Income, Poverty, and

Health Insurance Coverage in
the United States: 2008

Issued September 2009

P60-236

2 63,,6
1.4
1.6

17
7.1

0.6

12.6
C
on
ns
Consumer

1

By
26,160 64
Carmen DeNavas-Walt
Bernadette D. Proctor
,53
30 26,691
Jessica C. Smith

Current Population Reports
Income

49 41,25
59 26,89
9

9.2

1.2

0

7.5

1.1

1.0
0 1

7.6

1.3 * 1.1 11.8

6.7

1.9 * 1.5
5

9

59,925 40,89
98 27,,0
8,97
79 57,555 40,20
07 2

9.2 0.7

0.9

0.7
7 10.0

1.0 10.1

1.5

1.2
2 12.7

1.2 11.4

.4

1.0
0

9.0 1.0

6 * 1.2
2 13.2

,421
1 19
9,89
90 57,7
783 38,78
89
35,316
6 20
0,53
38 58,155 39,79
9

1.3
3

37,335
5 21,97
77 58,865 39,,8

9.2

1.1

1.3 12.7

1.4
4

1

37,773
3 22
2,42
25 59,369 39

1

37,913
3 22
2,56
61 59,506

0.8

8.1

0.9
9

0.9
9

8.0 1.0

6.7

1.0
0

0.9
9

9.8 1.1

9.8

1.2
2

1

8.0 1.0

8.1

1.1

10.4

1.1 10.2

1.2
2

1

39,750
0 23
3,35
55 58

5.6

1.3 15.2

1.4
4

1

39,479
9 23
3,22
21

0.7
7 15.2

39,923
3 23
3,10
00 57,86
61
41,195
5 23
3,33
30 56,,6

9 27,,779 71,6
61

1.2

1.0 18.8

1.7

792
2 27,,798 69,8
85

1.7
7

1.3 14.1

0.7 1

9,843
3 28,,203 70,7
78
39
9,143
3 27,,995 71,5
52
6 38
8,900
0 27,,995 71,9
96
861 38
8,768
8 27,,691 71,4
42
6,633 38
8,531
1 28,,421 73,7
76

1.9
9 * 1.4 12.9

1.0 13
3

0.7
7 * 0.6 12.4

1.2 11
1.7

1.2

0.9 10.8

0.8 11
1.0

1.1

1.0 14.3

1.3 13
3.9

1.3 * 1.1 11.8

1.2 11
1.7

1.9
9 * 1.5
0.9

58,754 39
9,521
1 29,,309 74,16
1 58,818 40
0,906
6 29,,931 73 1

9.2 0.7

1.

9.0

0.7

0.7 10.0

1.0 10
0.1

1.2

1.2 12.7

1.2 11
1.4

1.3

9.0 1.0

702 60,193 41,249
9 29,,829

2

3,70
08 58,922 40
0,861
1
24,66
61 59,441 40
0
24,47
74 56,63
23,82
20

13

9.2

1.1

9.6

1.3 12
2.7

1.4

13.8

8 15.4

0.9

15.2

7

1.0

9.1

1.3

2

9.9

1.3

81

1.2

1

1.4
4

0,2
213 2

1

39

USCENSUSBUREAU

U.S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

Helping You Make Informed Decisions

Acknowledgments

Carmen DeNavas-Walt, with the assistance of Lillian R. Pecoraro
and Lindsey C. Reese, prepared the income section of this report
under the direction of Edward J. Welniak Jr., Chief of the Income
Surveys Branch. Bernadette D. Proctor prepared the poverty section
and Jessica C. Smith prepared the health insurance coverage
section, both under the direction of Trudi J. Renwick, Acting Chief
of the Poverty and Health Statistics Branch. Charles T. Nelson,
Assistant Division Chief for Income, Poverty, and Health Statistics,
Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, provided
overall direction.
George M. Mitcham and Tim J. Marshall, under the direction
of Adelle D. Berlinger and Gregory D. Weyland, Demographic
Surveys Division, processed the Current Population Survey 2009
Annual Social and Economic Supplement file. Donna K. Benton,
Kirk E. Davis, Thy K. Le, and Hung Pham, all of the Survey
Processing Branch, programmed and produced the detailed and
publication tables.
Danielle N. Castelo, Rebecca A. Hoop, and Michael E. White,
under the supervision of David V. Hornick, Kimball T. Jonas,
and John M. Finamore, all of the Demographic Statistical Methods
Division, conducted sample review. Thomas F. Moore III, Chief
of the Health Surveys and Supplements Branch, provided overall
direction.
Shannon M. Burnett, Tim J. Marshall, and Catherine M. Walker,
under the direction of Lisa A. Clement, Demographic Surveys
Division, and Agatha Jung under the direction of Leslie Fleet,
Technologies Management Office, prepared and programmed the
computer-assisted interviewing instrument used to conduct the
Annual Social and Economic Supplement.
Additional people within the U.S. Census Bureau also made
significant contributions to the preparation of this report. Barton
Baker, David M. Getz, John Hisnanick, Len Norry, Ashley
Provencher, Joanna Turner, and Judith Waldrop reviewed
the contents.
Census Bureau field representatives and telephone interviewers
collected the data. Without their dedication, the preparation of this
report or any report from the Current Population Survey would
be impossible.
Janet S. Sweeney, Jamie A. Stark, and Donald J. Meyd, of the
Administrative and Customer Services Division, Francis Grailand
Hall, Chief, provided publications and printing management,
graphics design and composition, and editorial review for print and
electronic media. General direction and production management
were provided by Claudette E. Bennett, Assistant Division Chief,
and Wanda Cevis, Chief, Publications Services Branch.

Income, Poverty, and Health
Insurance Coverage in the
United States: 2008

Issued September 2009
P60-236

U.S. Department of Commerce
Gary Locke,
Secretary
Dennis F. Hightower,
Deputy Secretary
Economics and Statistics Administration
Rebecca M. Blank,
Under Secretary for Economic Affairs
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Robert Groves,
Director

Suggested Citation
DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Bernadette D.
Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith,
U.S. Census Bureau,
Current Population Reports, P60-236,
Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance
Coverage in the United States: 2008,
U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC,
2009.

ECONOMICS

AND STATISTICS

ADMINISTRATION

Economics and Statistics
Administration
Rebecca M. Blank,
Under Secretary for Economic Affairs

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Robert Groves,
Director
Thomas L. Mesenbourg,
Deputy Director and Chief Operating Officer
Howard Hogan,
Associate Director for Demographic Programs
David S. Johnson,
Chief, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division

Contents

TEXT
Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage
in the United States: 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source of Estimates and Statistical Accuracy . . . . . . .
Alternative Poverty Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and Local Estimates of Income, Poverty, and

Health Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamics of Economic Well-Being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Income in the United States . . . . . . . . .
Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Household Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metropolitan Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Income Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equivalence-Adjusted Income Inequality.
Work Experience and Earnings . . . . . . . .
Per Capita Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Poverty in the United States . .
Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . .
Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metropolitan Status . . . . . . . . .
Work Experience . . . . . . . . . . .
Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . .
Ratio of Income to Poverty
Income Deficit . . . . . . . . . .

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Health Insurance Coverage in the United States . . . . . . . . . .
Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is Health Insurance Coverage?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Type of Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Economic Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Children’s Health Insurance Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metropolitan Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CPS Data Collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Data and Contacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

26

Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

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iii Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

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U.S. Census Bureau

TEXT TABLES

1. Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics:

2007 and 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2. Change in Real Median Household Income During Recessions: 1969 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . .

8

3. Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income:

2007 and 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4. People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2008 . . . . . . . . . . .

14

5. People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Thresholds by

Selected Characteristics: 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

6. Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by

Poverty Status: 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

7. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics:

2007 and 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

8. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin Using 2- and

3-Year Averages: 2005–2006 and 2007–2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

FIGURES
1. Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2. Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round

Workers 15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

3. Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

4. Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

5. Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2008 . . . . . . . . . .

18

6. Number Uninsured and Uninsured Rate: 1987 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7. Coverage by Type of Health Insurance: 2007 and 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

8. Uninsured Children by Poverty Status, Age, and Race and Hispanic Origin: 2008 . . . . . . .

25

APPENDIXES
Appendix A. Estimates of Income
How Income Is Measured . . . . . . .
Recessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cost of Living Adjustment . . . . . .

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Appendix B. Estimates of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Poverty Is Calculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

43

Appendix C. Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quality of Health Insurance Coverage Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

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iv Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

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U.S. Census Bureau

APPENDIX TABLES
A-1.

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of
Householder: 1967 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

Real Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers by Sex and Female-to-Male
Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

A-3.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin:
1959 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . .

50

B-3.

Poverty Status of Families by Type of Family: 1959 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

C-1.

Health Insurance Coverage: 1987 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

A-2.

v Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and
Health Insurance Coverage in
the United States: 2008

Introduction
This report presents data on income,
poverty, and health insurance cover­
age in the United States based on
information collected in the 2009 and
earlier Annual Social and Economic
Supplements (ASEC) to the Current
Population Survey (CPS) conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau.
Data presented in this report indicate
the following:
• Real median household income
fell between 2007 and 2008,
and the decline was widespread.
Median income fell for family and
nonfamily households, native- and
foreign-born households, house­
holds in 3 of the 4 regions, and
households of each race category
and those of Hispanic origin.1
These declines in income coincide

1

All income values are adjusted to reflect
2008 dollars. “Real” refers to income after adjust­
ing for inflation. The adjustment is based on
percentage changes in prices between earlier
years and 2008 and is computed by dividing the
annual average Consumer Price Index Research
Series (CPI-U-RS) for 2008 by the annual average
for earlier years. The CPI-U-RS values for 1947
to 2008 are available in Appendix A and on the
Internet at <www.census.gov/hhes/www
/income/income08/AA-CPI-U-RS.pdf>. Inflation
between 2007 and 2008 was 3.8 percent.

U.S. Census Bureau

Source of Estimates and Statistical Accuracy
The data in this report are from the Annual Social and Economic
Supplement (ASEC) to the 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS). The
population represented (the population universe) is the civilian noninsti­
tutionalized population living in the United States. Members of the Armed
Forces living off post or with their families on post are included if at least
one civilian adult lives in the household. Most of the data from the CPS
ASEC were collected in March (with some data collected in February and
April), and the data were controlled to independent population estimates
for March 2009. The estimates in this report (which may be shown in text,
figures, and tables) are based on responses from a sample of the popula­
tion and may differ from actual values because of sampling variability or
other factors. As a result, apparent differences between the estimates for
two or more groups may not be statistically significant. All comparative
statements have undergone statistical testing and are significant at the
90 percent confidence level unless otherwise noted. Further information
about the source and accuracy of the estimates is available at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf>.

with the recession that started in
December 2007.2
• The poverty rate increased
between 2007 and 2008.
• The percentage of uninsured in
2008 was not statistically differ­
ent from 2007, while the number
2
Recessions are determined by the National
Bureau of Economic Research, a private research
organization. See Appendix A for a list of peak
and trough months.

of uninsured increased between
2007 and 2008.
These results, though widespread,
were not uniform across groups. For
example, between 2007 and 2008,
real median income was statistically
unchanged for households maintained
by a person 65 years old and over but
declined for households maintained
by people of all other age group cat­
egories. Additionally, the poverty rate

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 1

increased for children under 18 and
for people 18 to 64 but remained sta­
tistically unchanged for people 65 and
over; and the percentage of uninsured
for non-Hispanic Whites, Asians, and
Hispanics increased, while the per­
centage of uninsured for Blacks was
not statistically different.3
These results are discussed in more
detail in the three main sections of
this report—income, poverty, and
health insurance coverage. Each sec­
tion presents estimates by character­
istics such as race, Hispanic origin,
3
Federal surveys now give respondents the
option of reporting more than one race. There­
fore, two basic ways of defining a race group are
possible. A group such as Asian may be defined
as those who reported Asian and no other race
(the race-alone or single-race concept) or as
those who reported Asian regardless of whether
they also reported another race (the race-alone­
or-in-combination concept). The body of this
report (text, figures, and tables) shows data
using the first approach (race alone). The appen­
dix tables show data using both approaches.
Use of the single-race population does not imply
that it is the preferred method of presenting or
analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety
of approaches.
In this report, the term “non-Hispanic White”
refers to people who are not Hispanic and who
reported White and no other race. The Census
Bureau uses non-Hispanic Whites as the compari­
son group for other race groups and Hispanics.
Because Hispanics may be any race, data
in this report for Hispanics overlap with data
for racial groups. Being Hispanic was reported
by 13.0 percent of White householders who
reported only one race, 2.9 percent of Black
householders who reported only one race, and
2.0 percent of Asian householders who reported
only one race.
The householder is the person (or one of the
people) in whose name the home is owned or
rented and the person to whom the relationship
of other household members is recorded. If a
married couple owns the home jointly, either the
husband or the wife may be listed as the house­
holder. Since only one person in each household
is designated as the householder, the number of
householders is equal to the number of house­
holds. This report uses the characteristics of the
householder to describe the household.
Data users should exercise caution when
interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic
population or for race groups because these
populations consist of many distinct groups that
differ in socioeconomic characteristics, culture,
and recency of immigration. In addition, the CPS
does not use separate population controls for
weighting the Asian sample to national totals.
Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972
and for Asians and Pacific Islanders in 1987. For
further information, see <www.bls.census.gov
/cps/ads/adsmain.htm>.

Alternative Poverty Measures
Alternative income and poverty measures fall into two categories: 1) pov­
erty measures based on the recommendations of the National Academy of
Sciences called NAS-based measures and 2) other income and poverty esti­
mates called alternative measures of income and poverty (R&D). The NASbased measures use both alternative poverty thresholds and enhanced
income definitions. The alternative measures of income and poverty (R&D)
continue to use the official thresholds but examine the impact of change
by using various formulas to add or subtract resources.
The Census Bureau will release the 2008 data on alternative measures of
income and poverty at a later date. Estimates of alternative measures for
2007 are available in several sets of detailed tables. The NAS-based tables
are available at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/povmeas/tables.html>, while
the alternative measures of income and poverty (R&D) tables are available
at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/macro/032008/rdcall/toc.htm>.
The Census Bureau makes available a research file that provides microdata with variables used to construct the NAS-based alternative measures
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/povmeas/datafiles.html> and another
microdata file with the estimates of the value of taxes and noncash ben­
efits <www.bls.census.gov/cps_ftp.html#cpsmarch>. Both microdata files
are currently available for 2007.
The Census Bureau also has a Web-based tool (CPS Table Creator II) that
is designed to help researchers explore alternative income and poverty
measures. The tool is available in a link from the “Data Access” page on
the poverty Web site <www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/microdata
.html>. Using this tool, researchers can replicate the NAS-based measures,
the alternative measures of income and poverty (R&D) and the income
and poverty estimates formerly included in the Effects of Taxes and
Transfers report series. Table Creator II also allows researchers to produce
poverty and income estimates using their own combinations of threshold
and resource definitions and to see the incremental impact of the addition
or subtraction of a single resource element. For example, if the cash value
of food stamps were added to the resources of families, this would move
1.7 million people above the poverty line in 2007. Including the value of
the federal-earned income tax credit would reduce the number of children
in poverty in 2007 by 2.4 million. In 2007, the number of poor elderly
people would be higher by 13 million people if social security payments
were excluded from money income, more than quadrupling the number of
poor elderly.
Census Bureau staff continue to undertake research designed to improve
the alternative/experimental poverty measures. Current projects include
improvements and updates to the models used to impute medical out-of­
pocket expenditures, child care payments, and housing assistance; assess­
ment of alternative definitions of family units to include unmarried part­
ners in the family unit; and investigation of alternative data sources for
geographic cost-of-living adjustments to the alternative thresholds.

2 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

State and Local Estimates of Income, Poverty, and
Health Insurance
The Census Bureau presents annual estimates of median household
income and poverty by state and other smaller geographic units based on
data collected in the American Community Survey (ACS).
While the ACS produces estimates of income and poverty for counties and
places with populations of 20,000 or more, the Census Bureau’s Small
Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program also produces singleyear estimates of median household income and poverty for states and all
counties, as well as population and poverty estimates for school districts.
These estimates are based on models using data from a variety of sources,
including current surveys, administrative records, intercensal population
estimates, and personal income data published by the Bureau of Economic
Analysis. In general, SAIPE estimates have lower variances than ACS
estimates but are released later because they incorporate ACS data in the
models. Estimates for 2007 are available at <www.census.gov/did/www
/saipe/index.html>. Estimates for 2008 will be available later this year.
In 2008, the ACS added a question on health insurance coverage to the
survey. Single-year estimates from the new health insurance item, for
counties and places with populations of 65,000 or more, will be available
on the Internet in late September 2009. State uninsured rates using 2- and
3-year averages from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC)
to the Current Population Survey (CPS) are available at <www.census.gov
/hhes/www/hlthins/hlthin08/hlthtables08.html>. The Census Bureau’s
Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE) program produces modelbased estimates of health insurance coverage rates for states and coun­
ties. The SAHIE program released 2006 estimates of health insurance cov­
erage by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and income categories at the state
level and by age, sex, and income categories at the county level. These
estimates are available at <www.census.gov/did/www/sahie/index.html>.

nativity, and region. Other topics
include earnings of full-time, yearround workers; families in poverty;
and health insurance coverage of chil­
dren. State health insurance coverage
data can be found on the Internet at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www
/hlthins/hlthin08.html>.
The Census Bureau recognizes that
measuring money income may not
completely capture the economic well­
being of individuals and families and

U.S. Census Bureau

that there are many concerns about
the adequacy of the official poverty
thresholds.4 Families and individuals
4
For the purpose of the official poverty
calculations in this report, families are defined as
including all people residing together and related
by birth, marriage, or adoption. As a result, fami­
lies in which two unmarried parents reside with
their child (or children) are treated as two units—
a single-parent family and an unrelated indi­
vidual. The 2008 ASEC includes a direct question
to capture the relationship of couples that do not
include the householder, in addition to those who
are already identified as the unmarried partner of
the householder. The addition of a second-parent
pointer to children’s records adds accuracy to
the measurement of coresidence of children and

also derive economic well-being from
noncash benefits, such as food stamps
and housing subsidies, and they have
reductions in disposable income due
to taxes and increases in disposable
income due to refundable tax credits.
The official poverty thresholds were
developed more than 40 years ago
and have been criticized for not taking
into account rising standards of living,
expenses such as child care that are
necessary to hold a job, variations
in medical costs across population
groups, and geographic differences in
the cost of living.
The income and poverty estimates
shown in this report are based solely
on money income before taxes, do
not include the value of noncash
benefits, and use the official poverty
thresholds. The Census Bureau com­
putes a number of alternative mea­
sures of income and poverty that do
attempt to account for these factors.
For more information on alternative
poverty measures, see the text box
“Alternative Poverty Measures.”
The CPS is the longest-running survey
conducted by the Census Bureau.
The CPS ASEC asks detailed ques­
tions categorizing income into over
50 sources. The key purpose of the
CPS ASEC is to provide timely and
their parents and increases the estimate of the
number of children living with two parents. The
official poverty rate for 2007 was 12.5 percent,
or 37.3 million people. Preliminary estimates
taking account of new relationships yield a 2007
poverty rate of approximately 11.5 percent. This
result suggests that about 3.3 million individuals
classified as poor under the official measure may
be sharing resources with others that allow their
income to exceed their official poverty threshold.
For more details, see Short, Kathleen, Poverty
Measures That Take Account of Changing Living
Arrangements and Childcare Expenses, Poverty
Measurement Working Paper (forthcoming); and
Kreider, Rose, Improvements to Demographic
Household Data in the Current Population Survey:
2007, Housing and Household Economic Statis­
tics Division Working Paper.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 3

detailed estimates of income, poverty,
and health insurance coverage and to
measure changes in those estimates
at the national level. The CPS ASEC is
the official source of national poverty
estimates calculated in accordance
with the Office of Management and
Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy
Directive 14 (Appendix B).
The Census Bureau also reports
income and poverty estimates
based on data from the American
Community Survey (ACS). The ACS is
part of the 2010 Census program and
has eliminated the need for a longform sample questionnaire. The ACS
offers broad, comprehensive informa­
tion on social, economic, and housing
topics and provides this information
at many levels of geography, particu­
larly for local communities.

Since the CPS ASEC produces more
complete and thorough estimates
of income and poverty, the Census
Bureau recommends that people use
it as the data source for national esti­
mates. Estimates for income, poverty,
and other economic characteristics at
the state level can be found in forth­
coming briefs based on data from
the 2008 ACS. For more information
on state and local estimates, see the
text box “State and Local Estimates
of Income, Poverty, and Health
Insurance.”

Longitudinal measures of income,
poverty, and health insurance cover­
age that are based on following the
same people over time are avail­
able from the Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP). Estimates
derived from SIPP data answer ques­
tions such as:

The CPS ASEC provides reliable esti­
mates of the net change, from one
year to the next, in the overall distri­
bution of economic characteristics of
the population, such as income and
earnings, but it does not show how
those characteristics change for the
same person, family, or household.

• How long do people without
health insurance tend to remain
uninsured?

• What percentage of households
move up or down the income
distribution over time?
• How many people remain in pov­
erty over time?

The text box “Dynamics of
Economic Well-Being” provides more
information.

Dynamics of Economic Well-Being
The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)
provides monthly data about labor force participation,
income sources and amounts, and health insurance
coverage of individuals, families, and households during
the time span covered by each of its panels. The data
yield insights into the dynamic nature of these experi­
ences and the economic mobility of U.S. residents.*
For example, the data demonstrate that using a longer
time frame to measure poverty (e.g., 4 years) yields, on
average, a lower poverty rate than the annual measures
presented in this report, while using a shorter time
frame (e.g., 2 months) yields higher poverty rates. Some
specific findings from the 2004 panel include:
• The proportion of households in the bottom quintile
in 2004 that moved up to a higher quintile in 2007
(27.8 percent) was not statistically different from the
proportion of households in the top quintile in 2004
that moved to a lower quintile in 2007 (27.0 percent).
*
The 2004 SIPP panel collected data from February 2004 through
January 2008. The data are currently available for download. See the
SIPP Web site for details <www.sipp.census.gov/sipp>.

Households with householders who had lower levels
of education were more likely to remain in or move
into a lower quintile than households whose householders had higher levels of education.

• Approximately 31.0 percent of the population had at
least one spell of poverty lasting 2 or more months
during the 4-year period from 2004 to 2007.

Chronic poverty was relatively uncommon, with
1.8 percent of the population living in poverty all
48 months.

More information based on these data is available in a
series of reports titled the Dynamics of Economic Well­
Being, as well as in table packages and working papers.
The Census Bureau is in the process of reengineering
the SIPP for 2013. The redesigned survey is expected to
reduce respondent burden and attrition and to deliver
data on a timely basis, while addressing the same topic
areas of the earlier SIPP panels. For more information,
see <www.sipp.census.gov/sipp>.

4 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

INCOME IN THE
UNITED STATES
Highlights
• Real median household income
declined by 3.6 percent between
2007 and 2008, from $52,163
to $50,303, following 3 years of
annual income increases (Figure
1, Table 1, and Appendix A).
The decline in income coincides
with the recession that started in
December 2007.
• Real median income declined for
both family (3.3 percent) and nonfamily households (4.0 percent)
between 2007 and 2008 (Table 1).5
• Households of each race category
and those of Hispanic origin had
declines in real median income
between 2007 and 2008 (Table 1).
• Native- and foreign-born house­
holds, including those maintained
by a naturalized citizen, had
declines in real median income
between 2007 and 2008.6 Income
remained statistically unchanged
for households maintained by a
noncitizen (Table 1).
• The South, Midwest, and West
regions experienced declines in
real median household income
between 2007 and 2008, while
income in the Northeast remained
statistically unchanged (Table 1).
• Income inequality remained
statistically unchanged between
5
The apparent difference between the
declines in median income for family and nonfamily households was not statistically signifi­
cant.
6
Native-born households are those in which
the householder was born in the United States,
Puerto Rico, or the U.S. island areas of Guam,
the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana
Islands, or the Virgin Islands of the United States
or was born in a foreign country but had at least
one parent who was a U.S. citizen. All other
households are considered foreign born regard­
less of the date of entry into the United States or
citizenship status. The CPS does not interview
households in Puerto Rico. Of all householders,
86.7 percent were native born, 6.5 percent were
foreign-born householders who were naturalized
citizens, and 6.8 percent were noncitizens.

U.S. Census Bureau

2007 and 2008, as measured by
the shares of aggregate household
income by quintiles and the Gini
index (Table 3).7

• Larger than the 1.7 percent
decline for the income years sur­
rounding the December 1969 to
November 1970 recession.9

• Real median earnings of both men
and women who worked full-time,
year-round declined in 2008, fol­
lowing increases in 2007. Men’s
earnings declined by 1.0 percent
to $46,367 and women’s declined
by 1.9 percent to $35,745. The
2008 female-to-male earnings
ratio, 0.77, was not statistically
different from the 2007 ratio
(Table 1 and Figure 2).

• Smaller than the declines for the
income years surrounding the
January 1980 to July 1980 and
July 1981 to November 1982
combined recessions (6.0 percent)
and the November 1973 to March
1975 recession (5.7 percent)
(Figure 1, Tables 1 and 2, and
Appendix A).10

• Real per capita income declined
by 3.1 percent for the total popu­
lation between 2007 and 2008.
Per capita income declined by 2.9
percent for non-Hispanic Whites,
3.8 percent for Blacks, and 3.3
percent for Hispanics (Table 1).8
The apparent change for Asians
was not statistically significant.

Real median income for households
of each race category and those of
Hispanic origin declined between
2007 and 2008 (Table 1 and Figure
1). The income of non-Hispanic White
households declined 2.6 percent (to
$55,530); for Blacks, income declined
2.8 percent (to $34,218); for Asians,
income declined 4.4 percent (to
$65,637); and for Hispanics, income
declined 5.6 percent (to $37,913).11

Household Income
Real median household income
declined by 3.6 percent (from
$52,163 to $50,303) between 2007
and 2008, offsetting the gain in
income experienced over the past 3
years and coinciding with the reces­
sion that started in December 2007.
Though the trough of this recession
has not yet been defined, the 3.6 per­
cent income decline is:
• Not statistically different from
the declines in the income years
surrounding the two most recent
recessions lasting from March
2001 to November 2001 and from
July 1990 to March 1991.

7
See “What Are Shares of Aggregate House­
hold Income and a Gini index?,” Income, Earn­
ings, and Poverty Data From the 2007 American
Community Survey, American Community Survey
Reports, ACS-09, August 2008,
<www.census.gov/prod/2008pubs/acs-09.pdf>.
8
The apparent differences among the per­
centage declines in per capita income for the
overall, non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic
populations were not statistically significant.

Race and Hispanic Origin

In comparison to the respective
income peaks before the 2001 reces­
sion, 2008 household income was 4.3
percent lower for all races combined
(from $52,587 in 1999), 2.7 percent
lower for non-Hispanic Whites (from
$57,059 in 1999), 7.8 percent lower
for Blacks (from $37,093 in 2000), 5.8
percent lower for Asians (from $69,713
in 2000), and 8.6 percent lower for
Hispanics (from $41,470 in 2000).12

9
Discussion is limited to recessions occurring
after 1967, the first year that household income
was collected in the CPS ASEC.
10
The difference between the declines in
income for the combined January 1980 to July
1980 and July 1981 to November 1982 recession
and the November 1973 to March 1975 reces­
sion was not statistically significant.
11
Except for the difference between the
declines in median household income for the
non-Hispanic White and Hispanic households, all
other differences between the declines were not
statistically significant.
12
The decline for Asians was not statistically
different from the declines for the remaining race
groups and Hispanics. In addition, the difference
between the declines for Hispanics and Blacks
was not statistically significant.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 5

Table 1.

Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2008
(Income in 2008 dollars. Households and people as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

2007
Median income
(dollars)

Characteristic

Number
(thousands)
HOUSEHOLDS
All households. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percentage change in
real median income
(2008 less 2007)

2008
Median income
(dollars)

90 percent
confidence
Number
Estimate interval1 (±) (thousands)

90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval1 (±)

Estimate

90 percent
confidence
interval1 (±)

116,783

52,163

239

117,181

50,303

225

*–3.6

0.50

77,873
58,370

64,755
75,582

335
548

78,850
59,118

62,621
73,010

423
540

*–3.3
*–3.4

0.67
0.81

14,404
5,100
38,910
21,038
17,872

34,652
51,754
31,335
25,227
38,180

612
1,148
270
413
430

14,480
5,252
38,331
20,637
17,694

33,073
49,186
30,078
25,014
36,006

620
1,092
306
383
436

*–4.6
*–5.0
*–4.0
–0.8
*–5.7

1.98
2.40
1.03
1.79
1.26

Race2 and Hispanic Origin of
Householder
White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White, not Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic (any race). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95,112
82,765
14,551
4,494
13,339

54,117
57,030
35,219
68,643
40,165

263
422
811
2,366
888

95,297
82,884
14,595
4,573
13,425

52,312
55,530
34,218
65,637
37,913

250
370
725
2,280
799

*–3.3
*–2.6
*–2.8
*–4.4
*–5.6

0.53
0.78
2.45
3.77
1.94

Age of Householder
Under 65 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 years and older . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92,671
6,554
19,225
22,448
24,536
19,909
24,113

58,718
33,011
52,976
64,511
67,992
59,591
29,393

313
562
487
512
746
828
389

92,346
6,357
19,302
22,171
24,633
19,883
24,834

56,791
32,270
51,400
62,954
64,349
57,265
29,744

341
617
536
944
933
875
370

*–3.3
*–2.2
*–3.0
*–2.4
*–5.4
*–3.9
1.2

0.63
2.02
1.09
1.40
1.40
1.60
1.48

Nativity of Householder
Native born. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foreign born. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naturalized citizen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not a citizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

101,104
15,680
7,469
8,211

52,904
45,929
54,094
39,083

258
1,245
1,158
1,244

101,585
15,596
7,668
7,928

51,056
43,493
51,524
37,951

245
1,022
949
1,056

*–3.5
*–5.3
*–4.8
–2.9

0.53
2.75
2.18
3.32

Region
Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21,351
26,266
43,062
26,105

54,283
52,209
47,961
56,218

723
490
453
837

21,309
26,282
43,423
26,166

54,346
50,112
45,590
55,085

1,105
535
446
867

0.1
*–4.0
*–4.9
*–2.0

2.01
1.10
1.04
1.71

Metropolitan Status
Inside metropolitan statistical areas . . . .
Inside principal cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside principal cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside metropolitan statistical areas3 . .

97,591
39,072
58,520
19,192

53,823
45,904
59,651
42,176

261
615
501
653

97,865
39,065
58,800
19,315

51,853
44,197
57,904
40,785

245
564
579
663

*–3.7
*–3.7
*–2.9
*–3.3

0.53
1.44
1.03
1.75

EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME,
YEAR-ROUND WORKERS
Men with earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women with earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62,984
45,613

46,846
36,451

256
174

59,861
44,156

46,367
35,745

239
174

*–1.0
*–1.9

0.62
0.56

Type of Household
Family households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Married-couple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Female householder, no husband
present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Male householder, no wife present . . .
Nonfamily households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Female householder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Male householder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

6 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 1.

Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2008—Con.
(Income in 2008 dollars. Households and people as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

2007
Median income
(dollars)

Characteristic

Number
(thousands)

Percentage change in
real median income
(2008 less 2007)

2008
Median income
(dollars)

90 percent
confidence
Number
Estimate interval1 (±) (thousands)

90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval1 (±)

Estimate

90 percent
confidence
interval1 (±)

*–3.1
*–3.1
*–2.9
*–3.8
–2.4
*–3.3

0.68
0.74
0.79
2.09
3.49
1.83

4

PER CAPITA INCOME
Total2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White, not Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic (any race). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

299,106
239,399
196,768
37,775
13,268
46,026

27,834
29,413
32,244
19,136
31,050
16,203

164
190
220
362
936
282

301,483
240,852
197,159
38,076
13,315
47,485

26,964
28,502
31,313
18,406
30,292
15,674

161
186
217
327
920
293

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the
estimate. For more information, see ‘‘Standard Errors and Their Use’’ at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf>.
2
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as
Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they
also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population
does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more
than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder.
About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders,
and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately in this table.
3
The ‘‘Outside metropolitan statistical areas’’ category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.
For more information, see ‘‘About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas’’ at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>.
4
The data shown in this section are per capita incomes and their respective confidence intervals. Per capita income is the mean income computed for every man,
woman, and child in a particular group. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population in that group (excluding patients or inmates in
institutional quarters).
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2008 and 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Figure 1.

Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2008
Recession

2008 dollars
80,000
70,000

$65,637
60,000

Asian

50,000

$55,530
$50,303

White, not Hispanic
All races

40,000

$37,913
$34,218

Hispanic (any race)
30,000
Black
20,000
10,000
0
1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2008

Note: Median household income data are not available prior to 1967. For information on recessions, see Appendix A.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 7

Among the race groups, Asian
households had the highest median
income in 2008 ($65,637), followed
by non-Hispanic White ($55,530) and
Black households ($34,218). Hispanic
households had a median income of
$37,913.13 Comparing the income
of non-Hispanic White households
to that of other households puts
into perspective the differences in
income—the 2008 ratio of Asian to
non-Hispanic White income was 1.18,
the ratio of Black to non-Hispanic
White income was 0.62, and the ratio
of Hispanic to non-Hispanic White
income was 0.68. Between 1972
(the first year that income data for
the Hispanic and non-Hispanic White
populations were collected in the CPS
ASEC) and 2008, the Black–to–non­
Hispanic-White income ratio increased
from 0.58 to 0.62. Over the same
period, the Hispanic–to–non-HispanicWhite income ratio declined from 0.74
to 0.68. Income data for the Asian
population was first available in 1987.
The Asian–to–non-Hispanic-White
income ratios for 1987 and 2008
were not statistically different, 1.14
and 1.18, respectively.
Nativity
Native- and foreign-born households,
including those maintained by a
naturalized citizen, had declines in
real median income between 2007
and 2008. The decline for nativeborn households was 3.5 percent;
for foreign-born households, the
decline was 5.3 percent; and for those
maintained by a naturalized citizen,
the decline was 4.8 percent.14 Income
remained statistically unchanged for
households maintained by a house­
holder that was not a citizen (Table 1).

13
The distribution of household income is
influenced by many factors, such as the number
of earners and household size.
14
The apparent differences among the
declines in median income for native-born,
foreign-born, and naturalized-citizen households
were not statistically significant.

Table 2.

Change in Real Median Household Income During Recessions:
1969 to 2008
(Income in 2008 dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling
error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Income years

Percentage
change in real
median income

2007 to 2008
1999 to 2002
19892 to 1991

* –3.6
* –3.5
* –3.9

1978 to 1983
1973 to 1975
1969 to 1971

* –6.0
* –5.7
* –1.7

Recessions1
December 2007, trough not yet defined . . . . . . . . . . . . .
March 2001 to November 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 1990 to March 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
January 1980 to July 1980 and July 1981 to
November 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
November 1973 to March 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
December 1969 to November 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
Recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private research
organization.
2
For comparability purposes, the 1989 median household income used in this calculation ($48,319 in 2008
dollars), is based on data that reflect the implementation of the 1990 decennial census population controls. This
median is different from the median shown in Table A-1, which is based on 1980 census population controls.
Note: Income years are based on peak income year prior to or during the start of the recession and the
trough income year near or after the end of the recession.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1970 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic
Supplements.

Region
The South, Midwest, and West regions
experienced declines in real median
household income between 2007 and
2008. Income in the Northeast was
statistically unchanged in 2008 but
was the only region to experience a
decline in 2007. Between 2007 and
2008, median household income
declined in the South by 4.9 per­
cent, declined in the Midwest by 4.0
percent, and declined in the West by
2.0 percent.15, 16 In 2008, households
in the West ($55,085) and Northeast
($54,346) had the highest median
15
The Northeast region includes Connecticut,
Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island,
and Vermont. The Midwest region includes
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan,
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The South
region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,
Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West
Virginia, and the District of Columbia, a state
equivalent. The West region includes Alaska,
Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho,
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
16
The apparent differences in the declines
in median household income between the South
and Midwest and the Midwest and West were not
statistically significant.

8 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

household incomes, followed by the
Midwest ($50,112) and the South
($45,590).17
Metropolitan Status
Regardless of metropolitan status,
all households had declines in real
median income between 2007 and
2008 (Table 1). Specifically, income
declined by 3.7 percent (to $51,853)
for households in metropolitan areas
and by 3.3 percent (to $40,785) for
households outside metropolitan
areas. Within metropolitan statistical
areas, household income declined by
3.7 percent for those inside principal
cities (to $44,197) and by 2.9 per­
cent for those outside principal cities
(to $57,904).18 In 2008, households
within metropolitan areas but outside
principal cities had the highest median
income, and households outside met­
ropolitan areas had the lowest.

17
The apparent difference between the
median household incomes for the West and
Northeast was not statistically significant.
18
The differences among the declines in
median household income by metropolitan sta­
tus were not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income Inequality
The Census Bureau has traditionally
used two methods to measure income
inequality—the shares of aggregate
household income received by quin­
tiles and the Gini index. Recently,
the Census Bureau expanded its list
of inequality measures to include
the ratio of income percentiles, Theil
index, mean logarithmic deviation
of income, and Atkinson measure.19
The shares of aggregate household
income, Gini index, and ratios of
income percentiles are used in the
discussion of income inequality as it
pertains to money income. The shares
of aggregate income and Gini index,
along with the Theil index, mean
logarithmic deviation of income, and
Atkinson measure, are discussed in
the “Equivalence-Adjusted Income
Inequality” section that follows.
The shares method ranks households
from lowest to highest on the basis
of income and then divides them into
groups of equal population size, typi­
cally quintiles. The aggregate income
of each group is then divided by the
overall aggregate income to derive
shares. The Gini index incorporates
detailed shares data into a single
measure, which summarizes the dis­
persion of income across the entire
income distribution. The Gini index
ranges from 0, indicating perfect
equality (where everyone receives an
equal share), to 1, perfect inequality
(where all of the income is received
by only one recipient or group of
recipients).
Income inequality remained statisti­
cally unchanged between 2007 and
2008, as measured by the shares
of aggregate household income by
19
An article by Paul Allison, “Measures of
Inequality,” American Sociological Review, 43,
December 1977, pp. 865–880, provides an
explanation of inequality measures.

U.S. Census Bureau

quintiles and the Gini index (Tables
3 and A-3). In 2008, the share of
aggregate income received by the low­
est quintile was 3.4 percent; for the
second quintile, it was 8.6 percent; for
the third quintile, it was 14.7 percent;
for the fourth quintile, it was 23.3
percent; and for the highest quintile, it
was 50.0 percent. To put it in perspec­
tive, the lowest quintile of households
had incomes of $20,712 or less; those
in the second quintile had incomes of
$20,713 to $39,000; those in the third
quintile had incomes of $39,001 to
$62,725; those in the fourth quintile
had incomes of $62,726 to $100,240;
and those in the highest quintile had
incomes of $100,241or more.
The Gini index, 0.466, also indicated
no statistical change in total house­
hold income inequality between 2007
and 2008. Except for the 1.5 percent
decline in the Gini index between
2006 and 2007, there were no other
statistically significant annual changes
since 1993, the earliest year available
for comparable measures of income
inequality.20 Since 1993, the Gini
index is up 2.6 percent. (Table A-3
lists historical inequality measures.)21
Between 2007 and 2008, income
at the 50th percentile (median) and
the 10th percentile declined by 3.6
percent and 3.7 percent, respectively,
compared with a 2.1 percent decline
for income at the 90th percentile
20
Direct comparisons with years earlier
than 1993 are not recommended because of
substantial methodological changes in the 1994
ASEC. In that year, the Census Bureau introduced
computer-assisted interviewing, increased
income reporting limits, and implemented 1990
census-based population controls.
21
For further discussion of how high
incomes reported in the ASEC affect income
distribution measures, see, Semega and Welniak,
“Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted Income
Values on Income Distribution Measures Using
the Current Population Survey’s Annual Social
and Economic Supplement (ASEC),” April 2007,
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/unrestrict-tables.html>.

(see Table A-3 in Appendix A).22
Comparing the change in household
income between 1999 (the income
peak before the 2001 recession) and
2008 also suggests income inequality
is increasing. Income at the 50th and
10th percentiles declined, 4.3 percent
and 9.0 percent, respectively, while
income at the 90th percentile was sta­
tistically unchanged.23 Between 1999
and 2008, the 90th-percentile-to-the­
10th-percentile ratio increased from
10.42 to 11.37.
Equivalence-Adjusted
Income Inequality
Another way to measure income
inequality is using equivalenceadjusted income. Equivalenceadjusted income takes into consider­
ation the number of people living in
the household and how these people
share resources and take advantage
of economies of scale. For example,
the household-income-based dis­
tribution treats income of $30,000
for a single-person household and
a family household similarly, while
the equivalence-adjusted income of
$30,000 for a single-person house­
hold would be more than twice the
equivalence-adjusted income of
$30,000 for a family household with
two adults and two children. The
equivalence adjustment used here is
based on a three-parameter scale
that reflects:
1. On average, children consume
less than adults.
2. As family size increases, expenses
do not increase at the same rate.

22
The difference between the percentage
declines for the 50th and 10th percentiles was
not statistically significant.
23
The differences between the 1999–2008
change in income at the 50th percentile and the
2007–2008 changes at the 50th and 10th per­
centiles were not statistically significant.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 9

Table 3.

Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income: 2007
and 2008
(For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
2007

Measure

Money
income

2008

Equivalenceadjusted income

Money
income

Percentage change (2008 less 2007)

Equivalenceadjusted income

Money
income

Equivalenceadjusted income

90
Esti­ percent
mate C.I.1 (±)

90
Esti­ percent
mate C.I.1 (±)

90
Esti­ percent
mate C.I.1 (±)

90
Esti­ percent
mate C.I.1 (±)

90
Esti­ percent
mate C.I.1 (±)

Esti­
mate

90
percent
C.I.1 (±)

3.4
8.7
14.8
23.4
49.7
21.2

0.04
0.10
0.16
0.25
0.54
0.48

3.7
9.6
15.3
22.9
48.5
21.1

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.17
0.35
0.31

3.4
8.6
14.7
23.3
50.0
21.5

0.04
0.09
0.16
0.25
0.54
0.49

3.6
9.4
15.1
22.9
49.0
21.4

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.36
0.31


–1.1
–0.7
–0.4
0.6
1.4

1.27
1.23
1.23
1.24
1.06
2.63

*–2.7
*–2.1
*–1.3

*1.0
1.4

1.00
0.87
0.85
0.85
0.84
1.70

0.463

0.0045

0.445

0.0028

0.466

0.0045

0.451

0.0028

0.6

1.10

*1.3

0.72

0.532
0.391

0.0103
0.0002

0.588
0.371

0.0075
0.0001

0.541
0.398

0.0104
0.0002

0.614
0.380

0.0077
0.0001

1.7
*1.8

2.22
0.05

*4.4
*2.4

1.52
0.05

0.095
0.185
0.281

0.0018
0.0030
0.0039

0.090
0.178
0.279

0.0012
0.0020
0.0027

0.096
0.188
0.285

0.0018
0.0029
0.0038

0.092
0.183
0.287

0.0012
0.0019
0.0026

1.1
1.6
1.4

2.18
1.79
1.58

*2.2
*2.8
*2.9

1.48
1.28
1.09

Shares of Aggregate
Income by Percentile
Lowest quintile . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . . . . . . . . .
Middle quintile . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . . . . . . . . .
Top 5 percent . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary Measures
Gini index of income
inequality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mean logarithmic deviation
of income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Theil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atkinson:
e=0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

– Represents or rounds to zero.

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.

1
A 90 percent confidence interval (C.I.) is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less

reliable the estimate. For more information, see ‘‘Standard Errors and Their Use’’ at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2008 and 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

3. The increase in expenses is larger
for a first child of a single-parent
family than the first child of a
two-adult family.24
Table 3 shows several income inequal­
ity measures, including shares of
aggregate income and the Gini
24

The three-parameter scale used here is the
same as the one used in the report The Effect of
Taxes and Transfers on Income and Poverty in the
United States: 2005, U.S. Census Bureau, Current
Population Reports, P60-232, March 2007,
<www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p60-232.pdf>.
The three-parameter scale was applied to incomes
of families and unrelated individuals and assigned
to each family member or unrelated individual
living within the household. For details on the
derivation of the three-parameter scale, see Short,
Kathleen, Experimental Poverty Measures: 1999,
Current Population Reports, P60-216, October
2001, <www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs
/p60-216.pdf>.

index, using both money income
and equivalence-adjusted income for
income years 2007 and 2008.25 For
both 2007 and 2008, the Gini index is
lower under the equivalence-adjusted
income concept than under the
traditional money income concept,
indicating a more equal distribution
of income. Comparing the shares of
aggregate household income received
by quintile, higher shares of income
appear in the lower quintiles and
lower shares appear in the higher
quintiles for equivalence-adjusted
income than for money income. This
25
An article by Paul Allison, “Measures of
Inequality,” American Sociological Review, 43,
December 1977, pp. 865–880, provides an
explanation of inequality measures.

10 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

redistribution would be expected
given that:
1. The lower end of the income dis­
tribution is made up of a higher
concentration of single-person
households.
2. The lower end of the income
distribution is made up of smaller
families than the upper end.
Equivalence adjusting increases the
relative incomes of people living in
lower-income groups.
For equivalence-adjusted income,
there was an increase in the Gini
index and a redistribution of shares
of aggregate household income

U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 2.

Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers

15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2008

Earnings in thousands (2008 dollars), ratio in percent

Recession

90
80

77 percent

70
Female-to-male
earnings ratio
60
50
$46,367
Earnings of men

40

$35,745
30

Earnings of women

20
10
0
1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2008

Note: Data on earnings of full-time, year-round workers are not readily available before 1960. For information on recessions, see Appendix A.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1961 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

between 2007 and 2008, suggest­
ing an increase in income inequal­
ity. Specifically, the lowest quintile,
second quintile, and middle quintile
shares of aggregate income decreased
between 2007 and 2008 (–0.1 per­
centage point, –0.2 percentage
point, and –0.2 percentage point,
respectively).26 The fourth quintile
remained statistically unchanged
at 22.9 percent, while the highest
quintile share of aggregate income
increased from 48.5 percent in 2007
to 49.0 percent in 2008.
The Gini index of income inequal­
ity increased from 0.445 in 2007
to 0.451 in 2008. This was the first
statistically significant annual increase
26
The difference between the decrease of the
lowest quintile and the decrease of the middle
quintile was not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

in the Gini index for equivalenceadjusted income since it was first
published in 2005. Each of the other
income distribution summary mea­
sures in Table 3 also showed statisti­
cally significant increases in inequal­
ity for equivalence-adjusted income
between 2007 and 2008.
The mean logarithmic deviation of
income (MLD) gives more weight
to changes at the lower end of the
income distribution. Income distribu­
tions are typically skewed toward
higher income. The MLD represents
the gap between the median and the
average income. For example, in 2008
the MLD increased to 0.614. This
means that the median income was
61.4 percent less than the average
income in 2008. Between 2007 and

2008, the MLD increased from 0.588
to 0.614.
The Theil index is similar to the Gini
index because it summarizes the
dispersion of income across the entire
income distribution with the added
benefit of allowing for the examina­
tion of components. Between 2007
and 2008, the Theil index increased
from 0.371 to 0.380.
The Atkinson measure is useful in
determining which end of the income
distribution is contributing most to
income inequality. The weights of
the Atkinson measure (in Table 3
the weights are represented by “e”)
denote the amount of sensitivity
given to changes in the lower end of
the income distribution, where higher
weights indicate higher sensitivity.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 11

As shown in Table 3, the Atkinson
measure based on e=0.25 increased
by 2.22 percent, while the Atkinson
measure based on e=0.75 increased
by 2.87 percent.27
Work Experience and Earnings
The number of working men aged
15 and older decreased by 0.4 mil­
lion between 2007 and 2008 to 84.1
million. An estimated 71.2 percent
worked full-time, year-round, a
lower percentage than in 2007 (74.5
percent).28 The number of working
women aged 15 and older was 74.6
million, statistically unchanged from
2007. About 59.2 percent of these
women worked full-time, year-round
27
The difference between the percent­
age changes in the Atkinson measure based
on e=0.25 and e=0.75 was not statistically
significant.
28
A full-time, year-round worker is a person
who worked 35 or more hours per week (full­
time) and 50 or more weeks during the previous
calendar year (year-round). For school personnel,
summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if
they are scheduled to return to their job in the
fall. For detailed information on work experi­
ence, see Table PINC-05, “Work Experience in
2008—People 15 Years Old and Over by Total
Money Earnings in 2008, Age, Race, Hispanic
Origin, and Sex” at <www.census.gov/hhes
/www/income/dinctabs.html>.

in 2008, a lower percentage than in
2007 (61.4 percent).
While earnings represent the larg­
est component of income, earnings
trends and household income trends
do not necessarily move in tandem.
The 3.6 percent real decline in overall
median household income in 2008
was driven by the decline in income
of household earners. Household
income declines ranged from 2.8
percent for two-earner households to
4.2 percent for three-earner house­
holds, while the income of house­
holds with no earners increased 2.6
percent. This occurred while the real
earnings of men and women who
worked full-time, year-round declined
by 1.0 percent and 1.9 percent,
respectively (Table 1 and Figure 2).29
The median earnings of men declined
from $46,846 to $46,367 and those
of women declined from $36,451 to
29
The apparent differences between the
decline in median income for all households
and the declines for two- and three-earner
households were not statistically significant. In
addition, the differences between the decline in
median income for two-earner households and
the declines for three-earner households and for
women who worked full-time, year-round were
not statistically significant.

12 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

$35,745. In 2008, the female-to-male
earnings ratio was 0.77, not statisti­
cally different from the 2007 ratio.
Per Capita Income30
Real per capita income declined by
3.1 percent for the total population
between 2007 and 2008.31 Per capita
income declined 2.9 percent for nonHispanic Whites, declined 3.8 percent
for Blacks, and declined 3.3 percent
for Hispanics (Table 1).32 The apparent
change for Asians was not statistically
significant. The per capita income for
the overall population in 2008 was
$26,964; for non-Hispanic Whites,
it was $31,313; for Blacks, it was
$18,406; for Asians, it was $30,292;
and for Hispanics, it was $15,674.

30
The per capita income data presented in
this report are not directly comparable with esti­
mates of personal per capita income prepared by
the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department
of Commerce. The lack of correspondence stems
from the differences in income definition and
coverage. For further details, see <www.census
.gov/hhes/www/income/compare1.html>.
31
Unlike medians, per capita and means are
affected by extremely high and low incomes.
32
The apparent differences among the
declines for the overall, non-Hispanic White,
Black, and Hispanic populations were not statisti­
cally significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

annual increase in the number of
people in poverty.

POVERTY IN THE

UNITED STATES33

• In 2008, the poverty rate increased
for non-Hispanic Whites (8.6 per­
cent in 2008—up from 8.2 percent
in 2007), Asians (11.8 percent in
2008—up from 10.2 percent in
2007), and Hispanics (23.2 percent
in 2008—up from 21.5 percent in
2007). The poverty rate in 2008
was statistically unchanged for
Blacks (24.7 percent).

Highlights

The official poverty rate in 2008
was 13.2 percent, up from 12.5
percent in 2007 (Table 4). This
was the first statistically sig­
nificant annual increase in the
poverty rate since 2004, when
poverty increased to 12.7 percent
from 12.5 percent in 2003.

In 2008, 39.8 million people were
in poverty, up from 37.3 million
in 2007—the second consecutive

• The poverty rate in 2008 (13.2
percent) was the highest pov­
erty rate since 1997 but was 9.2
percentage points lower than in
1959, the first year for which
poverty estimates are available
(Figure 3).

33
OMB determined the official definition
of poverty in Statistical Policy Directive 14.
Appendix B describes how the Census Bureau
calculates poverty.

• Since 1960, the number of people
below poverty has not exceeded
the 2008 figure of 39.8 million
people.34
• The poverty rate increased for
children under 18 years old (19.0
percent in 2008—up from 18.0
percent in 2007) and people 18
to 64 years old (11.7 percent
in 2008—up from 10.9 percent
in 2007), while it remained
statistically unchanged for people
65 and over (9.7 percent).35

34
The 2008 number is not significantly dif­
ferent from 1993, 1962, 1961, 1960, and 1959
estimates.
35
Unrelated individuals under 15 are
excluded from the poverty universe; therefore,
there are 442,000 fewer children in the poverty
universe than in the total population.

Figure 3.

Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2008
Recession

Numbers in millions, rates in percent
50
45
Number in poverty

40

39.8 million

35
30
25
20
Poverty rate
15

13.2 percent

10
5
0

1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2008

Note: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 13

Table 4.

People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2008
(Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information
on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
2007

2008

Below poverty

Change in poverty
(2008 less 2007)2

Below poverty

Characteristic
90
90
percent
Per- percent
1
1
Total Number C.I. (±) centage C.I. (±)
PEOPLE
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Family Status
In families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Householder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related children under 18. . . . . . . . .
Related children under 6 . . . . . . . .
In unrelated subfamilies . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Children under 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unrelated individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Race3 and Hispanic Origin
White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White, not Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic (any race) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age
Under 18 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 years and older . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nativity
Native born. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foreign born. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naturalized citizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not a citizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Region
Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metropolitan Status
Inside metropolitan statistical areas. . .
Inside principal cities . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside principal cities . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside metropolitan statistical
areas4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work Experience
Total, 16 years and older. . . . . . . .
All workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worked full-time, year-round. . . . . . .
Not full-time, year-round . . . . . . . . . .
Did not work at least one week . . . . . .
FAMILIES
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Type of Family
Married-couple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Female householder, no husband
present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Male householder, no wife present . . .

90
90
percent
Per- percent
1
1
Total Number C.I. (±) centage C.I. (±) Number

Percentage

298,699

37,276

682

12.5

0.2

301,041

39,829

701

13.2

0.2

*2,553

*0.8

245,443
77,908
72,792
24,543
1,516
609
819
51,740
25,447
26,293

26,509
7,623
12,802
5,101
577
222
332
10,189
4,348
5,841

587
184
345
227
91
56
60
221
131
156

10.8
9.8
17.6
20.8
38.1
36.5
40.5
19.7
17.1
22.2

0.2
0.2
0.5
0.9
4.7
7.4
5.7
0.3
0.4
0.5

248,301
78,874
72,980
24,884
1,207
452
712
51,534
25,240
26,293

28,564
8,147
13,507
5,295
555
207
341
10,710
4,759
5,951

607
192
353
231
89
54
61
228
139
158

11.5
10.3
18.5
21.3
46.0
45.7
47.8
20.8
18.9
22.6

0.2
0.2
0.5
0.9
5.4
8.9
6.2
0.3
0.5
0.5

*2,055
*525
*705
194
–22
–15
9
*521
*411
110

*0.7
*0.5
*0.9
0.5
*7.9
*9.2
*7.3
*1.1
*1.8
0.4

239,133
196,583
37,665
13,257
45,933

25,120
16,032
9,237
1,349
9,890

573
465
334
135
333

10.5
8.2
24.5
10.2
21.5

0.2
0.2
0.8
1.0
0.7

240,548
196,940
37,966
13,310
47,398

26,990
17,024
9,379
1,576
10,987

592
479
337
145
348

11.2
8.6
24.7
11.8
23.2

0.2
0.2
0.8
1.1
0.7

*1,870
*992
142
*227
*1,097

*0.7
*0.5
0.2
*1.7
*1.6

73,996
187,913
36,790

13,324
20,396
3,556

350
516
132

18.0
10.9
9.7

0.5
0.3
0.4

74,068
189,185
37,788

14,068
22,105
3,656

359
536
134

19.0
11.7
9.7

0.5
0.3
0.4

*744
*1,709
100

*1.0
*0.8

261,456
37,243
15,050
22,193

31,126
6,150
1,426
4,724

631
335
162
294

11.9
16.5
9.5
21.3

0.2
0.8
1.0
1.2

264,314
36,727
15,470
21,257

33,293
6,536
1,577
4,959

650
345
171
301

12.6
17.8
10.2
23.3

0.2
0.9
1.0
1.3

*2,167
*386
151
235

*0.7
*1.3
0.7
*2.0

53,952
65,403
109,545
69,799

6,166
7,237
15,501
8,372

286
308
453
340

11.4
11.1
14.2
12.0

0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5

54,123
65,589
110,666
70,663

6,295
8,120
15,862
9,552

292
319
458
360

11.6
12.4
14.3
13.5

0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5

130
*883
361
*1,180

0.2
*1.3
0.2
*1.5

251,023
96,731
154,292

29,921
15,983
13,938

620
465
436

11.9
16.5
9.0

0.2
0.5
0.3

253,048
97,217
155,831

32,570
17,222
15,348

643
481
456

12.9
17.7
9.8

0.3
0.5
0.3

*2,649
*1,240
*1,410

*1.0
*1.2
*0.8

47,676

7,355

392

15.4

0.8

47,993

7,259

390

15.1

0.8

–96

–0.3

233,885
158,468
108,617
49,851
75,417

25,297
9,089
2,768
6,320
16,208

569
354
198
297
465

10.8
5.7
2.5
12.7
21.5

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.6

236,024
158,317
104,023
54,294
77,707

27,216
10,085
2,754
7,331
17,131

587
372
197
319
477

11.5
6.4
2.6
13.5
22.0

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.6

*1,919
*996
–14
*1,011
*923

*0.7
*0.6
0.1
*0.8
0.6

77,908

7,623

184

9.8

0.2

78,874

8,147

192

10.3

0.2

*525

*0.5

58,395

2,849

104

4.9

0.2

59,137

3,261

112

5.5

0.2

*412

*0.6

14,411
5,103

4,078
696

127
49

28.3
13.6

1.0
1.0

14,482
5,255

4,163
723

128
50

28.7
13.8

1.0
1.0

85
27

0.4
0.1

– Represents or rounds to zero.
* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For
more information, see ‘‘Standard Errors and Their Use’’ at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf>.
2
Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
3
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be
defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race
(the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred
method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian
and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in
Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.
4
The ‘‘Outside metropolitan statistical areas’’ category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more
information, see ‘‘About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas’’ at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2008 and 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

14 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Race and Hispanic Origin
Both the poverty rate and the number
in poverty increased for non-Hispanic
Whites from 2007 to 2008 (8.6 per­
cent and 17.0 million in 2008—up
from 8.2 percent and 16.0 million
in 2007 [Table 4]). The poverty rate
for non-Hispanic Whites was lower
than for other racial groups—they
accounted for 42.7 percent of the
people in poverty, compared with
65.4 percent of the total population.
For Blacks, neither the poverty rate
(24.7 percent) nor the number in pov­
erty (9.4 million) in 2008 was statisti­
cally different from 2007; while for
both Asians and Hispanics, the pov­
erty rate and the number in poverty
increased. Among Asians, 11.8 percent
(1.6 million) were in poverty in 2008,
higher than the 10.2 percent
(1.3 million) in 2007. Among
Hispanics, 23.2 percent (11.0 million)
were in poverty in 2008, higher than
the 21.5 percent (9.9 million) in 2007.
Age
In 2008, both the poverty rate and
the number in poverty increased for
people aged 18 to 64 (11.7 percent
and 22.1 million in 2008—up from
10.9 percent and 20.4 million in
2007). Both the poverty rate and the
number in poverty remained statisti­
cally unchanged for people 65 and
older, at 9.7 percent and 3.7 million in
2008 (Table 4 and Figure 4).
Both the poverty rate and the number
in poverty increased for children under
18 years old (19.0 percent and 14.1
million in 2008—up from 18.0 percent
and 13.3 million in 2007). The pov­
erty rate for children was higher than
the rates for people 18 to 64 years
old and those 65 and older (Table 4).
Children represented 35.3 percent of

U.S. Census Bureau

the people in poverty but only 24.6
percent of the total population.
Related children under 18 include
children living in families related to
the householder (or the reference
person of an unrelated subfamily)
who are not themselves a house­
holder or spouse of the householder
(or the family reference person).
Both the poverty rate and the num­
ber in poverty increased for related
children under 18 (18.5 percent and
13.5 million in 2008—up from 17.6
percent and 12.8 million in 2007).
For related children under 18 with a
female householder with no husband
present, 43.5 percent were in poverty,
compared with 9.9 percent of related
children in married-couple families.
Both the poverty rate and the number
in poverty for related children under 6
(21.3 percent and 5.3 million in 2008)
remained statistically unchanged
from 2007. Of related children under
6 with a female householder with no
husband present, 53.3 percent were
in poverty—five times the rate of their
counterparts in married-couple fami­
lies (11.0 percent).

from 2007, while the poverty rate
for those who were not U.S. citizens
rose to 23.3 in 2008—up from 21.3
percent in 2007.
Region
Two of the four regions showed
increases in both the poverty rate and
the number in poverty between 2007
and 2008. The Midwest increased to
12.4 percent (8.1 million) in 2008,
up from 11.1 percent (7.2 million) in
2007; and the West increased to 13.5
percent (9.6 million) in 2008, up from
12.0 percent (8.4 million) in 2007.
The poverty rates for the Northeast
(11.6 percent) and the South (14.3
percent) were both statistically
unchanged from 2007.
Metropolitan Status

Nativity

Inside metropolitan statistical areas,
the poverty rate and the number of
people in poverty were 12.9 percent
and 32.6 million in 2008—up from
11.9 percent and 29.9 million in 2007.
Among those living outside metropoli­
tan statistical areas, the poverty rate
and the number in poverty were 15.1
percent and 7.3 million in 2008, statis­
tically unchanged from 2007.

Of all people, 87.8 percent were
native born and 12.2 percent were
foreign born. The poverty rate and
the number in poverty for the nativeborn population increased to 12.6
percent and 33.3 million in 2008—up
from 11.9 percent and 31.1 million in
2007. Among the foreign-born popu­
lation, 17.8 percent or 6.5 million
people lived in poverty in 2008—up
from 16.5 percent or 6.2 million
people in 2007 (Table 4).

The poverty rate and the number in
poverty increased for people in prin­
cipal cities to 17.7 percent and 17.2
million in 2008—up from 16.5 percent
and 16.0 million in 2007. The poverty
rate and the number in poverty for
those inside metropolitan statisti­
cal areas but not in principal cities
were 9.8 percent and 15.3 million in
2008—up from 9.0 percent and 13.9
million in 2007.

Of the foreign-born population, 42.1
percent were naturalized citizens;
the remaining were noncitizens. The
poverty rate in 2008 for naturalized
citizens was 10.2 percent, unchanged

Of all people living in metropolitan sta­
tistical areas in 2008, 38.4 percent lived
in principal cities while 52.9 percent of
people in poverty in those metropolitan
areas lived in principal cities.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 15

Figure 4.

Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2008
Recession

Percent
50
45
40
65 years and older

35
30
25

Under 18 years

20

19.0 percent

15
11.7 percent
9.7 percent

10
18 to 64 years
5
0

1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2008

Notes: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years.

Data for people aged 18 to 64 and 65 and older are not available from 1960 to 1965.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Work Experience
People 16 years old and older who
worked some or all of 2008 had a
lower poverty rate than those who
did not work at any time—6.4 percent
compared with 22.0 percent (Table 4).
In 2008, the poverty rate among fulltime, year-round workers was lower
than the rate for those who worked
part-time or part-year—2.6 percent
compared with 13.5 percent. Those

who did not work in 2008 represented
43.0 percent of people in poverty and
25.8 percent of all people.
Families
The poverty rate and the number of
families in poverty were 10.3 percent
and 8.1 million in 2008—up from
9.8 percent and 7.6 million in 2007
(Table 4).

poverty increased to 5.5 percent and
3.3 million in 2008—up from 4.9 per­
cent and 2.8 million in 2007—while
the poverty rate and the number in
poverty showed no statistical change
in 2008 for female-householder-with­
no-husband-present families (28.7
percent and 4.2 million) and male­
householder-with-no-wife-present
families (13.8 percent and 723,000).

For married-couple families, both
the poverty rate and the number in

16 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 5.

People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Thresholds by Selected
Characteristics: 2008
(Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For
information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Income-to-poverty ratio
Under 0.50

Under 1.00

Under 1.25

Characteristic
Total
All people. . . . . . . . .

90
Num­ percent
ber C.I.1 (±)

301,041 17,075

90
Per- percent
cent C.I.1 (±)

90
Num­ percent
ber C.I.1 (±)

90
Per- percent
cent C.I.1 (±)

90
Num­ percent
ber C.I.1 (±)

90
Per- percent
cent C.I.1 (±)

479

5.7

0.2 39,829

701

13.2

0.2 53,805

792

17.9

0.3

6,278
2,640
2,437
1,733
1,721
692
579
995

253
116
113
96
95
61
56
72

8.5
9.2
6.0
4.2
3.9
3.7
3.7
2.6

0.3 14,068
0.4 5,283
0.3 5,351
0.2 4,277
0.2 4,047
0.3 1,642
0.4 1,504
0.2 3,656

359
158
164
148
144
93
89
134

19.0
18.4
13.2
10.4
9.1
8.8
9.7
9.7

0.5 18,553
0.5 6,790
0.4 7,130
0.3 5,760
0.3 5,351
0.5 2,206
0.6 1,999
0.4 6,018

398
175
187
170
164
108
103
165

25.0
23.7
17.6
13.9
12.1
11.8
12.9
15.9

0.5
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4

240,548 11,135
196,940 7,286
37,966 4,327
13,310
738
47,398 4,305

391
319
240
101
237

4.6
3.7
11.4
5.5
9.1

0.2 26,990
0.2 17,024
0.6 9,379
0.7 1,576
0.5 10,987

592
479
337
145
348

11.2
8.6
24.7
11.8
23.2

0.2
0.2
0.8
1.1
0.7

37,460
23,903
11,982
1,927
14,861

683
560
371
159
382

15.6
12.1
31.6
14.5
31.4

0.3
0.3
0.9
1.2
0.8

248,301 11,638
78,874 3,390

400
114

4.7
4.3

0.2 28,564
0.1 8,147

607
192

11.5
10.3

0.2 38,995
0.2 11,164

695
235

15.7
14.2

0.3
0.2

Age
Under 18 years . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 to 59 years . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 years and older . . . . . . . . .
Race2 and Hispanic Origin
White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White, not Hispanic . . . . . . .
Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic (any race) . . . . . . . . .

74,068
28,688
40,520
41,322
44,366
18,755
15,534
37,788

Family Status
In families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Householder . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related children
under 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related children
under 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unrelated subfamilies . . . . . . .
Unrelated individuals. . . . . . . .
Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72,980

5,894

246

8.1

0.3 13,507

353

18.5

0.5 17,893

393

24.5

0.5

24,884
1,207
51,534
25,240
26,293

2,521
308
5,129
2,420
2,708

163
66
145
95
101

10.1
25.5
10.0
9.6
10.3

0.6 5,295
4.7
555
0.2 10,710
0.3 4,759
0.3 5,951

231
89
228
139
158

21.3
46.0
20.8
18.9
22.6

0.9 6,932
5.4
675
0.3 14,135
0.5 6,096
0.5 8,039

260
98
275
160
190

27.9
55.9
27.4
24.2
30.6

0.9
5.4
0.4
0.5
0.5

1
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the
estimate. For more information, see ‘‘Standard Errors and Their Use’’ at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf>.
2
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as
Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they
also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population
does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more
than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder.
About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders,
and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.
Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 17

Depth of Poverty
Categorizing people as “in poverty” or
“not in poverty” is one way to describe
their economic situation. The income­
to-poverty ratio and the income deficit
(surplus) describe other aspects
of economic well-being. Where the
poverty rate provides a measure of
the proportion of people with a family
income that is below the established
poverty thresholds, the income-to­
poverty ratio provides a measure
to gauge the depth of poverty and
calculate the size of the population
who may be eligible for means-tested,
government-sponsored assistance
programs, such as Temporary
Assistance for Needy Families (TANF),
Medicaid, Supplemental Nutrition
Assistance Program (SNAP), and the
Low-Income Home Energy Assistance
Program (LIHEAP). The income-to­
poverty ratio is reported as a percent­
age that compares a family’s or an
unrelated individual’s (people who do
not live with relatives) income with
their poverty threshold. For example,
a family or individual with an income­
to-poverty ratio of 110 percent has
income that is 10 percent above their
poverty threshold.
The income deficit (surplus) tells how
many dollars a family’s or an unre­
lated individual’s income is below
(above) their poverty threshold. This
measure provides an estimate of the
dollar amount that would be required
to raise the income of all poor fami­
lies and unrelated individuals to their
respective poverty thresholds.
Ratio of Income to Poverty
Table 5 presents the number and per­
centage of people within three ranges
of income-to-poverty ratios—those
below 50 percent of poverty (“Under
0.50”), those below 100 percent of

Figure 5.

Demographic Makeup of the Population at
Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2008
(Percent)

12.6

5.8

9.2

55.5

57.4

11.2

People 65 years
and older

54.3

People 18 to 64
years old

34.5

Children under
18 years old

62.8

35.3

36.8

24.6
Total
population

Population with
Population
Population with
incomes below
with incomes
incomes below
100 percent below 50 percent 125 percent
of thresholds
of thresholds
of thresholds

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 Annual Social and
Economic Supplement.

poverty (“Under 1.00,” also called “in
poverty”), and those below 125 per­
cent of poverty (“Under 1.25”).
In 2008, 5.7 percent of all people,
or 17.1 million people, had income
below one-half of their poverty
threshold (Table 5). This group rep­
resented 42.9 percent of the poverty
population in 2008. The percent­
age and the number of people with
income below 125 percent of their
threshold was 17.9 percent and 53.8
million. For children under 18 years
old, 8.5 percent (6.3 million) lived
in families with income below 50
percent of their poverty thresholds
and 25.0 percent (18.6 million) were
in families with income below 125
percent of their thresholds.

18 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

The demographic makeup of the
population differs at varying degrees
of poverty. Children represented 24.6
percent of the overall population but
35.3 percent of the poor population
and 36.8 percent of the population
with income below 50 percent of their
poverty thresholds. On the other hand,
the elderly represented 12.6 percent
of the overall population but only 9.2
percent of the poor population and 5.8
percent of those with income below
50 percent of their poverty thresholds.
For people in families (or unrelated
individuals) with income below 125
percent of their poverty thresholds,
34.5 percent were children while 11.2
percent were elderly (Figure 5).

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 6.

Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status: 2008
(Numbers of families and unrelated individuals in thousands, deficits and surpluses and their confidence intervals [C.I.] in dollars. For information on
confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Average deficit
or surplus
(dollars)

Size of deficit or surplus
Characteristic
Under
Total $500

$500 $1,000 $2,000 $3,000 $4,000 $5,000 $6,000 $7,000 $8,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
or
$999 $1,999 $2,999 $3,999 $4,999 $5,999 $6,999 $7,999 more

Deficit
or surplus
per capita
(dollars)

90
Esti­ percent
1
mate C.I. (±)

90
Esti­ percent
1
mate C.I. (±)

Below Poverty
Threshold, Deficit
All families . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,147
Married-couple
families. . . . . . . . . . . . 3,261
Families with a
female householder,
no husband
present. . . . . . . . . . . . 4,163
Families with a male
householder, no
wife present . . . . . . .
723
Unrelated individuals . . . 10,710
Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,759
Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,951

266

270

592

573

506

498

555

487

456

3,945

9,102

123

2,596

58

115

130

280

280

211

195

240

189

168

1,453

8,642

199

2,234

77

112

117

248

221

249

257

262

259

255

2,182

9,638

169

2,905

87

39
539
225
314

22
561
168
393

63
1,354
559
795

72
979
391
588

46
1,112
511
601

46
652
292
360

52
559
250
309

40
555
275
280

32
430
211
219

310
3,968
1,878
2,090

8,083
5,912
6,216
5,670

393
66
97
87

2,737
5,912
6,216
5,670

211
166
266
219

70,727

338

342

621

664

676

712

701

733

810 65,130 69,620

538 22,409

306

55,875

142

152

311

320

337

429

402

436

461 52,885 77,833

642 24,629

339

10,319

150

149

250

260

278

223

214

223

281

716 11,902

313

4,532
40,823
20,481
20,342

46
588
216
372

41
918
405
513

60
1,278
471
807

84
1,149
380
769

60
1,331
592
739

59
1,209
472
737

86
1,088
432
656

74
986
398
587

69 3,953 47,532
929 31,347 30,738
357 16,757 34,609
573 14,590 26,840

Above Poverty
Threshold, Surplus
All families . . . . . . . . . . . .
Married-couple
families. . . . . . . . . . . .
Families with a
female householder,
no husband
present. . . . . . . . . . . .
Families with a male
householder, no
wife present . . . . . . .
Unrelated individuals . . .
Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Female . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,291 34,851

1,543
393
589
517

16,640
30,738
34,609
26,840

674
554
862
712

1
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the
estimate. For more information, see ‘‘Standard Errors and Their Use’’ at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf>.
Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Income Deficit
The income deficit for families in pov­
erty (the difference in dollars between
a family’s income and its poverty
threshold) averaged $9,102 in 2008,
higher in real terms than the 2007
figure ($8,523). The average income
deficit was larger for families with a
female householder with no husband
present ($9,638) than for marriedcouple families ($8,642) and families
with a male householder with no wife
present ($8,083) (Table 6).

U.S. Census Bureau

The average income deficit per capita
for families with a female householder
with no husband present ($2,905)
was higher than for married-couple
families ($2,234). The income deficit
per capita is computed by dividing the
average deficit by the average number
of people in that type of family. Since
families with a female householder
with no husband present were smaller,
on average, than married-couple
families, the larger per capita deficit
for families with a female householder

with no husband present reflects their
smaller average family size as well as
their lower incomes.
For unrelated individuals in pov­
erty, the average income deficit was
$5,912 in 2008. The $5,670 deficit
for women was lower than the $6,216
deficit for men.36
36
The average income deficit per capita for
all unrelated individuals was not statistically dif­
ferent from the average income deficit per capita
for unrelated men or the average income deficit
per capita for unrelated women.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 19

HEALTH INSURANCE
COVERAGE IN THE
UNITED STATES
Highlights
• The percentage of people without
health insurance in 2008 was not
statistically different from 2007 at
15.4 percent. The number of unin­
sured increased to 46.3 million in
2008, from 45.7 million in 2007
(Table 7 and Figure 6).37
• The number of people with health
insurance increased to 255.1 mil­
lion in 2008—up from 253.4 mil­
lion in 2007. The number of people
covered by private health insur­
ance decreased to 201.0 million in
2008—down from 202.0 million in
2007. The number of people cov­
ered by government health insur­
ance increased to 87.4 million—up
from 83.0 million in 2007.
• The percentage of people covered
by private health insurance was
66.7 percent in 2008—down from
67.5 percent in 2007 (Figure 7).
The percentage of people covered
by employment-based health
insurance decreased to 58.5 per­
cent in 2008, from 59.3 percent
in 2007. The number of people
covered by employment-based
health insurance decreased to
176.3 million in 2008, from 177.4
million in 2007.
37
For a brief description of how the Census
Bureau collects and reports on health insurance
data, see the text box “What Is Health Insurance
Coverage?” For a discussion of the quality of
ASEC health insurance coverage estimates, see
Appendix C.

What Is Health Insurance Coverage?
The Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current
Population Survey (CPS) asks about health insurance coverage in the pre­
vious calendar year. The survey asks separate questions about the major
types of health insurance. People who answer “no” to each of the coverage
questions are then asked to verify that they were, in fact, not covered by
any type of health insurance. For reporting purposes, the Census Bureau
broadly classifies health insurance coverage as private coverage or gov­
ernment coverage. Private health insurance is a plan provided through an
employer or a union or purchased by an individual from a private company.
Government health insurance includes such federal programs as Medicare,
Medicaid, and military health care; the Children’s Health Insurance Program
(CHIP); and individual state health plans.* People were considered “insured”
if they were covered by any type of health insurance for part or all of the
previous calendar year. They were considered “uninsured” if, for the entire
year, they were not covered by any type of health insurance.
Research shows health insurance coverage is underreported in the CPS
ASEC for a variety of reasons. Annual retrospective questions appear
to cause few problems when collecting income data (possibly because
the interview period is close to when people pay their taxes). However,
because health insurance coverage status can change over the course of
a year, answering questions about this long reference period may lead to
response errors. For example, some people may report their insurance cov­
erage status at the time of their interview rather than their coverage status
during the previous calendar year. Compared with other national surveys,
the CPS ASEC’s estimate of the number of people without health insurance
more closely approximates the number of people who were uninsured at a
specific point in time during the year than the number of people uninsured
for the entire year. There are several ongoing projects aimed at improving
the quality of health coverage data from the CPS ASEC, including cognitive
research and field testing to improve the wording of the CPS ASEC health
coverage questions.
For more information on the quality of CPS ASEC health insurance esti­
mates, see Appendix C, “Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage.” For
a comparison between health insurance coverage rates from the major
federal surveys, see How Many People Lack Health Insurance and for How
Long? (Congressional Budget Office, May 2003) at <www.cbo.gov
/doc.cfm?index=4210> and People With Health Insurance: A Comparison
of Estimates From Two Surveys (SIPP Working Paper 243, June 2004) at
<www.census.gov/sipp/workpapr/wp243.pdf>.
* Types of insurance are not mutually exclusive; people may be covered by more than one
type during the year.

20 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 7.

People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2008
(Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on
confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
2007

2008

Uninsured

Change in uninsured
(2008 less 2007)1

Uninsured

Characteristic
Total

Number

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Percentage

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Total

Number

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Percentage

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Number

Percentage

PEOPLE
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

299,106

45,657

526

15.3

0.2

301,483

46,340

529

15.4

0.2

*682

0.1

Family Status
In families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Householder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related children under 18 . . . . . . .
Related children under 6 . . . . . .
In unrelated subfamilies. . . . . . . . . . .
Unrelated individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . .

245,443
77,908
72,792
24,543
1,516
52,147

34,629
10,272
7,802
2,555
363
10,665

468
168
233
135
51
272

14.1
13.2
10.7
10.4
23.9
20.5

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
2.9
0.5

248,301
78,874
72,980
24,884
1,207
51,975

35,248
10,535
7,025
2,142
300
10,791

472
170
222
124
46
273

14.2
13.4
9.6
8.6
24.9
20.8

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
3.3
0.5

*618
*264
*–777
*–413
*–62
126

0.1
0.2
*–1.1
*–1.8
1.0
0.3

Race3 and Hispanic Origin
White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White, not Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic (any race) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

239,399
196,768
37,775
13,268
46,026

34,300
20,548
7,372
2,234
14,770

466
370
258
144
321

14.3
10.4
19.5
16.8
32.1

0.2
0.2
0.7
1.0
0.7

240,852
197,159
38,076
13,315
47,485

34,890
21,322
7,284
2,344
14,558

470
377
257
147
323

14.5
10.8
19.1
17.6
30.7

0.2
0.2
0.6
1.1
0.7

*590
*774
–88
110
–212

0.2
*0.4
–0.4
*0.8
*–1.4

Age
Under 18 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 years and older . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74,403
28,398
40,146
42,132
77,237
36,790

8,149
7,991
10,329
7,717
10,784
686

238
236
267
232
273
70

11.0
28.1
25.7
18.3
14.0
1.9

0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.2

74,510
28,688
40,520
41,322
78,655
37,788

7,348
8,200
10,754
8,035
11,355
646

227
239
273
237
280
68

9.9
28.6
26.5
19.4
14.4
1.7

0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.2

*–801
209
*425
*318
*571
–40

*–1.1
0.4
*0.8
*1.1
*0.5
–0.2

Nativity
Native born . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foreign born . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naturalized citizen . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not a citizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

261,842
37,264
15,050
22,214

33,269
12,388
2,651
9,737

460
333
157
296

12.7
33.2
17.6
43.8

0.2
0.7
0.9
1.0

264,733
36,750
15,475
21,274

34,036
12,304
2,792
9,511

465
331
161
293

12.9
33.5
18.0
44.7

0.2
0.8
0.9
1.0

*767
–85
141
–226

0.2
0.2
0.4
0.9

Region
Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54,031
65,480
109,710
69,883

6,143
7,495
20,210
11,809

202
221
358
278

11.4
11.4
18.4
16.9

0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4

54,191
65,672
110,845
70,775

6,277
7,588
20,154
12,321

205
223
357
284

11.6
11.6
18.2
17.4

0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4

134
93
–57
*511

0.2
0.1
–0.2
*0.5

251,363
96,874
154,489

38,497
17,935
20,563

490
348
370

15.3
18.5
13.3

0.2
0.3
0.2

253,399
97,364
156,036

39,023
17,963
21,060

493
348
375

15.4
18.4
13.5

0.2
0.3
0.2

525
28
*497

0.1
–0.1
0.2

Residence
Inside metropolitan statistical areas. .
Inside principal cities . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside principal cities . . . . . . . . . .
Outside metropolitan statistical
areas4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47,743

7,160

274

15.0

0.5

48,083

7,317

277

15.2

0.5

157

0.2

Household Income
Less than $25,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$25,000 to $49,999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$50,000 to $74,999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$75,000 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55,267
68,915
58,355
116,568

13,539
14,515
8,488
9,115

304
315
243
252

24.5
21.1
14.5
7.8

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2

55,814
69,621
57,525
118,523

13,673
14,908
8,034
9,725

306
319
237
260

24.5
21.4
14.0
8.2

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2

133
*393
*–454
*610


0.4
*–0.6
*0.4

Work Experience
Total, 18 to 64 years old . . . . . .
Worked during year . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worked full-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worked part-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Did not work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

187,913
148,603
123,882
24,721
39,310

36,822
26,840
21,060
5,780
9,981

497
438
395
216
282

19.6
18.1
17.0
23.4
25.4

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.6

189,185
148,463
121,468
26,995
40,723

38,345
27,772
20,908
6,864
10,573

505
444
393
234
289

20.3
18.7
17.2
25.4
26.0

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.6

*1,524
*932
–152
*1,084
*592

*0.7
*0.6
0.2
*2.0
0.6

– Represents or rounds to zero.
* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
2

Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more
information, see ‘‘Standard Errors and Their Use’’ at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf>.
3
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as
those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in­
combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data.
The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African
American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives,
Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.
4
The ‘‘Outside metropolitan statistical areas’’ category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more information, see
‘‘About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas’’ at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2008 and 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 21

Figure 6.

Number Uninsured and Uninsured Rate: 1987 to 2008
Numbers in millions, rates in percent

Recession

50
46.3 million

45
40
Number uninsured
35
30
25
20

15.4 percent

15
Uninsured rate
10
5
0
1987

1990

1993

19961

19992

2002

2008

1
The data for 1996 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and

2005 estimates.

2
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls occurred for the 2000 ASEC, which collected data for 1999. These estimates also

reflect the results of follow-up verification questions, which were asked of people who responded “no” to all questions about specific types of

health insurance coverage in order to verify whether they were actually uninsured. This change increased the number and percentage of

people covered by health insurance, bringing the CPS more in line with estimates from other national surveys.

Notes: Respondents were not asked detailed health insurance questions before the 1988 CPS.

The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1988 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

• The percentage of people covered
by government health insurance
programs increased to 29.0 per­
cent in 2008, from 27.8 percent in
2007. The percentage and number
of people covered by Medicaid
increased to 14.1 percent and 42.6
million in 2008, from 13.2 percent
and 39.6 million in 2007. The
percentage and number of people
covered by Medicare increased to
14.3 percent and 43.0 million in
2008, from 13.8 percent and 41.4
million in 2007.38
38
The percentage and number of people
covered by Medicaid in 2008, 14.1 percent and
42.6 million, were not statistically different from
the percentage and number of people covered by
Medicare in 2008, 14.3 percent and 43.0 million.

• In 2008, the percentage and
number of children under 18
without health insurance were
9.9 percent and 7.3 million, lower
than they were in 2007 at 11.0
percent and 8.1 million (Table 7).
The uninsured rate and number of
uninsured for children are the low­
est since 1987, the first year that
comparable health insurance data
were collected. Although the unin­
sured rate for children in poverty
decreased to 15.7 percent in 2008,
from 17.6 percent in 2007, chil­
dren in poverty were more likely
to be uninsured than all children.39
39
The number of uninsured children in pov­
erty in 2008 was not statistically different from
the number in 2007.

22 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

• The uninsured rate and number of
uninsured for non-Hispanic Whites
increased in 2008 to 10.8 per­
cent and 21.3 million, from 10.4
percent and 20.5 million in 2007.
The uninsured rate and number of
uninsured for Blacks in 2008 were
not statistically different from
2007, at 19.1 percent and 7.3 mil­
lion (Table 7).
• The percentage of uninsured
Hispanics decreased to 30.7 per­
cent in 2008, from 32.1 percent
in 2007. The number of uninsured
Hispanics was not statistically
different in 2008, at 14.6 million
(Table 7).

U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 7.

Coverage by Type of Health Insurance:
2007 and 2008

2007
2008

(Percent)
Private insurance

67.5

Any private plan

66.7*
59.3

Employment-based

58.5*
8.9

Direct-purchase

8.9
Government insurance

27.8

Any government
plan

29.0*
13.8

Medicare

Race and Hispanic Origin

14.3*
13.2

Medicaid

14.1*
3.7

Military
health care1

3.8
No insurance

Not Covered

15.3
15.4

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of
the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs
and the military.
Note: The estimates by type of coverage are not mutually exclusive; people can be covered by more
than one type of health insurance during the year.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2008 and 2009 Annual Social and
Economic Supplements.

Type of Coverage
Most people (58.5 percent) were cov­
ered by an employment-based health
insurance plan for some or all of
2008. The rate of employment-based
coverage in 2008 was lower than
the rate in 2007. The rate of private
coverage decreased in 2008 to 66.7

U.S. Census Bureau

from 27.8 percent in 2007. The
number of people covered by govern­
ment health programs also increased
to 87.4 million in 2008, from 83.0
million in 2007. The percentage
of people with Medicaid coverage
(14.1 percent) and the percentage
of people covered by Medicare (14.3
percent) were higher in 2008 than in
2007—13.2 percent and 13.8 percent,
respectively. The number of people
insured by Medicaid and Medicare also
increased, to 42.6 million enrolled in
Medicaid and 43.0 million enrolled in
Medicare.40 In 2008, 9.8 percent of
people had no coverage other than
Medicaid for the entire year.

percent, from 67.5 percent in 2007
(Figure 7). The number of people
covered by private insurance also
decreased to 201.0 million in 2008,
from 202.0 million in 2007.
The percentage of people covered
by government health programs
increased to 29.0 percent in 2008,

In 2008, the uninsured rate for nonHispanic Whites increased to 10.8
percent from 10.4 percent (Table 7).
The uninsured rate and number of
uninsured for Blacks in 2008 were
not statistically different from 2007,
at 19.1 percent and 7.3 million. The
uninsured rate for Asians in 2008 was
not statistically different from 2007,
at 17.6 percent.41 Among Hispanics,
the uninsured rate decreased to 30.7
percent in 2008, from 32.1 percent
in 2007. The number of uninsured
Hispanics in 2008 was not statistically
different from 2007, at 14.6 million.

40
The percentage and number of people
covered by Medicaid in 2008, 14.1 percent and
42.6 million, were not statistically different from
the percentage and number of people covered by
Medicare in 2008, 14.3 percent and 43.0 million.
41
Due to the small sample size, the changes
in uninsured rates for Asians are better inter­
preted when viewed over a longer term. For
example, the uninsured rate for Asians increased
between 2004 and 2005, decreased between
2005 and 2006, increased between 2006 and
2007, and remained statistically unchanged
between 2007 and 2008.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 23

Table 8.

People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin Using 2- and 3-Year
Averages: 2005–2006 and 2007–2008
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

2005–20062

Race1 and Hispanic origin
90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval4 (±)
Number Uninsured
All races. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White, not Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
American Indian and Alaska Native. . . . .
Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific
Islander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic (any race). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage Uninsured
All races. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White, not Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
American Indian and Alaska Native. . . . .
Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific
Islander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic (any race). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Change
(2007–2008 average
less
2005–20062 average)3

2-year average

3-year average
2006–2008

2007–2008

90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval4 (±)

90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval4 (±)

Estimate

90 percent
confidence
interval4 (±)

46,330
34,892
21,010
7,436
857
2,208

362
321
255
178
63
97

45,905
34,716
21,035
7,329
773
2,103

424
378
301
207
71
112

45,998
34,595
20,935
7,328
857
2,289

426
377
301
207
74
117

94
–121
–101
–1
85
*186

566
502
401
275
96
153

142
14,874

26
235

138
14,625

30
270

144
14,664

31
275

5
39

41
353

15.5
14.6
10.7
19.7
31.7
16.6

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
2.0
0.7

15.5
14.7
10.7
19.7
32.1
16.3

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
2.5
0.8

15.3
14.4
10.6
19.3
30.7
17.2

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
2.3
0.8

*–0.2
*–0.2
–0.1
–0.4
–1.5
0.9

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.7
3.1
1.1

18.5
32.3

3.1
0.5

20.9
33.2

4.1
0.7

18.0
31.4

3.5
0.7

–2.9
*–1.8

5.1
0.8

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as
Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they
also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population
does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more
than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder.
About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000.
2
The 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/usernote/schedule.html>.
3
Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
4
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the
estimate. For more information, see ‘‘Standard Errors and Their Use’’ at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2006 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Table 8 displays the 2-year and 3-year
average number and percentage of
uninsured by race and Hispanic origin.42 Multiyear averages are provided
42
Data users should exercise caution when
interpreting aggregate results for the American
Indian and Alaska Native and the Native
Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander populations
because they consist of groups that differ in eco­
nomic characteristics. In addition, the CPS does
not use separate population controls for weighting the American Indian and Alaska Native and

the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
samples to national totals.

because sampling variation can result
in large single-year fluctuations for
relatively small population groups.
American Indians and Alaska Natives
had a 3-year-average (2006–2008)
uninsured rate (31.7 percent) that
was higher than the rate for Native
Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders
(18.5 percent). The 3-year average
also shows that the uninsured rate for
American Indians and Alaska Natives

24 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

(31.7 percent) was not statistically
different from the rate for Hispanics
(32.3 percent). Using 2-year aver­
ages, the uninsured rate for American
Indians and Alaska Natives for 2007–
2008 was not statistically different
from 2005–2006, at 30.7 percent. The
uninsured rate for Native Hawaiians
and Other Pacific Islanders was not
statistically different between 2005–
2006 and 2007–2008.

U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 8.

Uninsured Children by Poverty Status, Age, and Race
and Hispanic Origin: 2008
(Percent)
9.9

All children
Children in poverty

15.7
Age

8.7

Under 6 years

9.2

6 to 11 years

11.6

12 to 17 years
Race1 and Hispanic origin

White, not Hispanic

6.7

Black

10.7

Asian

10.9

Hispanic (any race)

17.2

1
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. This
figure shows data using the race-alone concept. For example, Asian refers to people who
reported Asian and no other race.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 Annual Social and
Economic Supplement.

Economic Status

people with higher incomes (Table
7). In 2008, 24.5 percent of people
in households with annual incomes
of less than $25,000 had no health
insurance coverage. Uninsured rates
decreased for each consecutive
household income group to 21.4 per­
cent for households with incomes of
$25,000 to $49,999; 14.0 percent for
households with incomes of $50,000
to $74,999; and 8.2 percent for
households with incomes of $75,000
or more. Among the four household
income groups, the uninsured rate in
2008 was not statistically different
from 2007 in the lower two groups.
The uninsured rate for households
with incomes between $50,000 and
$74,999 decreased to 14.0 percent
in 2008—down from 14.5 percent in
2007. The uninsured rate for people
in households in the highest income
group increased to 8.2 percent in
2008, from 7.8 percent in 2007.

The proportion of people not covered
by health insurance is lower among

Among 18- to 64-year-old workers in
2008 (people who worked at some

Nativity
The uninsured rate for the nativeborn population was statistically
unchanged at 12.9 percent in 2008,
while the number of uninsured for the
native-born population increased to
34.0 million in 2008—from 33.3 mil­
lion in 2007 (Table 7). The uninsured
rate and number of uninsured for the
foreign-born population were statisti­
cally unchanged at 33.5 percent and
12.3 million in 2008. Of the foreignborn population, the uninsured rates
and numbers of uninsured for both
naturalized citizens (18.0 percent and
2.8 million) and noncitizens (44.7
percent and 9.5 million) were statisti­
cally unchanged. The proportion of
the foreign-born population without
health insurance in 2008 was about
two and one-half times that of the
native-born population in 2008.

U.S. Census Bureau

time during the year), the percentage
with no health insurance coverage
was 18.7 percent—higher than the
18.1 percent in 2007. The number
of workers who were uninsured
increased to 27.8 million in 2008,
from 26.8 million in 2007. In 2008,
full-time workers were more likely
to be covered by health insurance
(82.8 percent) than part-time work­
ers (74.6 percent) or nonworkers
(74.0 percent).43 The percentage and
number of uninsured among full-time
workers in 2008, 17.2 percent and
20.9 million, were not statistically
different from those in 2007. The
percentage and number of uninsured
among part-time workers increased
to 25.4 percent and 6.9 million in
2008, from 23.4 percent and 5.8
million in 2007. The percentage of
uninsured nonworkers was statisti­
cally unchanged from 2007 at 26.0
percent.44 The number of uninsured
nonworkers increased in 2008 to 10.6
million, from 10.0 million in 2007.
Children’s Health Insurance
Coverage
In 2008, the percentage and num­
ber of children under 18 years old
without health insurance (9.9 percent
and 7.3 million) were lower than in
2007 (11.0 percent and 8.1 million)
(Table 7). The uninsured rate and the
number of uninsured for children are
the lowest since 1987, the first year
that comparable health insurance
data were collected.
The proportion of children not
covered by health insurance varied
by poverty status, age, race, and
Hispanic origin. Figure 8 shows that
children in poverty were more likely
to be uninsured than the popula­
tion of all children in 2008, at 15.7
percent compared with 9.9 percent.
Children 12 to 17 years old had a
43
Workers are classified as part-time if they
worked fewer than 35 hours per week in the
majority of the weeks they worked in 2008.
44
The percentage of uninsured part-time
workers (25.4 percent) was not statistically
different from the percentage of uninsured non­
workers (26.0 percent) in 2008.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 25

higher uninsured rate than those
under 12 years old, at 11.6 percent
compared with 9.0 percent.
In 2008, the uninsured rates were 6.7
percent for non-Hispanic White chil­
dren, 10.7 percent for Black children,
10.9 percent for Asian children, and
17.2 percent for Hispanic children.45
The uninsured rates for non-Hispanic
White children, Black children, and
Hispanic children in 2008 decreased
from their respective rates in 2007.
The uninsured rate for Asian children
in 2008 was not statistically different
from the rate in 2007.
Region
At 11.6 percent, the Northeast and the
Midwest had lower uninsured rates in
2008 than the West (17.4 percent) and
the South (18.2 percent) (Table 7). The
rates for the Northeast, Midwest, and
South in 2008 were not statistically
different from their respective rates in
2007. The uninsured rate for the West
increased to 17.4 percent in 2008—up
from 16.9 percent in 2007.
Metropolitan Status
The uninsured rate for people living
inside metropolitan statistical areas
was 15.4 percent in 2008, statisti­
cally unchanged from 2007 (Table 7).
The uninsured rate for people living
outside metropolitan statistical areas
was 15.2 percent in 2008, statisti­
cally unchanged from 2007.46 In
2008, the uninsured rate was higher
among people living in principal cities
(18.4 percent) than among people
living inside metropolitan statisti­
cal areas but outside principal cities
(13.5 percent).

CPS DATA COLLECTION
The information in this report was col­
lected in the 50 states and the District
45
In 2008, the uninsured rate for Black
children was not statistically different from the
uninsured rate for Asian children.
46
In 2007 and 2008, the uninsured rates for
those living inside metropolitan statistical areas
were not statistically different from the unin­
sured rates for those living outside metropolitan
statistical areas.

Additional Data and Contacts
Detailed tables, historical tables, press releases and briefings, and unpub­
lished data are available electronically on the Census Bureau’s income,
poverty, and health insurance Web sites. The Web sites may be accessed
through the Census Bureau’s home page at <www.census.gov> or directly at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/income.html> for income data,
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/poverty.html> for poverty data, and
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/hlthins.html> for health insurance data.
Microdata are available for download by clicking on “Data Tools” on the
Census Bureau’s home page and then clicking the “DataFerrett” link.
Technical methods have been applied to Current Population Survey (CPS)
microdata to avoid disclosing the identities of individuals from whom data
were collected.
For assistance with income, poverty, or health insurance data or questions
about them, contact the Data Integration Division’s Information Resources
and Dissemination Branch at 301-763-3242 or toll-free at 1-866-758-1060,
or search your topic of interest using the Census Bureau’s “Question and
Answer Center” found at <ask.census.gov>.

of Columbia and does not represent
residents of Puerto Rico and U.S.
island areas.47 It is based on a sample
of about 100,000 addresses. The
estimates in this report are controlled
to national population estimates by
age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin.
The population controls used to pre­
pare estimates for 1999 to 2008 were
based on the results from Census
2000 and are updated annually using
administrative records for such things
as births, deaths, emigration, and
immigration.
The CPS is a household survey primar­
ily used to collect employment data.
The sample universe for the basic
CPS consists of the resident civilian
noninstitutionalized population of
the United States. People in institu­
tions, such as prisons, long-term care
hospitals, and nursing homes, are
not eligible to be interviewed in the
CPS. Students living in dormitories
are only included in the estimates if
information about them is reported in
an interview at their parents’ homes.
The sample universe for the CPS ASEC

is slightly larger than that of the basic
CPS since it includes military person­
nel who live in a household with at
least one other civilian adult, regard­
less of whether they live off post or
on post. All other Armed Forces are
excluded. For further documentation
about the CPS ASEC, see
<www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps
/cpsmar09.pdf >.

COMMENTS
The Census Bureau welcomes the

comments and advice of data and

report users. If you have suggestions

or comments, please write to:

Charles Nelson

Assistant Division Chief for Income,

Poverty, and Health Statistics

Housing and Household Economic

Statistics Division

U.S. Census Bureau
Washington, DC 20233-8500
or send e-mail to
<charles.t.nelson@census.gov>.

47
U.S. island areas include American Samoa,
Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands of the
United States.

26 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

APPENDIX A.
ESTIMATES OF INCOME
How Income Is Measured
For each person 15 years and older
in the sample, the Annual Social and
Economic Supplement (ASEC) asks
questions on the amount of money
income received in the preceding cal­
endar year from each of the following
sources:

Recessions
Peak month

Year

Trough month

Year

1948
1953
1957
1960
1969
1973
1980
1981
1990
2001
2007

October
May
April
February
November
March
July
November
March
November

1949
1954
1958
1961
1970
1975
1980
1982
1991
2001

5. Supplemental security income

November
July
August
April
December
November
January
July
July
March
December

6. Public assistance

Source:

1. Earnings
2. Unemployment compensation
3. Workers’ compensation
4. Social security

7. Veterans’ payments

National Bureau of Economic Research
Cambridge, MA 02138
<www.nber.org>

8. Survivor benefits
9. Disability benefits
10. Pension or retirement income
11. Interest
12. Dividends
13. Rents, royalties, and estates and
trusts
14. Educational assistance
15. Alimony
16. Child support
17. Financial assistance from outside
of the household
18. Other income
It should be noted that although the
income statistics refer to receipts dur­
ing the preceding calendar year, the
demographic characteristics, such as
age, labor force status, and household
composition, are as of the survey
date. The income of the household
does not include amounts received
by people who were members dur­
ing all or part of the previous year if
these people no longer resided in the
household at the time of interview.

U.S. Census Bureau

The Current Population Survey (CPS)
collects income data for people who
are current residents but did not
reside in the household during the
previous year.
Data on income collected in the ASEC
by the U.S. Census Bureau cover
money income received (exclusive
of certain money receipts such as
capital gains) before payments for
personal income taxes, social security,
union dues, Medicare deductions,
etc. Therefore, money income does
not reflect the fact that some families
receive noncash benefits, such as
food stamps, health benefits, subsi­
dized housing, and goods produced
and consumed on the farm. In addi­
tion, money income does not reflect
the fact that noncash benefits are also
received by some nonfarm residents,
which often take the form of the use
of business transportation and facili­
ties, full or partial payments by busi­
ness for retirement programs, medical

and educational expenses, etc. Data
users should consider these ele­
ments when comparing income levels.
Moreover, readers should be aware
that for many different reasons there
is a tendency in household surveys
for respondents to underreport their
income. Based on an analysis of inde­
pendently derived income estimates,
the Census Bureau determined that
respondents report income earned
from wages or salaries more accu­
rately than other sources of income,
and that the reported wage and salary
income is nearly equal to independent
estimates of aggregate income.
Recessions
Recessions are defined by the National
Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Peak and trough months of recent
recessions are shown in the text box
above. The data points in the time
series charts in this report use July as
a reference for recessions.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 27

Cost of Living Adjustment

Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series
(CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods All Items: 1947 to 2008
Year
1947 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1948 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1950 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1952 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1955 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1956 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1957 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1958 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1961 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1962 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1963 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CPI-U-RS1 index
(December 1977
= 100)
37.5
40.5
40.0
40.5
43.7
44.5
44.8
45.2
45.0
45.7
47.2
48.5
48.9
49.7
50.2
50.7
51.4
52.1
52.9
54.4
56.1
58.3
60.9
63.9
66.7
68.7
73.0
80.3
86.9
91.9
97.7

Year
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CPI-U-RS1 index
(December 1977
= 100)
104.4
114.4
127.1
139.2
147.6
153.9
160.2
165.7
168.7
174.4
180.8
188.6
198.0
205.1
210.3
215.5
220.1
225.4
231.4
236.4
239.7
244.7
252.9
260.0
264.2
270.1
277.4
286.7
296.1
304.5
316.2

In order to accurately assess changes
in income and earnings over time,
an adjustment for changes in the
cost of living is required. The Census
Bureau uses the research series of the
Consumer Price Index (CPI-U-RS), pro­
vided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
for 1977 through 2008, to adjust
for changes in the cost of living. The
indexes used to make the constant
dollar conversions are shown in the
text box “Annual Average Consumer
Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS)
Using Current Methods All Items:
1947 to 2008.”

1
The 1977 and earlier indexes shown in this table have changed from those published prior to
2007. Earlier CPI-U-RS series issued by the Census Bureau erroneously indexed 1977 = 100.0 when,
in fact, the Bureau of Labor Statistics series has December 1977 = 100.0. The Census Bureau uses
the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ experimental CPI-U-RS for 1977 through 2008. The Census Bureau
derived the CPI-U-RS for years before 1977 by applying the 1977 CPI-U-RS-to-CPI-U ratio to the 1947
to 1976 CPI-U.
Note: Data users can compute the percentage changes in prices between earlier years’ data and
2008 data by dividing the annual average CPI-U-RS for 2008 by the annual average for the earlier
year(s).
For more information on the CPI-U-RS, see <www.bls.gov/cpi/cpirsdc.htm>.

28 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 29

See footnotes at end of table.

ALL RACES
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19859 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197612 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197413, 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196717 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and Hispanic origin of householder
and year

117,181
116,783
116,011
114,384
113,343
112,000
111,278
109,297
108,209
106,434
103,874
102,528
101,018
99,627
98,990
97,107
96,426
95,669
94,312
93,347
92,830
91,124
89,479
88,458
86,789
85,407
83,918
83,527
82,368
80,776
77,330
76,030
74,142
72,867
71,163
69,859
68,251
66,676
64,778
63,401
62,214
60,813

Number
(thousands)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

3.0
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.3
2.6
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.2
2.4
2.6
3.1
3.1
3.0
3.2
3.7

Under
$5,000

4.1
4.1
3.9
4.2
4.0
4.2
4.3
4.1
4.0
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.0
4.8
5.1
5.4
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.1
5.6
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.7
6.0
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.7
5.6
6.2
6.7
6.8
6.7
6.8
7.3

$5,000
to
$9,999

5.8
5.8
5.7
5.7
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.6
5.3
5.5
5.6
5.9
6.2
6.3
6.7
6.8
6.4
6.5
6.0
6.3
6.5
6.6
6.6
6.9
7.1
7.1
7.5
7.3
7.2
6.9
6.9
7.2
7.3
7.6
7.0
6.8
6.7
6.6
6.3
6.1
6.1
6.7

$10,000
to
$14,999

11.8
11.3
11.1
11.5
11.4
11.5
11.4
11.4
10.9
11.3
11.3
11.8
12.4
12.2
12.5
12.5
12.8
12.2
11.8
11.6
11.6
11.7
11.7
12.3
12.7
13.1
12.7
13.1
12.7
12.3
12.8
13.0
13.0
12.9
12.5
12.2
12.1
12.3
11.8
11.6
12.2
12.1

$15,000
to
$24,999

10.9
10.5
11.1
10.8
11.3
10.3
10.6
10.4
10.7
10.9
10.8
11.2
11.2
11.0
11.4
11.0
11.1
11.3
11.1
11.3
11.4
11.2
11.4
11.6
11.9
12.2
12.3
12.5
12.1
12.0
11.5
11.9
12.2
12.3
11.8
11.3
11.5
12.0
12.0
11.9
12.5
13.7

$25,000
to
$34,999

Percent distribution

14.0
14.0
14.1
14.1
13.9
14.6
14.5
14.8
14.3
14.0
14.3
14.4
14.6
15.4
14.9
15.7
15.5
15.7
15.7
14.9
15.0
15.2
15.3
16.0
16.3
16.3
16.6
16.1
16.3
15.7
16.1
16.6
16.5
17.3
18.2
16.9
17.4
18.7
19.1
19.1
20.3
19.9

$35,000
to
$49,999

17.9
18.0
18.1
18.0
18.1
17.7
17.9
17.9
18.4
18.4
18.8
18.9
18.7
19.2
18.9
18.5
19.0
19.4
19.9
20.1
20.0
20.0
20.3
20.1
19.8
20.3
20.5
20.9
21.4
22.0
21.8
21.8
22.4
22.3
22.0
22.7
22.8
22.5
22.6
23.4
22.8
22.2

$50,000
to
$74,999

11.9
12.0
11.7
12.2
12.1
12.2
12.5
12.5
13.0
12.7
12.6
12.1
12.6
12.2
11.7
11.8
12.4
11.9
12.3
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.3
11.9
11.9
11.1
11.1
11.2
11.6
12.1
12.2
11.8
11.5
11.0
11.4
11.8
11.2
10.3
10.6
10.5
9.6
8.3

$75,000
to
$99,999

20.5
21.4
21.3
20.4
20.1
20.6
20.2
20.6
21.0
20.9
19.6
18.4
17.1
16.5
16.1
15.4
14.6
14.9
15.1
16.1
15.2
14.8
14.0
12.8
12.1
11.2
10.8
10.5
10.6
11.1
10.9
9.8
9.2
8.5
9.3
10.2
9.4
7.7
7.7
7.6
6.4
6.1

$100,000
and over

50,303
52,163
51,473
51,093
50,535
50,711
50,756
51,356
52,500
52,587
51,295
49,497
48,499
47,803
46,351
45,839
46,063
46,445
47,818
48,463
47,614
47,251
46,665
45,069
44,242
42,910
43,212
43,328
44,059
45,498
45,625
43,925
43,649
42,936
44,091
45,533
44,632
42,798
43,219
43,557
41,995
40,261

Value

137
145
221
171
223
220
166
157
165
246
303
229
245
276
211
214
218
224
244
267
233
223
242
244
201
195
195
227
226
216
185
165
162
175
169
173
170
166
158
161
152
147

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2008

Table A-1.

68,424
70,207
71,089
69,862
68,923
69,148
69,238
70,790
71,436
70,731
68,404
66,466
64,392
63,041
61,966
60,787
58,399
58,464
59,731
61,228
59,492
58,762
57,653
55,466
54,208
52,188
52,077
51,762
52,401
54,047
53,699
52,107
51,342
50,137
51,561
52,658
51,945
49,222
49,489
49,554
47,511
45,029

Value

242
245
274
264
260
253
260
282
281
367
369
372
361
345
333
329
245
241
252
267
266
241
234
219
199
195
193
189
192
205
206
159
158
156
161
160
161
156
158
156
152
147

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

30 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

90,682
90,030
88,893
87,212
86,106
85,059
84,511
83,737
82,387
81,795
81,675
80,968
80,163
79,734
78,519
77,284
76,576
75,328
74,376
73,182
72,845
71,872
70,766
68,028
66,934
65,353
64,392
62,984
61,965
60,618
59,463
57,575
56,248
55,394
54,188

WHITE19
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19859 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197612 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197413, 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196717 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

95,297
95,112
94,705
93,588
92,880
91,962
91,645

Number
(thousands)

WHITE ALONE18
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and Hispanic origin of householder
and year

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

2.1
2.0
1.8
2.1
2.1
1.9
1.9
2.2
2.2
2.1
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.3
2.3
2.1
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.7
2.8
2.6
2.9
3.4

2.5
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.5
2.2

Under
$5,000

3.5
3.4
3.3
3.7
4.0
4.2
4.0
4.1
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.1
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.9
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.0
4.8
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.1
4.9
5.0
5.5
6.1
6.3
6.0
6.2
6.7

3.4
3.4
3.2
3.5
3.4
3.5
3.6

$5,000
to
$9,999

5.3
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.4
5.7
5.9
6.3
6.2
6.0
5.9
5.5
5.8
6.0
6.1
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.5
7.0
6.8
6.6
6.3
6.4
6.7
6.7
7.0
6.5
6.3
6.1
6.1
5.8
5.8
5.7
6.1

5.5
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.6
5.6
5.5

$10,000
to
$14,999

11.1
10.5
11.0
10.8
11.5
12.0
11.8
12.0
12.1
12.3
11.9
11.5
11.2
11.0
11.1
11.2
11.8
12.1
12.6
12.1
12.5
12.1
11.7
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.4
11.9
11.6
11.3
11.7
11.2
10.8
11.4
11.4

11.5
11.0
10.7
11.1
11.0
11.1
11.0

$15,000
to
$24,999

10.1
10.4
10.7
10.6
11.0
11.0
10.8
11.4
10.8
10.9
11.2
11.0
11.1
11.3
11.1
11.3
11.5
11.8
12.1
12.2
12.4
11.9
11.8
11.4
11.7
12.0
12.1
11.5
10.9
11.2
11.7
11.6
11.5
12.2
13.4

10.6
10.3
10.9
10.7
11.1
10.2
10.4

$25,000
to
$34,999

Percent distribution

14.8
14.2
14.0
14.3
14.4
14.8
15.5
15.1
15.9
15.8
15.9
16.0
15.1
15.2
15.4
15.4
16.2
16.5
16.7
16.9
16.4
16.6
15.9
16.2
16.8
16.6
17.5
18.5
17.0
17.7
19.0
19.4
19.3
20.8
20.4

13.9
13.9
14.1
14.3
13.9
14.5
14.3

$35,000
to
$49,999

18.2
18.6
18.8
19.3
19.3
19.2
19.6
19.4
19.3
19.6
20.0
20.5
20.8
20.8
20.9
21.0
20.8
20.6
21.1
21.2
21.7
22.3
22.8
22.7
22.6
23.2
23.1
22.9
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.6
24.5
23.9
23.3

18.4
18.3
18.6
18.3
18.4
18.1
18.4

$50,000
to
$74,999

13.1
13.6
13.3
13.2
12.6
13.1
12.7
12.2
12.5
13.1
12.5
13.0
13.0
13.1
13.1
12.9
12.4
12.5
11.7
11.7
11.8
12.2
12.7
12.8
12.5
12.2
11.6
11.9
12.6
11.8
10.9
11.1
11.2
10.2
8.8

12.5
12.5
12.2
12.8
12.6
12.6
13.1

$75,000
to
$99,999

21.8
22.2
22.0
20.8
19.7
18.2
17.6
17.3
16.5
15.7
16.0
16.1
17.1
16.2
15.7
15.0
13.8
13.0
12.1
11.7
11.4
11.4
11.9
11.7
10.5
10.0
9.1
10.1
11.0
10.2
8.3
8.2
8.2
6.8
6.5

21.7
22.7
22.6
21.6
21.4
21.9
21.5

$100,000
and over

54,140
54,908
54,692
53,969
52,128
50,779
50,174
48,885
48,362
48,428
48,670
49,875
50,978
50,335
49,783
49,061
47,531
46,674
44,999
45,238
45,779
46,482
47,704
47,430
46,190
45,723
44,901
46,111
47,720
46,822
44,766
45,015
45,457
43,726
41,985

52,312
54,117
54,113
53,550
53,184
53,419
53,960

Value

254
243
277
270
330
262
262
274
282
235
236
228
248
297
250
238
254
235
203
206
211
239
227
209
194
189
164
173
182
180
171
173
166
163
152

152
160
157
234
209
210
219

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2008—Con.

Table A-1.

73,592
74,085
73,301
71,507
69,422
66,949
65,553
64,697
63,511
61,036
60,932
62,141
63,778
62,030
61,273
60,054
57,742
56,444
54,354
54,223
53,931
54,515
56,178
55,689
54,142
53,317
51,989
53,470
54,694
53,966
51,004
51,220
51,392
49,220
46,675

71,191
73,033
73,798
72,749
71,708
72,099
72,008

Value

316
318
415
421
423
396
380
376
367
272
265
278
295
292
265
257
242
219
212
212
204
209
224
224
175
172
171
173
173
175
166
168
171
163
158

274
278
308
301
295
289
293

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 31
80,818
80,527
79,819
78,577
77,936
77,240
76,932
77,004
75,697
75,107
75,625
75,035
74,495
74,067
73,120
72,067
71,540
70,586
(NA)
69,214
68,996
68,106
67,203
64,836
63,721
62,365
61,533
60,164
59,236
58,005
15,056
14,976
14,709
14,399
14,151
13,969
13,778

WHITE, NOT HISPANIC19
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19859 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197612 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197413, 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BLACK ALONE OR IN COMBINATION
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

82,884
82,765
82,675
82,003
81,628
81,148
81,166

Number
(thousands)

WHITE ALONE, NOT HISPANIC18
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and Hispanic origin of householder
and year

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

6.0
6.1
6.4
6.2
7.0
6.2
6.0

2.0
1.9
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.7
1.7
2.1
2.1
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.2
2.2
2.1
1.8
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.9
2.1
2.3

2.2
2.1
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.1

Under
$5,000

8.5
8.6
8.1
9.0
8.2
8.6
8.6

3.4
3.3
3.1
3.4
3.6
3.8
3.6
3.8
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
3.9
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.5
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.9
4.9
5.0
4.9
5.0
5.5

3.2
3.2
3.0
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.5

$5,000
to
$9,999

8.3
8.7
8.8
8.5
8.8
8.6
8.5

5.1
4.9
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.5
5.5
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.8
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.8
6.6
6.5
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.5
6.9
6.4
6.3
6.0

5.2
5.2
5.0
5.1
5.4
5.4
5.3

$10,000
to
$14,999

14.5
14.0
14.5
15.6
14.1
14.8
14.8

10.6
10.0
10.5
10.3
11.1
11.4
11.3
11.7
11.7
11.9
11.5
11.1
10.9
10.7
10.8
10.8
11.4
11.8
12.3
11.8
12.3
11.8
11.5
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.2
11.6
11.4
11.1

11.0
10.5
10.2
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5

$15,000
to
$24,999

13.4
12.3
13.3
12.2
13.2
12.0
12.4

9.8
10.1
10.3
10.2
10.6
10.7
10.5
11.2
10.6
10.7
11.1
10.9
10.8
11.1
10.9
11.1
11.4
11.6
11.9
12.1
12.2
11.7
11.6
11.2
11.5
11.9
12.0
11.3
10.6
10.9

10.0
9.8
10.5
10.2
10.6
9.8
9.9

$25,000
to
$34,999

Percent distribution

15.6
14.7
14.4
14.5
14.9
15.4
15.8

14.3
13.9
13.7
14.0
14.2
14.7
15.4
15.0
15.7
15.7
15.9
15.9
15.0
15.1
15.3
15.4
16.2
16.5
16.6
16.8
16.3
16.5
15.8
16.1
16.7
16.6
17.4
18.4
16.9
17.5

13.5
13.5
13.7
13.8
13.5
14.1
13.9

$35,000
to
$49,999

15.4
16.2
15.9
15.8
15.8
15.7
15.0

18.3
18.5
18.9
19.6
19.4
19.5
20.1
19.7
19.7
19.8
20.2
20.7
21.0
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.1
20.9
21.4
21.5
21.9
22.5
23.0
22.8
22.8
23.4
23.4
23.1
23.7
24.0

18.6
18.3
18.6
18.4
18.5
18.2
18.4

$50,000
to
$74,999

8.2
8.6
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

13.4
13.9
13.6
13.7
13.2
13.6
13.2
12.6
12.8
13.5
12.9
13.4
13.3
13.4
13.4
13.3
12.8
12.8
12.0
11.9
12.1
12.5
13.0
13.0
12.8
12.5
11.9
12.2
12.8
12.1

13.0
12.9
12.6
13.2
13.0
13.1
13.6

$75,000
to
$99,999

10.1
10.8
10.5
9.8
9.4
10.1
10.2

23.1
23.5
23.2
22.0
20.9
19.2
18.6
18.1
17.3
16.4
16.6
16.8
17.8
16.9
16.4
15.5
14.3
13.5
12.5
12.1
11.7
11.7
12.3
12.0
10.8
10.3
9.4
10.4
11.3
10.5

23.2
24.4
24.1
23.1
22.8
23.3
22.8

$100,000
and over

34,345
35,401
34,313
34,139
34,464
34,756
34,920

56,314
57,042
57,059
55,983
54,274
53,001
52,155
50,463
50,142
50,054
49,832
51,015
52,074
51,722
51,152
50,176
48,600
47,643
(NA)
45,997
46,440
47,306
48,375
48,323
47,106
46,656
45,240
46,505
48,140
47,490

55,530
57,030
55,982
56,009
55,751
55,931
56,131

Value

439
483
254
325
316
437
460

234
229
361
322
284
363
272
267
293
310
245
238
255
304
285
259
248
264
(NA)
231
236
108
268
254
265
272
240
228
225
226

225
256
201
190
255
270
220

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2008—Con.

Table A-1.

46,679
48,630
48,581
47,123
46,460
47,197
48,273

75,942
76,339
75,705
73,797
71,647
68,974
67,691
66,345
65,186
62,586
62,239
63,518
65,056
63,296
62,471
61,246
58,866
57,425
(NA)
55,020
54,610
55,232
56,828
56,347
54,812
54,002
52,626
54,073
55,305
54,592

74,102
75,994
76,615
75,662
74,386
74,791
74,341

Value

488
532
596
513
494
500
563

344
343
448
451
(NA)
(NA)
405
394
389
289
278
287
319
297
290
281
267
257
(NA)
236
227
249
249
242
259
241
255
236
234
244

303
306
339
334
324
317
316

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

32 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

13,315
13,174
12,838
12,579
12,474
12,109
11,577
11,655
11,281
11,269
11,083
10,671
10,486
10,561
10,192
9,922
9,797
9,480
9,236
8,916
8,961
8,847
8,586
8,066
7,977
7,776
7,489
7,263
7,040
6,809
6,578
6,180
6,053
5,870
5,728

BLACK19
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19859 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197612 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197413, 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196717 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

14,595
14,551
14,354
14,002
13,809
13,629
13,465

Number
(thousands)

BLACK ALONE20
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and Hispanic origin of householder
and year

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

5.6
4.9
4.7
5.8
5.5
5.6
5.5
5.8
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.2
5.8
5.2
5.8
6.6
5.6
5.6
6.5
6.0
5.6
5.1
4.6
4.0
3.7
4.0
4.5
4.3
4.8
5.2
6.0
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.8

6.0
6.1
6.4
6.2
7.0
6.3
6.0

Under
$5,000

8.4
8.2
8.9
9.9
9.8
10.4
10.8
12.1
11.9
13.6
13.1
13.2
12.9
13.9
13.9
13.6
13.3
13.8
14.0
14.0
13.8
13.9
12.6
13.0
12.8
12.0
13.1
12.6
11.2
12.0
12.3
12.4
12.2
12.6
13.2

8.6
8.7
8.1
9.1
8.2
8.7
8.7

$5,000
to
$9,999

8.0
7.3
8.3
8.7
9.0
9.5
9.5
9.7
11.3
10.0
10.6
9.6
9.5
10.8
10.7
9.8
10.8
11.2
11.6
11.6
12.1
11.6
11.6
11.5
11.1
12.6
12.5
11.1
11.5
11.8
11.6
10.2
9.7
10.3
12.4

8.4
8.7
8.8
8.5
8.9
8.5
8.5

$10,000
to
$14,999

14.4
14.3
14.5
15.2
14.7
16.0
15.6
16.2
15.6
16.1
15.3
15.0
14.8
15.7
15.3
15.8
16.5
17.5
16.8
17.3
18.0
17.7
17.5
17.2
19.5
18.4
17.3
18.1
17.9
17.9
18.1
17.5
18.8
20.1
19.2

14.5
14.1
14.6
15.5
14.2
14.8
14.9

$15,000
to
$24,999

12.9
13.0
12.7
12.8
13.5
12.3
12.8
12.1
12.4
12.1
11.5
12.3
13.0
12.3
12.6
12.6
13.3
13.3
13.6
13.2
13.2
13.6
13.8
12.9
14.0
13.7
13.5
14.7
14.9
14.5
14.8
15.5
15.6
15.5
16.9

13.4
12.5
13.3
12.2
13.3
11.9
12.4

$25,000
to
$34,999

Percent distribution

15.4
15.2
14.1
14.2
14.6
14.5
14.9
13.5
15.1
14.0
14.5
14.4
14.0
13.8
15.0
14.3
14.2
14.4
13.8
14.5
14.1
14.2
14.2
15.5
15.2
15.2
16.2
16.5
15.7
15.4
16.3
16.5
17.4
16.5
14.4

15.6
14.6
14.4
14.6
14.9
15.5
15.8

$35,000
to
$49,999

16.2
17.6
16.4
15.5
16.3
15.2
15.8
15.0
13.4
14.4
15.3
15.3
15.8
13.9
13.9
14.8
14.8
13.1
13.9
14.9
13.9
14.1
15.2
14.8
14.5
15.6
15.2
14.3
15.7
14.7
13.8
14.0
13.8
12.9
12.0

15.4
16.2
15.8
15.8
15.7
15.7
15.0

$50,000
to
$74,999

9.1
9.0
8.9
8.5
8.6
8.7
7.9
8.0
6.9
7.2
6.9
7.4
7.1
7.7
6.9
6.9
6.8
6.7
6.1
5.6
5.9
6.4
6.8
7.2
5.6
5.8
5.3
6.2
5.2
5.8
5.1
5.3
4.4
4.1
3.1

8.2
8.6
8.2
8.3
8.5
8.5
8.7

$75,000
to
$99,999

9.9
10.5
11.6
9.4
7.9
7.8
7.2
7.6
6.6
5.8
6.1
6.5
7.1
6.6
5.9
5.6
4.8
4.5
3.7
2.9
3.4
3.5
3.7
3.9
3.5
2.8
2.5
2.3
3.3
2.6
2.1
2.4
2.1
1.9
2.1

10.0
10.6
10.3
9.7
9.3
10.0
10.1

$100,000
and over

35,840
37,093
36,065
33,442
33,506
32,087
31,414
30,208
28,660
28,199
28,995
29,825
30,317
28,694
28,414
28,265
28,279
26,589
25,536
25,639
25,689
26,779
28,007
28,503
27,257
27,188
26,955
27,422
28,090
27,330
26,443
27,399
27,477
25,784
24,377

34,218
35,219
34,139
34,033
34,304
34,705
34,739

Value

422
491
672
524
576
631
536
562
566
576
609
680
617
598
544
555
550
511
479
411
432
505
511
603
366
337
397
331
437
410
393
376
405
374
406

441
493
257
332
357
452
468

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2008—Con.

Table A-1.

47,732
48,984
49,700
45,034
44,090
44,355
42,646
42,034
39,953
38,266
38,608
39,627
40,229
39,310
38,366
37,922
36,896
35,461
33,964
33,734
33,746
34,755
35,937
36,427
34,924
34,737
33,647
34,105
34,882
34,524
32,767
33,456
32,710
31,403
29,292

46,533
48,423
48,190
46,822
46,316
46,980
47,886

Value

503
496
713
602
633
866
729
603
663
519
504
535
547
574
528
515
479
436
419
422
409
428
442
476
311
310
298
303
347
368
337
361
348
331
327

498
540
596
508
502
503
553

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 33
4,573
4,494
4,454
4,273
4,123
4,040
3,917
4,071
3,963
3,742
3,308
3,125
2,998
2,777
2,040
2,233
2,262
2,094
1,958
1,988
1,913
(NA)

ASIAN ALONE21
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER19
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

4,805
4,715
4,664
4,500
4,346
4,235
4,079

Number
(thousands)

ASIAN ALONE OR IN COMBINATION
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and Hispanic origin of householder
and year

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

4.0
3.2
3.7
4.2
3.9
3.4
4.4
3.9
4.4
3.7
3.3
3.8
2.8
2.4
4.3

4.5
3.6
3.4
4.1
3.5
4.7
4.0

4.3
3.6
3.3
4.1
3.5
4.5
4.0

Under
$5,000

2.4
2.3
2.7
2.9
3.4
3.8
2.3
3.2
4.1
3.2
3.9
2.7
2.0
4.2
3.0

2.5
2.8
2.8
3.0
2.9
4.1
2.4

2.5
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
4.1
2.5

$5,000
to
$9,999

3.9
3.6
4.6
3.6
4.2
5.0
5.9
4.8
6.0
4.8
4.4
4.2
5.4
3.9
4.7

4.8
3.9
3.9
4.1
3.7
4.3
3.8

4.8
3.9
3.9
4.1
3.7
4.4
3.9

$10,000
to
$14,999

8.0
7.1
7.1
8.7
8.4
9.2
9.8
10.2
9.6
10.3
8.7
9.5
8.3
11.5
12.2

8.6
8.1
7.1
7.9
8.1
9.3
8.7

8.7
8.0
7.0
7.8
8.1
9.3
8.6

$15,000
to
$24,999

8.5
8.0
7.8
8.8
8.6
8.5
7.3
8.2
9.8
8.9
10.5
8.2
8.8
8.1
9.0

7.6
7.4
8.4
7.2
8.2
5.3
8.2

7.6
7.4
8.3
7.2
8.2
5.5
8.2

$25,000
to
$34,999

Percent distribution

12.9
11.7
13.2
13.2
12.5
12.1
14.1
13.5
13.1
13.0
14.6
12.5
13.3
13.7
11.3

11.8
11.4
11.3
10.3
11.0
12.2
13.2

11.9
11.6
11.6
10.6
11.1
12.1
13.2

$35,000
to
$49,999

17.4
17.0
17.1
17.6
19.1
19.0
19.8
19.0
15.3
20.8
17.9
20.6
19.8
20.0
18.8

15.7
17.1
17.0
18.6
19.3
16.6
18.1

15.6
17.2
17.2
18.4
19.3
16.7
18.3

$50,000
to
$74,999

12.6
15.0
13.5
13.6
13.6
12.9
13.4
13.5
14.0
12.4
14.1
14.0
15.6
12.1
12.9

12.3
13.1
13.2
13.0
12.6
14.0
12.7

12.4
13.1
13.3
13.1
12.8
14.1
12.8

$75,000
to
$99,999

30.3
32.1
30.3
27.5
26.4
26.2
23.0
23.7
23.7
22.8
22.6
24.6
23.9
24.0
23.8

32.3
32.8
32.8
31.9
30.5
29.5
28.9

32.1
32.5
32.6
31.8
30.2
29.1
28.6

$100,000
and over

65,228
69,713
65,850
61,521
60,523
59,135
56,975
58,157
56,266
56,836
56,193
61,403
60,527
56,432
58,428

65,637
68,643
68,599
67,380
65,547
65,206
62,984

65,567
68,407
68,238
67,330
65,484
64,694
62,576

Value

1,557
1,189
2,321
1,712
1,683
2,119
1,429
2,204
2,767
1,640
1,813
1,819
1,636
2,319
2,172

1,386
1,438
1,788
785
1,393
1,281
1,102

1,413
1,439
1,727
804
1,320
1,442
947

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2008—Con.

Table A-1.

88,973
91,018
87,077
79,423
78,769
77,269
77,476
75,512
73,722
70,442
71,346
74,119
75,244
70,552
(NA)

86,185
88,285
94,287
88,337
87,219
81,916
83,834

86,323
87,810
93,470
88,228
86,779
81,259
83,150

Value

2,100
1,889
2,207
2,294
2,441
2,771
3,126
2,691
2,968
1,937
2,103
2,098
2,190
2,107
(NA)

1,503
1,558
2,029
1,558
1,687
1,450
1,635

1,487
1,502
1,956
1,540
1,638
1,398
1,581

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

34 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

13,425
13,339
12,973
12,519
12,178
11,693
11,339
10,499
10,034
9,579
9,060
8,590
8,225
7,939
7,735
7,362
7,153
6,379
6,220
5,933
5,910
5,642
5,418
5,213
4,883
4,326
4,085
3,980
3,906
3,684
3,291
3,304
3,081
2,948
2,897
2,722
2,655

Number
(thousands)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

4.0
3.5
3.4
3.7
4.1
4.1
3.8
3.5
2.9
3.1
4.0
3.7
3.5
4.1
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.8
3.8
4.0
4.1
3.6
4.1
4.1
3.8
3.3
3.6
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.9
2.3
2.9
2.5

Under
$5,000

5.3
5.1
5.1
5.4
5.1
4.8
5.0
4.6
4.9
4.9
6.5
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
7.9
8.0
7.6
7.7
7.4
8.8
8.6
8.0
8.3
8.6
8.2
7.6
6.9
7.6
6.5
6.0
6.2
7.9
8.0
6.1
5.5
5.3

$5,000
to
$9,999

7.5
6.9
6.9
6.5
6.8
6.6
6.4
6.8
5.9
7.1
7.8
8.3
8.0
9.8
10.3
10.1
8.9
8.9
8.5
8.0
8.2
8.7
8.9
9.6
9.4
10.8
11.2
9.3
8.7
8.5
9.2
9.5
10.2
9.4
8.8
7.4
9.0

$10,000
to
$14,999

14.6
14.6
14.5
15.2
14.7
15.5
14.9
14.9
14.7
15.3
15.0
15.3
17.7
17.0
16.1
16.6
17.2
16.6
16.4
14.4
15.3
15.6
16.4
17.6
16.0
16.1
16.7
16.8
17.1
15.6
16.3
16.7
17.5
18.2
18.3
17.1
17.9

$15,000
to
$24,999

14.5
13.8
13.4
14.0
14.9
13.5
14.0
12.9
13.1
14.1
13.9
14.4
14.7
14.3
13.8
13.6
13.5
13.5
12.9
14.4
13.9
13.5
13.9
13.3
13.8
14.8
14.5
14.6
15.0
15.4
15.2
16.0
15.5
15.6
14.8
17.4
16.4

$25,000
to
$34,999

16.4
16.4
17.1
17.1
16.2
17.9
17.0
17.9
17.4
16.8
17.0
15.9
15.3
16.6
15.8
17.9
16.9
16.8
17.5
16.1
16.3
16.6
16.1
16.6
17.0
17.8
17.3
17.9
17.8
18.2
18.4
19.1
17.5
18.7
20.0
18.8
21.3

$35,000
to
$49,999

16.9
18.3
18.1
17.9
18.2
17.1
18.1
17.5
19.0
17.9
17.0
17.5
16.3
14.9
16.4
15.0
16.5
17.3
18.2
17.8
17.5
17.1
17.4
16.9
17.1
16.2
16.4
17.8
17.4
19.0
19.7
18.8
18.5
18.4
19.3
20.7
18.1

$50,000
to
$74,999

9.2
10.1
9.4
9.3
9.1
9.4
9.6
10.5
10.8
10.1
8.9
7.8
8.2
8.0
7.6
8.1
8.3
7.9
7.9
9.7
8.6
8.7
8.0
7.7
8.6
7.0
7.8
8.2
7.9
8.1
7.8
6.5
6.8
5.7
6.6
6.7
6.0

$75,000
to
$99,999

11.7
11.2
12.1
11.1
11.0
11.1
11.2
11.4
11.3
10.8
9.9
9.2
8.1
6.9
8.1
7.3
6.9
7.7
7.4
8.4
7.6
7.3
7.3
6.3
5.6
5.0
4.7
5.2
5.1
6.0
4.8
4.4
3.3
3.1
3.9
3.7
3.6

$100,000
and over

37,913
40,165
40,346
39,668
39,064
38,629
39,618
40,820
41,470
39,730
37,371
35,617
34,033
32,069
33,647
33,580
33,976
34,982
35,660
36,752
35,606
35,058
34,398
33,328
33,539
32,680
32,515
34,755
33,961
36,048
35,748
34,458
32,924
32,257
35,069
35,276
35,334

Value

486
540
539
394
547
537
577
518
598
578
720
635
660
699
625
675
702
728
731
713
902
761
896
779
841
828
859
952
920
1,039
866
605
702
713
768
801
690

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

51,572
52,781
54,008
51,988
52,294
52,058
53,722
53,977
54,986
52,192
50,497
47,996
46,467
43,770
45,371
44,446
43,336
44,512
44,670
46,930
45,459
44,939
43,434
41,644
41,704
39,795
40,129
41,735
41,482
43,616
42,227
40,666
38,907
38,293
40,626
40,985
40,614

Value

534
556
619
523
639
576
718
682
791
927
1,074
968
1,075
982
1,132
935
681
712
736
806
964
832
714
677
813
764
814
797
826
876
854
628
633
680
662
667
690

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

(NA) Not available.
1
Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
2
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
3
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
4
Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions; 7,000 household sample reduction; and revised editing of responses on race.
5
Introduction of 1990 census sample design.
6
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or
decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99,999;
child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999.
7
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
8
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
9
Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design.
10
Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design.
11
Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to show 27 possible values from 51 possible sources of income.
12
First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation.
13
Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation.

HISPANIC (ANY RACE)22
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19859 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197612 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197413, 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and Hispanic origin of householder
and year

Percent distribution

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2008—Con.

Table A-1.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 35

Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.
Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.
Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls.
Implementation of new CPS ASEC processing system.
Beginning with the 2003 CPS, respondents were allowed to choose one or more races. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this single-race population does not imply that it
is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing the data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or
African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000.
19
For the years 2001 and earlier, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group.
20
Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category.
21
Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category.
22
Because Hispanics may be any race, data in this report for Hispanics overlap with data for racial groups. Being Hispanic was reported by 13.0 percent of White householders who reported only one race, 3.0 percent of Black householders who
reported only one race, and 1.9 percent of Asian householders who reported only one race. Data users should exercise caution when interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic population and for race groups because these populations consist of
many distinct groups that differ in socioeconomic characteristics, culture, and recency of immigration. Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 through 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

14
15
16
17
18

Table A-2.

Real Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers by Sex and Female-to-Male Earnings
Ratio: 1960 to 2008
(People 15 years old and older beginning in March 1980 and people 14 years old and older as of March of the following year for previous years.
Before 1989 earnings are for civilian workers only. Earnings in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling
error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Males

Females

Median earnings
(dollars)

Year
Number with
earnings
(thousands)
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Median earnings
(dollars)

Value

Standard
error

Number with
earnings
(thousands)

Value

Standard
error

Femaleto-male
earnings ratio

59,861
62,984
63,055
61,500
60,088
58,772
58,761

46,367
46,846
45,130
45,644
46,502
47,609
47,189

145
156
94
99
103
105
292

44,156
45,613
44,663
43,351
42,380
41,908
41,876

35,745
36,451
34,722
35,136
35,610
35,968
36,148

106
106
198
89
90
97
96

0.771
0.778
0.769
0.770
0.766
0.755
0.766

2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58,712
59,602
58,299
56,951
54,909
53,787
52,667

46,548
46,576
47,024
46,625
45,041
43,924
44,184

314
126
176
175
429
157
161

41,639
41,719
40,871
38,785
37,683
36,430
35,482

35,530
34,336
34,005
34,116
33,403
32,399
31,560

201
128
146
156
207
227
192

0.763
0.737
0.723
0.732
0.742
0.738
0.714

19945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51,580
49,818
48,551
47,888
49,171
49,678
48,285

44,325
44,616
45,403
45,358
44,201
45,822
46,619

178
172
171
341
331
188
205

34,155
33,524
33,241
32,436
31,682
31,340
31,237

31,900
31,909
32,139
31,686
31,655
31,467
30,791

158
141
153
151
203
211
220

0.720
0.715
0.708
0.699
0.716
0.687
0.660

19878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19859 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47,013
45,912
44,943
43,808
41,528
40,105
41,773

47,042
47,338
46,171
45,827
44,956
45,153
46,022

196
202
269
235
205
191
161

29,912
28,420
27,383
26,466
25,166
23,702
23,329

30,661
30,424
29,815
29,173
28,589
27,880
27,261

143
159
156
172
175
189
114

0.652
0.643
0.646
0.637
0.636
0.617
0.592

1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197612 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197413, 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41,881
42,437
41,036
39,263
38,184
37,267
37,916

46,303
47,026
47,642
47,336
46,295
46,422
46,713

234
185
164
223
182
182
201

22,859
22,082
20,914
19,238
18,073
17,452
16,945

27,856
28,057
28,319
27,892
27,866
27,305
27,446

122
144
157
126
138
138
134

0.602
0.597
0.594
0.589
0.602
0.588
0.588

1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196717 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39,581
38,184
36,819
36,132
37,008
37,068
36,645

48,452
46,956
44,557
44,367
43,899
41,567
40,480

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

17,195
16,675
16,002
15,476
15,374
15,013
14,846

27,440
27,169
26,514
26,340
25,841
24,173
23,391

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

0.566
0.579
0.595
0.594
0.589
0.582
0.578

196618 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196519 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1963 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

39,851
38,183
37,647
36,787
35,886
35,242
34,152

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

22,936
22,881
22,268
21,685
21,280
20,881
20,722

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

0.576
0.599
0.591
0.589
0.593
0.592
0.607

(NA) Not available.
1
2
3
4
5

The 2004 data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.

Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.

Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.

Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions; 7,000 household sample reduction; and revised editing of responses on race.

Introduction of 1990 census sample design.

36 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

6
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different
income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security
limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support
and alimony limits decreased to $49,999.
7
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
8
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
9
Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design.
10
Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design.
11
Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of
income.
12
First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation.
13
Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation.
14
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.
15
Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.
16
Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls.
17
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
18
Questionnaire expanded to ask eight income questions.
19
Implementation of new procedures to impute missing data only.
20
Full implementation of 1960 census-based sample design and population controls.
21
Introduction of 1960 census-based sample design. Implementation of first hotdeck procedure to impute missing income entries.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1961 through 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 37

38 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

20041
2003

2002

2001

20002

19993
1998

1997

1996

19954

19945
19936

19927
1991

1990

1989

1988

.
.
.
.
.

0.532
0.391
0.095
0.185
0.281

0.096
0.188
0.285

..
..
..

0.099
0.192
0.289

0.470
0.543
0.417

0.463

0.466

3.4
8.6
14.5
22.9
50.5

0.541
0.398

3.4
8.7
14.8
23.4
49.7

..

3.4
8.6
14.7
23.3
50.0

..
..

.
.
.
.
.

See footnotes at end of table.

Summary Measures
Gini index of income
inequality . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mean logarithmic deviation
of income. . . . . . . . . . . .
Theil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atkinson:
e=0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

0.098
0.192
0.289

0.545
0.411

0.469

3.4
8.6
14.6
23.0
50.4

11.17
8.66
3.58
1.98
4.78
0.41

0.097
0.190
0.286

0.543
0.406

0.466

3.4
8.7
14.7
23.2
50.1

11.08
8.50
3.54
1.98
4.76
0.42

0.095
0.187
0.283

0.530
0.397

0.464

3.4
8.7
14.8
23.4
49.8

11.22
8.57
3.56
2.01
4.83
0.42

0.095
0.186
0.279

0.514
0.398

0.462

3.5
8.8
14.8
23.3
49.7

10.75
8.37
3.54
1.98
4.69
0.42

0.098
0.189
0.282

0.515
0.413

0.466

3.5
8.7
14.6
23.0
50.1

10.63
8.38
3.56
1.98
4.65
0.43

0.096
0.185
0.275

0.490
0.404

0.462

3.6
8.9
14.8
23.0
49.8

10.58
8.10
3.46
1.95
4.56
0.43

0.092
0.180
0.268

0.476
0.386

0.458

3.6
8.9
14.9
23.2
49.4

10.42
8.29
3.49
1.95
4.62
0.42

0.093
0.181
0.271

0.488
0.389

0.456

3.6
9.0
15.0
23.2
49.2

10.44
8.20
3.40
1.93
4.65
0.41

0.094
0.183
0.272

0.484
0.396

0.459

3.6
8.9
15.0
23.2
49.4

10.60
8.22
3.42
1.93
4.64
0.42

0.452
0.378
0.090
0.175
0.261

0.093
0.179
0.266

0.450

3.7
9.1
15.2
23.3
48.7

10.11
7.85
3.32
1.91
4.52
0.42

0.464
0.389

0.455

3.6
9.0
15.1
23.3
49.0

10.33
8.10
3.37
1.92
4.61
0.42

0.092
0.180
0.268

0.092
0.178
0.266

0.454
0.467
0.385

0.471
0.387

3.6
9.0
15.1
23.5
48.9

10.64
8.07
3.35
1.93
4.65
0.42

0.456

3.6
8.9
15.0
23.4
49.1

10.57
8.18
3.40
1.95
4.68
0.42

0.080
0.160
0.242

0.416
0.323

0.433

3.8
9.4
15.8
24.2
46.9

10.34
7.86
3.23
1.89
4.60
0.41

0.078
0.156
0.237

0.411
0.313

0.428

3.8
9.6
15.9
24.2
46.5

10.22
7.66
3.20
1.88
4.51
0.42

0.078
0.156
0.236

0.402
0.317

0.428

3.8
9.6
15.9
24.0
46.6

10.12
7.58
3.16
1.84
4.42
0.42

0.080
0.158
0.239

0.406
0.324

0.431

3.8
9.5
15.8
24.0
46.8

9.99
7.59
3.17
1.86
4.44
0.42

0.078
0.155
0.236

0.401
0.314

0.426

3.8
9.6
16.0
24.2
46.3

10.21
7.52
3.15
1.86
4.45
0.42

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

11.08
8.69
3.61
2.01
4.84
0.42

Shares of Household
Income of Quintiles
Lowest quintile . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . .
Third quintile . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . .

11.18
8.72
3.52
1.99
4.93
0.40

. 11,656 11,995 12,122 11,751 11,677 11,702 11,956 12,327 12,699 12,812 12,166 11,823 11,745 11,707 11,082 10,798 10,910 11,141 11,444 11,726 11,306
. 29,517 30,573 30,731 30,172 29,878 30,060 30,399 30,973 31,708 31,459 30,721 29,557 28,828 28,614 27,617 27,374 27,336 27,982 28,793 29,174 28,537
. 50,132 51,888 51,496 51,065 50,622 51,027 51,226 51,843 52,804 52,657 51,404 49,726 48,490 47,845 46,525 45,885 46,055 46,478 47,559 48,495 47,729
. 79,760 82,151 81,511 80,319 79,821 80,770 80,578 81,286 82,086 81,954 79,499 77,019 75,049 73,549 72,398 71,308 70,699 70,851 71,706 73,354 72,149
. 171,057 174,425 179,586 176,003 172,619 172,181 172,035 177,523 177,879 174,769 168,230 164,204 157,846 153,486 152,203 148,567 136,990 135,865 139,154 143,394 137,741

11.37
8.69
3.58
1.99
4.84
0.41

. 12,161 12,629 12,815 12,449 12,431 12,334 12,710 12,996 13,231 13,369 12,796 12,326 12,175 12,171 11,533 11,278 11,277 11,442 11,690 12,071 11,480
. 20,712 21,071 21,395 21,151 21,072 21,053 21,442 21,854 22,405 22,143 21,259 20,598 20,180 20,201 19,288 19,026 18,945 19,411 19,962 20,280 19,906
. 50,303 52,163 51,473 51,093 50,535 50,711 50,756 51,356 52,500 52,587 51,295 49,497 48,499 47,803 46,351 45,839 46,063 46,445 47,818 48,463 47,614
. 100,240 103,842 103,619 101,141 100,311 101,693 100,552 101,549 102,232 102,383 98,936 95,636 92,940 91,359 90,279 88,477 87,217 87,505 88,161 90,048 88,482
. 138,300 141,226 142,028 139,064 137,772 138,374 136,572 138,189 140,033 139,270 133,630 130,629 125,783 123,028 121,945 119,937 116,602 116,988 118,335 120,635 117,176
. 180,000 183,801 185,824 183,081 179,133 180,425 179,525 183,030 181,568 183,492 174,390 169,269 163,347 158,521 157,771 153,535 148,883 148,619 151,310 153,825 149,775

2005

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

2006

Mean Household Income
of Quintiles
Lowest quintile . . . . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . . . . .
Third quintile . . . . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

2007

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

2008

Household Income Ratios
of Selected Percentiles
90th/10th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95th/20th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95th/50th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80th/50th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80th/20th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20th/50th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Household Income at
Selected Percentiles
10th percentile limit . . .
20th percentile limit . . .
50th (median) . . . . . . .
80th percentile limit . . .
90th percentile limit . . .
95th percentile limit . . .

Measures of income
dispersion

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For
information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2008

Table A-3.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 39

198310
1982

1981

1980

197911
1978

1977

197612
197513

.
.
.
.
.

0.414
0.311

0.077
0.155
0.238

..
..
..

0.077
0.155
0.237

0.425
0.416
0.310

0.426

3.8
9.7
16.2
24.3
46.1

..

3.8
9.6
16.1
24.3
46.2

..
..

.
.
.
.
.

See footnotes at end of table.

Summary Measures
Gini index of income
inequality . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mean logarithmic deviation
of income. . . . . . . . . . . .
Theil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atkinson:
e=0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

0.415
0.391
0.290
0.073
0.147
0.225

0.403
0.300
0.075
0.151
0.231

4.0
9.9
16.3
24.6
45.2

0.419

3.9
9.8
16.2
24.4
45.6

9.55
7.21
3.06
1.85
4.36
0.42

0.072
0.147
0.226

0.397
0.288

0.414

4.0
9.9
16.4
24.6
45.1

9.61
7.10
3.04
1.85
4.31
0.43

0.072
0.146
0.226

0.401
0.287

0.412

4.0
10.0
16.5
24.5
45.0

9.49
7.15
2.98
1.80
4.33
0.42

0.070
0.141
0.220

0.387
0.277

0.406

4.1
10.1
16.7
24.8
44.3

9.22
6.88
2.89
1.80
4.28
0.42

0.069
0.140
0.216

0.375
0.274

0.403

4.2
10.2
16.8
24.7
44.1

9.09
6.78
2.86
1.78
4.21
0.42

0.070
0.141
0.216

0.369
0.279

0.404

4.1
10.2
16.8
24.6
44.2

9.15
6.69
2.85
1.76
4.14
0.43

0.069
0.139
0.213

0.363
0.275

0.402

4.2
10.2
16.8
24.7
44.1

8.90
6.66
2.79
1.75
4.16
0.42

0.069
0.139
0.213

0.364
0.276

0.402

4.2
10.2
16.9
24.7
44.0

8.74
6.63
2.80
1.77
4.19
0.42

0.068
0.137
0.211

0.361
0.271

0.398

4.3
10.3
17.0
24.7
43.7

8.70
6.48
2.76
1.74
4.08
0.43

0.067
0.136
0.210

0.361
0.270

0.397

4.3
10.4
17.0
24.7
43.6

8.53
6.43
2.72
1.73
4.07
0.42

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

9.69
7.24
3.05
1.85
4.38
0.42

Shares of Household
Income of Quintiles
Lowest quintile . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . .
Third quintile . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . .

10.09
7.53
3.10
1.85
4.49
0.41

. 11,117 10,823 10,713 10,730 10,382 10,261 10,454 10,723 11,073 11,162 10,794 10,847 10,586
. 28,256 27,839 27,149 26,724 26,080 25,967 26,041 26,687 27,541 27,410 26,567 26,553 26,002
. 47,240 46,586 45,064 44,287 43,117 42,983 43,139 44,038 45,407 45,259 43,949 43,667 42,661
. 71,405 70,181 67,785 66,683 64,702 63,926 64,305 64,878 66,634 66,298 64,393 63,414 61,987
. 135,793 132,836 126,620 122,612 118,795 117,245 114,868 115,675 119,585 118,366 114,828 112,231 109,443

10.23
7.49
3.11
1.86
4.48
0.41

. 11,308 11,212 11,253 11,245 10,801 10,842 11,040 11,195 11,346 11,567 11,334 11,196 11,134
. 19,581 19,206 18,970 18,751 18,386 17,995 18,227 18,604 19,348 19,136 18,558 18,597 18,193
. 47,251 46,665 45,069 44,242 42,910 43,212 43,328 44,059 45,498 45,625 43,925 43,649 42,936
. 87,686 86,186 83,159 81,675 79,299 77,979 77,914 78,316 80,156 79,619 77,675 75,936 74,083
. 115,681 113,116 109,073 107,433 103,787 102,836 101,777 101,759 103,757 102,977 99,067 97,372 94,969
. 146,728 144,522 137,403 135,204 130,466 128,721 125,390 126,035 129,520 127,373 122,985 120,424 116,907

1984

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

19859

Mean Household Income
of Quintiles
Lowest quintile . . . . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . . . . .
Third quintile . . . . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

1986

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

19878

Household Income Ratios
of Selected Percentiles
90th/10th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95th/20th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95th/50th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80th/50th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80th/20th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20th/50th . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Household Income at
Selected Percentiles
10th percentile limit . . .
20th percentile limit . . .
50th (median) . . . . . . .
80th percentile limit . . .
90th percentile limit . . .
95th percentile limit . . .

Measures of income
dispersion
1973

197215

197116
1970

1969

1968

196717

8.86
6.58
2.75
1.71
4.10
0.42

8.99
6.56
2.74
1.70
4.07
0.42

9.08
6.35
2.67
1.68
4.00
0.42

9.22
6.28
2.65
1.68
3.98
0.42

8.93
6.10
2.60
1.66
3.89
0.43

8.68
5.97
2.56
1.64
3.82
0.43

9.23
6.33
2.66
1.66
3.95
0.42

0.067
0.134
0.207

0.352
0.267

0.395

4.3
10.6
17.0
24.6
43.5

0.068
0.136
0.210

0.355
0.270

0.400

4.2
10.4
17.0
24.5
43.9

0.070
0.140
0.216

0.370
0.279

0.401

4.1
10.4
17.0
24.5
43.9

0.068
0.138
0.214

0.370
0.273

0.396

4.1
10.6
17.3
24.5
43.5

0.068
0.138
0.214

0.370
0.271

0.394

4.1
10.8
17.4
24.5
43.3

0.067
0.135
0.209

0.357
0.268

0.391

4.1
10.9
17.5
24.5
43.0

0.067
0.135
0.208

0.356
0.273

0.386

4.2
11.1
17.6
24.5
42.6

0.071
0.143
0.220

0.380
0.287

0.397

4.0
10.8
17.3
24.2
43.6

9,017
10,958 10,998 10,509
9,918
9,856 10,031
9,793
27,235 27,652 27,143 26,213 26,701 27,082 26,263 24,984
43,896 45,357 44,297 42,497 42,997 43,276 41,653 39,891
63,393 65,248 63,593 60,419 60,606 60,616 58,105 55,813
112,318 116,746 114,169 107,056 107,296 106,543 100,965 100,441

8.58
6.30
2.73
1.73
3.98
0.43

11,447 11,370 10,858 10,183 10,025 10,260 10,001
9,187
19,137 19,046 18,641 18,014 18,250 18,562 18,023 16,909
44,091 45,533 44,632 42,798 43,219 43,557 41,995 40,261
76,128 78,019 75,943 72,058 72,548 72,170 68,816 66,735
98,164 100,708 97,576 92,442 92,411 91,573 86,779 84,771
120,495 125,397 122,223 114,429 114,678 113,188 107,660 107,091

197413, 14

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For
information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2008—Con.

Table A-3.

40 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

0.0063
0.0001

0.0011
0.0017
0.0023

..
..
..

See footnotes at end of table.

0.0027

..

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.33

41
36
48
75
827

0.091
0.063
0.023
0.010
0.029
0.003

..
..

.
.
.
.
.

Standard Errors of Shares
of Household Income
of Quintiles
Lowest quintile . . . . . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . . . . . .
Third quintile . . . . . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . . . . . .

Standard Errors of
Summary Measures
Gini index of income
inequality . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mean logarithmic deviation
of income. . . . . . . . . . . .
Theil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atkinson:
e=0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

Standard Errors of Mean
Household Income
of Quintiles
Lowest quintile . . . . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . . . . .
Third quintile . . . . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

Standard Errors of
Household Income
Ratios of Selected
Percentiles
90th/10th . . . . . . . . .
95th/20th . . . . . . . . .
95th/50th . . . . . . . . .
80th/50th . . . . . . . . .
80th/20th . . . . . . . . .
20th/50th . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

83
107
137
306
583
922

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

Standard Errors of
Household Income at
Selected Percentiles
10th percentile limit . . .
20th percentile limit . . .
50th (median) . . . . . . .
80th percentile limit . . .
90th percentile limit . . .
95th percentile limit . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

2008

Measures of income
dispersion

0.0028
0.0063
0.0002
0.0014
0.0021
0.0027

0.0062
0.0001
0.0011
0.0018
0.0024

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.15
0.34

43
37
48
79
1,008

0.090
0.069
0.025
0.011
0.032
0.003

88
117
221
391
603
1,070

2006

0.0027

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.33

42
39
49
78
836

0.089
0.064
0.021
0.009
0.031
0.003

84
116
145
311
612
890

2007

0.0013
0.0020
0.0026

0.0063
0.0001

0.0029

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.15
0.34

43
38
48
76
944

0.090
0.076
0.028
0.010
0.031
0.003

85
118
171
355
592
1,232

2005

0.0013
0.0020
0.0026

0.0063
0.0001

0.0029

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.34

43
37
49
75
934

0.088
0.069
0.025
0.011
0.032
0.003

84
118
223
355
560
1,045

20041

0.0012
0.0018
0.0024

0.0054
0.0001

0.0028

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.34

43
39
49
77
885

0.091
0.062
0.021
0.011
0.032
0.003

84
117
220
374
593
834

2003

0.0012
0.0020
0.0025

0.0052
0.0001

0.0029

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.34

43
38
49
75
929

0.083
0.062
0.022
0.009
0.030
0.003

85
123
166
274
538
854

2002

0.0014
0.0022
0.0027

0.0051
0.0002

0.0030

0.03
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.35

44
39
50
76
1,048

0.083
0.063
0.023
0.010
0.029
0.003

89
121
157
294
524
919

2001

0.0013
0.0021
0.0026

0.0049
0.0002

0.0030

0.03
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.35

44
40
50
76
1,038

0.085
0.070
0.026
0.009
0.029
0.003

90
128
165
300
607
1,164

20002

0.0013
0.0021
0.0027

0.0059
0.0001

0.0041

0.03
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.35

44
40
51
77
913

0.083
0.065
0.024
0.010
0.029
0.003

90
123
246
320
584
1,022

19993

0.0015
0.0023
0.0029

0.0069
0.0002

0.0042

0.03
0.06
0.11
0.17
0.35

44
40
51
75
952

0.082
0.069
0.024
0.010
0.032
0.003

88
129
303
309
506
1,011

1998

0.0016
0.0025
0.0030

0.0067
0.0002

0.0043

0.03
0.06
0.11
0.17
0.35

42
39
48
73
978

0.091
0.065
0.022
0.011
0.034
0.003

92
122
229
424
540
884

1997

0.0016
0.0024
0.0030

0.0064
0.0002

0.0043

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.35

40
39
48
70
952

0.087
0.063
0.022
0.011
0.032
0.003

86
123
245
323
582
804

1996

0.0015
0.0024
0.0029

0.0063
0.0002

0.0043

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.35

40
39
46
70
895

0.084
0.064
0.023
0.010
0.031
0.003

87
113
276
343
533
942

19954

0.0015
0.0023
0.0028

0.0061
0.0002

0.0042

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.36

40
38
46
71
898

0.087
0.066
0.024
0.010
0.031
0.003

81
112
211
294
539
894

19945

0.0015
0.0024
0.0029

0.0061
0.0002

0.0042

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.36

40
38
46
70
898

0.085
0.063
0.022
0.011
0.033
0.003

81
114
214
332
419
763

19936

0.0007
0.0013
0.0019

0.0055
0.0001

0.0038

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.35

39
39
46
67
498

0.081
0.062
0.021
0.010
0.032
0.003

80
114
218
288
385
753

19927

0.0007
0.0012
0.0018

0.0056
0.0001

0.0038

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.34

40
39
45
67
474

0.082
0.061
0.021
0.011
0.032
0.003

83
118
224
317
420
760

1991

0.0007
0.0013
0.0018

0.0053
0.0001

0.0039

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.35

41
40
45
68
524

0.087
0.063
0.022
0.010
0.032
0.003

89
123
244
339
454
854

1990

0.0008
0.0014
0.0019

0.0053
0.0001

0.0040

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.35

42
41
47
68
579

0.095
0.062
0.021
0.009
0.031
0.003

89
126
267
279
727
821

1989

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For
information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2008—Con.

Table A-3.

0.0008
0.0014
0.0020

0.0055
0.0001

0.0041

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.35

41
40
47
67
525

0.089
0.066
0.023
0.010
0.032
0.003

89
125
233
311
476
930

1988

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 41
0.0007
0.0012
0.0018

0.0007
0.0013
0.0018

..
..
..

See footnotes on next page.

0.0057
0.0001

0.0038

0.0055
0.0001

0.0038

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.35

42
40
47
66
486

0.093
0.059
0.018
0.011
0.034
0.003

..

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.19
0.35

41
40
48
67
515

0.088
0.060
0.020
0.010
0.033
0.003

90
127
242
335
516
604

1986

..
..

.
.
.
.
.

Standard Errors of Shares
of Household Income
of Quintiles
Lowest quintile . . . . . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . . . . . .
Third quintile . . . . . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . . . . . .

Standard Errors of
Summary Measures
Gini index of income
inequality . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mean logarithmic deviation
of income. . . . . . . . . . . .
Theil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atkinson:
e=0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e=0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

Standard Errors of Mean
Household Income
of Quintiles
Lowest quintile . . . . . . . . .
Second quintile . . . . . . . .
Third quintile . . . . . . . . . .
Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . .
Highest quintile . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

Standard Errors of
Household Income
Ratios of Selected
Percentiles
90th/10th . . . . . . . . .
95th/20th . . . . . . . . .
95th/50th . . . . . . . . .
80th/50th . . . . . . . . .
80th/20th . . . . . . . . .
20th/50th . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

89
126
223
301
419
684

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

Standard Errors of
Household Income at
Selected Percentiles
10th percentile limit . . .
20th percentile limit . . .
50th (median) . . . . . . .
80th percentile limit . . .
90th percentile limit . . .
95th percentile limit . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

19878

Measures of income
dispersion

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0056
0.0001

0.0037

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.35

41
39
45
64
442

0.085
0.077
0.028
0.010
0.032
0.003

86
125
244
273
464
1,146

19859

0.0006
0.0011
0.0016

0.0055
0.0001

0.0037

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.35

41
38
45
64
390

0.079
0.056
0.020
0.010
0.030
0.003

85
113
201
290
370
676

1984

0.0006
0.0011
0.0016

0.0056
0.0001

0.0037

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.36

42
37
44
62
376

0.088
0.056
0.019
0.010
0.031
0.003

87
116
195
262
458
624

198310

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0057
0.0001

0.0038

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.20
0.36

42
38
43
61
378

0.084
0.062
0.021
0.010
0.032
0.003

87
115
195
290
394
742

1982

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0056
0.0001

0.0038

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.20
0.35

43
37
45
59
354

0.114
0.059
0.020
0.009
0.030
0.003

130
117
227
232
381
697

1981

0.0006
0.0010
0.0016

0.0051
0.0001

0.0036

0.03
0.08
0.14
0.20
0.36

43
39
45
59
383

0.110
0.057
0.019
0.010
0.031
0.003

128
122
226
273
432
668

1980

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0050
0.0001

0.0038

0.04
0.08
0.14
0.20
0.36

43
40
47
60
427

0.108
0.059
0.020
0.009
0.031
0.003

126
132
216
231
416
715

197911

0.0006
0.0011
0.0016

0.0054
0.0001

0.0039

0.04
0.09
0.14
0.21
0.37

44
41
47
61
425

0.102
0.059
0.020
0.010
0.033
0.003

127
132
185
295
341
696

1978

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0054
0.0001

0.0039

0.04
0.09
0.14
0.21
0.37

46
41
46
60
435

0.102
0.056
0.018
0.009
0.032
0.003

121
129
165
227
469
603

1977

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0054
0.0001

0.0041

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.21
0.37

45
41
46
58
431

0.099
0.059
0.020
0.010
0.032
0.004

121
132
162
263
342
694

197612

0.0007
0.0012
0.0018

0.0059
0.0001

0.0056

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.21
0.38

45
41
44
57
432

0.097
0.059
0.019
0.010
0.035
0.004

116
134
175
314
430
630

197513

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0058
0.0001

0.0066

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.21
0.38

48
43
43
60
437

0.096
0.068
0.022
0.009
0.036
0.004

122
163
169
215
354
795

197413, 14

0.0007
0.0012
0.0017

0.0057
0.0001

0.0040

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.22
0.39

46
46
46
61
473

0.100
0.063
0.018
0.010
0.037
0.004

121
161
173
250
364
570

1973

0.0078
0.0060
0.0001
0.0007
0.0013
0.0019

0.0063
0.0061
0.0001
0.0007
0.0013
0.0019
0.0007
0.0013
0.0018

0.04
0.10
0.16
0.23
0.40

49
46
43
57
483

0.115
0.064
0.017
0.008
0.037
0.004

121
162
158
187
298
570

1970

0.0060
0.0001

0.04
0.10
0.16
0.22
0.39

46
44
43
57
470

0.107
0.060
0.016
0.011
0.040
0.004

117
155
166
351
263
460

197116

0.0069

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.22
0.39

47
45
45
60
495

0.109
0.070
0.021
0.010
0.038
0.004

120
160
170
297
491
770

197215

0.0008
0.0014
0.0020

0.0058
0.0001

0.0066

0.04
0.10
0.16
0.23
0.40

48
47
43
56
493

0.113
0.066
0.020
0.008
0.036
0.004

124
165
161
200
352
701

1969

0.0007
0.0012
0.0018

0.0057
0.0001

0.0042

0.04
0.11
0.17
0.23
0.40

49
45
41
54
462

0.115
0.060
0.016
0.009
0.036
0.004

121
162
152
224
465
484

1968

(Income in 2008 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For
information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2008—Con.

Table A-3.

0.0008
0.0014
0.0020

0.0060
0.0001

0.0044

0.04
0.10
0.17
0.23
0.41

47
45
40
53
502

0.136
0.065
0.016
0.010
0.040
0.004

118
157
147
264
626
455

196717

42 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions; 7,000 household sample reduction; and revised editing of responses on race.
Introduction of 1990 census sample design.
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or
decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99,999;
child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999.
7
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
8
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
9
Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design.
10
Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design.
11
Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income.
12
First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation.
13
Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation.
14
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.
15
Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.
16
Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls.
17
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

1
2
3
4
5
6

APPENDIX B.

ESTIMATES OF POVERTY

How Poverty Is Calculated
Following the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive 14, the U.S. Census Bureau uses a set of
dollar value thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is in poverty (see the matrix below).

Poverty Thresholds in 2008 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years
(Dollars)
Related children under 18 years
Size of family unit
None

One

One person (unrelated individual):
Under 65 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 years and older . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11,201
10,326

Two people:
Householder under 65 years. . . . . . . . . . .
Householder 65 years and older . . . . . . .

14,417
13,014

14,840
14,784

Three people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Four people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Five people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Six people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seven people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eight people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nine people or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,841
22,207
26,781
30,803
35,442
39,640
47,684

17,330
22,570
27,170
30,925
35,664
39,990
47,915

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six

Seven

Eight or
more

17,346
21,834
26,338
30,288
34,901
39,270
47,278

21,910
25,694
29,677
34,369
38,639
46,743

25,301
28,769
33,379
37,744
45,864

28,230
32,223
36,608
44,656

30,955
35,426
43,563

35,125
43,292

41,624

Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

If a family’s total income is less than
that family’s threshold, then that fam­
ily and every individual in it are con­
sidered in poverty. The official poverty
thresholds do not vary geographically,
but they are updated annually for
inflation using the Consumer Price
Index (CPI-U). The official poverty
definition uses money income before
taxes and does not include capital
gains or noncash benefits (such as
public housing, Medicaid, and food
stamps).
Example: Suppose Family A consists
of five people: two children, their
mother, their father, and their greataunt. Family A’s poverty threshold
in 2008 was $26,338. Suppose also
that each member had the following
income in 2008:
Mother
Father
Great-aunt
First child
Second child
Total:

U.S. Census Bureau

$10,000
7,000
10,000
0
0
$27,000

Since their total family income,
$27,000, was higher than their
threshold ($26,338), the family would
not be considered “in poverty” accord­
ing to the official poverty measure.

and Their Subsequent History as the
Official U.S. Poverty Measure” by
Gordon M. Fisher, available at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www
/poverty/histofpovmeas.html>.

While the thresholds in some sense
represent families’ needs, they
should be interpreted as a statistical
yardstick rather than as a complete
description of what people and fami­
lies need to live. Many of the govern­
ment’s aid programs use different
dollar amounts as eligibility criteria.

Weighted average thresholds: Some
data users want a summary of the
48 thresholds to get a general sense
of the “poverty line.” The average
thresholds shown below provide that
summary, but they are not used to
compute poverty data. The averages
are based on the relative number of
families by size and composition.

Poverty rates and the number in
poverty are important ways of exam­
ining people’s well-being. Other more
detailed measures of poverty are
considered in the section “Depth of
Poverty Measures” and in the Census
Bureau report Supplemental Measures
of Material Well-Being: Expenditures,
Consumption, and Poverty 1998 and
2001 (P23-201).
For a history of the official poverty
measure, see “The Development of
the Orshansky Poverty Thresholds

Weighted Average Poverty
Thresholds in 2008 by Size of
Family
(Dollars)

One person
Two people
Three people
Four people
Five people
Six people
Seven people
Eight people
Nine people or more

10,991
14,051
17,163
22,025
26,049
29,456
33,529
37,220
44,346

Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 43

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

301,041
298,699
296,450
293,135
290,617

39,829
37,276
36,460
36,950
37,040

13.2
12.5
12.3
12.6
12.7

248,301
245,443
245,199
242,389
240,754

28,564
26,509
25,915
26,068
26,544

11.5
10.8
10.6
10.8
11.0

44,027
43,961
43,223
42,244
42,053

13,812
13,478
13,199
13,153
12,832

31.4
30.7
30.5
31.1
30.5

51,534
51,740
49,884
49,526
48,609

10,710
10,189
9,977
10,425
9,926

20.8
19.7
20.0
21.1
20.4

2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

287,699
285,317
281,475
278,944
276,208

35,861
34,570
32,907
31,581
32,791

12.5
12.1
11.7
11.3
11.9

238,903
236,921
233,911
231,909
230,789

25,684
24,534
23,215
22,347
23,830

10.8
10.4
9.9
9.6
10.3

41,311
40,529
39,261
38,375
38,580

12,413
11,657
11,223
10,926
11,764

30.0
28.8
28.6
28.5
30.5

47,594
47,156
46,392
45,624
43,977

9,713
9,618
9,226
8,653
8,400

20.4
20.4
19.9
19.0
19.1

1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

271,059
268,480
266,218
263,733
261,616

34,476
35,574
36,529
36,425
38,059

12.7
13.3
13.7
13.8
14.5

227,229
225,369
223,955
222,792
221,430

25,370
26,217
27,376
27,501
28,985

11.2
11.6
12.2
12.3
13.1

39,000
38,412
38,584
38,908
37,253

12,907
13,494
13,796
14,205
14,380

33.1
35.1
35.8
36.5
38.6

42,539
41,672
40,727
39,484
38,538

8,478
8,687
8,452
8,247
8,287

19.9
20.8
20.8
20.9
21.5

1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

259,278
256,549
251,192
248,644
245,992

39,265
38,014
35,708
33,585
31,528

15.1
14.8
14.2
13.5
12.8

219,489
217,936
212,723
210,967
209,515

29,927
28,961
27,143
25,232
24,066

13.6
13.3
12.8
12.0
11.5

37,861
36,446
34,795
33,795
32,525

14,636
14,205
13,824
12,578
11,668

38.7
39.0
39.7
37.2
35.9

38,038
36,842
36,845
36,056
35,185

8,388
8,075
7,773
7,446
6,760

22.1
21.9
21.1
20.7
19.2

19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

243,530
240,982
238,554
236,594
233,816

31,745
32,221
32,370
33,064
33,700

13.0
13.4
13.6
14.0
14.4

208,056
206,877
205,459
203,963
202,288

24,048
24,725
24,754
25,729
26,458

11.6
12.0
12.0
12.6
13.1

32,164
31,893
31,152
30,878
30,844

11,972
12,148
11,944
11,600
11,831

37.2
38.1
38.3
37.6
38.4

34,340
32,992
31,679
31,351
30,268

7,070
6,857
6,846
6,725
6,609

20.6
20.8
21.6
21.5
21.8

1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

231,700
229,412
227,157
225,027
222,903

35,303
34,398
31,822
29,272
26,072

15.2
15.0
14.0
13.0
11.7

201,338
200,385
198,541
196,963
195,860

27,933
27,349
24,850
22,601
19,964

13.9
13.6
12.5
11.5
10.2

30,049
28,834
28,587
27,565
26,927

12,072
11,701
11,051
10,120
9,400

40.2
40.6
38.7
36.7
34.9

29,158
27,908
27,714
27,133
26,170

6,740
6,458
6,490
6,227
5,743

23.1
23.1
23.4
22.9
21.9

1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

215,656
213,867
212,303
210,864
209,362

24,497
24,720
24,975
25,877
23,370

11.4
11.6
11.8
12.3
11.2

191,071
190,757
190,844
190,630
190,436

19,062
19,505
19,632
20,789
18,817

10.0
10.2
10.3
10.9
9.9

26,032
25,404
24,204
23,580
23,165

9,269
9,205
9,029
8,846
8,462

35.6
36.2
37.3
37.5
36.5

24,585
23,110
21,459
20,234
18,926

5,435
5,216
5,344
5,088
4,553

22.1
22.6
24.9
25.1
24.1

1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

207,621
206,004
204,554
202,183
199,517

22,973
24,460
25,559
25,420
24,147

11.1
11.9
12.5
12.6
12.1

189,361
189,193
188,242
186,692
184,891

18,299
19,577
20,405
20,330
19,175

9.7
10.3
10.8
10.9
10.4

21,823
21,264
20,153
19,673
17,995

8,178
8,114
7,797
7,503
6,879

37.5
38.2
38.7
38.1
38.2

18,260
16,811
16,311
15,491
14,626

4,674
4,883
5,154
5,090
4,972

25.6
29.0
31.6
32.9
34.0

1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197,628
195,672
193,388
191,413
189,710

25,389
27,769
28,510
33,185
36,055

12.8
14.2
14.7
17.3
19.0

183,825
182,558
181,117
179,281
177,653

20,695
22,771
23,809
28,358
30,912

11.3
12.5
13.1
15.8
17.4

18,048
17,788
17,240
16,371
(NA)

6,990
6,898
6,861
7,524
7,297

38.7
38.8
39.8
46.0
44.4

13,803
13,114
12,271
12,132
12,057

4,694
4,998
4,701
4,827
5,143

34.0
38.1
38.3
39.8
42.7

1963 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1962 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1961 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

187,258
184,276
181,277
179,503
176,557

36,436
38,625
39,628
39,851
39,490

19.5
21.0
21.9
22.2
22.4

176,076
173,263
170,131
168,615
165,858

31,498
33,623
34,509
34,925
34,562

17.9
19.4
20.3
20.7
20.8

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

7,646
7,781
7,252
7,247
7,014

47.7
50.3
48.1
48.9
49.4

11,182
11,013
11,146
10,888
10,699

4,938
5,002
5,119
4,926
4,928

44.2
45.4
45.9
45.2
46.1

ALL RACES

See footnotes at end of table.

44 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

240,548
239,133
237,619
235,430
233,741
231,866
230,376

26,990
25,120
24,416
24,872
25,327
24,272
23,466

11.2
10.5
10.3
10.6
10.8
10.5
10.2

197,763
195,944
196,061
194,277
193,024
192,074
190,823

18,558
17,141
16,644
16,782
17,445
16,740
16,043

9.4
8.7
8.5
8.6
9.0
8.7
8.4

27,010
27,159
27,057
25,943
26,139
25,536
24,903

7,340
7,188
7,160
7,021
6,892
6,530
5,992

27.2
26.5
26.5
27.1
26.4
25.6
24.1

41,810
41,931
40,461
40,164
39,712
38,913
38,575

7,982
7,505
7,334
7,718
7,416
7,225
7,105

19.1
17.9
18.1
19.2
18.7
18.6
18.4

2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229,675
227,846
225,361

22,739
21,645
22,169

9.9
9.5
9.8

190,413
188,966
187,833

15,369
14,692
15,353

8.1
7.8
8.2

24,619
24,166
23,913

5,972
5,609
5,947

24.3
23.2
24.9

38,294
37,699
36,441

6,996
6,454
6,411

18.3
17.1
17.6

1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

222,837
221,200
219,656
218,028
216,460

23,454
24,396
24,650
24,423
25,379

10.5
11.0
11.2
11.2
11.7

186,184
185,147
184,119
183,450
182,546

16,549
17,258
17,621
17,593
18,474

8.9
9.3
9.6
9.6
10.1

24,211
23,773
23,744
23,732
22,713

6,674
7,296
7,073
7,047
7,228

27.6
30.7
29.8
29.7
31.8

35,563
34,858
34,247
33,399
32,569

6,386
6,593
6,463
6,336
6,292

18.0
18.9
18.9
19.0
19.3

1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

214,899
213,060
210,133
208,611
206,853

26,226
25,259
23,747
22,326
20,785

12.2
11.9
11.3
10.7
10.0

181,330
180,409
177,619
176,504
175,857

18,968
18,294
17,268
15,916
15,179

10.5
10.1
9.7
9.0
8.6

23,224
22,453
21,608
20,845
20,362

7,199
6,907
6,806
6,210
5,723

31.0
30.8
31.5
29.8
28.1

32,112
31,170
31,207
30,833
29,993

6,443
6,147
5,872
5,739
5,063

20.1
19.7
18.8
18.6
16.9

19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

205,235
203,605
202,282
200,918
198,941

20,715
21,195
22,183
22,860
22,955

10.1
10.4
11.0
11.4
11.5

175,111
174,488
174,024
172,863
171,839

15,001
15,593
16,393
17,125
17,299

8.6
8.9
9.4
9.9
10.1

20,396
20,244
20,163
20,105
19,727

5,950
5,989
6,171
5,990
5,866

29.2
29.6
30.6
29.8
29.7

29,315
28,290
27,143
27,067
26,094

5,314
5,174
5,198
5,299
5,181

18.1
18.3
19.2
19.6
19.9

1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197,496
195,919
194,504
192,912
191,742

23,984
23,517
21,553
19,699
17,214

12.1
12.0
11.1
10.2
9.0

171,407
170,748
169,868
168,756
168,461

18,377
18,015
16,127
14,587
12,495

10.7
10.6
9.5
8.6
7.4

19,256
18,374
18,795
17,642
17,349

6,017
5,686
5,600
4,940
4,375

31.2
30.9
29.8
28.0
25.2

25,206
24,300
23,913
23,370
22,587

5,189
5,041
5,061
4,760
4,452

20.6
20.7
21.2
20.4
19.7

1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

186,450
185,254
184,165
183,164
182,376

16,259
16,416
16,713
17,770
15,736

8.7
8.9
9.1
9.7
8.6

165,193
165,385
165,571
165,661
166,081

12,050
12,364
12,500
13,799
12,181

7.3
7.5
7.5
8.3
7.3

16,877
16,721
15,941
15,577
15,433

4,371
4,474
4,463
4,577
4,278

25.9
26.8
28.0
29.4
27.7

21,257
19,869
18,594
17,503
16,295

4,209
4,051
4,213
3,972
3,555

19.8
20.4
22.7
22.7
21.8

1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181,185
180,125
179,398
177,376
175,349

15,142
16,203
17,780
17,484
16,659

8.4
9.0
9.9
9.9
9.5

165,424
165,630
165,184
163,875
162,779

11,412
12,268
13,566
13,323
12,623

6.9
7.4
8.2
8.1
7.8

14,303
13,739
13,502
13,226
12,285

4,003
3,770
4,099
3,761
3,577

28.0
27.4
30.4
28.4
29.1

15,761
14,495
14,214
13,500
12,570

3,730
3,935
4,214
4,161
4,036

23.7
27.1
29.6
30.8
32.1

1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

173,732
172,038
170,247
168,732
167,313

17,395
18,983
19,290
22,496
24,957

10.0
11.0
11.3
13.3
14.9

161,777
160,720
159,561
158,255
156,898

13,546
14,851
15,430
18,508
20,716

8.4
9.2
9.7
11.7
13.2

12,190
12,131
12,261
11,573
(NA)

3,551
3,453
3,646
4,092
3,911

29.1
28.5
29.7
35.4
33.4

11,955
11,318
10,686
10,477
10,415

3,849
4,132
3,860
3,988
4,241

32.2
36.5
36.1
38.1
40.7

1963 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1962 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1961 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

165,309
162,842
160,306
158,863
156,956

25,238
26,672
27,890
28,309
28,484

15.3
16.4
17.4
17.8
18.1

155,584
153,348
150,717
149,458
147,802

21,149
22,613
23,747
24,262
24,443

13.6
14.7
15.8
16.2
16.5

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

4,051
4,089
4,062
4,296
4,232

35.6
37.9
37.6
39.0
40.2

9,725
9,494
9,589
9,405
9,154

4,089
4,059
4,143
4,047
4,041

42.0
42.7
43.2
43.0
44.1

7

WHITE ALONE

2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHITE8

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 45

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

196,940
196,583
196,049
195,553
195,098
194,595
194,144

17,024
16,032
16,013
16,227
16,908
15,902
15,567

8.6
8.2
8.2
8.3
8.7
8.2
8.0

159,344
158,703
159,572
159,204
159,221
159,215
158,764

10,138
9,553
9,676
9,604
10,323
9,658
9,389

6.4
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.5
6.1
5.9

18,799
19,179
19,349
18,899
19,009
18,792
18,664

4,046
4,099
4,353
4,278
4,116
3,959
3,733

21.5
21.4
22.5
22.6
21.7
21.1
20.0

36,848
36,909
35,642
35,626
35,141
34,683
34,614

6,539
6,155
6,021
6,393
6,237
6,015
5,947

17.7
16.7
16.9
17.9
17.7
17.3
17.2

2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

194,538
193,691
192,565
192,754

15,271
14,366
14,735
15,799

7.8
7.4
7.7
8.2

159,178
158,838
158,550
159,301

9,122
8,664
9,013
10,061

5.7
5.5
5.7
6.3

18,365
18,196
17,892
18,547

3,661
3,412
3,545
4,074

19.9
18.8
19.8
22.0

34,603
33,943
33,189
32,573

5,882
5,356
5,412
5,352

17.0
15.8
16.3
16.4

1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

191,859
191,459
190,951
192,543
190,843

16,491
16,462
16,267
18,110
18,882

8.6
8.6
8.5
9.4
9.9

158,796
159,044
159,402
161,254
160,062

10,401
10,553
10,599
12,118
12,756

6.5
6.6
6.6
7.5
8.0

18,474
18,597
18,340
18,186
18,508

4,604
4,339
4,183
4,743
4,724

24.9
23.3
22.8
26.1
25.5

32,049
31,410
30,586
30,157
29,681

5,632
5,455
5,303
5,500
5,570

17.6
17.4
17.3
18.2
18.8

19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

189,001
189,116
188,129
186,979
185,961

18,202
17,741
16,622
15,599
15,565

9.6
9.4
8.8
8.3
8.4

159,102
158,850
158,394
158,127
157,687

12,277
11,998
11,086
10,723
10,467

7.7
7.6
7.0
6.8
6.6

18,016
17,609
17,160
16,827
16,828

4,640
4,710
4,284
3,922
3,988

25.8
26.7
25.0
23.3
23.7

28,775
29,215
28,688
28,055
27,552

5,350
5,261
5,002
4,466
4,746

18.6
18.0
17.4
15.9
17.2

19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

184,936
184,119
183,455
182,469
181,393

16,029
17,244
17,839
18,300
19,538

8.7
9.4
9.7
10.0
10.8

157,785
157,665
157,106
156,930
156,719

11,051
12,078
12,706
13,234
14,437

7.0
7.7
8.1
8.4
9.2

16,787
16,739
16,749
16,742
16,369

4,075
4,350
4,136
4,193
4,448

24.3
26.0
24.7
25.0
27.2

26,439
25,525
25,544
24,671
23,894

4,613
4,668
4,789
4,659
4,746

17.4
18.3
18.7
18.9
19.9

1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181,903
180,909
179,798
178,814
174,731

19,362
17,987
16,365
14,419
13,755

10.6
9.9
9.1
8.1
7.9

157,818
157,330
156,633
156,567
154,321

14,271
12,903
11,568
10,009
9,798

9.0
8.2
7.4
6.4
6.3

15,830
16,323
15,358
15,410
15,132

4,161
4,222
3,699
3,371
3,390

26.3
25.9
24.1
21.9
22.4

23,329
22,950
22,455
21,638
20,410

4,701
4,769
4,474
4,179
3,957

20.2
20.8
19.9
19.3
19.4

1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

173,563
173,235
172,417
171,463
170,488

13,802
14,025
14,883
13,217
12,864

8.0
8.1
8.6
7.7
7.5

154,449
155,324
155,539
155,764
155,330

9,977
10,066
11,137
9,854
9,262

6.5
6.5
7.2
6.3
6.0

14,888
14,261
13,809
13,763
12,731

3,429
3,516
3,570
3,379
3,185

23.0
24.7
25.9
24.6
25.0

19,114
17,912
16,879
15,699
15,158

3,825
3,959
3,746
3,364
3,602

20.0
22.1
22.2
21.4
23.8

WHITE ALONE, NOT
HISPANIC7
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHITE, NOT
HISPANIC8

See footnotes at end of table.

46 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

BLACK ALONE OR
IN COMBINATION
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK ALONE9
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK8
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19876. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unrelated individuals
Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

40,097
39,564
39,013
38,551
38,037
37,503
37,207

9,882
9,668
9,447
9,517
9,411
9,108
8,884

24.6
24.4
24.2
24.7
24.7
24.3
23.9

32,818
32,427
32,130
31,663
31,468
31,059
31,008

7,768
7,668
7,411
7,459
7,495
7,162
6,985

23.7
23.6
23.1
23.6
23.8
23.1
22.5

14,332
14,396
13,848
14,080
13,830
13,664
13,551

5,782
5,702
5,422
5,524
5,484
5,312
5,145

40.3
39.6
39.2
39.2
39.7
38.9
38.0

7,123
7,036
6,715
6,754
6,418
6,194
6,034

2,042
1,968
1,935
2,003
1,840
1,814
1,851

28.7
28.0
28.8
29.7
28.7
29.3
30.7

37,966
37,665
37,306
36,802
36,426
35,989
35,678

9,379
9,237
9,048
9,168
9,014
8,781
8,602

24.7
24.5
24.3
24.9
24.7
24.4
24.1

30,986
30,778
30,621
30,154
30,065
29,727
29,671

7,339
7,312
7,072
7,164
7,153
6,870
6,761

23.7
23.8
23.1
23.8
23.8
23.1
22.8

13,648
13,741
13,244
13,481
13,244
13,118
13,030

5,533
5,459
5,180
5,303
5,247
5,115
4,980

40.5
39.7
39.1
39.3
39.6
39.0
38.2

6,835
6,807
6,545
6,521
6,217
6,034
5,858

1,970
1,898
1,897
1,949
1,792
1,781
1,800

28.8
27.9
29.0
29.9
28.8
29.5
30.7

35,871
35,425
35,756
34,877
34,458
34,110
33,740
33,353
32,910
32,411
31,313
30,806
30,332
29,849
29,362
28,871
28,485
28,087
27,678
27,216
26,834
26,408
25,944
24,956
24,710
24,399
24,089
23,699
23,512
23,144
22,784
22,515
22,011
21,944
21,590
21,206
18,013

8,136
7,982
8,441
9,091
9,116
9,694
9,872
10,196
10,877
10,827
10,242
9,837
9,302
9,356
9,520
8,983
8,926
9,490
9,882
9,697
9,173
8,579
8,050
7,625
7,726
7,595
7,545
7,182
7,388
7,710
7,396
7,548
7,095
7,616
8,486
8,867
9,927

22.7
22.5
23.6
26.1
26.5
28.4
29.3
30.6
33.1
33.4
32.7
31.9
30.7
31.3
32.4
31.1
31.3
33.8
35.7
35.6
34.2
32.5
31.0
30.6
31.3
31.1
31.3
30.3
31.4
33.3
32.5
33.5
32.2
34.7
39.3
41.8
55.1

29,869
29,378
29,819
29,333
28,962
28,933
28,777
28,499
28,106
27,790
26,565
26,296
25,931
25,484
25,128
24,910
24,620
24,387
24,138
23,948
23,423
23,084
22,666
22,027
21,850
21,840
21,687
21,341
21,328
21,116
20,900
20,724
20,192
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

6,389
6,221
6,758
7,259
7,386
7,993
8,189
8,447
9,242
9,134
8,504
8,160
7,704
7,650
7,848
7,410
7,504
8,104
8,376
8,355
7,780
7,190
6,800
6,493
6,667
6,576
6,533
6,255
6,560
6,841
6,530
6,683
6,245
6,839
7,677
8,090
9,112

21.4
21.2
22.7
24.7
25.5
27.6
28.5
29.6
32.9
32.9
32.0
31.0
29.7
30.0
31.2
29.7
30.5
33.2
34.7
34.9
33.2
31.1
30.0
29.5
30.5
30.1
30.1
29.3
30.8
32.4
31.2
32.2
30.9
33.7
38.4
40.9
54.9

12,550
12,383
12,823
13,156
13,218
13,193
13,604
12,926
13,132
12,591
11,960
11,866
11,190
10,794
10,701
10,175
10,041
10,384
10,059
9,699
9,214
9,338
9,065
8,689
8,315
7,926
7,679
7,483
7,188
7,125
6,398
6,225
5,537
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

4,694
4,774
5,232
5,629
5,654
6,123
6,553
6,489
6,955
6,799
6,557
6,005
5,530
5,601
5,789
5,473
5,342
5,666
5,736
5,698
5,222
4,984
4,816
4,712
4,595
4,415
4,168
4,116
4,064
4,139
3,587
3,656
3,225
3,312
3,362
3,160
2,416

37.4
38.6
40.8
42.8
42.8
46.4
48.2
50.2
53.0
54.0
54.8
50.6
49.4
51.9
54.1
53.8
53.2
54.6
57.0
58.8
56.7
53.4
53.1
54.2
55.3
55.7
54.3
55.0
56.5
58.1
56.1
58.7
58.2
58.9
61.6
65.3
70.6

5,873
5,885
5,668
5,390
5,316
4,989
4,756
4,649
4,608
4,410
4,505
4,244
4,180
4,095
3,977
3,714
3,641
3,501
3,287
3,051
3,277
3,208
3,127
2,929
2,860
2,559
2,402
2,359
2,183
2,028
1,884
1,791
1,819
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
1,430

1,692
1,702
1,562
1,752
1,645
1,606
1,551
1,617
1,541
1,569
1,590
1,491
1,471
1,509
1,471
1,431
1,264
1,255
1,338
1,229
1,296
1,314
1,168
1,132
1,059
1,019
1,011
927
828
870
866
865
850
777
809
777
815

28.8
28.9
27.5
32.5
31.0
32.2
32.6
34.8
33.4
35.6
35.3
35.1
35.2
36.8
37.0
38.5
34.7
35.8
40.7
40.3
39.6
41.0
37.3
38.6
37.0
39.8
42.1
39.3
37.9
42.9
46.0
48.3
46.7
46.3
49.3
54.4
57.0

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 47

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

14,543
14,430
14,331
13,731
13,291
12,891
12,487

1,686
1,467
1,447
1,501
1,295
1,527
1,243

11.6
10.2
10.1
10.9
9.7
11.8
10.0

12,817
12,527
12,463
11,931
11,661
11,266
10,742

1,270
1,012
984
1,039
876
1,116
816

9.9
8.1
7.9
8.7
7.5
9.9
7.6

1,471
1,421
1,210
1,223
1,190
1,184
1,146

228
250
220
220
170
294
175

15.5
17.6
18.1
18.0
14.3
24.8
15.3

1,707
1,837
1,801
1,771
1,599
1,590
1,708

410
426
449
457
417
402
417

24.0
23.2
24.9
25.8
26.1
25.3
24.4

13,310
13,257
13,177
12,580
12,231
11,856
11,541

1,576
1,349
1,353
1,402
1,201
1,401
1,161

11.8
10.2
10.3
11.1
9.8
11.8
10.1

11,719
11,471
11,428
10,911
10,734
10,333
9,899

1,192
930
912
970
812
1,017
763

10.2
8.1
8.0
8.9
7.6
9.8
7.7

1,308
1,256
1,057
1,059
1,024
1,028
1,019

209
217
187
189
135
242
155

16.0
17.3
17.7
17.8
13.2
23.6
15.2

1,574
1,720
1,683
1,645
1,472
1,494
1,613

378
391
428
427
388
375
390

24.0
22.7
25.4
26.0
26.3
25.1
24.2

2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12,465
12,672
11,955
10,873
10,482

1,275
1,258
1,285
1,360
1,468

10.2
9.9
10.7
12.5
14.0

10,745
11,044
10,507
9,576
9,312

873
895
1,010
1,087
1,116

8.1
8.1
9.6
11.4
12.0

1,333
1,231
1,201
1,123
932

198
289
275
373
313

14.8
23.4
22.9
33.2
33.6

1,682
1,588
1,415
1,266
1,134

393
350
270
257
327

23.4
22.0
19.1
20.3
28.9

1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10,054
9,644
6,654
7,434
7,779

1,454
1,411
974
1,134
985

14.5
14.6
14.6
15.3
12.7

8,900
8,582
5,915
6,609
6,922

1,172
1,112
776
898
787

13.2
13.0
13.1
13.6
11.4

1,018
919
582
725
729

300
266
137
126
183

29.5
28.9
23.6
17.4
25.0

1,120
1,013
696
791
828

255
260
179
228
193

22.8
25.6
25.7
28.8
23.3

19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,192
7,014
6,673
6,447
6,322

996
858
939
1,117
1,021

13.8
12.2
14.1
17.3
16.1

6,367
6,300
5,917
5,767
5,785

773
712
779
942
875

12.1
11.3
13.2
16.3
15.1

721
638
614
650
584

177
132
212
263
187

24.6
20.7
34.6
40.5
32.0

785
668
712
651
516

209
124
144
160
138

26.6
18.5
20.2
24.5
26.8

ASIAN ALONE OR
IN COMBINATION
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIAN ALONE10
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIAN AND PACIFIC
ISLANDER8

See footnotes at end of table.

48 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47,398
45,933
44,784
43,020
41,690

10,987
9,890
9,243
9,368
9,122

23.2
21.5
20.6
21.8
21.9

41,732
40,125
39,177
37,759
36,438

9,303
8,248
7,650
7,767
7,705

22.3
20.6
19.5
20.6
21.1

9,265
8,917
8,652
7,868
7,825

3,751
3,527
3,189
3,069
3,072

40.5
39.6
36.9
39.0
39.3

5,417
5,508
5,317
4,971
4,971

1,577
1,490
1,468
1,451
1,293

29.1
27.1
27.6
29.2
26.0

2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40,300
39,216
37,312
35,955
34,632

9,051
8,555
7,997
7,747
7,876

22.5
21.8
21.4
21.5
22.7

35,469
34,598
33,110
31,700
30,872

7,637
7,184
6,674
6,430
6,702

21.5
20.8
20.2
20.3
21.7

7,452
7,013
6,830
6,469
6,527

2,861
2,554
2,585
2,444
2,642

38.4
36.4
37.8
37.8
40.5

4,620
4,364
3,981
3,978
3,481

1,325
1,255
1,211
1,163
1,068

28.7
28.8
30.4
29.2
30.7

1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31,515
30,637
29,614
28,344
27,442

8,070
8,308
8,697
8,574
8,416

25.6
27.1
29.4
30.3
30.7

28,055
27,467
26,340
25,165
24,390

6,814
7,198
7,515
7,341
7,357

24.3
26.2
28.5
29.2
30.2

6,074
5,718
5,641
5,785
5,328

2,837
2,911
3,020
3,053
2,920

46.7
50.9
53.5
52.8
54.8

3,218
2,976
2,985
2,947
2,798

1,097
1,017
1,066
1,092
926

34.1
34.2
35.7
37.0
33.1

1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26,559
25,646
22,070
21,405
20,746

8,126
7,592
6,339
6,006
5,430

30.6
29.6
28.7
28.1
26.2

23,439
22,695
19,658
18,912
18,488

6,876
6,455
5,541
5,091
4,659

29.3
28.4
28.2
26.9
25.2

5,333
4,806
4,326
3,993
3,763

2,837
2,474
2,282
2,115
1,902

53.2
51.5
52.7
53.0
50.6

2,717
2,577
2,146
2,254
2,045

972
881
667
774
634

35.8
34.2
31.1
34.3
31.0

19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20,064
19,395
18,758
18,075
16,916

5,357
5,422
5,117
5,236
4,806

26.7
28.0
27.3
29.0
28.4

18,102
17,342
16,880
16,276
15,293

4,700
4,761
4,469
4,605
4,192

26.0
27.5
26.5
28.3
27.4

3,734
3,678
3,631
3,561
3,139

2,052
2,045
1,921
1,983
1,764

55.0
55.6
52.9
55.7
56.2

1,864
1,933
1,685
1,602
1,481

597
598
553
532
545

32.0
31.0
32.8
33.2
36.8

1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,544
14,385
14,021
13,600
13,371

4,633
4,301
3,713
3,491
2,921

28.0
29.9
26.5
25.7
21.8

15,075
13,242
12,922
12,547
12,291

4,113
3,865
3,349
3,143
2,599

27.3
29.2
25.9
25.1
21.1

3,032
2,664
2,622
2,421
2,058

1,670
1,601
1,465
1,319
1,053

55.1
60.1
55.9
54.5
51.2

1,364
1,018
1,005
970
991

457
358
313
312
286

33.5
35.1
31.1
32.2
28.8

1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12,079
12,046
11,269
11,117

2,607
2,700
2,783
2,991

21.6
22.4
24.7
26.9

11,193
11,249
10,552
10,472

2,343
2,463
2,516
2,755

20.9
21.9
23.8
26.3

1,817
1,901
1,766
1,842

1,024
1,077
1,000
1,053

56.4
56.7
56.6
57.2

886
797
716
645

264
237
266
236

29.8
29.8
37.2
36.6

1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11,201
10,795
10,588

2,575
2,366
2,414

23.0
21.9
22.8

10,584
10,269
10,099

2,374
2,209
2,252

22.4
21.5
22.3

1,723
1,534
1,370

915
881
733

53.1
57.4
53.5

617
526
488

201
157
162

32.6
29.9
33.2

HISPANIC
(ANY RACE)

(NA) Not available.
1
For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
2
Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion.
3
For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.
4
For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.
5
For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.
6
For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money
Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166.
7
The 2003 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this
single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who
reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American
FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000.
8
For 2001 and earlier years, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group. The reference race groups for 2001 and earlier poverty data are White, non-Hispanic
White, Black, and Asian and Pacific Islander.
9
Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race.
10
Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.
Note: Prior to 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies were included in people in families. Beginning in 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies are included in all people but are
excluded from people in families.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 49

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic
origin, and year

18 to 64 years

65 years and older

Related children in families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74,068
73,996
73,727
73,285
73,241

14,068
13,324
12,827
12,896
13,041

19.0
18.0
17.4
17.6
17.8

72,980
72,792
72,609
72,095
72,133

13,507
12,802
12,299
12,335
12,473

18.5
17.6
16.9
17.1
17.3

189,185
187,913
186,688
184,345
182,166

22,105
20,396
20,239
20,450
20,545

11.7
10.9
10.8
11.1
11.3

37,788
36,790
36,035
35,505
35,209

3,656
3,556
3,394
3,603
3,453

9.7
9.7
9.4
10.1
9.8

2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72,999
72,696
72,021
71,741
71,685

12,866
12,133
11,733
11,587
12,280

17.6
16.7
16.3
16.2
17.1

71,907
71,619
70,950
70,538
70,424

12,340
11,646
11,175
11,005
11,678

17.2
16.3
15.8
15.6
16.6

180,041
178,388
175,685
173,638
171,146

19,443
18,861
17,760
16,671
17,289

10.8
10.6
10.1
9.6
10.1

34,659
34,234
33,769
33,566
33,377

3,552
3,576
3,414
3,323
3,222

10.2
10.4
10.1
9.9
9.7

1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71,338
71,069
70,650
70,566
70,020

13,467
14,113
14,463
14,665
15,289

18.9
19.9
20.5
20.8
21.8

70,253
69,844
69,411
69,425
68,819

12,845
13,422
13,764
13,999
14,610

18.3
19.2
19.8
20.2
21.2

167,327
165,329
163,691
161,508
160,329

17,623
18,085
18,638
18,442
19,107

10.5
10.9
11.4
11.4
11.9

32,394
32,082
31,877
31,658
31,267

3,386
3,376
3,428
3,318
3,663

10.5
10.5
10.8
10.5
11.7

1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69,292
68,440
65,918
65,049
64,144

15,727
15,294
14,341
13,431
12,590

22.7
22.3
21.8
20.6
19.6

68,040
67,256
64,800
63,908
63,225

14,961
14,521
13,658
12,715
12,001

22.0
21.6
21.1
19.9
19.0

159,208
157,680
154,684
153,502
152,282

19,781
18,793
17,586
16,496
15,575

12.4
11.9
11.4
10.7
10.2

30,779
30,430
30,590
30,093
29,566

3,755
3,928
3,781
3,658
3,363

12.2
12.9
12.4
12.2
11.4

19886. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63,747
63,294
62,948
62,876
62,447

12,455
12,843
12,876
13,010
13,420

19.5
20.3
20.5
20.7
21.5

62,906
62,423
62,009
62,019
61,681

11,935
12,275
12,257
12,483
12,929

19.0
19.7
19.8
20.1
21.0

150,761
149,201
147,631
146,396
144,551

15,809
15,815
16,017
16,598
16,952

10.5
10.6
10.8
11.3
11.7

29,022
28,487
27,975
27,322
26,818

3,481
3,563
3,477
3,456
3,330

12.0
12.5
12.4
12.6
12.4

1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62,334
62,345
62,449
62,914
63,375

13,911
13,647
12,505
11,543
10,377

22.3
21.9
20.0
18.3
16.4

61,578
61,565
61,756
62,168
62,646

13,427
13,139
12,068
11,114
9,993

21.8
21.3
19.5
17.9
16.0

143,052
141,328
139,477
137,428
135,333

17,767
17,000
15,464
13,858
12,014

12.4
12.0
11.1
10.1
8.9

26,313
25,738
25,231
24,686
24,194

3,625
3,751
3,853
3,871
3,682

13.8
14.6
15.3
15.7
15.2

1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62,311
63,137
64,028
65,079
66,134

9,931
10,288
10,273
11,104
10,156

15.9
16.2
16.0
17.1
15.4

61,987
62,823
63,729
64,750
65,802

9,722
10,028
10,081
10,882
9,967

15.7
16.0
15.8
16.8
15.1

130,169
128,262
126,175
124,122
122,101

11,332
11,316
11,389
11,456
10,132

8.7
8.8
9.0
9.2
8.3

23,175
22,468
22,100
21,662
21,127

3,233
3,177
3,313
3,317
3,085

14.0
14.1
15.0
15.3
14.6

1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1971.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66,959
67,930
68,816
69,159
69,090

9,642
10,284
10,551
10,440
9,691

14.4
15.1
15.3
15.1
14.0

66,626
67,592
68,474
68,815
68,746

9,453
10,082
10,344
10,235
9,501

14.2
14.9
15.1
14.9
13.8

120,060
117,957
115,911
113,554
111,528

9,977
10,438
10,735
10,187
9,669

8.3
8.8
9.3
9.0
8.7

20,602
20,117
19,827
19,470
18,899

3,354
3,738
4,273
4,793
4,787

16.3
18.6
21.6
24.6
25.3

1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1967.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70,385
70,408
70,218
69,986
69,711

10,954
11,656
12,389
14,676
16,051

15.6
16.6
17.6
21.0
23.0

70,035
70,058
69,869
69,638
69,364

10,739
11,427
12,146
14,388
15,736

15.3
16.3
17.4
20.7
22.7

108,684
107,024
105,241
(NA)
(NA)

9,803
10,725
11,007
(NA)
(NA)

9.0
10.0
10.5
(NA)
(NA)

18,559
18,240
17,929
(NA)
(NA)

4,632
5,388
5,114
(NA)
(NA)

25.0
29.5
28.5
(NA)
(NA)

1963 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1962 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1961.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69,181
67,722
66,121
65,601
64,315

16,005
16,963
16,909
17,634
17,552

23.1
25.0
25.6
26.9
27.3

68,837
67,385
65,792
65,275
63,995

15,691
16,630
16,577
17,288
17,208

22.8
24.7
25.2
26.5
26.9

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
96,685

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
16,457

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
17.0

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
15,557

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
5,481

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
35.2

ALL RACES

See footnotes at end of table.

50 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic
origin, and year

18 to 64 years

65 years and older

Related children in families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

56,153
56,419
56,205
56,075
56,053
55,779
55,703

8,863
8,395
7,908
8,085
8,308
7,985
7,549

15.8
14.9
14.1
14.4
14.8
14.3
13.6

55,339
55,483
55,330
55,152
55,212
54,989
54,900

8,441
8,002
7,522
7,652
7,876
7,624
7,203

15.3
14.4
13.6
13.9
14.3
13.9
13.1

151,681
150,875
150,143
148,450
146,974
145,783
144,694

15,356
14,135
14,035
14,086
14,486
13,622
13,178

10.1
9.4
9.3
9.5
9.9
9.3
9.1

32,714
31,839
31,270
30,905
30,714
30,303
29,980

2,771
2,590
2,473
2,700
2,534
2,666
2,739

8.5
8.1
7.9
8.7
8.3
8.8
9.1

2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56,089
55,980
55,833
56,016

7,527
7,307
7,639
8,443

13.4
13.1
13.7
15.1

55,238
55,021
54,873
55,126

7,086
6,834
7,194
7,935

12.8
12.4
13.1
14.4

143,796
142,164
139,974
138,061

12,555
11,754
12,085
12,456

8.7
8.3
8.6
9.0

29,790
29,703
29,553
28,759

2,656
2,584
2,446
2,555

8.9
8.7
8.3
8.9

1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55,863
55,606
55,444
55,186
54,639

8,990
9,044
8,981
9,346
9,752

16.1
16.3
16.2
16.9
17.8

54,870
54,599
54,532
54,221
53,614

8,441
8,488
8,474
8,826
9,123

15.4
15.5
15.5
16.3
17.0

136,784
135,586
134,149
133,289
132,680

12,838
12,940
12,869
13,187
13,535

9.4
9.5
9.6
9.9
10.2

28,553
28,464
28,436
27,985
27,580

2,569
2,667
2,572
2,846
2,939

9.0
9.4
9.0
10.2
10.7

19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54,110
52,523
51,929
51,400
51,203

9,399
8,848
8,232
7,599
7,435

17.4
16.8
15.9
14.8
14.5

53,110
51,627
51,028
50,704
50,590

8,752
8,316
7,696
7,164
7,095

16.5
16.1
15.1
14.1
14.0

131,694
130,312
129,784
128,974
128,031

12,871
12,097
11,387
10,647
10,687

9.8
9.3
8.8
8.3
8.3

27,256
27,297
26,898
26,479
26,001

2,989
2,802
2,707
2,539
2,593

11.0
10.3
10.1
9.6
10.0

19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51,012
51,111
51,031
50,814
50,726

7,788
8,209
8,253
8,472
8,862

15.3
16.1
16.2
16.7
17.5

50,360
50,356
50,358
50,192
50,183

7,398
7,714
7,838
8,086
8,534

14.7
15.3
15.6
16.1
17.0

126,991
125,998
125,258
123,922
123,014

10,703
11,285
11,909
11,904
12,347

8.4
9.0
9.5
9.6
10.0

25,602
25,173
24,629
24,206
23,754

2,704
2,689
2,698
2,579
2,776

10.6
10.7
11.0
10.7
11.7

1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50,920
51,140
51,653
52,262
51,669

8,678
7,785
7,181
6,193
5,831

17.0
15.2
13.9
11.8
11.3

50,305
50,553
51,002
51,687
51,409

8,282
7,429
6,817
5,909
5,674

16.5
14.7
13.4
11.4
11.0

121,766
120,574
118,935
117,583
113,832

11,971
10,790
9,478
8,110
7,897

9.8
8.9
8.0
6.9
6.9

23,234
22,791
22,325
21,898
20,950

2,870
2,978
3,042
2,911
2,530

12.4
13.1
13.6
13.3
12.1

1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52,563
53,428
54,405
55,590
(NA)

6,097
6,189
6,927
6,223
(NA)

11.6
11.6
12.7
11.2
(NA)

52,299
53,167
54,126
55,320
56,211

5,943
6,034
6,748
6,079
5,462

11.4
11.3
12.5
11.0
9.7

112,374
110,717
109,105
107,579
(NA)

7,893
7,890
8,210
7,053
(NA)

7.0
7.1
7.5
6.6
(NA)

20,316
20,020
19,654
19,206
(NA)

2,426
2,633
2,634
2,460
2,698

11.9
13.2
13.4
12.8
14.4

1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

57,181
58,119
58,472
58,578
(NA)

5,784
6,341
6,138
5,667
6,373

10.1
10.9
10.5
9.7
10.7

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
17,062

3,072
3,605
4,011
4,052
3,939

16.8
19.9
22.6
23.3
23.1

1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

6,729
7,204
8,595
11,229
11,386

11.3
12.1
14.4
20.0
20.6

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

16,791
16,514
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

4,646
4,357
(NA)
(NA)
4,744

27.7
26.4
(NA)
(NA)
33.1

WHITE ALONE7
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHITE8

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 51

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic
origin, and year

18 to 64 years

65 years and older

Related children in families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

41,309
41,979
42,212
42,523
42,978
43,150
43,614

4,364
4,255
4,208
4,254
4,519
4,233
4,090

10.6
10.1
10.0
10.0
10.5
9.8
9.4

40,707
41,304
41,563
41,867
42,363
42,547
43,017

4,059
3,996
3,930
3,973
4,190
3,957
3,848

10.0
9.7
9.5
9.5
9.9
9.3
8.9

125,482
125,161
124,847
124,326
123,481
123,110
122,511

10,380
9,598
9,761
9,708
10,236
9,391
9,157

8.3
7.7
7.8
7.8
8.3
7.6
7.5

30,149
29,442
28,990
28,704
28,639
28,335
28,018

2,280
2,179
2,044
2,264
2,153
2,277
2,321

7.6
7.4
7.0
7.9
7.5
8.0
8.3

2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44,095
44,244
44,272
45,355

4,194
4,018
4,155
4,822

9.5
9.1
9.4
10.6

43,459
43,554
43,570
44,670

3,887
3,715
3,832
4,458

8.9
8.5
8.8
10.0

122,470
121,499
120,341
120,282

8,811
8,130
8,462
8,760

7.2
6.7
7.0
7.3

27,973
27,948
27,952
27,118

2,266
2,218
2,118
2,217

8.1
7.9
7.6
8.2

1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45,491
45,605
45,689
46,668
46,096

5,204
5,072
5,115
5,823
6,255

11.4
11.1
11.2
12.5
13.6

44,665
44,844
44,973
45,874
45,322

4,759
4,656
4,745
5,404
5,819

10.7
10.4
10.6
11.8
12.8

119,373
118,822
118,228
119,192
118,475

9,088
9,074
8,908
9,732
9,964

7.6
7.6
7.5
8.2
8.4

26,995
27,033
27,034
26,684
26,272

2,200
2,316
2,243
2,556
2,663

8.1
8.6
8.3
9.6
10.1

19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45,590
45,236
44,797
44,492
44,438

6,017
5,918
5,532
5,110
4,888

13.2
13.1
12.3
11.5
11.0

44,833
44,506
44,045
43,938
43,910

5,558
5,497
5,106
4,779
4,594

12.4
12.4
11.6
10.9
10.5

117,386
117,672
117,477
116,983
116,479

9,461
9,244
8,619
8,154
8,293

8.1
7.9
7.3
7.0
7.1

26,025
26,208
25,854
25,504
25,044

2,724
2,580
2,471
2,335
2,384

10.5
9.8
9.6
9.2
9.5

19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44,461
44,664
44,752
44,886
44,830

5,230
5,789
5,745
6,156
6,649

11.8
13.0
12.8
13.7
14.8

43,907
44,041
44,199
44,349
44,374

4,902
5,388
5,421
5,828
6,381

11.2
12.2
12.3
13.1
14.4

115,721
115,157
114,969
114,180
113,570

8,327
8,963
9,608
9,734
10,279

7.2
7.8
8.4
8.5
9.1

24,754
24,298
23,734
23,402
22,992

2,472
2,492
2,486
2,410
2,610

10.0
10.3
10.5
10.3
11.4

1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45,531
45,950
46,578
46,967
46,819

6,566
5,946
5,510
4,730
4,506

14.4
12.9
11.8
10.1
9.6

45,001
45,440
45,989
46,448
46,606

6,229
5,639
5,174
4,476
4,383

13.8
12.4
11.3
9.6
9.4

113,717
112,722
111,460
110,509
107,481

10,082
9,207
7,990
6,930
6,837

8.9
8.2
7.2
6.3
6.4

22,655
22,237
21,760
21,339
20,431

2,714
2,834
2,865
2,759
2,412

12.0
12.7
13.2
12.9
11.8

1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47,689
48,824
49,670
50,759

4,714
4,799
5,342
4,820

9.9
9.8
10.8
9.5

47,459
48,601
49,421
50,520

4,582
4,664
5,185
4,697

9.7
9.6
10.5
9.3

106,063
104,846
103,496
101,894

6,772
6,720
7,039
6,051

6.4
6.4
6.8
5.9

19,812
19,565
19,251
18,810

2,316
2,506
2,503
2,346

11.7
12.8
13.0
12.5

WHITE ALONE, NOT
HISPANIC7
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHITE, NOT
HISPANIC8

See footnotes at end of table.

52 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic
origin, and year

65 years and older

Related children in families
Below poverty

Below poverty
Total

BLACK ALONE OR
IN COMBINATION
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,388
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,380
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,375
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,159
12,190
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,215
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,114
BLACK ALONE9
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,172
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,302
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,315
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,136
11,244
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,367
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,275
BLACK8
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,556
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,480
11,488
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,317
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,367
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,338
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,369
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,211
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,127
10,956
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10,350
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10,162
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10,012
19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,865
9,730
19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,629
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,545
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,480
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,417
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,400
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,374
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,368
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,307
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,229
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,296
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,322
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,421
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,439
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

18 to 64 years

Below poverty

Below poverty

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

4,202
4,178
4,086
4,074
4,059
4,108
3,817

33.9
33.7
33.0
33.5
33.3
33.6
31.5

12,201
12,227
12,206
11,975
12,012
11,989
11,931

4,104
4,106
3,977
3,972
3,962
3,977
3,733

33.6
33.6
32.6
33.2
33.0
33.2
31.3

24,404
23,968
23,510
23,338
22,842
22,355
22,170

5,017
4,742
4,652
4,735
4,638
4,313
4,376

20.6
19.8
19.8
20.3
20.3
19.3
19.7

3,305
3,215
3,128
3,053
3,005
2,933
2,922

663
748
710
708
714
688
691

20.0
23.3
22.7
23.2
23.8
23.5
23.6

3,878
3,904
3,777
3,841
3,788
3,877
3,645

34.7
34.5
33.4
34.5
33.7
34.1
32.3

10,998
11,174
11,168
10,962
11,080
11,162
11,111

3,781
3,838
3,690
3,743
3,702
3,750
3,570

34.4
34.3
33.0
34.2
33.4
33.6
32.1

23,565
23,213
22,907
22,659
22,226
21,746
21,547

4,855
4,602
4,570
4,627
4,521
4,224
4,277

20.6
19.8
19.9
20.4
20.3
19.4
19.9

3,229
3,150
3,085
3,007
2,956
2,876
2,856

646
731
701
701
705
680
680

20.0
23.2
22.7
23.3
23.8
23.7
23.8

3,492
3,581
3,813
4,151
4,225
4,519
4,761
4,906
5,125
5,106
4,755
4,550
4,375
4,296
4,385
4,148
4,157
4,413
4,398
4,472
4,237
3,961
3,833
3,830
3,888
3,787
3,925
3,755
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

30.2
31.2
33.2
36.7
37.2
39.9
41.9
43.8
46.1
46.6
45.9
44.8
43.7
43.5
45.1
43.1
43.6
46.6
46.7
47.6
45.2
42.3
41.2
41.5
41.8
40.6
41.7
39.8
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

11,419
11,296
11,260
11,176
11,193
11,155
11,198
11,044
10,969
10,823
10,178
9,980
9,847
9,681
9,546
9,467
9,405
9,356
9,245
9,269
9,291
9,287
9,172
9,168
9,253
9,291
9,374
9,384
9,405
9,426
9,414
9,448
9,290
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

3,423
3,495
3,698
4,073
4,116
4,411
4,644
4,787
5,030
5,015
4,637
4,412
4,257
4,148
4,234
4,037
4,057
4,320
4,273
4,388
4,170
3,906
3,745
3,781
3,850
3,758
3,884
3,713
3,822
4,025
3,836
3,922
3,677
4,188
4,558
4,774
5,022

30.0
30.9
32.8
36.4
36.8
39.5
41.5
43.3
45.9
46.3
45.6
44.2
43.2
42.8
44.4
42.7
43.1
46.2
46.2
47.3
44.9
42.1
40.8
41.2
41.6
40.4
41.4
39.6
40.6
42.7
40.4
41.5
39.6
43.1
47.4
50.6
65.6

21,462
21,160
21,518
20,837
20,400
20,155
19,892
19,585
19,272
18,952
18,355
18,097
17,833
17,548
17,245
16,911
16,667
16,369
16,065
15,692
15,358
14,987
14,596
13,774
13,483
13,224
12,872
12,539
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

4,018
3,794
4,000
4,222
4,191
4,515
4,483
4,590
5,049
4,884
4,607
4,427
4,164
4,275
4,361
4,113
4,052
4,368
4,694
4,415
4,117
3,835
3,478
3,133
3,137
3,163
2,968
2,836
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

18.7
17.9
18.6
20.3
20.5
22.4
22.5
23.4
26.2
25.8
25.1
24.5
23.3
24.4
25.3
24.3
24.3
26.7
29.2
28.1
26.8
25.6
23.8
22.7
23.3
23.9
23.1
22.6
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

2,853
2,785
2,750
2,723
2,691
2,616
2,478
2,557
2,510
2,504
2,606
2,547
2,487
2,436
2,387
2,331
2,273
2,238
2,197
2,124
2,102
2,054
2,040
1,954
1,930
1,852
1,795
1,721
1,672
1,603
1,584
1,422
1,373
1,374
1,341
1,311
(NA)

626
607
628
718
700
661
629
700
702
838
880
860
763
785
774
722
717
710
791
811
820
783
740
662
701
644
652
591
620
640
623
683
689
655
715
722
711

21.9
21.8
22.8
26.4
26.0
25.3
25.4
27.4
28.0
33.5
33.8
33.8
30.7
32.2
32.4
31.0
31.5
31.7
36.0
38.2
39.0
38.1
36.2
33.9
36.3
34.8
36.3
34.3
37.1
39.9
39.3
48.0
50.2
47.7
53.3
55.1
62.5

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 53

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic
origin, and year

18 to 64 years

65 years and older

Related children in families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

3,717
3,606
3,573
3,472
3,406
3,316
3,199

494
431
408
359
329
420
353

13.3
11.9
11.4
10.3
9.7
12.7
11.0

3,678
3,558
3,530
3,435
3,367
3,279
3,159

476
402
398
352
311
406
338

12.9
11.3
11.3
10.2
9.2
12.4
10.7

9,507
9,531
9,553
9,115
8,780
8,510
8,292

1,031
892
897
999
819
956
804

10.8
9.4
9.4
11.0
9.3
11.2
9.7

1,319
1,293
1,205
1,144
1,104
1,065
995

162
144
142
144
147
152
86

12.3
11.2
11.8
12.6
13.3
14.2
8.7

3,052
2,980
2,956
2,871
2,854
2,759
2,683

446
374
360
317
281
344
315

14.6
12.5
12.2
11.1
9.9
12.5
11.7

3,016
2,932
2,915
2,842
2,823
2,726
2,648

430
345
351
312
265
331
302

14.2
11.8
12.0
11.0
9.4
12.1
11.4

8,961
9,012
9,039
8,591
8,294
8,044
7,881

974
832
851
941
774
907
764

10.9
9.2
9.4
11.0
9.3
11.3
9.7

1,296
1,265
1,182
1,118
1,083
1,052
977

157
143
142
143
146
151
82

12.1
11.3
12.0
12.8
13.5
14.3
8.4

2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,215
3,294
3,212
3,137
3,096

369
420
381
564
628

11.5
12.7
11.9
18.0
20.3

3,169
3,256
3,178
3,099
3,061

353
407
367
542
608

11.1
12.5
11.5
17.5
19.9

8,352
8,500
7,879
6,951
6,680

814
756
807
698
753

9.7
8.9
10.2
10.0
11.3

899
878
864
785
705

92
82
96
97
87

10.2
9.3
11.1
12.4
12.3

1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,924
2,900
1,739
2,061
2,218

571
564
318
375
363

19.5
19.5
18.3
18.2
16.4

2,899
2,858
1,719
2,029
2,199

553
532
308
358
352

19.1
18.6
17.9
17.6
16.0

6,484
6,123
4,401
4,871
5,067

821
757
589
680
568

12.7
12.4
13.4
14.0
11.2

647
622
513
503
494

63
89
67
79
53

9.7
14.3
13.0
15.6
10.8

19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,056
2,126
1,983
1,970
1,937

360
374
392
474
455

17.5
17.6
19.8
24.1
23.5

2,036
2,098
1,945
1,949
1,908

348
356
368
458
432

17.1
17.0
18.9
23.5
22.7

4,582
4,375
4,225
4,035
4,010

565
422
512
583
510

12.3
9.6
12.1
14.4
12.7

555
514
465
442
375

70
62
34
60
56

12.7
12.1
7.4
13.5
15.0

ASIAN ALONE OR IN
COMBINATION
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIAN ALONE10
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIAN AND PACIFIC
ISLANDER8

See footnotes at end of table.

54 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic
origin, and year

18 to 64 years

65 years and older

Related children in families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,370
15,647
15,147
14,654
14,173

5,010
4,482
4,072
4,143
4,098

30.6
28.6
26.9
28.3
28.9

16,138
15,375
14,907
14,361
13,929

4,888
4,348
3,959
3,977
3,985

30.3
28.3
26.6
27.7
28.6

28,311
27,731
27,209
26,051
25,324

5,452
4,970
4,698
4,765
4,620

19.3
17.9
17.3
18.3
18.2

2,717
2,555
2,428
2,315
2,194

525
438
472
460
403

19.3
17.1
19.4
19.9
18.4

2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13,730
13,210
12,763
12,399
12,188

4,077
3,782
3,570
3,522
3,693

29.7
28.6
28.0
28.4
30.3

13,519
12,971
12,539
12,115
11,912

3,982
3,653
3,433
3,342
3,561

29.5
28.2
27.4
27.6
29.9

24,490
23,952
22,653
21,734
20,782

4,568
4,334
4,014
3,844
3,843

18.7
18.1
17.7
17.7
18.5

2,080
2,053
1,896
1,822
1,661

406
439
413
381
340

19.5
21.4
21.8
20.9
20.5

1998
1997
1996
1995
1994

...............
...............
...............
...............
...............

11,152
10,802
10,511
10,213
9,822

3,837
3,972
4,237
4,080
4,075

34.4
36.8
40.3
40.0
41.5

10,921
10,625
10,255
10,011
9,621

3,670
3,865
4,090
3,938
3,956

33.6
36.4
39.9
39.3
41.1

18,668
18,217
17,587
16,673
16,192

3,877
3,951
4,089
4,153
4,018

20.8
21.7
23.3
24.9
24.8

1,696
1,617
1,516
1,458
1,428

356
384
370
342
323

21.0
23.8
24.4
23.5
22.6

1993
19924
19915
1990
1989

...............
...............
...............
...............
...............

9,462
9,081
7,648
7,457
7,186

3,873
3,637
3,094
2,865
2,603

40.9
40.0
40.4
38.4
36.2

9,188
8,829
7,473
7,300
7,040

3,666
3,440
2,977
2,750
2,496

39.9
39.0
39.8
37.7
35.5

15,708
15,268
13,279
12,857
12,536

3,956
3,668
3,008
2,896
2,616

25.2
24.0
22.7
22.5
20.9

1,390
1,298
1,143
1,091
1,024

297
287
237
245
211

21.4
22.1
20.8
22.5
20.6

19886
19876
1986
1985
1984

...............
...............
...............
...............
...............

7,003
6,792
6,646
6,475
6,068

2,631
2,670
2,507
2,606
2,376

37.6
39.3
37.7
40.3
39.2

6,908
6,692
6,511
6,346
5,982

2,576
2,606
2,413
2,512
2,317

37.3
38.9
37.1
39.6
38.7

12,056
11,718
11,206
10,685
10,029

2,501
2,509
2,406
2,411
2,254

20.7
21.4
21.5
22.6
22.5

1,005
885
906
915
819

225
243
204
219
176

22.4
27.5
22.5
23.9
21.5

1983
1982
1981
1980
1979

...............
...............
...............
...............
...............

6,066
5,527
5,369
5,276
5,483

2,312
2,181
1,925
1,749
1,535

38.1
39.5
35.9
33.2
28.0

5,977
5,436
5,291
5,211
5,426

2,251
2,117
1,874
1,718
1,505

37.7
38.9
35.4
33.0
27.7

9,697
8,262
8,084
7,740
7,314

2,148
1,963
1,642
1,563
1,232

22.5
23.8
20.3
20.2
16.8

782
596
568
582
574

173
159
146
179
154

22.1
26.6
25.7
30.8
26.8

1978
1977
1976
1975
1974
1973

...............
...............
...............
...............
...............
...............

5,012
5,028
4,771
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1,384
1,422
1,443
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

27.6
28.3
30.2
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

4,972
5,000
4,736
4,896
4,939
4,910

1,354
1,402
1,424
1,619
1,414
1,364

27.2
28.0
30.1
33.1
28.6
27.8

6,527
6,500
6,034
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1,098
1,164
1,212
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

16.8
17.9
20.1
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

539
518
464
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

125
113
128
137
117
95

23.2
21.9
27.7
32.6
28.9
24.9

HISPANIC
(ANY RACE)

(NA) Not available.
1
For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
2
Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion.
3
For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.
4
For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.
5
For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.
6
For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money
Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166.
7
The 2003 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this
single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who
reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American
FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000.
8
For 2001 and earlier years, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group. The reference race groups for 2001 and earlier poverty data are White, non-Hispanic
White, Black, and Asian and Pacific Islander.
9
Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race.
10
Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.
Note: Prior to 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies were included in people in families. Beginning in 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies are included in all people but are
excluded from people in families.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 55

Table B-3.

Poverty Status of Families by Type of Family: 1959 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. Families as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
All families
Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

ALL RACES
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1963 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1962 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1961 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Married-couple families

Below poverty

Male householder,
no wife present

Below poverty

Female householder,
no husband present

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

78,874
77,908
78,454
77,418
76,866
76,232
75,616
74,340
73,778
73,206
71,551
70,884
70,241
69,597
69,313
68,506
68,216
67,175
66,322
66,090
65,837
65,204
64,491
63,558
62,706
62,015
61,393
61,019
60,309
59,550
57,804
57,215
56,710
56,245
55,698
55,053
54,373
53,296
52,227
51,586
50,511
49,835
48,921
48,278
47,836
47,436
46,998
46,341
45,435
45,054

8,147
7,623
7,668
7,657
7,835
7,607
7,229
6,813
6,400
6,792
7,186
7,324
7,708
7,532
8,053
8,393
8,144
7,712
7,098
6,784
6,874
7,005
7,023
7,223
7,277
7,647
7,512
6,851
6,217
5,461
5,280
5,311
5,311
5,450
4,922
4,828
5,075
5,303
5,260
5,008
5,047
5,667
5,784
6,721
7,160
7,554
8,077
8,391
8,243
8,320

10.3
9.8
9.8
9.9
10.2
10.0
9.6
9.2
8.7
9.3
10.0
10.3
11.0
10.8
11.6
12.3
11.9
11.5
10.7
10.3
10.4
10.7
10.9
11.4
11.6
12.3
12.2
11.2
10.3
9.2
9.1
9.3
9.4
9.7
8.8
8.8
9.3
10.0
10.1
9.7
10.0
11.4
11.8
13.9
15.0
15.9
17.2
18.1
18.1
18.5

59,137
58,395
58,964
58,189
57,983
57,725
57,327
56,755
56,598
56,290
54,778
54,321
53,604
53,570
53,865
53,181
53,090
52,457
52,147
52,317
52,100
51,675
51,537
50,933
50,350
50,081
49,908
49,630
49,294
49,112
47,692
47,385
47,497
47,318
47,069
46,812
46,314
45,752
44,739
44,436
43,842
43,292
42,553
42,107
41,648
41,311
40,923
40,405
39,624
39,335

3,261
2,849
2,910
2,944
3,216
3,115
3,052
2,760
2,637
2,748
2,879
2,821
3,010
2,982
3,272
3,481
3,385
3,158
2,981
2,931
2,897
3,011
3,123
3,438
3,488
3,815
3,789
3,394
3,032
2,640
2,474
2,524
2,606
2,904
2,474
2,482
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

5.5
4.9
4.9
5.1
5.5
5.4
5.3
4.9
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.2
5.6
5.6
6.1
6.5
6.4
6.0
5.7
5.6
5.6
5.8
6.1
6.7
6.9
7.6
7.6
6.8
6.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.5
6.1
5.3
5.3
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

5,255
5,103
5,067
5,134
4,901
4,717
4,663
4,440
4,277
4,099
3,977
3,911
3,847
3,513
3,228
2,914
3,065
3,025
2,907
2,884
2,847
2,833
2,510
2,414
2,228
2,038
2,016
1,986
1,933
1,733
1,654
1,594
1,500
1,445
1,399
1,438
1,452
1,353
1,487
1,559
1,228
1,210
1,197
1,179
1,182
1,243
1,334
1,293
1,202
1,226

723
696
671
669
657
636
564
583
485
485
476
507
531
493
549
488
484
392
349
348
336
340
287
311
292
268
290
205
213
176
152
177
162
116
125
154
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

13.8
13.6
13.2
13.0
13.4
13.5
12.1
13.1
11.3
11.8
12.0
13.0
13.8
14.0
17.0
16.8
15.8
13.0
12.0
12.1
11.8
12.0
11.4
12.9
13.1
13.2
14.4
10.3
11.0
10.2
9.2
11.1
10.8
8.0
8.9
10.7
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

14,482
14,411
14,424
14,095
13,981
13,791
13,626
13,146
12,903
12,818
12,796
12,652
12,790
12,514
12,220
12,411
12,061
11,693
11,268
10,890
10,890
10,696
10,445
10,211
10,129
9,896
9,469
9,403
9,082
8,705
8,458
8,236
7,713
7,482
7,230
6,804
6,607
6,191
6,001
5,591
5,441
5,333
5,171
4,992
5,006
4,882
4,741
4,643
4,609
4,493

4,163
4,078
4,087
4,044
3,962
3,856
3,613
3,470
3,278
3,559
3,831
3,995
4,167
4,057
4,232
4,424
4,275
4,161
3,768
3,504
3,642
3,654
3,613
3,474
3,498
3,564
3,434
3,252
2,972
2,645
2,654
2,610
2,543
2,430
2,324
2,193
2,158
2,100
1,952
1,827
1,755
1,774
1,721
1,916
1,822
1,972
2,034
1,954
1,955
1,916

28.7
28.3
28.3
28.7
28.3
28.0
26.5
26.4
25.4
27.8
29.9
31.6
32.6
32.4
34.6
35.6
35.4
35.6
33.4
32.2
33.4
34.2
34.6
34.0
34.5
36.0
36.3
34.6
32.7
30.4
31.4
31.7
33.0
32.5
32.1
32.2
32.7
33.9
32.5
32.7
32.3
33.3
33.1
38.4
36.4
40.4
42.9
42.1
42.4
42.6

(NA) Not available.
1
For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.

2
Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion.

3
For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.

4
For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.

5
For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.

6
For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money

Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166.
Note: Before 1979, unrelated subfamilies were included in all families. Beginning in 1979, unrelated subfamilies are excluded from all families.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

56 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

APPENDIX C.

ESTIMATES OF HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE

Quality of Health Insurance
Coverage Estimates
National surveys and health insurance
coverage. Health insurance coverage
is likely to be underreported on the
Current Population Survey (CPS). While
underreporting affects most, if not
all, surveys, underreporting of health
insurance coverage appears to be a
larger problem in the Annual Social
and Economic Supplement (ASEC) than
in other national surveys that ask
about insurance. Some reasons for
the disparity may include the fact that
income, not health insurance, is the
main focus of the ASEC questionnaire.
In addition, the ASEC collects health
insurance information in February
through April but asks about the pre­
vious year’s coverage. Asking annual
retrospective questions appears to
cause few problems when collect­
ing income data (possibly because
the interview period is close to when
people pay their taxes), but it may
be less than ideal when asking about
health insurance coverage. Compared
with other national surveys, the CPS
estimate of the number of people
without health insurance more closely
approximates the number of people
who are uninsured at a specific point
in time during the year than the
number of people uninsured for the
entire year. For a comparison of health
insurance coverage rates from the
major federal surveys, see How Many
People Lack Insurance and for How
Long? (Congressional Budget Office,
May 2003).

Reporting of coverage through major
federal health insurance programs.
The CPS ASEC data underreport
Medicare and Medicaid coverage,
compared with enrollment and
participation data from the Centers
for Medicare and Medicaid Services
(CMS).48 Because the CPS is largely
a labor force survey, interviewers
receive less training on health insur­
ance concepts than labor concepts.
Additionally, many people may not be
aware that a health insurance pro­
gram covers them or their children if
they have not used covered services
recently. CMS data, on the other hand,
represent the actual number of people
who have enrolled or participated in
these programs.
The State Health Access Data
Assistance Center (SHADAC) of the
University of Minnesota has worked
with the U.S. Census Bureau, CMS,
and the Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
(ASPE) on a research project to evalu­
ate why CPS ASEC estimates of the
number of people with Medicaid are
lower than counts of the number of
people enrolled in the program from
CMS. Reports from all four phases of
the research project are available from
the Census Bureau’s Web site at
<www.census.gov/did/www/snacc/>.
During Phase 2, files from the
Medicaid Statistical Information
System (MSIS) were linked with the
CPS ASEC files and the individual
records were compared. The report
from Phase 2 showed a gap between
CPS ASEC estimates and MSIS files of
48
CMS is the federal agency primarily
responsible for administering the Medicare and
Medicaid programs at the national level.

U.S. Census Bureau

2.8 million Medicaid enrollees. A key
finding indicating survey response
error in the CPS ASEC was that 16.9
percent of people with an MSIS
record indicating Medicaid cover­
age reported in the CPS ASEC that
they were uninsured.49 The report
found that Medicaid subscribers with
longer and more recent enrollment
were more likely to report coverage.
Respondents for children enrolled
in Medicaid were more apt to report
coverage for those children than for
enrolled adults within the household.
Families with lower incomes tended
to report coverage more frequently.
Individuals who received Medicaid
services during the reporting cycle
tended to report coverage more often
than individuals who had not received
services. Reporting differences were
also apparent among states.
Phase 3 of the research project is
further broken down into three steps
that attempt to account for discrep­
ancies found in Phase 2 between the
MSIS records and the CPS ASEC files.
These steps focus on determining the
number of enrollees who were out of
scope for the 2001 March CPS inter­
view (people living in institutions and
other group quarters are not eligible
for CPS ASEC interview; MSIS counts
all people, regardless of their living
situation). Phase 3 narrowed the gap
between CPS ASEC estimates and MSIS
files by 1.0 million, to 1.8 million
Medicaid enrollees.
49
For consistency across the MSIS and the
CPS, SHADAC removed all MSIS enrollees who
received only partial coverage, those who had
died before the CPS reporting cycle, and all
duplicate person records. Also, all Children’s
Health Insurance Program (CHIP) enrollees were
removed from the MSIS count.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 57

Phase 4 consisted of repeating the
Phase 2 process using National Health
Interview Survey (NHIS) data instead
of CPS data. The purpose of this was
two-fold—to provide explanations for
the differences found between NHIS
data and MSIS files and to examine
how differing survey designs and
methodologies affect the survey data
and estimates. The report found
that the NHIS Medicaid undercount
was 27.3 percent in 2001 and 21.7
percent in 2002 but noted that the
NHIS added questions in 2004, and
these results may not apply to more
recent data. The report found higher
false-negative reporting for enrollees
who were older, had higher incomes,
and also had private insurance. Falsenegative reporting was lower for very
low-income enrollees, those on other
benefits programs, and those who
had recently used Medicaid services.
The report found that the dynamics of
false-negative reporting was similar in
NHIS and CPS.
In November 2008, SHADAC released
a new imputation adjustment for
public-use CPS ASEC microdata
through its Web site to help research­
ers interested in partially adjusting
CPS ASEC data.50 This is an experi­
50
See <www.shadac.org/publications
/medicaid-under-reporting-in-cps-and-one
-approach-partial-correction> for more
information.

mental imputation and was produced
for interested parties to use in their
research. The Census Bureau has not
evaluated the methodology, and users
should be aware that this is not an
official data product.
There are several ongoing projects
aimed at improving the quality of
health coverage data from the CPS
ASEC. This research includes: 1)
cognitive research and field testing
to improve the wording of the CPS
ASEC health coverage questions;
2) editing and imputation research,
including additional research on the
use of models that attempt to account
for Medicaid underreporting; and 3)
expanding the number of studies that
match administrative Medicaid data to
current survey data to include other
surveys, such as the NHIS and the
American Community Survey (ACS).
This research will make it possible
to compare and contrast CPS ASEC
underreporting rates with other sur­
veys. This, in turn, will allow Census
Bureau analysts to better understand
the nature and impact of CPS ASEC
health coverage underreporting.
Changes in Medicaid coverage
estimates from one year to the
next should be viewed with cau­
tion. Because many people who are

58 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

covered by Medicaid do not report
that coverage, the Census Bureau
assigns coverage to those who are
generally regarded as “categorically
eligible” (those who received some
other benefits, usually public assis­
tance payments, that make them eli­
gible for Medicaid). Since the number
of people receiving public assistance
has been dropping, the relationship
between Medicaid coverage and pub­
lic assistance has changed, causing
the imputation process to introduce
a downward bias in the most recent
Medicaid estimates.
After consulting with health insur­
ance experts, the Census Bureau
modified the definition of the popula­
tion without health insurance in the
supplement to the March 1998 CPS,
which collected data about cover­
age in 1997. Previously, people with
no coverage other than access to the
Indian Health Service were counted
as part of the insured population.
Subsequently, the Census Bureau has
counted these people as uninsured.
The effect of this change on the
overall estimates of health insurance
coverage was negligible.

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-1.

Health Insurance Coverage: 1987 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Year
Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

255,143
253,449
249,829
249,020
247,669
244,876
243,914
242,322
241,091
238,037
233,073
228,800
226,735
225,699
223,733
222,387
220,040
218,189
216,003
214,167
212,807
211,005
210,161

200,992
201,991
201,690
201,167
200,924
199,871
200,891
201,695
202,794
200,721
196,536
192,507
189,955
188,224
185,881
184,318
182,351
181,466
181,375
182,135
183,610
182,019
182,160

176,332
177,446
177,152
176,924
176,247
175,844
177,095
178,261
179,436
176,838
171,692
170,105
166,419
164,096
161,453
159,634
148,318
148,796
150,077
150,215
151,644
150,940
149,739

26,777
26,673
27,066
27,055
27,551
26,783
26,846
26,309
26,799
27,731
27,298
26,165
27,431
28,419
30,188
31,349
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

87,411
83,031
80,270
80,213
79,486
76,755
73,624
71,295
69,037
67,683
66,176
66,087
66,685
69,000
69,776
70,163
68,554
66,244
63,882
60,965
57,382
56,850
56,282

84.6
84.7
84.2
84.7
85.1
84.9
85.3
85.9
86.3
86.0
85.0
84.2
84.3
84.6
84.6
84.8
84.7
85.0
85.9
86.1
86.4
86.6
87.1

66.7
67.5
67.9
68.5
69.0
69.3
70.3
71.5
72.6
72.5
71.7
70.8
70.6
70.6
70.3
70.3
70.2
70.7
72.1
73.2
74.6
74.7
75.5

58.5
59.3
59.7
60.2
60.5
61.0
61.9
63.2
64.2
63.9
62.6
62.6
61.8
61.5
61.1
60.9
57.1
57.9
59.7
60.4
61.6
61.9
62.1

8.9
8.9
9.1
9.2
9.5
9.3
9.4
9.3
9.6
10.0
9.9
9.6
10.2
10.7
11.4
12.0
((NA))
((NA))
((NA))
((NA))
((NA))
((NA))
((NA))

29.0
27.8
27.0
27.3
27.3
26.6
25.7
25.3
24.7
24.5
24.1
24.3
24.8
25.9
26.4
26.8
26.4
25.8
25.4
24.5
23.3
23.3
23.3

Total
people

Total

Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19947 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19938 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19929 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198710 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

301,483
299,106
296,824
293,834
291,166
288,280
285,933
282,082
279,517
276,804
274,087
271,743
269,094
266,792
264,314
262,105
259,753
256,830
251,447
248,886
246,191
243,685
241,187

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19947 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19938 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19929 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198710 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

42,641
39,554
38,281
38,104
37,955
35,647
33,246
31,601
29,533
28,506
27,890
27,854
28,956
31,451
31,877
31,645
31,749
29,416
26,880
24,261
21,185
20,728
20,211

43,029
41,375
40,343
40,177
39,703
39,456
38,448
38,043
37,740
36,923
36,066
35,887
35,590
35,227
34,655
33,901
33,097
33,230
32,907
32,260
31,495
30,925
30,458

11,560
10,955
10,547
11,166
10,789
9,979
10,063
9,552
9,099
8,648
8,530
8,747
8,527
8,712
9,375
11,165
9,560
9,510
9,820
9,922
9,870
10,105
10,542

46,340
45,657
46,995
44,815
43,498
43,404
42,019
39,760
38,426
38,767
41,014
42,943
42,359
41,093
40,582
39,718
39,713
38,641
35,445
34,719
33,385
32,680
31,026

14.1
13.2
12.9
13.0
13.0
12.4
11.6
11.2
10.6
10.3
10.2
10.3
10.8
11.8
12.1
12.1
12.2
11.5
10.7
9.7
8.6
8.5
8.4

14.3
13.8
13.6
13.7
13.6
13.7
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.3
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.1
12.9
12.7
12.9
13.1
13.0
12.8
12.7
12.6

3.8
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.5
4.3
3.7
3.7
3.9
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.4

15.4
15.3
15.8
15.3
14.9
15.1
14.7
14.1
13.7
14.0
15.0
15.8
15.7
15.4
15.4
15.2
15.3
15.0
14.1
13.9
13.6
13.4
12.9

(NA) Not available. Respondents were not asked detailed health insurance questions about direct-purchase coverage before the 1995 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual
Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement.
1
Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and
Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military.
2
The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/usernote/schedule.html>.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
Estimates reflect the results of follow-up verification questions and implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
5
Beginning with the 1998 CPS ASEC, people with no coverage other than access to Indian Health Service are no longer considered covered by health insurance; instead, they are
considered to be uninsured. The effect of this change on the overall estimates of health insurance coverage is negligible; however, the decrease in the number of people covered by
Medicaid may be partially due to this change.
6
The data for 1996 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and 2005 estimates. To see the original series, see
Table C-1 in Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231pdf>.
7
Health insurance questions were redesigned. Increases in estimates of employment-based and military health care coverage may be partially due to questionnaire changes.
Overall coverage estimates were not affected.
8
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing.
9
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
10
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1988 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 59

Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin, and year
Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

ALL RACES
Number
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

301,483
299,106
296,824
293,834
291,166
288,280
285,933
282,082
279,517
276,804

255,143
253,449
249,829
249,020
247,669
244,876
243,914
242,322
241,091
238,037

200,992
201,991
201,690
201,167
200,924
199,871
200,891
201,695
202,794
200,721

176,332
177,446
177,152
176,924
176,247
175,844
177,095
178,261
179,436
176,838

26,777
26,673
27,066
27,055
27,551
26,783
26,846
26,309
26,799
27,731

87,411
83,031
80,270
80,213
79,486
76,755
73,624
71,295
69,037
67,683

42,641
39,554
38,281
38,104
37,955
35,647
33,246
31,601
29,533
28,506

43,029
41,375
40,343
40,177
39,703
39,456
38,448
38,043
37,740
36,923

11,560
10,955
10,547
11,166
10,789
9,979
10,063
9,552
9,099
8,648

46,340
45,657
46,995
44,815
43,498
43,404
42,019
39,760
38,426
38,767

Percent
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

84.6
84.7
84.2
84.7
85.1
84.9
85.3
85.9
86.3
86.0

66.7
67.5
67.9
68.5
69.0
69.3
70.3
71.5
72.6
72.5

58.5
59.3
59.7
60.2
60.5
61.0
61.9
63.2
64.2
63.9

8.9
8.9
9.1
9.2
9.5
9.3
9.4
9.3
9.6
10.0

29.0
27.8
27.0
27.3
27.3
26.6
25.7
25.3
24.7
24.5

14.1
13.2
12.9
13.0
13.0
12.4
11.6
11.2
10.6
10.3

14.3
13.8
13.6
13.7
13.6
13.7
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.3

3.8
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.1

15.4
15.3
15.8
15.3
14.9
15.1
14.7
14.1
13.7
14.0

WHITE ALONE4
Number
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

240,852
239,399
237,892
235,903
234,116
232,254
230,809

205,962
205,099
202,405
201,957
201,095
199,537
199,392

166,916
167,905
167,640
167,430
167,475
167,503
168,745

145,183
146,398
146,285
146,365
145,890
146,300
147,706

23,537
23,433
23,530
23,452
23,997
23,483
23,686

67,449
64,390
62,613
62,138
61,572
59,495
57,072

29,224
27,172
26,507
25,968
25,888
23,959
22,171

36,469
35,117
34,416
34,326
34,061
33,765
33,135

9,290
8,852
8,621
9,020
8,623
8,105
8,065

34,890
34,300
35,486
33,946
33,022
32,717
31,417

Percent
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

85.5
85.7
85.1
85.6
85.9
85.9
86.4

69.3
70.1
70.5
71.0
71.5
72.1
73.1

60.3
61.2
61.5
62.0
62.3
63.0
64.0

9.8
9.8
9.9
9.9
10.2
10.1
10.3

28.0
26.9
26.3
26.3
26.3
25.6
24.7

12.1
11.4
11.1
11.0
11.1
10.3
9.6

15.1
14.7
14.5
14.6
14.5
14.5
14.4

3.9
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5

14.5
14.3
14.9
14.4
14.1
14.1
13.6

WHITE5
Number
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

230,071
228,208
225,794

200,073
199,280
197,137

170,710
171,543
170,289

149,788
150,708
149,024

23,333
23,722
24,458

56,200
54,287
53,175

21,535
19,889
18,977

33,006
32,695
32,144

7,788
7,158
6,902

29,998
28,928
28,657

Percent
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0

87.0
87.3
87.3

74.2
75.2
75.4

65.1
66.0
66.0

10.1
10.4
10.8

24.4
23.8
23.6

9.4
8.7
8.4

14.3
14.3
14.2

3.4
3.1
3.1

13.0
12.7
12.7

See footnotes at end of table.

60 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin, and year
Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

WHITE ALONE, NOT HISPANIC
Number
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197,159
196,768
196,252
195,893
195,347
194,877
194,421

175,837
176,220
175,091
174,984
174,793
174,409
174,747

147,855
149,122
149,592
149,613
149,882
150,563
151,812

127,687
129,138
129,618
130,075
129,766
130,614
132,101

21,844
21,717
22,068
21,724
22,346
22,090
22,291

54,271
52,512
51,445
51,189
51,002
49,743
47,736

18,724
17,786
17,731
17,396
17,462
16,247
14,984

33,444
32,436
31,860
31,717
31,624
31,458
30,718

8,498
8,131
7,869
8,276
8,005
7,563
7,465

21,322
20,548
21,162
20,909
20,554
20,468
19,674

Percent
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

89.2
89.6
89.2
89.3
89.5
89.5
89.9

75.0
75.8
76.2
76.4
76.7
77.3
78.1

64.8
65.6
66.0
66.4
66.4
67.0
67.9

11.1
11.0
11.2
11.1
11.4
11.3
11.5

27.5
26.7
26.2
26.1
26.1
25.5
24.6

9.5
9.0
9.0
8.9
8.9
8.3
7.7

17.0
16.5
16.2
16.2
16.2
16.1
15.8

4.3
4.1
4.0
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.8

10.8
10.4
10.8
10.7
10.5
10.5
10.1

WHITE, NOT HISPANIC
Number
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

194,822
193,931
192,858

176,488
176,279
175,045

154,218
155,152
154,407

134,586
135,472
134,436

22,009
22,476
23,110

47,661
46,297
45,540

15,035
13,788
13,157

30,811
30,642
30,256

7,144
6,564
6,326

18,333
17,652
17,813

Percent
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0

90.6
90.9
90.8

79.2
80.0
80.1

69.1
69.9
69.7

11.3
11.6
12.0

24.5
23.9
23.6

7.7
7.1
6.8

15.8
15.8
15.7

3.7
3.4
3.3

9.4
9.1
9.2

BLACK ALONE OR IN COMBINATION
Number
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40,216
39,683
39,083
38,729
38,179
37,651
37,350

32,614
32,059
31,162
31,491
31,077
30,543
30,093

21,042
21,226
20,966
20,935
20,800
20,376
20,440

19,422
19,498
19,257
19,146
19,144
18,885
19,038

1,743
1,771
1,835
2,009
1,909
1,773
1,638

15,063
13,985
13,121
13,864
13,623
13,195
12,624

10,385
9,606
9,086
9,730
9,562
9,292
8,744

4,671
4,398
4,127
4,184
3,996
4,080
3,851

1,663
1,445
1,289
1,438
1,492
1,283
1,342

7,602
7,624
7,921
7,239
7,103
7,108
7,257

Percent
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

81.1
80.8
79.7
81.3
81.4
81.1
80.6

52.3
53.5
53.6
54.1
54.5
54.1
54.7

48.3
49.1
49.3
49.4
50.1
50.2
51.0

4.3
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.0
4.7
4.4

37.5
35.2
33.6
35.8
35.7
35.0
33.8

25.8
24.2
23.2
25.1
25.0
24.7
23.4

11.6
11.1
10.6
10.8
10.5
10.8
10.3

4.1
3.6
3.3
3.7
3.9
3.4
3.6

18.9
19.2
20.3
18.7
18.6
18.9
19.4

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 61

Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin, and year
Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

BLACK ALONE6
Number
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38,076
37,775
37,369
36,965
36,548
36,121
35,806

30,792
30,403
29,717
29,959
29,684
29,234
28,744

19,894
20,169
20,034
19,950
19,899
19,552
19,544

18,371
18,525
18,401
18,263
18,352
18,135
18,193

1,638
1,691
1,766
1,918
1,803
1,701
1,589

14,177
13.234
12,454
13,168
12,995
12,585
12,058

9,686
8,986
8,531
9,154
9,048
8,797
8,289

4,539
4,303
4,059
4,108
3,921
3,989
3,776

1,544
1,358
1,216
1,357
1,415
1,225
1,268

7,284
7,372
7,652
7,006
6,864
6,887
7,062

Percent
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

80.9
80.5
79.5
81.0
81.2
80.9
80.3

52.2
53.4
53.6
54.0
54.4
54.1
54.6

48.2
49.0
49.2
49.4
50.2
50.2
50.8

4.3
4.5
4.7
5.2
4.9
4.7
4.4

37.2
35.0
33.3
35.6
35.6
34.8
33.7

25.4
23.8
22.8
24.8
24.8
24.4
23.1

11.9
11.4
10.9
11.1
10.7
11.0
10.5

4.1
3.6
3.3
3.7
3.9
3.4
3.5

19.1
19.5
20.5
19.0
18.8
19.1
19.7

BLACK5
Number
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36,023
35,597
35,893

29,359
29,065
28,918

20,569
20,652
20,638

19,177
19,075
19,039

1,713
1,910
2,118

11,616
11,579
11,361

7,994
7,735
7,652

3,783
3,871
3,615

1,192
1,372
1,216

6,664
6,532
6,975

Percent
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0

81.5
81.7
80.6

57.1
58.0
57.5

53.2
53.6
53.0

4.8
5.4
5.9

32.2
32.5
31.7

22.2
21.7
21.3

10.5
10.9
10.1

3.3
3.9
3.4

18.5
18.3
19.4

ASIAN ALONE OR IN COMBINATION
Number
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14,548
14,444
14,348
13,758
13,307
12,905
12,504

12,065
12,122
12,188
11,472
11,276
10,577
10,332

9,998
9,995
10,222
9,886
9,611
8,908
8,728

8,946
8,951
9,033
8,788
8,428
7,891
7,652

1,216
1,216
1,387
1,272
1,342
1,181
1,208

2,969
2,888
2,859
2,558
2,599
2,478
2,341

1,704
1,659
1,616
1,341
1,389
1,385
1,322

1,290
1,238
1,227
1,133
1,110
1,096
1,008

374
379
404
461
440
355
347

2,484
2,321
2,160
2,286
2,031
2,329
2,172

Percent
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

82.9
83.9
84.9
83.4
84.7
82.0
82.6

68.7
69.2
71.2
71.9
72.2
69.0
69.8

61.5
62.0
63.0
63.9
63.3
61.1
61.2

8.4
8.4
9.7
9.2
10.1
9.2
9.7

20.4
20.0
19.9
18.6
19.5
19.2
18.7

11.7
11.5
11.3
9.7
10.4
10.7
10.6

8.9
8.6
8.6
8.2
8.3
8.5
8.1

2.6
2.6
2.8
3.3
3.3
2.7
2.8

17.1
16.1
15.1
16.6
15.3
18.0
17.4

See footnotes at end of table.

62 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin, and year
Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

ASIAN ALONE7
Number
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13,315
13,268
13,194
12,599
12,241
11,869
11,558

10,971
11,034
11,149
10,438
10,341
9,698
9,499

9,081
9,067
9,339
9,006
8,805
8,210
8,024

8,094
8,107
8,201
7,968
7,711
7,263
7,004

1,138
1,127
1,323
1,206
1,250
1,111
1,151

2,708
2,649
2,636
2,301
2,398
2,244
2,132

1,540
1,528
1,480
1,211
1,280
1,229
1,202

1,258
1,195
1,187
1,103
1,081
1,067
988

292
296
335
353
366
295
270

2,344
2,234
2,045
2,161
1,900
2,171
2,060

Percent
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

82.4
83.2
84.5
82.8
84.5
81.7
82.2

68.2
68.3
70.8
71.5
71.9
69.2
69.4

60.8
61.1
62.2
63.2
63.0
61.2
60.6

8.5
8.5
10.0
9.6
10.2
9.4
10.0

20.3
20.0
20.0
18.3
19.6
18.9
18.4

11.6
11.5
11.2
9.6
10.5
10.4
10.4

9.5
9.0
9.0
8.8
8.8
9.0
8.5

2.2
2.2
2.5
2.8
3.0
2.5
2.3

17.6
16.8
15.5
17.2
15.5
18.3
17.8

ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER5
Number
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12,500
12,693
11,964

10,291
10,473
9,769

8,716
8,993
8,299

7,748
8,178
7,426

1,099
1,005
982

2,312
2,249
2,204

1,257
1,288
1,179

949
886
897

414
443
450

2,208
2,220
2,196

Percent
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0

82.3
82.5
81.6

69.7
70.9
69.4

62.0
64.4
62.1

8.8
7.9
8.2

18.5
17.7
18.4

10.1
10.1
9.9

7.6
7.0
7.5

3.3
3.5
3.8

17.7
17.5
18.4

HISPANIC (any race)
Number
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47,485
46,026
44,854
43,168
41,840
40,425
39,384
37,438
36,093
34,773

32,928
31,256
29,558
29,214
28,527
27,355
26,815
25,146
24,340
23,445

20,779
20,194
19,434
19,252
19,090
18,372
18,324
17,460
17,264
16,786

19,094
18,551
17,934
17,597
17,499
16,970
16,921
16,096
16,031
15,419

1,797
1,804
1,587
1,856
1,788
1,559
1,481
1,401
1,354
1,414

14,448
13,031
12,207
11,958
11,530
10,716
10,280
9,227
8,566
8,168

11,559
10,348
9,646
9,357
9,205
8,505
7,946
7,074
6,552
6,253

3,218
2,887
2,757
2,771
2,614
2,462
2,535
2,295
2,141
1,979

898
801
813
869
697
639
724
704
682
626

14,558
14,770
15,296
13,954
13,313
13,070
12,569
12,292
11,753
11,328

Percent
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

69.3
67.9
65.9
67.7
68.2
67.7
68.1
67.2
67.4
67.4

43.8
43.9
43.3
44.6
45.6
45.4
46.5
46.6
47.8
48.3

40.2
40.3
40.0
40.8
41.8
42.0
43.0
43.0
44.4
44.3

3.8
3.9
3.5
4.3
4.3
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.8
4.1

30.4
28.3
27.2
27.7
27.6
26.5
26.1
24.6
23.7
23.5

24.3
22.5
21.5
21.7
22.0
21.0
20.2
18.9
18.2
18.0

6.8
6.3
6.1
6.4
6.2
6.1
6.4
6.1
5.9
5.7

1.9
1.7
1.8
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.8

30.7
32.1
34.1
32.3
31.8
32.3
31.9
32.8
32.6
32.6

1
Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of
the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military.
2
The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/usernote/schedule.html>.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
The 2003 CPS asked respondents to choose one or more races. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this single-race
population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race,
such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more
than one race in Census 2000.
5
The 2001 CPS and earlier years asked respondents to report only one race. The reference groups for these years are White, White not Hispanic, Black, and Asian and Pacific Islander.
6
Black alone refers to people who reported Black or African American and did not report any other race.
7
Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.

Note: All years reflect the implementation of the verification question. The data for 1999 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004
and 2005 estimates. To see the original series, see Table C-1 in Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod /2006pubs/p60-231.pdf>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2000 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 63

Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Age
Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

255,143
253,449
249,829
249,020
247,669
244,876
243,914
242,322
241,091
238,037

200,992
201,991
201,690
201,167
200,924
199,871
200,891
201,695
202,794
200,721

176,332
177,446
177,152
176,924
176,247
175,844
177,095
178,261
179,436
176,838

26,777
26,673
27,066
27,055
27,551
26,783
26,846
26,309
26,799
27,731

87,411
83,031
80,270
80,213
79,486
76,755
73,624
71,295
69,037
67,683

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

84.6
84.7
84.2
84.7
85.1
84.9
85.3
85.9
86.3
86.0

66.7
67.5
67.9
68.5
69.0
69.3
70.3
71.5
72.6
72.5

58.5
59.3
59.7
60.2
60.5
61.0
61.9
63.2
64.2
63.9

8.9
8.9
9.1
9.2
9.5
9.3
9.4
9.3
9.6
10.0

UNDER 18 YEARS
Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74,510
74,403
74,101
73,985
73,791
73,580
73,312
72,628
72,314
72,281

67,161
66,254
65,440
65,935
66,070
65,466
65,082
64,401
63,929
63,248

47,282
47,750
47,906
48,686
49,017
48,784
49,807
49,978
50,755
50,588

43,874
44,252
44,257
45,039
45,274
45,297
46,510
46,762
47,679
47,102

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

90.1
89.0
88.3
89.1
89.5
89.0
88.8
88.7
88.4
87.5

63.5
64.2
64.6
65.8
66.4
66.3
67.9
68.8
70.2
70.0

58.9
59.5
59.7
60.9
61.4
61.6
63.4
64.4
65.9
65.2

Total
people

Total

ALL AGES
Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

301,483
299,106
296,824
293,834
291,166
288,280
285,933
282,082
279,517
276,804

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

42,641
39,554
38,281
38,104
37,955
35,647
33,246
31,601
29,533
28,506

43,029
41,375
40,343
40,177
39,703
39,456
38,448
38,043
37,740
36,923

11,560
10,955
10,547
11,166
10,789
9,979
10,063
9,552
9,099
8,648

46,340
45,657
46,995
44,815
43,498
43,404
42,019
39,760
38,426
38,767

29.0
27.8
27.0
27.3
27.3
26.6
25.7
25.3
24.7
24.5

14.1
13.2
12.9
13.0
13.0
12.4
11.6
11.2
10.6
10.3

14.3
13.8
13.6
13.7
13.6
13.7
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.3

3.8
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.1

15.4
15.3
15.8
15.3
14.9
15.1
14.7
14.1
13.7
14.0

3,812
3,930
3,890
4,035
4,271
3,918
3,876
3,647
3,604
4,087

24,767
23,041
22,109
21,934
22,023
21,389
19,662
18,822
17,658
16,793

22,555
20,899
20,067
19,723
19,917
19,392
17,526
16,502
15,090
14,697

623
518
411
538
503
483
524
423
518
364

2,241
2,101
2,058
2,264
2,090
2,021
2,148
2,381
2,563
2,076

7,348
8,149
8,661
8,050
7,721
8,114
8,229
8,227
8,385
9,033

5.1
5.3
5.3
5.5
5.8
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.7

33.2
31.0
29.8
29.6
29.8
29.1
26.8
25.9
24.4
23.2

30.3
28.1
27.1
26.7
27.0
26.4
23.9
22.7
20.9
20.3

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.5

3.0
2.8
2.8
3.1
2.8
2.7
2.9
3.3
3.5
2.9

9.9
11.0
11.7
10.9
10.5
11.0
11.2
11.3
11.6
12.5

See footnotes at end of table.

64 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Age
Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

20,488
20,407
20,081
19,765
19,762
19,703
19,575
19,910
19,612
19,245

16,947
17,074
17,030
16,733
16,765
16,834
16,834
17,292
17,295
16,817

13,450
13,747
13,768
13,526
13,354
13,720
13,691
14,039
14,351
13,836

1,700
1,635
1,736
1,580
1,604
1,637
1,582
1,653
1,554
1,591

4,741
4,428
4,006
4,199
4,106
3,929
3,738
3,642
3,361
3,485

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

71.4
71.9
70.7
70.7
70.6
70.8
71.3
72.9
73.1
73.1

59.1
60.1
60.0
59.8
59.9
60.5
61.4
63.3
64.5
63.9

46.9
48.4
48.5
48.4
47.7
49.3
49.9
51.4
53.5
52.6

5.9
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.9
5.8
6.1
5.8
6.0

25 TO 34 YEARS
Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40,520
40,146
39,868
39,480
39,310
39,201
39,243
38,670
38,865
39,031

29,766
29,817
29,154
29,320
29,544
29,055
29,685
29,826
30,547
30,532

25,879
26,430
25,814
25,751
26,176
25,812
26,715
27,124
27,951
27,962

24,130
24,505
24,009
23,927
24,381
24,136
25,022
25,521
26,388
26,369

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

73.5
74.3
73.1
74.3
75.2
74.1
75.6
77.1
78.6
78.2

63.9
65.8
64.7
65.2
66.6
65.8
68.1
70.1
71.9
71.6

59.6
61.0
60.2
60.6
62.0
61.6
63.8
66.0
67.9
67.6

Total
people

Total

18 TO 24 YEARS
Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28,688
28,398
28,405
27,965
28,008
27,824
27,438
27,312
26,815
26,326

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

3,798
3,563
3,252
3,289
3,291
3,016
2,909
2,831
2,508
2,684

254
180
154
186
208
176
183
180
207
152

868
823
721
872
807
902
779
742
805
787

8,200
7,991
8,323
8,201
8,247
8,121
7,863
7,402
7,203
7,081

16.5
15.6
14.1
15.0
14.7
14.1
13.6
13.3
12.5
13.2

13.2
12.5
11.4
11.8
11.8
10.8
10.6
10.4
9.4
10.2

0.9
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.6

3.0
2.9
2.5
3.1
2.9
3.2
2.8
2.7
3.0
3.0

28.6
28.1
29.3
29.3
29.4
29.2
28.7
27.1
26.9
26.9

2,189
2,347
2,160
2,259
2,329
2,085
2,105
2,087
2,056
2,148

5,086
4,539
4,460
4,751
4,678
4,210
3,944
3,653
3,551
3,578

3,748
3,237
3,374
3,449
3,482
3,073
2,801
2,587
2,480
2,458

546
501
472
541
479
538
455
489
403
332

1,104
1,047
890
1,058
1,015
898
922
817
922
974

10,754
10,329
10,713
10,161
9,766
10,146
9,558
8,844
8,318
8,499

5.4
5.8
5.4
5.7
5.9
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.5

12.6
11.3
11.2
12.0
11.9
10.7
10.1
9.4
9.1
9.2

9.3
8.1
8.5
8.7
8.9
7.8
7.1
6.7
6.4
6.3

1.3
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.2
1.4
1.2
1.3
1.0
0.8

2.7
2.6
2.2
2.7
2.6
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.4
2.5

26.5
25.7
26.9
25.7
24.8
25.9
24.4
22.9
21.4
21.8

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 65

Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Age
Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

33,287
34,415
34,744
35,220
35,446
35,796
36,464
37,272
37,820
37,894

29,780
31,067
31,531
31,903
32,061
32,654
33,424
34,449
35,186
35,074

27,899
29,009
29,463
29,747
29,944
30,497
31,362
32,522
33,135
32,776

2,444
2,687
2,788
2,808
2,833
2,806
2,826
2,655
2,747
3,170

4,685
4,546
4,409
4,628
4,747
4,420
4,240
4,003
3,920
4,028

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

80.6
81.7
81.2
81.7
81.8
82.2
82.7
84.2
84.9
85.2

72.1
73.7
73.7
74.0
74.0
74.9
75.8
77.8
79.0
78.9

67.5
68.9
68.9
69.0
69.1
70.0
71.2
73.4
74.4
73.7

5.9
6.4
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.4
6.0
6.2
7.1

45 TO 54 YEARS
Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44,366
43,935
43,461
42,797
41,961
41,068
40,234
39,545
38,720
37,334

37,312
37,161
36,819
36,570
36,074
35,443
34,913
34,595
34,227
32,927

33,234
33,350
33,250
33,114
32,776
32,368
32,011
31,909
31,659
30,548

30,861
30,805
30,868
30,651
30,370
30,053
29,884
29,718
29,578
28,448

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

84.1
84.6
84.7
85.5
86.0
86.3
86.8
87.5
88.4
88.2

74.9
75.9
76.5
77.4
78.1
78.8
79.6
80.7
81.8
81.8

69.6
70.1
71.0
71.6
72.4
73.2
74.3
75.2
76.4
76.2

Total
people

Total

35 TO 44 YEARS
Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41,322
42,132
42,762
43,121
43,351
43,573
44,074
44,284
44,566
44,474

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

3,155
3,027
2,977
3,087
3,192
2,860
2,728
2,532
2,390
2,390

970
924
806
885
901
940
881
860
780
825

1,097
1,016
1,015
1,099
1,153
1,111
1,121
1,066
1,206
1,257

8,035
7,717
8,018
7,901
7,904
7,777
7,610
7,012
6,746
6,580

11.3
10.8
10.3
10.7
11.0
10.1
9.6
9.0
8.8
9.1

7.6
7.2
7.0
7.2
7.4
6.6
6.2
5.7
5.4
5.4

2.3
2.2
1.9
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.9

2.7
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.7
2.8

19.4
18.3
18.8
18.3
18.2
17.8
17.3
15.8
15.1
14.8

3,182
3,292
3,297
3,396
3,324
3,255
3,124
3,135
3,103
3,226

5,797
5,363
5,182
4,956
4,898
4,569
4,345
3,990
3,964
3,682

3,313
3,103
2,885
2,837
2,656
2,359
2,227
2,071
1,996
1,769

1,967
1,795
1,739
1,591
1,550
1,569
1,382
1,331
1,384
1,162

1,371
1,285
1,337
1,355
1,426
1,369
1,351
1,170
1,169
1,244

7,054
6,774
6,642
6,227
5,886
5,625
5,321
4,950
4,492
4,407

7.2
7.5
7.6
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.6

13.1
12.2
11.9
11.6
11.7
11.1
10.8
10.1
10.2
9.9

7.5
7.1
6.6
6.6
6.3
5.7
5.5
5.2
5.2
4.7

4.4
4.1
4.0
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.1

3.1
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.3
3.4
3.0
3.0
3.3

15.9
15.4
15.3
14.5
14.0
13.7
13.2
12.5
11.6
11.8

See footnotes at end of table.

66 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2008—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar09.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Government health insurance

Age
Total

Employment
based

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

29,989
29,291
28,096
27,154
26,016
25,039
24,219
22,820
21,641
21,082

25,584
25,114
24,255
23,543
22,640
21,963
21,170
19,959
18,977
18,678

22,906
22,569
21,701
21,092
20,254
19,692
18,844
17,862
16,792
16,518

3,346
3,237
3,276
3,194
3,180
3,051
3,123
2,832
2,990
3,008

6,901
6,651
6,122
5,886
5,478
4,893
4,882
4,567
4,185
4,033

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

87.5
88.0
87.3
87.6
88.1
88.2
88.4
88.2
87.7
87.9

74.6
75.4
75.3
76.0
76.7
77.4
77.3
77.1
76.9
77.9

66.8
67.8
67.4
68.1
68.6
69.4
68.8
69.0
68.1
68.9

9.8
9.7
10.2
10.3
10.8
10.8
11.4
10.9
12.1
12.5

65 YEARS AND OLDER
Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37,788
36,790
36,035
35,505
35,209
34,659
34,234
33,769
33,566
33,377

37,142
36,103
35,494
35,056
34,755
34,373
33,976
33,498
33,314
33,109

22,287
21,206
21,904
21,437
21,488
21,457
20,929
20,984
20,971
21,054

13,212
12,558
13,086
12,942
12,670
12,448
11,782
11,837
11,512
11,789

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.3
98.1
98.5
98.7
98.7
99.2
99.2
99.2
99.3
99.2

59.0
57.6
60.8
60.4
61.0
61.9
61.1
62.1
62.5
63.1

35.0
34.1
36.3
36.5
36.0
35.9
34.4
35.1
34.3
35.3

Total
people

Total

55 TO 64 YEARS
Number
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34,289
33,302
32,191
30,981
29,536
28,375
27,399
25,874
24,672
23,981

Percent
2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Medicare

Military
health
care1

Not
covered

2,644
2,462
2,362
2,325
2,085
1,757
1,773
1,807
1,731
1,551

3,365
3,179
2,956
2,708
2,644
2,494
2,392
2,301
2,159
2,084

2,059
2,079
1,845
1,908
1,795
1,471
1,482
1,220
1,024
1,053

4,301
4,011
4,095
3,826
3,519
3,335
3,180
3,054
3,031
2,899

20.1
20.0
19.0
19.0
18.5
17.2
17.8
17.7
17.0
16.8

7.7
7.4
7.3
7.5
7.1
6.2
6.5
7.0
7.0
6.5

9.8
9.5
9.2
8.7
9.0
8.8
8.7
8.9
8.8
8.7

6.0
6.2
5.7
6.2
6.1
5.2
5.4
4.7
4.2
4.4

12.5
12.0
12.7
12.4
11.9
11.8
11.6
11.8
12.3
12.1

10,103
9,546
9,918
9,783
10,010
10,032
10,210
10,299
10,746
10,501

35,434
34,464
33,982
33,859
33,555
33,345
32,813
32,618
32,398
32,083

3,428
3,263
3,364
3,394
3,332
3,190
3,283
3,270
3,339
2,956

35,304
34,278
33,806
33,727
33,419
33,257
32,631
32,458
32,289
32,004

2,821
2,604
2,682
2,611
2,504
2,206
2,259
2,156
1,410
1,257

646
686
541
449
454
286
258
272
251
268

26.7
25.9
27.5
27.6
28.4
28.9
29.8
30.5
32.0
31.5

93.8
93.7
94.3
95.4
95.3
96.2
95.8
96.6
96.5
96.1

9.1
8.9
9.3
9.6
9.5
9.2
9.6
9.7
9.9
8.9

93.4
93.2
93.8
95.0
94.9
96.0
95.3
96.1
96.2
95.9

7.5
7.1
7.4
7.4
7.1
6.4
6.6
6.4
4.2
3.8

1.7
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.3
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8

1
Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and
Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military.
2
The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/usernote/schedule.html>.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
Estimates reflect the results of follow-up verification questions and implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
Note: All years reflect the implementation of the verification question. The data for 1999 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision
to the 2004 and 2005 estimates. To see the original series, see Table C-1 in Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod
/2006pubs/p60-231.pdf>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2000 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008 67

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