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Saint Paul University Philippines

Tuguegarao City
SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
PHYSICS 101
(REVIEWER)
I. Multiple Choice: Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your choice in your test booklet. USE CAPITAL LETTERS ONLY.
For numbers 1-2.
If a man a walked by 2 km going to the east and moved back by another 1 km going to the west.
1. What is his total distance traveled? A. 0 km B. 1.0 km C. 3.0 km D. 2.0 km
2. What is his total displacement traveled? A. 0 km B. 1.0 km C. 3.0 km D. 2.0 km
3. A decimeter is equivalent to how many meters? A. 0.001 m B. 0.01 m C. 0.1 m D. 1.0 m
4. Which of the following units is the shortest? A. 10.0 mm B. 0.1 cm C. 0.01 ft D. 0.0001 km
5. The displacement of an object for a round trip between two locations
A. is always zero B. is always greater than zero
C. is always less than zero D. can be greater than or less than zero
6. It refers to the length of path covered or traveled by an object.
A. speed B. velocity C. distance D. displacement
7. When an object is thrown upward and return to the point of origin, which of the following becomes zero?
A. acceleration B. velocity C. speed D. displacement
8. It is a continuous change in position with respect to a certain reference point.
A. speed B. motion C. distance D. displacement
9. It refers to the speed that something has at any one instant. The speed registered by your speedometer is an example of these.
A. average speed B. velocity C. instantaneous speed D. average velocity
10. The acceleration of a stone thrown upward is
A. greater than that of a stone thrown downward B. the same as of that the stone thrown downward
C. smaller than that of a stone thrown downward D. zero until it reaches the maximum height
11. A stone thrown upward from a roof at the same time as an identical stone is dropped from there. The stones will
A. reaches the ground at the same time
B. has the same velocity when they reach the ground
C. has the same acceleration when they reach the ground
D. none of the two stones will reach the ground
12. Two balls are thrown vertically upward, one with an initial velocity twice that of the other. The ball with the greater initial velocity
will reach a height of
A. 1/2 that of the other B. twice that of the other C. 4 times that of the other D. 8 times that of the other
13. Which of the following could be associated to a vector quantity
A. km/hr2 B. N/m2 C. kg/m3 D. cm3
14. Ball A is projected horizontally to the right and ball B is dropped from the same height and at the same time. What will be the
motion of the two balls?
A. ball A will reach the ground first B. both of them will reach the ground first
C. ball B will reach the ground first D. both of them will not reach the ground
15. Which of the following pairs of displacements cannot be added to give a resultant displacement of 2 m?
A. 1 m and 1 m B. 1 m and 2 m C. 1 m and 3 m D. 1 m and 4 m
16. One of the branches of physics that deals in the study of properties and behavior of light.
A. mechanics B. thermodynamics C. electromagnetism D. optics
17. One of the branches of physics that deals in the study of heat in motion.
A. mechanics B. thermodynamics C. electromagnetism D. optics
18. Which of these is an example of derived quantities?
A. length B. time C. temperature D. volume
19. When a projectile reaches its maximum height, which of the following becomes zero?
A. acceleration B. velocity C. speed D. displacement
20. A ball is dropped from the top of the building. In the absence of air resistance, the ball will hit the ground with a speed of 49 m/s.
What is the height of the building?
A. 120 m B. 122.5 m C. 25 m D. 125 m
21. Which is not true to a speed?
A. it’s a scalar quantity B. it is a vector quantity
C. it is a displacement per unit time D. more than two correct responses is given
22. What is the resultant of a 4 N force acting upward and a 3 N force acting horizontally?
A. 1 N m B. 5 N C. 7 N D. 12 N
23. What is the acceleration of applied net force of 10 N to a given mass of 20 kg?
A. 0.5 m/s2 B. 1.0 m/s2 C. 1.5 m/s2 D. 2.0 m/s2
For numbers 24 -26
A car travels at 40 km/hr for 2 hr, at 60 km/hr for 1 hr, and at 20 km/hr for 0.5 hr
24. What is the car’s total time covered?
A. 1.26 x 104 s B. 1.26 x 105 s C. 1.26 x 106 s D. 1.26 x 107 s
25. What is the car’s total distance traveled?
A. 1.5 x 104 m B. 1.5 x 105 m C. 1.5 x 106 m D. 1.5 x 107 m
26. What is the car’s average speed?
A. 9.9 m/s B. 10.9 m/s C. 11.9 m/s D. 12.9 m/s
For numbers 27-31 Projectile
A water rocket is launched with an initial velocity of 288 km/h at an angle of 40° above the
horizontal.
27. What is the rocket’s range (R)?
A. 643 m B. 743 m C. 8,335 m D. 9,335 m
28. What is the rocket’s time of flight (T)?
A. 10 s B. 10.5 s C. 11 s D. 11.5 s
29. What is the rocket’s time of rise or the time needed to reach the maximum height (tR)?
A. 5.1 s B. 5.2 s C. 5.3 s D. 5.4 s
30. What is the rocket’s maximum height (Hmax)?
A. 134 m B. 135 m C. 136 m D. 137 m
31. What is the rocket’s maximum range (Rmax)?
A. 643 m B. 653 m C. 753 m D. 853 m
For numbers 32 – 35. Uniformly Accelerated Motion
A car travels with an initial velocity of 120 km/h and an acceleration of – 5.0 m/s.
32. What is the velocity after it travels 10s?
A. 16.67 m/s B. 33.34 m/s C. -16.67 m/s D. -33.34 m/s
33. What is the displacement after it travels 10s?
A. -73.3 m B.-83.3 m C. 73.3 m D. 83.3 m.
34. How far the car has gone when it comes to a stop?
A. 110 m B. 111 m C. 112 m D. 113 m.
35. At what time will the car has gone when it comes to a stop?
A. 5.67 s B. 6.67 s C. 7.67 s D. 8.67 s
For numbers 36-39 Freefall
A stone is thrown vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 30 m/s.
36. At what time will it reach the maximum height?
A. 3.06 s B. 4.06 s C. 5.06 s D. 6.06 s
37. What will be the maximum height?
A. 45 m B. 46 m C. 47 m D. 48 m.
38. What is the velocity if it reaches a height of 10 m as it goes up?
A. 25.5 m/s B. 26 m/s m C. 26.5 m/s D. 27 m/s
39. If it is caught on its way down 5m above the ground, what is the velocity?
A. -8.32 m/s B. -18.32 m/s C. -28.32 m/s D. -38.32 m/s.
For numbers 40-44, refer to the following set of d-t and v-t graph below:
A. d B. d C. d D. v E. v

t t t t t
40. Which of these graphs shows that the body is in at rest position?
41. Which of these graphs shows that the body is moving away from the point of origin at constant velocity?
42. Which of these graphs shows that the body is moving in increasing velocity?
43. Which of these graphs shows that the body is moving back to the point of origin at constant velocity?
44. Which of these graphs shows that the body is moving in decreasing velocity?
45. If a body is traveling at constant velocity, what is the value of the acceleration?
A. constant B. positive C. negative D. zero
46. In a v-t graph, what is the equivalent value of the slope of the line?
A. speed B. acceleration C. velocity D. displacement
47. One of the branches of physics that deals to the study of properties and behavior of light.
A. mechanics B. thermodynamics C. electromagnetism D. optics
48. In a free fall and projectile motion, what is the velocity in reaching the maximum height?
A. constant B. positive C. negative D. zero
49.
50.
II. Analysis: (2 points each)
Directions: Write A if statement X alone is true.
Write B if statement Y alone is true.
Write C if statement X and Y are true.
Write D if statement X and Y are false.
1. X: Friction is a force that opposes the motion of the body.
Y: Static friction occurs if an object slides across a surface and opposes the motion of the body.
2. X: Work done is positive if the angle between force and displacement is 180 .
Y: Work done is negative if the angle between force and displacement is 0 .
3. X: Potential energy is at maximum if the height is at zero.
Y: Kinetic energy is zero if the body is at rest position.
4. X: Power is a vector quantity.
Y: Power is the rate of work done.
5. X: Momentum is defined as the inertia in motion.
Y: Momentum is a scalar quantity.
6. X: Dynamic equilibrium is a state of balance that has a zero net force.
Y: Static equilibrium is a state of balance that moves at constant velocity with zero acceleration.
7. X: Equilibrium is a state of balance.
Y: A body in equilibrium has a zero net force and moves at constant acceleration.
8. X: In impulse, force is directly proportional to time.
Y: Impulse is equal to the change in momentum.
9. X: Mass is inversely proportional to momentum.
Y: Velocity is directly proportional to momentum.
10. X: Work is equal to mass times the velocity.
Y: Unit of work is kg m2/s2
11. X: Normal force is the force exerted by a rope, string or chain.
Y: If an object is along the horizontal surface, the normal force is equal to weight of an object.
12. X: Law of acceleration states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Y: Net force is inversely proportional to acceleration of the body.
13. X: Contact force is a force that acts at even when the bodies are separated by an empty space.
Y: Gravitational attraction between earth and moon is an example of contact force.
14. X: Unit of power is kg m2/s3
Y: Power is equal to force times the velocity.
15. X: Projectile motion is a motion that moves under the influence of gravitational pull only.
Y: In projectile motion, the acceleration at the maximum height is equal to 9.8 m/s2?
Check Your Understanding
Use your understanding of work and power to answer the following questions.
1. Two physics students, Will N. Andable and Ben Pumpiniron, are in the weightlifting room. Will lifts the 100-pound barbell over his
head 10 times in one minute; Ben lifts the 100-pound barbell over his head 10 times in 10 seconds. Which student does the most
work? ______________ Which student delivers the most power? ______________ Explain your answers.
Ben and Will do the same amount of work. They apply the same force to lift the same barbell the same distance above their heads.
Yet, Ben is the most "power-full" since he does the same work in less time. Power and time are inversely proportional.
2. During a physics lab, Jack and Jill ran up a hill. Jack is twice as massive as Jill; yet Jill ascends the same distance in half the time.
Who did the most work? ______________ Who delivered the most power? ______________ Explain your answers.
Jack does more work than Jill. Jack must apply twice the force to lift his twice-as-massive body up the same flight of stairs. Yet, Jill is
just as "power-full" as Jack. Jill does one-half the work yet does it one-half the time. The reduction in work done is compensated for
by the reduction in time.
3. A tired squirrel (mass of approximately 1 kg) does push-ups by applying a force to elevate its center-of-mass by 5 cm in order to do
a mere 0.50 Joule of work. If the tired squirrel does all this work in 2 seconds, then determine its power.
The tired squirrel does 0.50 Joule of work in 2.0 seconds. The power rating of this squirrel is found by
P = W / t = (0.50 J) / (2.0 s) = 0.25 Watts
4. When doing a chin-up, a physics student lifts her 42.0-kg body a distance of 0.25 meters in 2 seconds. What is the power delivered
by the student's biceps?
To raise her body upward at a constant speed, the student must apply a force which is equal to her weight (m•g). The work done to lift
her body is
W = F * d = (411.6 N) * (0.250 m)
W = 102.9 J
The power is the work/time ratio which is (102.9 J) / (2 seconds) = 51.5 Watts (rounded)
5. Your household's monthly electric bill is often expressed in kilowatt-hours. One kilowatt-hour is the amount of energy delivered by
the flow of l kilowatt of electricity for one hour. Use conversion factors to show how many joules of energy you get when you buy 1
kilowatt-hour of electricity.

Using conversion factors, it can be shown that 1 kilo-watt*hour is equivalent to 3.6 x 106 Joules. First, convert 1 kW-hr to 1000
Watt-hours. Then convert 1000 Watt-hours to 3.6 x 106 Watt-seconds. Since a Watt-second is equivalent to a Joule, you have found
your answer.
6. An escalator is used to move 20 passengers every minute from the first floor of a department store to the second. The second floor is
located 5.20 meters above the first floor. The average passenger's mass is 54.9 kg. Determine the power requirement of the escalator in
order to move this number of passengers in this amount of time.
A good strategy would involve determining the work required to elevate one average passenger. Then multiply this value by 20 to
determine the total work for elevating 20 passengers. Finally, the power can be determined by dividing this total work value by the
time required to do the work. The solution goes as follows:
W1 passenger = F • d • cos(0 deg)

W1 passenger = (54.9 kg • 9.8 m/s2) • 5.20 m = 2798 J (rounded)


W20 passengers = 55954 J (rounded)
P = W20 passengers / time = (55954 J) / (60 s)
P = 933 W
Use your understanding of kinetic energy to answer the following questions.
1. Determine the kinetic energy of a 625-kg roller coaster car that is moving with a speed of 18.3 m/s.

KE = 0.5*m*v2

KE = (0.5) * (625 kg) * (18.3 m/s)2

KE = 1.05 x105 Joules


2. If the roller coaster car in the above problem were moving with twice the speed, then what would be its new kinetic energy?
If the speed is doubled, then the KE is quadrupled. Thus, KE = 4 * (1.04653 x 105 J) = 4.19 x 105 Joules. or

KE = 0.5*m*v2

KE = 0.5*625 kg*(36.6 m/s)2

KE = 4.19 x 105 Joules


3. Missy Diwater, the former platform diver for the Ringling Brother's Circus, had a kinetic energy of 12 000 J just prior to hitting the
bucket of water. If Missy's mass is 40 kg, then what is her speed?

KE = 0.5*m*v2

12 000 J = (0.5) * (40 kg) * v2

300 J = (0.5) * v2

600 J = v2
v = 24.5 m/s
4. A 900-kg compact car moving at 60 mi/hr has approximately 320 000 Joules of kinetic energy. Estimate its new kinetic energy if it
is moving at 30 mi/hr. (HINT: use the kinetic energy equation as a "guide to thinking.")
KE = 80 000 J
The KE is directly related to the square of the speed. If the speed is reduced by a factor of 2 (as in from 60 mi/hr to 30 mi/hr)
then the KE will be reduced by a factor of 4. Thus, the new KE is (320 000 J)/4 or 80 000 J.
Express your understanding of the concept and mathematics of work by answering the following questions.
1. Apply the work equation to determine the amount of work done by the applied force in each of the three situations described below.

Before beginning its initial descent, a roller coaster car is always pulled up the first hill to a high initial height. Work is done on the car
(usually by a chain) to achieve this initial height. A coaster designer is considering three different incline angles at which to drag the
2000-kg car train to the top of the 60-meter high hill. In each case, the force applied to the car will be applied parallel to the hill. Her
critical question is: which angle would require the most work? Analyze the data, determine the work done in each case, and answer
this critical question
Work (J)
Angle Force Distance

a. 35 deg 1.12 x 104 N 105 m

b. 45 deg 1.39 x 104 N 84.9 m

c. 55 deg 1.61 x 104 N 73.2 m


Diagram A Answer:
W = (100 N) * (5 m)* cos(0 degrees) = 500 J
The force and the displacement are given in the problem statement. It is said (or shown or implied) that the force and the displacement
are both rightward. Since F and d are in the same direction,the angle is 0 degrees.
Diagram B Answer:
W = (100 N) * (5 m) * cos(30 degrees) = 433 J
The force and the displacement are given in theproblem statement. It is said that the displacement is rightward. It is shown that the
force is 30 degrees above the horizontal. Thus, the angle between F and d is 30 degrees.
Diagram C Answer:
W = (147 N) * (5 m) * cos(0 degrees) = 735 J
The displacement is given in the problem statement. The applied force must be 147 N since the 15-kg mass (Fgrav=147 N) is lifted at
constant speed. Since F and d are in the same direction, the angle is 0 degrees.
4. Ben Travlun carries a 200-N suitcase up three flights of stairs (a height of 10.0 m) and then pushes it with a horizontal force of 50.0
N at a constant speed of 0.5 m/s for a horizontal distance of 35.0 meters. How much work does Ben do on his suitcase during this
entire motion?
The motion has two parts: pulling vertically to displace the suitcase vertically (angle = 0 degrees) and pushing horizontally to displace
the suitcase horizontally (angle = 0 degrees).
For the vertical part, W = (200 N) * (10 m) * cos (0 deg) = 2000 J.
For the horizontal part, W = (50 N) * (35 m) * cos (0 deg) = 1750 J.
The total work done is 3750 J (the sum of the two parts).
5. A force of 50 N acts on the block at the angle shown in the diagram. The block moves a horizontal distance of 3.0 m. How much
work is done by the applied force?
W = F * d * cos(Theta)
W = (50 N) * (3 m) * cos (30 degrees) = 129.9 Joules
6. How much work is done by an applied force to lift a 15-Newton block 3.0 meters vertically at a constant speed?
To lift a 15-Newton block at constant speed, 15-N of force must be applied to it (Newton's laws). Thus,
W = (15 N) * (3 m) * cos (0 degrees) = 45 Joules
7. A student with a mass of 80.0 kg runs up three flights of stairs in 12.0 sec. The student has gone a vertical distance of 8.0 m.
Determine the amount of work done by the student to elevate his body to this height. Assume that her speed is constant. The student
weighs 784 N (Fgrav= 80 kg * 9.8 m/s/s).To lift a 784-Newton person at constant speed, 784 N of force must be applied to it
(Newton's laws). The force is up, the displacement is up, and so the angle theta in the work equation is 0 degrees. Thus,
W = (784 N) * (8 m) * cos (0 degrees) = 6272 Joules
9. A tired squirrel (mass of 1 kg) does push-ups by applying a force to elevate its center-of-mass by 5 cm. Estimate the number of
push-ups which a tired squirrel must do in order to do a approximately 5.0 Joules of work.
The squirrel applies a force of approximately 10 N (9.8 N to be exact) to raise its body at constant speed. The displacement is 0.05
meters. The angle between the upward force and the upward displacement is 0 degrees. The work for 1 push-up is approximately
W = 10 N * 0.05 m * cos 0 degrees = 0.5 Joules
If the squirrel does a total of 5.0 Joules of work, then it must have done about 10 push-ups.
Express your understanding of the concept and mathematics of momentum by answering the following questions.
1. When fighting fires, a firefighter must use great caution to hold a hose which emits large amounts of water at high speeds. Why
would such a task be difficult?
The hose is pushing lots of water (large mass) forward at a high speed. This means the water has a large forward momentum. In turn,
the hose must have an equally large backwards momentum, making it difficult for the firefighters to manage.
2. A large truck and a Volkswagen have a head-on collision.
a. Which vehicle experiences the greatest force of impact?
b. Which vehicle experiences the greatest impulse?
c. Which vehicle experiences the greatest momentum change?
d. Which vehicle experiences the greatest acceleration?
a, b, c: the same for each.
Both the Volkswagon and the large truck encounter the same force, the same impulse, and the same momentum change (for reasons
discussed in this lesson).
d: Acceleration is greatest for the Volkswagon. While the two vehicles experience the same force, the acceleration is greatest for the
Volkswagon due to its smaller mass. If you find this hard to believe, then be sure to read the next question and its accompanying
explanation.
3. Miles Tugo and Ben Travlun are riding in a bus at highway speed on a nice summer day when an unlucky bug splatters onto the
windshield. Miles and Ben begin discussing the physics of the situation. Miles suggests that the momentum change of the bug is much
greater than that of the bus. After all, argues Miles, there was no noticeable change in the speed of the bus compared to the obvious
change in the speed of the bug. Ben disagrees entirely, arguing that that both bug and bus encounter the same force, momentum
change, and impulse. Who do you agree with? Support your answer.
Ben Travlun is correct.
The bug and bus experience the same force, the same impulse, and the same momentum change (as discussed in this lesson). This is
contrary to the popular (though false) belief which resembles Miles' statement. The bug has less mass and therefore more acceleration;
occupants of the very massive bus do not feel the extremely small acceleration. Furthermore, the bug is composed of a less hardy
material and thus splatters all over the windshield. Yet the greater "splatterability" of the bug and the greater acceleration do not mean
the bug has a greater force, impulse, or momentum change.
4. If a ball is projected upward from the ground with ten units of momentum, what is the momentum of recoil of the Earth?
____________ Do we feel this? Explain.
The earth recoils with 10 units of momentum. This is not felt by Earth's occupants. Since the mass of the Earth is extremely large,
the recoil velocity of the Earth is extremely small and therefore not felt.
5. If a 5-kg bowling ball is projected upward with a velocity of 2.0 m/s, then what is the recoil velocity of the Earth (mass = 6.0 x
1024 kg).
Since the ball has an upward momentum of 10 kg*m/s, the Earth must have a downward momentum of 10 kg*m/s. To find the
velocity of the Earth, use the momentum equation, p = m*v. This equation rearranges to v=p/m. By substituting into this equation,
v = (10 kg*m/s)/(6*1024 kg)

v = 1.67*10-23 m/s (downward)


Another way to write the velocity of the earth is to write it as
0.0000000000000000000000167 m/s
6. A 120 kg lineman moving west at 2 m/s tackles an 80 kg football fullback moving east at 8 m/s. After the collision, both players
move east at 2 m/s. Draw a vector diagram in which the before- and after-collision momenta of each player is represented by a
momentum vector. Label the magnitude of each momentum vector.

7. In an effort to exact the most severe capital punishment upon a rather unpopular prisoner, the execution team at the Dark Ages
Penitentiary search for a bullet which is ten times as massive as the rifle itself. What type of individual would want to fire a rifle which
holds a bullet which is ten times more massive than the rifle? Explain.
Someone who doesn't know much physics. In such a situation as this, the target would be a safer place to stand than the rifle. The
rifle would have a recoil velocity that is ten times larger than the bullet's velocity. This would produce the effect of "the rifle actually
being the bullet."
8. A car possesses 20 000 units of momentum. What would be the car's new momentum if ...
a. its velocity were doubled.
b. its velocity were tripled.
c. its mass were doubled (by adding more passengers and a greater load)
d. both its velocity were doubled and its mass were doubled.
A. p = 40 000 units (doubling the velocity will double the momentum)
B. p = 60 000 units (tripling the velocity will triple the momentum)
C. p = 40 000 units (doubling the mass will double the momentum)
D. p = 80 000 units (doubling the velocity will double the momentum and doubling the mass will also double the momentum; the
combined result is that the momentum is doubled twice -quadrupled)

Good Luck and God Bless


Prepared by:
Sir Antonio D. Salvador Jr.