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Standards & Measurements
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Paper Standards & Measurements Content l Introduction ll Paper Specification ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ Basis weight Thickness / Caliper Specific volume Relative humidity 3 Vl Absorption ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ Water absorption Cobb Oil absorption Cobb-Unger Ink absorption / Set-off Water absorption – Drop test (Prüfbau) Ink repellence – IGT Contact angle measurement Penetration Dynamic Analyzer (PDA) 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 4 4 4 4 4 III Optical Properties ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ Gloss ISO-Brightness CIE-Whiteness Shade (colour) Opacity Metamerism Fluorescence Yellowing 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 VlI Others ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ pH value Ash content Mottle test Ink rub resistance Cracking test 13 13 13 13 14 14 VIIl List of Standards and Measures IX Concluding remarks X Table of recommended units XI Table of conversion factors 15 IV Surface Properties ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ PPS roughness Smoothness Surface roughness (laser profile) Picking resistance IGT Prüfbau 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 16 17 18 V Strengths ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ ˿ Tensile strength and breaking length Elongation (stretch at break) Tearing resistance Residual strength Bursting strength Stiffness (rigidity) Scott Bond Blister test 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 1 .
Therefore some overlaps cannot be avoided. so that the emphasis in the requirements of the paper becomes clear.l Introduction This brochure is a small summary of the very extensive publications of DIN and ISO standards. It has been produced to help explain the most important standards and units without complicated mathematical formulas and with simple words. 3 . The paper properties are arranged into different groups.
A specification is necessary. This is the thickness to which the basis weight of 100 g/m2 refers. Because of the compressibility and the inhomogeneity several measurements have to be carried out and the results averaged. Relative humidity Basis weight ISO 536 Tappi 502 The weight in g/m2 is understood by the basis weight of a paper under conditioned circumstances. The measured values are indicated with their tolerances. To compare the thickness of papers with different basis weights. Discussions with the customer or consumer are the correct way to co-ordinate the requirements of the paper and the possibilities in paper production. which the paper has to fulfill. These can request or with your personal partner receive you at any time in the Internet. since this shows the requirements of the customer and forms the basis. one must know the intended purpose and the requirements of the paper. Specific volume ISO 534 The thickness is expressed in micrometers (µm). fillers. that always the same paper is supplied. process materials and water. The entire mass is the sum of fibrous materials. at a certain temperature is actually in the air (i.ll Paper Specification A paper specification is a list of characteristics with appropriate measured values. The thickness of a paper is dependent on grammage and specific volume. L&W Micrometer 4 . The relative humidity indicates how many percent of the maximum possible water vapour portion. In order to come to a specification. the specific volume is used. in so-called Datasheets are listed. This calculation is carried out according to the formula: Thickness (µm) divided by the basis weight is the specific volume (cm3/g). The picture above shows the most important optical and physical characteristics. Thickness / Caliper ISO 534 The thickness of a paper is measured between two even plates. which are adjustable with a defined pressure. between the sheets of a stack or the windings of a reel).e.
The higher the brightness value. In order to be able to manufacture paper with the right optical properties. L&W Gloss Tester 5 . D65-brightness under D65 light and brightness with fluorescence eliminated. incidental and reflection angles of 75. Colour printed on bright white underground results in another impression than printed on other white undergrounds. Whiteness and shade of the paper do not have direct influence on the printability but have an influence on the printed result. Gloss ISO 8254-1 (DIN) ISO 8254-2 (Tappi) A calendered. A specific geometry and angle is used. The ISO12647-2 standard used for the colour management in the graphic arts industry provides a colour-correct reproduction with the consideration of the paper type. The following gloss standards are common: DIN 45° or 75° and Tappi 75° or 20°. DIN standard and/or low angle are used for (ultra) high gloss levels. the brighter the paper is. The gloss makes paper look elegant and the property is therefore important for advertising print. Papers with optical whitening agents show a peak in the blue reflection. pulp and coating raw materials. The optical characteristics of the paper are affected by the measurement of reflection. The appearance of the paper is of course important when it is sold. This addition of blue reflection causes the sample to appear whiter to the observer and gives higher ISO-brightness and D65-brightness values. absorption or transmission of light which strikes a sheet of paper. coated or varnished paper has a high proportion of direct reflection. which is commonly called gloss. Gloss can also be measured on a printed area and is called print gloss. Gloss is an important characteristic in the production of coated papers. ISO-Brightness ISO 2470 The brightness is a measure for the reflection of blue light of the paper expressed in a percentage in comparison with an ultimate reference brightness standard (IR3 standard). its whiteness and its gloss. The ultraviolet energy level of the illumination must be adjusted using a fluorescent calibration standard.lII Optical Properties The first impression of a paper is its colour. Fixed optical geometries. based on paper quality and gloss level. paper technologists must have access to good measurement methods. Gloss is measured with special instruments where the sample is illuminated with parallel light at a certain incidental angle. are usually used. 60 or 20 degrees. There are three brightness values for fluorescent papers: ISO-brightness under C-light. but the optical properties are also important when the paper is printed on.
There are several different systems in use. the more opaque the paper is. Opacity ISO 2471 The opacity is a measurement for the light transparency degree of the paper. This occurs when parts of the incident light are reflected in other wavelengths. Most people consider that it increases when the material has a slightly blue tone. It is thus clear that whiteness in some way is an aspect of colour perception. paper which lets less light through is opaque. The impact of fluorescence is shown by the optical brighteners used in many papers as they convert UV light into visible light. expressed in a percentage in relation to the reflected light. Fluorescence If a colour becomes more optically intensive under a certain light source it is due to the effect of fluorescence. The degree of yellowing is expressed in a yellowing number. but most common for the paper industry is the CIE L* a* b*. The colour is described as blue. The higher the value. green. This occurs because the reflective/reflection curves of the metameric colours are not the same/alike over the whole spectrum. The colour can be described according to intensity and saturation. Shade (colour) ISO 5631 Shade of a paper is the colour of a paper. Colour measurements at specific time intervals describe the yellowing / discolouration. and that any measurement of whiteness must be based on colour management. Elrepho 6 . yellow or red or as a mixture of these colours. Degree of yellowing / discolouration of paper exposed to daylight or heat. after a specified period of time. Paper which lets a lot of light through is transparent.CIE-Whiteness ISO 2470 Yellowing DIN 6167 Whiteness is a subjectively perceived property. Metamerism Metamerism is the condition in which two colours can appear identical under certain light sources but exhibit clear differences in other light sources. A test piece is exposed for a specified time to UV light or heat.
speed. Beyond that. The higher the measured value is. PPS roughness ISO 8791-4 The geometric form of a paper surface is defined as deviation from the ideal dead level. WFC etc. Prüfbau 7 . The picking resistance can be determined according to different methods: IGT ISO 3783 The IGT and Prüfbau picking tests show rather good correlations with picking demands in the offset printing process. coating particles or whole surface areas can be pulled out. With this measurement it is possible to analyze defects of the paper surface related to the paper machine. The adjustable parameters such as pressure. Apart from the air flow measurement principles there is also the optical smoothness measurement according to FOGRA and IGT method for determination of print smoothness. Every component’s surface has some form of texture which varies according to its structure.). The more the surface approaches the ideal level. its surface determines the visual impression and the feel. the smoother the paper is. printing roller and time interval must be taken from the test provisions and be tuned with the respective type of paper and its application. Picking resistance The picking resistance of a paper is the strength of the paper surface (Z-direction). In the offset printing process there are forces on the paper surface caused by splitting of the ink (tack) and adhesion forces of the blankets. It is also possible to pre-wet the paper with fountain water to determine the wet pick. the “rougher” the paper surface is. the depth of the pores is measured by a defined circle. printing techniques. converting techniques and application determine the characteristics of the paper surface. Prüfbau With the Prüfbau-test special test inks or commercial inks can be used to perform a picking test. The principle of the test methods is to simulate as much as possible the print conditions. Individual fibers. Depending upon measuring technology either the time is measured in which a certain amount of air is used (Bekk and Gurley) or airspeed is measured under a constant pressure (Bendtsen or Sheffield). In case of the PPS roughness. Smoothness ISO 879/-2/3 und ISO 5627 Definition and measuring method are comparable with those used for roughness. The measuring method (PPS) is based on the measurement of the air leakage between the paper surface and an even measuring head. These surfaces can be broken down into three main categories: Surface roughness.IV Surface Properties Paper is a surface product. Surface roughness (laser profile) By use of a laser profile device it is possible to make a 3D topographical roughness profile of the paper surface. The selection of a combination of oil and speed is dependent on the kind of paper (LWC. Waviness and Form. With the IGT method oils with different viscosity are used in combination with accelerated speed.
Depending on the forces on the paper there are test methods. Elongation (stretch at break) ISO1924-2 The elongation at rupture defines the stretch of a paper in percentage (%) at the time of tearing in relation to the unloaded length. Tearing Tester Tensile strength and breaking length ISO 1924-2 Tearing resistance ISO 1974 The testing of the paper on tensile strength takes place via tear test under a defined increasing force. From the breaking force and elongation graph the elasticity module can be calculated. a paper which is produced as a sheet is subject usually to a tensile force in transverse direction. which is produced as a reel is subject to a tensile force in linear direction. The elongation at rupture is simultaneously measured with the breaking force. A paper. Tensile Tester 8 . the result is given as machine direction tearing resistance and similarly for the cross machine direction. freely suspended. The breaking length is the length of a strip of paper with a defined width. The strength is in many cases also important for the use of paper. which can objectively determine if the paper’s strength is sufficient for these demands (forces). The measured tensile strength value is the quotient of the force (N) at the moment of break and the width of the test strip. The breaking force (N) and the grammage are the basis for calculating the breaking length. when.V Strengths The strength of paper plays an important role during production but especially at converting of the paper. The tensile strength index is the quotient of the tensile strength and the grammage (g/m2) of the paper. If the initial slit is made in the machine direction. This elasticity module is related to the dimensional stability of the paper in different printing and converting processes. it tears due to its own weight. The mean force required to continue the tearing of an initial cut in a single sheet of paper is expressed as the internal tearing resistance.
such as choice of raw materials. creasing etc. quality and amount of filler and moisture content.).Residual strength FOGRA Residual strength is an important characteristic for web offset papers. Stiffness is defined as resistance against bending in the elastic area of the paper. Under standardized circumstances a paper is heated and folded. Directly afterwards the tensile strength of the test piece is determined. The extent of the bend follows the laws of mechanics. With this method the residual strength of the paper should be higher than a minimum value of 0. which means the paper is not damaged when stretched on the outside and compressed on the inside. A general method for residual strength is the FOGRA method. In web offset the paper is printed. The stiffness in machine direction and cross direction are the key factors. because it has substantial influence on the runability properties during the printing process and on the requirements for converting (folding. applied at right angles to its surface that a single sample piece can withstand under test conditions. During this process the paper should have a specific residual strength to prevent web breaks and breaks on the fold. Beside grammage and thickness there are other items which have influence on the stiffness. There are different methods available to determine the stiffness but the most used method in the paper industry is the 2-points load method. Bursting strength ISO 2758 Bursting Strength Tester The bursting strength is expressed as the maximum uniformly distributed pressure. With this method the force needed to bend a rectangular test piece to a specified angle is measured. Stiffness (rigidity) ISO 5628 The stiffness is an important characteristic of the paper. The Burst index is the bursting strength divided by the grammage. refining degree of the fibers.67 kN/m. heated and folded. 9 .
Scott-Bond ZDT Tappi T 569 Tappi T 541 Internal bond strength (paper’s strength in its thickness direction) is an important characteristic during printing and converting processes. Blistering can occur if the temperature is too high. The Z-directional tensile and Scott Bond tests are different methods. paper machine settings and choice of additives. Papers used for HSWO should show no blistering at a temperature of 160–170°C or 340-360°F. The Scott Bond method measures the energy needed to split the sample at a speed several thousand times higher. blistering. the internal bond too low or the vapour permeability too low. The paper’s ability to withstand these forces depends on factors such as choice of pulp. The ZD-tensile measures the maximum force to split the sample at a low standardized test speed perpendicular to the test surface. Printed areas with a high coverage of ink (300–400%) are more sensitive for blistering. degree of beating and refining. just as happens in the drying section of the HSWO printing press. Internal bond is related to several phenomena during printing and converting such as delaminating. creasability etc. The paper is put in an oil bath with a specific temperature and the water located in the paper evaporates. Internal bond strength is the maximum load that single ply or multiple paper or boxboard can withstand when loaded with a force directed at right angles to the surface of the sample material. 10 . Scott-Bond Tester Blister test With the Blister test the drying section of a HSWO printing press is simulated. The blister oil test has proven to be a good test to determine the blister resistance in practice.
which is taken up by the paper within a specific time. Water absorption Cobb ISO 535 Dependent on the intended purpose.Vl Absorption Types of paper for offset printing should have a certain absorption to give the ink a good adhesion and to store the fountain water (temporarily). if the paper is not fully soaked through with water. The shorter the time from high ink transfer to no ink transfer of the counter sheet the faster the set-off. For the offset process this property is very important. Oil absorption Cobb-Unger FOGRA The Cobb test can also be used for the measurement of oil absorption instead of water and is called the Cobb-Unger. The Cobb test gives only reliable values. With the ink swimming test the measure of gluing is likewise tested. The density of the transferred ink of each area on the counter sheet is measured and plotted against time. The absorption level should not be so high that printing ink and fountain water show through the paper. A sample is printed with a standard ink. The ink density in the pre-wetted area is expressed as a percentage of the ink density in the dry printed area. different measuring methods for the determination of the water absorption ability were developed. Both testing methods are limited to printing and writing papers. the lower is the ink repellence of the paper. Water absorption – Drop test (Prüfbau) The drop test is carried out using the Prüfbau printing machine. A drop of a defined Isopropylalcohol solution is applied to the paper sample by means of a micro-pipette and the paper is immediately printed with an ink. The ink densities in the pre-wetted and dry printed areas are measured. The water absorption is determined by measuring the amount of water. An old method is with the help of a pulling feather/spring to apply a coloured ink on the paper with a specific increasing width and observe if the ink spreads out or shows through. The higher the value. may result in a reduction of the dry ink properties. After several time intervals. Cobb Sizing Tester 11 . Ink absorption / Set-off The set-off of paper describes the absorption of ink on the paper. may result in smearing because the ink does not dry fast enough. a part of the printed sample is countered against a blank counter sheet of the same paper (top on bottom in order to simulate a pile). An absorption which is too fast. The set-off of paper can be measured with a test printing machine like Prüfbau or IGT. For papers which are printed in offset the absorption is often determined with the Cobb test. The speed of absorption is determined by the time that the ink needs to penetrate into the paper. An absorption which is too slow. The absorption is an important property of the paper during the printing process and is a crucial factor for paper-ink-fountain water interaction studies.
The printing densities of the solid area (dry printing) and the pre-wetted area are measured. an angle is formed at the point of contact between droplet and solid. In most cases where a liquid droplet is applied to a solid material. There is a time interval of 0. the lower is the ink repellence of the paper. The second section of the paper strip is printed after dampening and is designated as the first interval. it is radiated in the Z-direction with high-frequency low-energy ultrasonic signals. Dampening is performed using an engraved steel roller dampened with fountain solution. the so called wettability angle or contact angle. coating colours or chemicals like glue and ink with the aim of predicting printability. These signals are received by a highly sensitive sensor before they are processed in the device and transmitted to a personal computer.Ink repellence – IGT If the flow rate of fountain solution is high and/or the paper has poor water-absorbing characteristics. oils. The mean value of the dampening interval is expressed as a percentage of the mean value of the solid area. This contact angle is an indication of the wetting performance of liquids applied to solids.05 seconds between wetting and printing. Contact angle measurements and wetting studies can be performed using an automated contact angle tester. which liquid it concerns. the film of fountain solution on the surface of the paper results in repulsion of the ink in the following printing unit. The printing unit of the IGT tester is situated below the dampening unit. solid areas can show an uneven printout. glueability and ability for coating. Drop test: Paper with a good water absorption Drop test: Paper with a bad water absorption 12 . Many printing inks. because the liquid could penetrate rapidly into the pores of the paper. The main advantage of this method compared to other methods is that the penetration dynamics can be tracked in real time with millisecond time resolution. paraffins and similar products have rather a low surface tension and are spreading immediately on the paper surface. From the moment of liquid contact. Penetration Dynamic Analyzer (PDA) With this test it is possible to measure process relevant parameters of paper. Contact angle measurement Tappi-558 With determination of the absorptive capacity of paper for liquid it is necessary to define clearly. which allows the first section of the paper strip to be printed dry. A paper sample is brought into contact with liquid in a measuring cell. The ink repellence test is carried out using the IGT test-printing machine. The higher these values are. This contact angle must be determined immediately. how long the time of contact will be and under which conditions the test is implemented. Depending on the extent of the repulsion.
Vll Others pH value ISO 6588 There can be three kinds of mottle: Backtrap mottle Ink applied to paper surface on a preceding printing unit of a multi-colour press will split onto the blanket in a subsequent unit and then be re-deposited onto the next sheet. This backtrap mottle can be simulated on a test printing machine by printing the paper and countering the paper in pre-defined times against a clean blanket reel. construction of printing press. Fillers have an important influence on the paper quality (for instance opacity) and are dosed with care depending on the application of the paper. The ash content is the total of inorganic material. kaolin etc. If this occurs unevenly.g. A mottled print can result. 13 . This effect can occur in one colour printing and even in case of perfectly formed dots of equal density (optical effect). rubber blanket and fountain water. paper or printing press. if possible. Water interference mottle Water transferred to paper surface on a preceding printing unit of a multi-colour press should be absorbed by the coating before it reaches a subsequent printing unit. Values below 7 refer to “increasingly acid”. in the paper (including filler). like carbonate. mostly in solid areas: small dark and light areas in the surface of paper (board) caused by ink. ink. The level of screen mottle can be evaluated visually or with help of image analysis. next to the neutral area or in the slightly alkaline range to have ideal requirements for printing and further treatment. If it is not absorbed it will prevent even transfer of the ink. Papers should be close to. colour sequence. The measuring value 7 marks the neutral point which corresponds to distilled water. The method IGT ink repellence (see chapter VI Absorption) is used to test this phenomenon. Midtone mottle (screen mottle) This is an uneven print in 30–60% screens. Mottle is influenced by many parameters: e. speed. Mottle test Mottling is the uneven print appearance. Ash content ISO 2144 The ash content is the remaining residue as percentage of dry paper after ignition at 900°C. Midtone mottle can be evaluated by printing a screen with the test printing machine or with help of a plastic screen which is put on top of the paper. Variations in the surface characteristics such as absorption and smoothness play an important role regarding mottle and are caused by the production process and the components within the paper. the print can become mottled. The pH values are indicated on a scale from 0 to 14. values above 7 stand for “increasingly alkaline”. caused by differences in the scattering and absorption behaviour of base paper and/or coating. The pH value in the data sheets defines the pH value of the surface.
Ink rub resistance can be determined with the Prüfbau ink rub tester. whereas papers equal or above 170g/m2 are creased before folding.Ink rub resistance Prüfbau Rubbing is the effect of repeated relative shifting of two touching surfaces under a certain amount of pressure. During converting when the paper is folded. 14 . Cracking test DIN 55437 After the printing process the paper is mostly converted to brochures. The measure of resistance of a printed material to this rubbing effect is known as ink rub resistance. The creasability of a paper is tested with a special machine. Papers below 170g/m2 are directly folded. Papers that can only be creased without showing faults within a small range have a bad creasability level. have a good creasability level. Fold is visually evaluated for cracking. 48 hours after printing the ink rub resistance is visually evaluated. cracking of the coating can occur at the folds. which has a creasing knife and different rules. maps etc. It is also possible to evaluate the ink rub resistance with a spectrophotometer or with image analysis. books. Folding can be carried out with the Fogra folding tester. Papers which can be creased within a wide range (combinations depths and widths) without showing faults.
Vlll List of Standards and Measures Selection of ISO/DIN/TAPPI and FOGRA test methods Unit Paper Specification Basis weight Thickness / Caliper Specific volume Relative humidity Optical Properties Gloss ISO-Brightness CIE-Whiteness Shade Opacity Metamerism Fluorescent Yellowing Surface Properties Roughness PPS Smoothness Bekk Surface roughness (laser profile) Picking resistance IGT Prüfbau Strengths Tensile strength and breaking length Elongation Tear resistance Residual strength Bursting strength Stiffness Scott Bond / ZD Tensile Blister test Absorption Water absorption Cobb Oil absorption Cobb-Unger Ink absorption / set-off test (Prüfbau) Water absorption (Drop test) Ink repellence – IGT Contact angle measurement Penetration Dynamic Analyzer Others pH-Value Ash content Mottle test Ink rub resistance Cracking test g/m2 µm cm2/g % Europe ISO 536 ISO 534 ISO 534 Tappi 502 US Tappi T 410 Tappi T 411 Tappi T 500 Tappi T 502 % % % ISO 8254 – 1 and 2 ISO 2470 ISO 11475 ISO 5631 ISO 2471 Tappi T 480 Tappi T 452 Tappi T 562 Tappi T 524 or T 527 Tappi T 425 DIN 6167 µm sec.m J/m2 – kPa ° ISO 1924-2 ISO 1924-2 ISO 1974 FOGRA ISO 2758 ISO 5628 Tappi T 569 – Tappi T 541 Tappi T 494 Tappi T 494 Tappi T 414 Tappi T 403 Tappi T 556 Tappi T 569 – Tappi T 541 Tappi T 526 g/m2 g/m2 ISO 535 FOGRA Tappi T 441 Tappi T 558 Tappi T 558 % ISO 6588 ISO 2144 Tappi T 509 Tappi T 211 and T 413 DIN 55437 15 . ISO 8791-4 ISO 8791-2/3 and ISO 5627 Tappi T 555 Tappi T 479 ISO 3783 Tappi T 514 kN/m – km % mN kN/m kPa mN.
regardless of the legal basis. All liability for losses associated with suggestions given in this brochure is excluded. Maurice van Duuren 16 . We would like to take this opportunity to thank the following company for their support and assistance Lorentzen & Wettre 16493 KISTA. closely linked with practice and with practical experience. Schweden All statements and information are correct to the best of our knowledge. All rights reserved © 2007 by Sappi Europe SA Imprint Sappi Fine Paper Europe Text and Editing: Herrmann Nax. The right is reserved to make technical changes to our grades in the course of further development.lX Concluding remarks The contents of this brochure result from extensive research work.
Bendtsen Saleable mass Surface resistivity Smoothness. Recommended units are from the International Standard. double folds Folding endurance Fracture toughness Fracture toughness index Friction Gloss Grammage Hygroexpansivity Ink absorbency “K and N” Light absorption coefficient Light absorbing power Recommended unit or method of expression kN/m µm/(Pa s) s g/cm 3 Property Light scattering power Light scattering oefficient Moisture content or dry matter content Opacity Picking velocity. Bekk Static bending force Stock concentration Stretch at break Swelling after water immersion Tear index Tearing strength Tensile index Tensile energy absorption Recommended unit or method of expression numerical value m2/kg % (mass/mass) % m/s J. N % % % mNm2/g N N m/g J/m2 g/cm3 % (mass/mass) µm. mNm.mm numerical value Qm g/m2 g/m2 % mm g (m2 d) kN/m2 numerical value 17 . ISO 5651. Property Adhesion on strength of glue bonds of corrugated fiberboard Air permeance Air resistance (Gurley) Apparent bulk density Apparent sheet density Ash Bending stiffness Bending stiffness index Box compression resistance BCT Breaking length Bulking thickness Burst energy absorption Burst index Bursting strength Compression resistance SCT Compression resistance SCT index Conductivity of extracts Dimensional change after immersion in water Dirt and shives in pulps Drainability of pulp –"CSF" and Schopper-Riegler Edgewise crush resistance Electric strength Flat compression resistance Flat crush resistance FCT (corrugated board) Flat crush resistance of laboratory fluted corrugated medium Fold number. Nm Nm7/kg3 kN km µm Jlm2 kPa m2/g kPa kN/m kNm/kg mS/m % 102 (number of specks)/kg numerical value kN/m kV/mm kPa kPa N numerical value log10 (number of folds) J/m Jm/kg coefficient N/N % or numerical value g/m2 % “K and N” units m /kg 2 Tensile stiffness Tensile stiffness index Tensile stiffness orientation (polar angle) Tensile strength Tensile toughness index Tensile toughness Thickness Transmission (optical) density Volume resistivity Water absorbency – area basis – mass basis – capillary rise Water vapour transmission rate z-direction strength properties N/m Nm/kg ° (degree with decimal sub-divisions) kN/m Jm/kg J/m µm. d kN/m µm ml/min kg Ohm s mN. d min. kJ % numerical value min. IGT Puncture resistance Reflectance factor Reflection (optical) density Resistance to water penetration Resistance to grease penetration Ring crush Roughness. Print-surf Roughness. h.X Table of recommended units We hope this list of most frequently referred units and properties within this catalogue will be a useful tool for all who are involved in the pulp and paper field. h.
69901 0.326 4.0775 I I m3/d I/min m3/s m3/s g/m2 1.4 6.68452 kW MJ 6.60934 2.34952 29.355818 2.1268 0.222 4.413 29.3090 x 10-5 0.24884 0.448222 0.38609 SI-unit kN/m 1.589988 25.29655 47.894757 6.31685 1.) oz (US fluid) ozf ozf/in oz/gal (US) P psi T ton (short) ton (short)/l 00 ft2 y yd yd2 yd3 yd3/s Faktor 0.08 0.9071847 0.6275 27.278014 10.1868 x 103 kJ W W/(m·K) W/(m2·K) J/g J/(kg·K) 28.7645549 m m2 m3 m3/s 18 .88026 16.3048 28.83612736 0.785412 4.3048 0.1129848 0.4801 kg mN N Nm kPa N/m kN/m kN/m2 kPa N·m Pa kN/m Pa·s kg/m3 g/m2 g/m2 Mg/m3 kg/l g/m2 g/m2 g/m2 3.38638 3.7597 1.4535924 4448.489152 g ml N N/m g/l 0.01846 4.1129848 175.1751268 6.4516 16.00378541 3.2 °F) ft ft2 ft3 ft/min ft/min ft3/min ft/s ft3/s ft·lbf ft·lbf/in2 ft·lbf/ft2 ft·lbf/s G gal(US) gal(lmp) gal(US)/d gal(US)/min gal(lmp)/min gal(US)/min grains/yd2 H hp (550 ft-lbf/s) hp·h I in in2 in3 inHg (32 °F) inHg (60 °F) inH20 (60 °F) in·lbf in·lbf in·lbf/in2 in·ozf Faktor 4046.Xl Table of conversion factors Most of the world has accepted the International System of “Units-Systeme International d’Unités” (SI) as the standard system for measurement.35582 cm3 cm3 kPa m m2 m3 mm/s m/s m3/h m/s l/s J kJ/m2 J/m2 W 0.574 2.09290304 0. We trust that this guide will be useful when converting between different units (FPS foot-pound-seconds and SI units).546092 0.88026 0.37685 0. 25 x 38–500 M mi mi2 mil (0.1198264 3.6275 1.86 Sl-unit m2 FPS unit K Kgf/in L Ib Ibf Ibf Ibf·in Ibf/in2 Ibf/in Ibf/in Ibf/in2 Ibf/in2 Ibf·ft Ibf/ft2 Ibf/15 mm Ibf·s/ft2 Ibf/ft3 Ib/1000 ft2 Ib/3000 ft2 Ib/in3 Ib/gal (US) Ib/ream. 17 x 22–500 Ib/ream.7457 2.00508 1.1268 7.894757 1.5768 x 10-5 6.02831685 5.29307 1. OF) Btu/lb Btu/(lb·oF) F fl oz (Imp) fl oz (US) ft H20 (39.092903 tonnes(t) t/m2 0. Test methods and standards require SI units as the primary reporting value. FPS unit A acres B Btu (IT) Btu/h Btu/(h·ft·oF) Btu/(h.001 in) O oz (avoir.894757 175.98898 0.055056 0.9144 0.57353 0.1015 14.0254 km km2 IJm mm 28.6783 2.4 0.5939 1.1129848 6.785412 7.7307 5.061552 mm cm2 cm3 kPa kPa kPa N·m J J/m2 mJ 0.894757 kPa 25.35582 47.38706 3.6799 0.8824 1.7645549 0.001 in) mil (0.945 7. 24 x 36–500 Ib/ream.ft2 .
PROCESSING MATT PAPERS ON-PRESS TROUBLESHOOTING FOLDING AND CREASING CLIMATE AND PAPER MOTTLINGMOTTLED IMPRESSION THE PAPER MAKING PROCESS PAPER.com/KnowledgeBank sappi The word for fine paper .Paper Standards & Measurements is one in a series of Sappi’s technical brochures.sappi. we share our paper knowledge with our customers so that they can be the best they can be. INK AND PRESS CHEMISTRY ADHESIVE TECHNIQUES THE PRINTING PROCESS For comprehensive technical information www. Through them.
2007 Sappi Europe SA www.com Sappi Fine Paper Europe Sappi Europe SA 154 Chausseé de la Hulpe B-1170 Brussels Tel.sappi. Text HannoArt Gloss 150 g/m2.Cover HannoArt Gloss 250 g/m2. + 32 (0) 676 97 00 Fax + 32 (0) 676 96 60 sappi The word for fine paper .
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