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General Objectives

The purpose of this is to present a general picture of Cesarean through effective nurse-
patient interaction and relevant researches with critical, competent, and collaborative
application of the nursing process.

Specific Objectives:

 To obtain pertinent information about the patient’s demographic and socio-


economic profile.
 To be well – informed on the patient’s history including the past and present
hospitalization.
 To be knowledgeable on the different diagnostic procedure to be ruled – out
cesarean, focusing on the nursing responsibilities and patients teaching.
 To be familiar with the structure of stomach and function of its parts.
 To educate our selves about the pathophysiology of cesarean, its
pathogenesis, causes and its clinical manifestation.
 To identify the medical and surgical management indicated for the patient.
 To be acquainted with the medications prescribed for the patient noting there
therapeutic effects and adverse reactions.
 To established appropriate nursing care plan that includes the dependent,
independent and collaborative nursing; and lastly
 To formulate necessary discharge planning and health teachings essential for
the patients fast recovery and prevention of possible complication.
PATIENT PROFILE

Name: Maria Letecia Fajado Age: 26 yrs. old


Address:San Pedro, Alcala, Pangasinan Nationality: Filipino
Civil Status: Married
Religion: Roman Catholic
Date/Time of Admission: Sept. 09, 2009
Attending Physician: Dr. Angeles
GENERAL DATA:
A care of Maria Letecia Fajardo, 26 year old, female, Filipino, born on Jan.19,
1983, residing of San Pedro, Alcala, Pangasinan and admitted for the 3rd time at
Pangasinan provincial Hospital on September 09, 2009 around 3:05 pm.

HPI:
Patient was apparently well until they went for check-up, a second day prior to
admission, patient had undergone operation (C/S).

Past Personal History:


The Prenatal History
The mother was 26y/o, G2 p2 (2002), cognizant of pregnancy at 9mons. AOG
cephalic. Prenatal checkups were done at health center for 5 times with regular intake of
multivitamins.

Past History:
With history of hepatitis B, consult to Emergency Bayambang.

*Growth and Developmental Milestone*


(-) head control
(-) hands together

Occupation and Environmental History:


Patient lives in a cement type house, owned. Source of water, faucet type. No
history of smoking and drinking and not taken any kinds of pills. A house wife usually do
washing of clothes, his husband was a farmers sometimes constraction worker.
Physical Examination:
Patient is conscious and coherent, ambulatory
Vital Signs: BP: 110/70
Temp.:37
Skin: No rashes, po0r skin turgor, dry skin
HEENT: Pink palpebral conjuncture, no discharges.
Chest & lungs: Symmetrical chest expansion.
Hearth: Dynamic precardium, no murmur
Extremities: (-) edema

Assessment:
PU, 39weeks AOG Cephalic, TBL g3 P2 (2002) for CS2x
Doctor’s Order

September 9, 20009

 Please admit to OB ward


 Secure needs
 TPR every shift & record
 NPO

Diagnostic test: CDL, blood typing, urinalysis


 Plain LRS 1L x 40-45 gtts/min.
 For repet CS with BTL
 Abdomino – perinea prep
 Notify anesthesiologist/ pediatrician
 Cefuroxime 1.5g IV now then 750mg every 8 hrs. ANST x 2 doses
 Secure meds

Dr. Angeles

Post- operative Order

09/09/09
 Back to ward
 NPO temporarily
 Flat on bed x 4hrs.
 Input & output
 Monitor v/d every 15hrs. x 1hr. then every 1hr. x 5hrs till stable
 O2 inhalation @ 2lpm x 4hrs.
 IVF: D5LRS1L x 8hrs. + 10mg tramadol
D5LRS1L x 8hrs. + 10mg tramadol
D5LRS1L x 8hrs. + 10mg tramadol

 IVF meds. > Cefuroxime 750mg IV every 8hrs. ANST( )


> Ketorolac 30mg IV every 6hrs.x 4hrs. doses then shift to
Mefenamic Acid 500mg 1 tablet TID
> Ranitidine 50mg every 8hrs. x 3 doses
 Refer

Dr. Cifriano
Cesarean Section: The Anatomy of a
Choice
"If one went to the extreme of giving the patient the full details of mortality and
morbidity related to cesarean section, most of them would get up and go out and have
their baby under a tree..."
-Neel, J. Medicolegal pressure, MDs' lack of patience cited in cesarean 'epidemic.'
Ob.Gyn. News Vol 22 No 10

Women choosing hospital births for themselves have on average approaching a one in
four chance of cesarean section. Hence, the woman choosing to give birth in a hospital
must be prepared to accept the fact that a cesarean section may well be the end result of
her choice.

The laity (non-medical practitioners; the "great unwashed") of the world have been led to
believe that the surgical removal of an infant is a clean operation; with little trauma or
danger resulting from the procedure itself. But they are not neat little surgeries where the
baby slides smoothly out of a little slit made gently into a woman's belly; they are not
salvations from the "pain" of childbirth itself. They are unique pains in and of
themselves; they excise into the very core of a woman's body and spirit, and leave a great
deal of pain and trauma which lasts far beyond that of a vaginal delivery. The sadness and
physical infirmities that result from a c-section- like intestinal difficulties or urinary stress
incontinence- may even carry into a woman's grave. (And beyond, with her child- who
will have unique, undocumented birth trauma too.)

So before a woman seeks out a hospital birth and then consents to the major abdominal
surgery that so often accompanies it, she must know the full anatomy of her choice. What
follows is a detailed description of what a cesarean section entails. I am trying to write
this in the least inflammatory terms possible: but this is not easy; cesareans really are
quite terrible.

First, a woman must be anesthetized. If she is undergoing epidural anesthesia- which is


preferable than a general anesthetic- she is placed on her left side. She must roll into a
tight ball to enable the anesthesiologist to find the exact place for the epidural catheter to
be inserted. This is very difficult with a big belly- especially when contractions come;
and finding the correct place for the needle to be inserted can take a few tries. (With my
own cesarean section at BC Women's Hospital, one of the top OB hospitals in Canada,
the anesthesiologist had to make four separate attempts. I still have the little pinprick
scars that show where all the needles went in.) For some women, the catheter itself feels
like something being screwed into one's back- a crunching and grinding feeling. This is a
reality that must be known: epidurals can hurt.

Alerternatively, women will be asked to hunch over, as is illustrated below.

After the epidural is in place, the woman is wheeled down to the operating room. Her
arms are strapped away from her body; equipment monitoring vital signs are attached to
her arms.
A woman is shaved and sterilized. A catheter is inserted into her urethra: be warned that
this can be painful- a catheter upon both its entrance and exit feels just like what it is- a
sharp, long tube going where it's not supposed to. Appropriate drugs will be put into the
woman's IV, such as narcotics to alleviate inevitable stress, pain and anxiety. It is crucial
to mention that the myriad drugs women receive while undergoing cesarean section are in
no way proven safe for infants. Powerful painkilling drugs in birth have been linked to
future drug addiction (Jacobson, B. et al 1990; Nyberg, K. et al. 1993), and violent
behavior, neurological disorders, and learning disabilities (Brackbill, 1979).

Be aware that for some women, epidural anesthetics don't even work. There are many
instances where the anesthetic has worn off during surgery, but the mothers were too
drugged to speak or cry out, or their cries weren't taken seriously. If a woman is planning
a hospital birth, she must consider having a warning signal that her doctor and/or partner
would recognize, in the event that an epidural anesthetic is not effective. Perhaps a hand
signal would be a prudent measure to rehearse beforehand.Once it has been established
that the mother is adequately anesthetized, the surgery will begin. The surgeon makes a
scalpel incision just above the pubic hair line on the lower abdomen and pierces through
the skin, fascia, fat and down to the muscle layer. Note that there is a 1.9% chance the
surgeon's knife will accidentally cut the baby; and the number jumps to 6.0% when the
baby is breech. (Smith J, Hernandez C, Wax J, 1997. "Fetal laceration injury at cesarean
delivery," Obstet & Gynecol 90:344-6.)
Instruments are used (retractors) to hold all of the layers of tissue wide open. (The
surgeon must be careful to avoid cutting the major arteries, bladder, and bowel.) Once
through the muscle, the uterus is exposed and cut through. The baby's bag of waters is
punctured, and the surgeon reaches into the incision with either hands, forceps or vacuum
extractor and pulls to get the baby's head out.

The rest of the body follows with a lot of tugging and pulling. From beginning to this
point takes about 7 minutes.

Baby's cord is cut, and the surgeon hands the baby over to a waiting "baby team" who
suction the baby's airways. Because the baby's lungs have not been massaged and
emptied of fluids via descent through the vagina, the baby needs thorough suctioning. Be
warned that the excess fluids and intensive respiratory work can cause respiratory distress
syndrome (RDS), a major cause of infant death. (Another cause of RDS is babies being
taken by cesarean before true labor begins. To reduce the chance of this potentially lethal
condition, it is by far the most prudent, except in the most extreme circumstances, to wait
until labor naturally begins before surgery is performed.)

Also know that the incidence of persistent pulmonary hypertension, a serious


complication that hampers the body's ability to oxygenate blood is nearly five times
higher in newborns delivered by cesarean section than among babies delivered vaginally,
according to a database analysis of deliveries at the Illinois Masonic Medical Center, in
Chicago.Babies born by cesarean are also 33% more likely to develop asthma later in life.
Another study says that cesarean section makes people up to 75%-80% more likely to be
hospitalized for asthma in childhood.

Meanwhile, the surgeon reaches into the uterus again to scrape off the still-attached
placenta. (Hemorrhage may result; women are up to sixteen times more likely to die
during or after a caesarean delivery than a vaginal birth, and the major cause of c-section
death is hemorrhage. The uterus is often then pulled from deep within of the woman's
body, where it is held in place by strong ligaments, and is placed outside of her body on
her abdomen to be sutured shut. (Other times it is left within the abdominal cavity, which
is preferable- a uterus left inside is less likely to prolpase later in life. Ask your OB about
how he stitches up the uterus before deciding to accept his services for your birth.

The uterus

Once the uterus is closed with stitches, it is returned to the deep layers. Then the bladder
must be reattached to the uterus- it was likely "peeled" off initially, which can lead to
urinary stress incontinence. All the layers must be sutured shut, one by one; and after
sutures, the abdominal wound will be stapled shut. All the stitching up after surgery takes
about 30-45 minutes.
After the surgery, the woman will be wheeled up to her room where more drugs will be
given: antibiotics to kill any infections that may have resulted from the surgery (she has a
20% chance of infection- a serious complication of cesarean section, and a leading cause
of maternal death), more painkilling drugs, as well as a drug to alleviate the violent
shaking that women tend to get after exposure to narcotics during childbirth. The
woman's vital signs will be monitored consistently, and nurses will frequently be
checking her uterine incision for signs of infection and poor closure. The bag to which
the catheter is attached will be monitored as well- to see how much urine the woman is
producing (the bag is taped to her leg).

In some centers, the woman will not be allowed food for three days (it really depends
where you are). She will be given clear fluids; then full fluids; then bland, mushy, non-
gassy foods, which is really beneficial because the gas pains that come post-cesarean are
agonizing. It may be very, very painful to try to move one's bowels, and even trying to
push out gas to alleviate the sickly distended feeling in one's belly hurts terribly. A
woman choosing hospital birth can prepare for this by remembering that lying on her left
side, and gently stroking her lower belly in light counter-clockwise motions, can be of
enormous relief while suffering from gas pains. Also, trying to push one's bottom in the
air helps, too- but this is difficult, because many women feel like their bellies will fall
apart after surgery, and this vigorous rolling motion may seem too frightening.

A woman should also know that breastfeeding and normal baby care after a cesarean are
severely hampered: both by a mother's own pain, and by her genuine physical infirmity.
Being connected to myriad tubes, catheters, wires and cuffs also gets in the ways of
bonding, and nurturing one's new baby. Feelings of pain and infirmity can carry well on
into the baby's first year of life; a woman must be prepared for this. A woman must also
be aware that she may cry a lot and have deep feelings of despondence, helplessness, and
even violence for months or even years after a cesarean delivery, or other interventionist
hospital birth experiences; women must keep in mind that deep feelings of birth trauma
are common, and are often even considered normal, treatable responses to childbirth.

A cesarean section increases the probability of a future labor induction. Mothers


attempting vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) typically have slow, easy labors and
births; far too slow and easy for busy, trying-to-be efficient hospitals, and sometimes
even midwives. So VBAC women are very commonly induced. Be warned that all labor
induction and "augmentation" drugs are associated with rupture of the uterine scar.
Especially be wary of Cytotec (misoprostol): it is associated with a 28-fold increase in the
occurrence of uterine rupture in VBAC moms; and one out of five of women with
Cytotec-induced uterine rupture will have their babies die as a result. Cytotec is an ulcer
drug in which its use has spread like wildfire through the medical- and nurse-midwifery!-
communities, and it has yet to be approved for obstetrical use by its manufacturer. Also
be wary of Pitocin, and Prostin (prostaglandin), a cervical gel- it is associated with a 6-
fold increase in the likelihood of uterine rupture.Women choosing hospital births for their
first births must know that their choices will carry far into their reproductive lives; and
since a cesarean is highly likely in any hospital birth, so is a future labor induction.
Women should also know that cesareans are linked with future infertility, and an
increased risk of placental problems in future pregnancies, like placenta previa (the
placenta covering the vaginual outlet- having attached to where the c-section scar tissue
is) - which can lead to severe hemorrhage, and death of baby or mother (see "Techonolgy
in Birth", linked from end). Cesareans increase the risk of stillbirth in a woman's next
pregnancy.

Finally, women choosing hospital birth must know that most c-sections are not needed.
The World Health Organization says that the no more than 10% of healthy women should
have cesarean sections. There is no evidence that a rate of CS over 7% saves lives (Enkin
et al) . These numbers are even lower in most lay midwifery homebirth practices, where
between 1 and 3 women in one hundred will need to trasnport for a cesarean; and the lay
midwives better overall maternal and infant outcomes as well.

True informed consent means being informed of all the alternatives, and homebirth-
including unassisted homebirth- is an option that must be kept open for any woman who
wants the safest and gentlest birth possible, both for herself and her baby.