L’halacha. The word במלחand the word מילeach have the same ַ ֶ numerical value of 80. placing salt on the meat. 3 3) The opinion of the Gr"a (Orach Chaim Siman 459:5) is that a שיעור מילis 22½ minutes. The reason for this custom is that we are choshesh for those that say that salting is relative to the size of the piece therefore we give a shiur that is universal. Since the meat must be salted for the amount of time it takes to roast it and the Gemora in Pesachim says that one hour is enough to roast a whole ( רבן פסחקPesach sacrifice). 5 . we set that as a standard to cover all situations. There are three opinions how long this takes: 1 1) The Shach (25) explaining the Mechaber says that a שיעור מילis 18 minutes. The Rama says that the custom is to salt meat for one hour. and a second rinsing of the meat.
ASSIGNMENT → Please name another halacha involving שיעור מילthat we are stringent to do according to the opinion with the minimum amount of time. 6 . Hint: We have the same opinions regarding how long is this other measure of time.
L’chatchila concerned about the Smak and all opinions 7 . to make Matzah or Chametz For additional information on the salting process and varying opinions and resultant halachos: SIX OPINIONS ON SALTING Not for determining the law but to see the variety of opinions רא"ה Reason for 1st Washing Remove blood on surface ר"ן Remove crusty surface מרדכי י"א סמ"ק רא"ש Remove Soften Remove surface blood surface surface to which stops Soak to allow blood.ANSWER: Time difference after mixing water and flour. Wash and resalt Forbidden Wash and resalt Wash and דם בעיןWash and resalt driven into resalt meat No need to Creates Creates new wash again. 24) hours If salt left on Wash and meat resalt forbidden Salted without 1st washing If the meat cut after washing. new No need No need to surface blood not worried surface to wash wash again and needs about blood and again washing surface needs blood washing Not sufficient Wash and resalt Good Wash and resalt Not sufficient Wash and resalt Good Not sufficient Wash and resalt Good Good Mechaber holds like the Mordechai Rema: (hefsed m’rubah) like Mordechai. salt from soften meat considered blood to reacting with easily דם בעיןflow out blood in meat After 12 (or No effect. but before salting Washing superficially Meat 60 times greater than surface blood Good Before 12 (or 24) hours permitted No effect.
3. Eight Mitzvos involving speech which require _ _ לשון 3 ח 5 4 __ _) ה ר 6.2.4 6 6 1. as in Each number can be divided evenly by a certain amount of factors. Years that Pesach begins on Shabbos. Yom Chameshi. divine attributes that define G-d’s relationship with our reality. Each number can be divided evenly by a certain amount of factors.2 4 4 1.3. Eighth Parsha in Sefer VaYikra (3 letters starting with )א 8 .4 1. portions of Parsha Shemini are read eight times (Shabbos haGadol minchah.5.6 1. There are seven sefirot.6 11 11 1.3.2. Woman in Tanach the had eight descendants that were Prophets (3 letters starting with )ר 5. and continues to be created anew each week.64 1. 64 (a square of 8) has only 7 factors. in Chutz L’Eretz.11 1. On that eighth day.5. 64 (a square of 8) has only 7 factors.64 COMPLETE THIS PUZZLE USING THE CLUES ON RIGHT Start Here 1 ח 1. If seven is the number of creation’s natural cycles. year Eighth month of the Jewish (4 letters starting with )ח 6 מ 4. as in the chart below: the chart below: 64 64 1.4.8. The world was created. “eight” represents that which is higher than nature.32. MATHTOID 64 (8 X 8) is the smallest number with 7 factors MATHTOID 64 (8 X 8) is the smallest number with 7 factors A number which divides another number is called a factor (example: 6 divided by the factor of 2 equals 3).2.2.2 1. Shabbos Pesach last day minchan.16. in a seven-day cycle. the “circumference” that encompasses the circle of time and space. we were granted the potential to reach beyond the natural and the norm. Number Number Factors Factors 1 1 1 1 2 2 1. Eighth Usphizin on Sukkos (4 letters ) ש מ 2 7 א ש 3. and Shabbos). these are reflected in the seven middot.3.32. Hallel said all eight days of this Holiday (5 letters beginning with )ח 2. the seven traits of the human heart. to break free of the seven-dimensional cycle that defines and confines our existence.126.96.36.199 15 15 1. Yom Sheni. Yom Sheni. the day that the divine presence came to dwell in the Israelite camp. שמיניEight Eights The number seven represents the natural reality.8. Yom Chameshi.4. Eighth day is the earliest for this Mitzvah (4 letters starting with )מ 7. Thus our sages explain the special significance of the number eight.15 1.15 A number which divides another number is called a factor (example: 6 divided by the factor of 2 equals 3). Shabbos Pesach minchah.
Age group – 12 years and up Objective of this lesson: Appreciate math in the Parsha Introduction to concepts within Judaism of seven and eight ANSWER SHEET Start Here 1 ח נ ו כ ה 2 ר מ 7 א ה ל י 6 ש ל מ ש ו ד ק 5 ה 3 ח ן 4 ש ו ה ר ח ב 9 .
Avrohom's preparation for 180 hours corresponds to the 180 years of Yitzchok's life. kilometer. 20. This number is especially convenient since the earth rotates 360 degrees every 24 hours (or 15 degrees every hour). If one is in Seattle and calls New York. To compare. But the Babylonians liked 60. 4. round number and we find it very convenient to count in multiples of 10. allowing us to do Teshuvah. centimeter. it's divided into 24 time zones. If one is in Chevron and calls New York. There are few other numbers as small as 360 that have so many different factors. 180 degrees is exactly the “other” side. and understand “longitude” HaShem places the cure before the problem. Name a country this is 360 degrees longitude from Eretz Yisrael? 10 . we base our number system on 10. and discovers a 3-hour difference.15 degrees of longitude each. In Parsha Tazria. and 24. and discovers a 7-hour difference. The reason is that their number system was based on the number 60. (Chid"o in Nachal K'dumim) 7 days X 24 = 168 hours night = 12 hours 168 hours + 12 hours = 180 hours 180 degrees is the total of any triangle (think the 3 Avos) 180 is the degrees in a half a circle Now. etc. Punishment from G-d is for our long-term good. 9. What's so neat about that. approximately how many degrees of longitude between Chevron and Seattle? 3. called meridians. Prior to circumcision we have 7 days and a night. 10. 18. 12.180 Age group – 12 years and up Objective – Appreciate math in the Parsha. but 60 is a nice number too. The first person to be circumcised on the eighth day was Yitzchok. How many degrees of longitude between Yerushalim and the North Pole? 4. For us. one might wonder why the Babylonians chose the number 360 as the total number of degrees to divide the circle. This makes the degree a very nice unit to divide the circle into an equal number of parts: 120 degrees is 1/3 of a circle. 6. (Can you imagine referring to Kobe doing a 100?) Why this was nice for them. and so on. SOLVE THESE QUESTIONS: 1. Applying the rule of "zrizim makdimim l'mitzvos" (serving HaShem with alacrity) to circumcision can be understood as preparation for the mitzvoh right from the day of birth. 5. 8. meter. nobody knows. 90 degrees is ¼. 3. Name a land mass which is 180 degrees longitude from Eretz Yisrael? 5. run in a north-south direction intersecting at both poles) Thus. approximately how many degrees of longitude between Chevron and New York? 2. because 60 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 and 360 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5. If we calculate the first day from its first moment. 10 is a nice. you will find that 360 is divisible by 2. 15. (Lines of longitude. like millimeter. (counted as if the entire first day even if the baby was born at the last moment of the day) we have 180 hours. you ask? Well. the concept of circumcision precedes the “punishment” of Metzora. a 180-decree turn in our direction in life.
Eretz Yisrael – 360 degrees returns to the exact same longitude Zrizim makdimim l’mitzvos .Serving HaShem with Alacrity "U'va'yom hashmini yimol b'sar orloso" (VaYirka 12. the North Pole is the intersection (end) of every longitude 4. 11 . even during the last fleeting minutes of the day. Alaska is a land mass (with six time zones) which contains a time zone 12 hours different from Eretz Yisrael 5.The gemara P'sachim 4a says that we derive from these words that circumcision may be performed anytime on the eighth day.those who serve Hashem with enthusiasm perform mitzvos with alacrity and do them as early as is allowed (as we find by Avrohom when he was commanded by Hashem to offer his son Yitzchok as a sacrifice.ANSWERS 1. "zrizim makdimim l'mitzvos." . However. 7 times 15 degrees = 105 degrees 2. (7+3) times 15 degrees = 150 degrees 3. None. "va'yashkeim Avrohom baBOKER" (Breishis 22:3)).3) .
On the other hand. 2 1 מ 1 down: Place of first Exile of 400 years (5 letters) 1 across: Parsha’s name with numeric value 400 (4 letters) 2 down: King Dovid took 400 men to defeat this nation (4 letters) 3 ק 3 across: Hebrew word for straw. ESAV & HIS 400 MEN "Then Yaakov sent angels before him to Esav his brother . from every sin that a person commits. . It was from these that he chose the 400 "men" who were traveling with him to meet Yaakov. Rosh Yeshiva. had angels that were created as a result of his bad deeds. AVROHOM AND EFRON The Midrash Rabbah states: (Mishlei 28:22)." What was Efron's loss? The first time Efron is mentioned it is spelled with the letter "vav" עפרוןand the second time without it עפרן What is the significance of Efron's losing his "vav"? The Ba'al Haturim explains that the gematria of Efron without the letter "vav" is 400. a person should realize that one’s fate is in one’s own hands. Why? "In order to satisfy the eyes of that rasha." In other words. . one who commits a sin acquires one prosecutor. A person has the ability to create good angels to assist in one’s spiritual and material endeavors and one has the ability to create impure. Yaakov countered by sending gifts to Esav with his “men”. harmful angels. ע Amount of silver shekels paid by Avrohom to Efron Number of soldiers with Esav to go fight Yaacov METZORA The Gemara (Erchin 16a) says that one of the causes of “tzora’as” is being stingy “ra ayin”. and does not realize that it will be his loss. Esav. equal to the gematria of "ra ayin"/"evil eye. evidenced by the loss of the vav and becoming a name of 400.TAV 400 • • • מצרעNumerical value Metzora (70=)מ=04. From each of the above. numerical value 400 (2 letters) 12 . Each person makes their own choice." The result of Yaacov’s good efforts was that the 400 “men” of Esav slipped away and that Esav hugged Yaacov. The numerical value of Metzora and of “ra ayin” ( )רע עיןis 400. The goal of “tzora’as” is not cause pain but to motivate the person to do Teshuva recognizing and fixing a severe error. who were "before him" as a result of the mitzvos that he had performed. צ=09." Yaakov chose his own angels. ר=002. "before him. from every mitzvah that a person does. too. created by a person's mitzvos. a "good" angel is created. This sheds light on the meaning of the words "before him." Efron had a choice to cooperate with Avrohom and made an error and went after money." (32:4) R' Elyah Lopian z"l (18721970. London) asks what is added by the words. "A person who has an evil eye ("ra ayin") chases after wealth." "One who does a mitzvah acquires one advocate. The good angels. go before the Divine Throne and lobby on the person's behalf.Yeshiva Etz Chaim. an impure angel is created who attempts to harm the person.
inner. Letters of Light http://www.".htm 13 .org Rabbi Aaron Raskin. R' Yosef Karo had undertaken a special study of the Mishnah.NOTES FOR TEACHER OR PARENT Age group – 12 years and up Objective of this lesson: Appreciate math in the Parsha Introduction to concepts within Judaism of 400 and the letter TAV Tav is the last letter of the alephbais It is also the last letter of the account of Creation Tav represents rectification It is the last letter of Emes.org/library/article_cdo/aid/137068/jewish/Letters-of-Light.chabad. and. the seal of truth OTHER 400’S • Years of “Egyptian” Exile • Men that went with King Dovid to fight Amalek • קשstraw (not given to the Jews in Egypt at crucial beginning of Moshe’s mission) ע מ ל ש ק ר צ מ צ ר י ם An example of the creation of an angel by one’s acts. this angel began to speak to him on a regular basis. R' Yosef Karo z"l (author of the Shulchan Aruch) was regularly visited by an angel who identified himself as "The Mishnah. For more information on the meaning of Hebrew letters: Rabbi Ginsburgh The Inner Dimension www. after a time.
all 20 “fingers” (10 faculties of the G-dly soul and the 10 faculties of the “animal” soul) of the two hands are united (appearing as if one hand). i.the place in the body where potential is actualized. Thus. the full value of a shekel. The Gemara (Menachos 93b) derives the concept of s’micha (placing of one’s hands) is done in such a way that one’s hands appear to be a single hand. This awareness is reflected in the custom of placing one palm on the other upon awakening (placing two hands together to reflect one). FIND THE HEBREW WORDS IN THE BOX ON THE LEFT FOR THE SIX UNDERLINED ENGLISH WORDS LISTED ON THE RIGHT ש כ ח י ס ו כ ה ל Twenty pieces of silver for which Yosef's brothers sold him.e. When our spiritual soul directs our physical activities. ר כ ף ס The twenty years Yaacov worked for Laban. the age to become a soldier and pursue a livelihood. 14 . ת ס ה ב Twenty years. Dalet=4. The ritual of confessing and then sending the he-goat into the wilderness and throwing it off the cliff reflects the potential of atonement for the Jews The numerical value of ידוis 20 (Yud=10. upon awakening before reciting the Modeh Ani prayer. are initial action for the day reflects our daily understanding that our mission involves actively actualizing our potential. the maximum height of a כ ק י ע Sukkah. Twenty cubits. symbolizing the union of two half-shekels. כ כ ל ק Twenty gerah. Vav=6). one places one hand directly atop of the other hand. KAF (numerical value 20) The Power to Actualize Potential The literal meaning of the letter kaf is "palm" .-ויקרא פרק טז כא ו ְסמך ְ אהֲרן את-שתי )י ָדו( ]י ָדיו[ על ַ ָ ָ ֵ ְ ֶ ֹ ַ ָ ראש הַשעיר הַחי ו ְהִתְו ַדה עליו את-כל-עונת בְני ישר ָאל ֵ ְ ֵ ֹ ֲ ָ ֶ ָ ָ ָ ַ ִ ָּ ֹ Aaron the High Priest placed his hand(s) upon its head and confessed all the sins of the Jewish People. The verse is written “ ידוhis hand” and is read “ ידיוhis hands”. The twenty sefirot of the two countenances of the crown.
) are expressed in a spiritual fashion of Torah & Mitzvos. Letters of Light http://www.org Rabbi Aaron Raskin. Everyone has a G-dly soul and an animal soul. The ten figures of the two hands allude to the 10 faculties of one spiritual soul influencing the 10 faculties of the animal soul.htm www.inner. For more information on the meaning of Hebrew letters: Rabbi Ginsburgh The Inner Dimension www. drinking. are the initial letters of the two Hebrew words: koach ("potential") and poel ("actual"). the word itself kaf hints at the power latent within the spiritual realm of the potential to fully manifest itself in the physical realm of the action.parshapages. etc.com 15 . The two letters of the full spelling of the word kaf.org/library/article_cdo/aid/137068/jewish/Letters-of-Light. the activities of one’s animal soul (eating.NOTES FOR TEACHER OR PARENT Age group – 12 years and up Objective of this lesson: Appreciate math in the Parsha Introduction to concepts within Judaism of 20 and the letter KAF ANSWER SHEET ס ו כ ה י ע ק ב ח י ל ף ש ק ס כ ת ר Chassidus teaches that a person places both hands on the sacrifice to connect to the animal. Thus. Thus.chabad.
ויקרא פרק יט ט ובְקצ ְר ְכם את-קציר אר ְצ ְכם לא תְכ ַלה ֶ ֹ ֶ ִ ְ ֶ ֶ ֻ פאת שדך ָ ל ִקצר ו ְל ֶקט קציר ְך ָ לא תְל ַקט ֵ ֹ ִ ְ ֶ ֹ ְ ְ ָ ְ When you reap the harvest of our land. . Dream is one-sixtieth of prophecy. The experience of being supported by God at all times Welfare: support and encouragement." and Kof-Mem – “and with the harvest. you should not fully reap the corner of your field. not should you gather the individual stalks of your harvest (that have fallen) The mishnoh Pei'oh 1:2 says that a 1/60th portion of the produce of the field should be left over as "pei'oh" (a form of charity) This law is alluded to in the word of above verse. Sixty letters in the Priestly Blessing. The law of nullification. FIND THE HEBREW WORDS IN THE BOX ON THE LEFT FOR THE SEVEN UNDERLINED ENGLISH WORDS LISTED ON THE RIGHT ג ו ס מ ו ס מ ב ח ל ו ם ס ז ר כ ה ס כ ה נ י ם ו ת ך מ ו ם ש ו ש ב ת ס נ ת פ ס ו ה ה Shabbos is one-sixtieth of the World to Come. rely on. Sixty guards for King Shlomo (see Kri’at Shema at bedtime) 16 . Leave a 60th over. construct form (in grammar) Offering oneself to God (semichah). Sixty tractates in the Oral Torah Sleep is one-sixtieth of death. Another allusion: (Baal Haturim) פאת שדךhas the same numerical value as ( הפיאה אחד מששיםPeah one from sixty) Samech (numerical value 60) To support. Sixty Queens in the Song of Songs. ordination. Kof-Mem = 60. Numerical symbol of an all inclusive state. One can split ובקצרכםit into two parts: "u'viktzor. (since this should be left for the poor). 1:60.
" This realization and awareness of inherent unity between beginning and end." In our service of God." For more information on the meaning of Hebrew letters: Rabbi Ginsburgh The Inner Dimension www.org/library/article_cdo/aid/137068/jewish/Letters-of-Light. Letters of Light http://www. all things should be related to and accepted equally. implies equanimity at all stages of "the endless cycle. when comprehended in depth.chabad. which encompasses equally every point of reality. This is the attribute of equanimity as taught by the Ba'al Shem Tov. which. in interpretation of the verse: "I place [shiviti.inner. This ever-present Transcendent Light is referred to as "He is equal and equalizes small and large. from the root shaveh." is in fact the manifestation of God's Transcendent Light (sovev kol almin).org Rabbi Aaron Raskin. 'equal'] God before me always.NOTES FOR TEACHER OR PARENT Age group – 12 years and up Objective of this lesson: Appreciate math in the Parsha Introduction to concepts within Judaism of 60 and the letter SAMECH ANSWER SHEET מ ר כ ו ם ש נ ה ג ס ת ת מ ב ח ל ו ם כ ה נ י ם ו ש ב ת SAMECH The Endless Cycle T he circular form of the samech symbolizes the fundamental truth reflected at all levels of Torah and reality: "their end is enwedged in their beginning and their beginning in their end.htm 17 . this implies that in relation to worldly phenomena.
but totally dedicated to one’s connection with G-d Can you name the seventh Holy day? Seven festivals represent the seven aspects of the formation of the spiritual world.These are My Holidays )אלה הם מועדי )כג:ב Six Days )ששת ימים )כג:ג Six Days one can only doing work for the sake of “Ochel Nefesh”. just as the seven days of the week represent the seven stages of the creation of the physical world 18 . one’s material existence Thus the six days are reference to the six Holy days in the Torah Can you name the six days? HOLIDAY And the Seventh Day וביום שביעי No work is done.
Age group – 10 years and up Objective of this lesson: Appreciate math in the Parsha Introduction to concept connecting days of the week and the holidays ANSWERS HOLIDAY First day of Pesach Last day of Pesach שבועות ראש השנה סוכות שמיני עצרת יום הכיפור 19 .
Calculate the number of Shabbosos during the six years: Average yearly Shabbosos Number of non-Shmitah years Equals ______ X______ ________ II. One reason given for Shmitah. supplying minerals for the fruit and vegetables. is that the refraining form agricultural pursuits during the Shmitah year allows the land to make up for the growth on Shabbosos and Yomim Tovim during those six years I. Calculate the number of Yomim Tovim during the six years: Number of Annual Yomim Tovim according to the Torah Pesach Shavuos Rosh HaShana Yom HaKippur Sukkos Shmini Atzeres Number of non-Shmitah years Equals _______ X______ ________ .4) A total rest should be for the land During the six years of agricultural pursuits. people rest every seventh day and for Yomim Tovim (holidays). and aiding in their growth.first and last III.“Shabas Shaboson yi’h’yeh lo’oretz” (VaYikra 25. the land still does its thing. However. Add two numbers sums from above Equals one lunar year __________ 20 .
Calculate the number of Yomim Tovim during the six years: Number of Annual Yomim Tovim according to the Torah Pesach Shavuos Rosh HaShana Yom HaKippur Sukkos Shmini Atzeres Number of non-Shmitah years Equals __7_____ X__6____ ____42____ . Calculate the number of Shabbosos during the six years: Average yearly Shabbosos Number of non-Shmitah years Equals ___52___ X___6___ _____312___ II.first and last III.NOTES FOR TEACHER OR PARENT Age group – 12 years and up Objective of this lesson: Appreciate math in the Parsha Introduction to concepts within Judaism of Shmitah ANSWER SHEET I. Add two numbers sums from above Equals one lunar year ____354______ 21 .
Review Chapter 27 and complete the table below 2. determine the ratio between genders at each age group AGE GROUP ONE MONTH – 5 YEARS 5 YEARS – 20 YEARS 20 YEARS – 60 YEARS 60 YEARS AND OVER Apparent from the above Table. Then. 3. while an old woman brings blessing into the home (she is still useful). the ratio changes Gemara (Erchin 19a) “An old man is not very useful. Se Chizkuni Pirkei Avos (5:25) states that a male between 5 years and 20 years enters Torah study on different levels. assessing spiritual milestones at a higher rate. Find other reasons for the change in ratios MEN WOMEN RATIO 22 .RATIOS ERCHIN ערכין VaYikra 27 Vow to donate money to the Bais HaMikdash based on valuation of another person Different valuations based on age and gender 1.
many have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio. cube. the tetrahedron. book design. Euclid (c. architecture. as translated into English. Edouard Lucas (1842–1891) gives the numerical sequence now known as the Fibonacci sequence its present name. some of which are related to the golden ratio. octahedron. music. 325–c. the first we may compare to a measure of gold.6180339887. which he called. in his Timaeus. The figure of a golden section illustrates the geometric relationship that defines this constant. "extreme and mean ratio" Fibonacci (1170–1250) mentioned the numerical series now named after him in his Liber Abaci.ANSWER SHEET AGE GROUP ONE MONTH – 5 YEARS 5 YEARS – 20 YEARS 20 YEARS – 60 YEARS 60 YEARS AND OVER MEN 5 SHEKELS 20 SHEKELS 50 SHEKELS 15 SHEKELS WOMEN 3 SHEKELS 10 SHEKELS 30 SHEKELS 10 SHEKELS RATIO 5:3 2:1 5:3 3:2 In mathematics. Martin Ohm (1792–1872) is believed to be the first to use the term goldener Schnitt (golden section) to describe this ratio. in 1835. Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) describes the golden ratio as a "precious jewel": "Geometry has two great treasures: one is the Theorem of Pythagoras. 23 . Timeline • • • • • • • • • Phidias (490–430 BC) made the Parthenon statues that seem to embody the golden ratio. and the other the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio. dodecahedron and icosahedron). 265 BC). Charles Bonnet (1720–1793) points out that in the spiral phyllotaxis of plants going clockwise and counter-clockwise were frequently two successive Fibonacci series. the Fibonacci sequence is closely related to the golden ratio. Expressed algebraically: The golden section is a line segment sectioned into two according to the golden ratio. painting. in his Elements. Plato (427–347 BC). gave the first recorded definition of the golden ratio. The total length a + b is to the longer segment a as a is to the shorter segment b. Luca Pacioli (1445–1517) defines the golden ratio as the "divine proportion" in his Divina Proportione. Many believe this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. The golden ratio is often denoted by the Greek letter Φ (phi)." These two treasures are combined in the Kepler triangle. approximately 1. describes five possible regular solids (the Platonic solids. Mathematicians have studied the golden ratio because of its unique and interesting properties. the second we may name a precious jewel. nature and more. The golden ratio is an irrational mathematical constant.
which led to new discoveries about quasicrystals. Roger Penrose (b.• • Mark Barr (20th century) suggests the Greek letter phi (φ). 24 .1931) discovered a symmetrical pattern that uses the golden ratio in the field of aperiodic tilings. as a symbol for the golden ratio. the initial letter of Greek sculptor Phidias's name.
Other Items Available for Download: Parsha Aides – Creative ways to understand the Parsha Bereshis Shmos VaYikra BeMidbar Devarim Math in the Parsha – Presentation of Math concepts in the Parsha by description and Quiz Bereshis Shmos VaYikra BeMidbar Devarim Holidays Parsha WordSearch – Word Search using Hebrew words from the Parsha with a bonus question Bereshis Shmos VaYikra BeMidbar Devarim Holidays Parsha Sudoku – two levels of Sudoku using Hebrew words from the Parsha Bereshis Shmos VaYikra BeMidbar Devarim Holidays Parsha Math – puzzle using numeric values of Hebrew words from the Parsha Bereshis Shmos VaYikra BeMidbar Devarim Holidays Lekutei Sichos – Q&A. Overview and Abstract of published essays of the Lubavitcher Rebbe Bereshis Shmos VaYikra BeMidbar Devarim Holidays 25 .