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Dissertation Report


“Absenteeism of Employee”

Indchemie Health Specialities
Pvt. Ltd.
In Partial Fulfillment of the
For the award of

Academy Of Management Studies, Dehradun

Submitted To Submitted By
Mr. Rahul Saxena Ruchi Sinha
(Class Coordinator) PGDM – III (B)
Roll: - 14

I, Ruchi Sinha declaring that all the information given in

this project report is true and correct to the best of my

I am also declaring that all the work in this project is done

by me and not copied from anywhere.

Ruchi Sinha
Academy of Management Studies

There is a famous saying “The theory without practical is lame and

practical without theory is blind.”

Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive

occurrence for both employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in

Human resource is an important part of any business and managing

them is an important task.

Summer training is an integral part of the PGDM and student of

Management have to undergo training session in a business organization
for 6 weeks to gain some practical knowledge in their specialization and
to gain some working experience.

Our institution has come forward with the opportunity to bridge the
gap by imparting modern scientific management principle underlying the
concept of the future prospective managers.

To the emphasis on practical aspect of management education the

faculty of Academy of Management Studies, Dehradun has with a modern
system of practical training of repute and following management
technique to the student as integral part of PGDM. in accordance with the
above obligation under going project in “Indchemie Health Specialities
Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai. The title of my project is “Absenteeism of

Certainly this analysis explores my abilities and strength to its

fullest extent for the achievement of organization as well as my personal

Ruchi Sinha

“Acknowledgement is an art, one can write glib stanzas without meaning a

word, on the other hand one can make a simple expression of gratitude”

Industrial training is an integral part of any PGDM program and for

that purposes I had joined a private pharmaceutical company name
Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai.

I take the opportunity to express my gratitude to all of them who in

some or other way helped me to accomplish this challenging project in
Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai. No amount of written
expression is sufficient to show my deepest sense of gratitude to them.

I am extremely thankful and pay my gratitude to Mr. Sourav

Chatterjee (Head – Training & Placement) Academy of Management
Studies, Dehradun for his valuable guidance and support on completion of
this project in its presently.

I am greatly obliged to Mr. Shashikant Chaubey (SR. Manager –

H.R. & PERSONNEL, Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai)
who accommodated me for training in this esteemed organization.

I am very thankful Mr. Shishir Kumar Sinha (Marketing Manager)

for their everlasting support and guidance on the ground of which I have
acquired a new field of knowledge.

A special appreciative “Thank you” in accorded to all staff of

“Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai for their positive

I also acknowledge with a deep sense of reverence, my gratitude

towards my parents and member of my family, who has always supported
me morally as well as economically.

At last but not least gratitude goes to all of my friends who directly
or indirectly helped me to complete this project report.

Ruchi Sinha

 Preface
 Acknowledgement

Ti tl e

About Company

 Company Profile
 Research & Development
 Other Informations


 Reason to Choose this Project

 Absenteeism
 Measurement of Absenteeism
 Absenteeism Rate at Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd.

 Peculiar Features of Absenteeism

 Cause of Absenteeism
 Effect of Absenteeism on Industrial Progress
 Analysis of Causes
 Absenteeism – Types & Their Control
 Innocent Absenteeism
 Culpable Absenteeism
 Guidelines & Measures for Control of Absenteeism
 The BRADFORD FACTOR & Absenteeism

Research Methodology

 Objectives
 Limitations of the Study

Analysis & Interpretation

Conclusion & Suggestion

About Company

Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd. is a private sector

pharmaceutical company, established in the year 1986 and Managed by
Professional Board of Directors. This company is sister concern of
ALKEM PHARMA (number 6 th ranked company in Pharmaceutical
industry). It has all India operation in marketing along with four
manufacturing units. Two are established at Daman, and one each at
Baddi and Sikkim. It manufactures and markets a wide range of
pharmaceutical formulations. It markets generics under the categories of
antibiotic, anti-infective, anti-osteoporotic, analgesics, anti-inflammatory,
anti-allergy, anti-malarial, and various vitamin preparations. The
company is committed to improving its position in small volume
parenteral preparations segment. It adheres to cGMP standards .


Company Name : Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd.

Address : 510, Shah Nahar Industrial Estate, Dr. E. Moses
Rd, Worli Naka
Level of Office : Head Office
Phone No : (22) 30400800
Website : www.
Industry : Pharmaceuticals/ BioTech/ Research
City : Mumbai
State : Maharashtra
Company Type : Industry Best
No. of Employees : 501-1000
Sector : Private Sector
Indchemie Health Specialties has reinforced its focus on R&D
and has substantially scaled up on its investments to build its capabilities
in all the areas of generic research as a short to medium term strategy.
Generic drug development encompasses both small and large molecules.
Indchemie Health Specialties strongly believes that there are attractive
opportunities in the highly competitive global generic space, not only in
vanilla generics but also in value added and difficult to develop complex
generics. The business focus is backed with the building up of captive
manufacturing operations and of complying with the regulatory standards
of the advanced markets. Focus on the generics business strategy will
provide the company with a sustainable model to move up the value
chain. Today, the company includes a group of more than 200 R&D
scientists, with performance driven credentials, in all the disciplines of
generic drug development, as their asset to steer forward in its current

Indchemie Health Specialties generic drug development meets the

speed and quality attributes, as all the elements of research have been
conducted within the campus. Backward integration through in-house
API development and front-end efficient marketing/distribution of
products would provide the desired impetus to the generics program from
lab scale development to commercialization.

Indchemie Health Specialties has committed a substantial

amount of its resources to the development of Novel Drug Delivery
Systems and this shall be the key element in providing momentum to
consolidate its objective of value addition.

Indchemie Health Specialties has an aspiration to make pioneer

within the area of drug discovery, sometime in the recent future, and is
looking into various models and therapeutic segments to carve out a
meaningful space in the arena of medical needs that are not fulfilled.
Indchemie Health Specialities has in-licensed a number of novel products
for the domestic market, form overseas collaborators, and continue to do
so to provide the most advanced therapy avenues to the Indian patients.

Indchemie Health Specialties is also collaborating with several



1) Distribution Department,

2) Finance Department,

3) H.R Department,

4) Sales and Administration department along with Marketing & Sales.



1) Torrent

2) Dr Reddys

3) Hetero

4) Catchet and Alembic etc.


Company turnover is about 250 – 500 crs.

Its manufacturing capacity is 150 crs.


Recruitment in the company is done by department heads of
respective department and final recruitment done by Honourable
director M. K. Singh.

In sales, incentive based on performance- with overall achievement

of target, volume wise and unit wise.

When I joined the training at INDCHEMIE HEALTH

SPECIALITIES PVT. LTD., I was allotted the project of
“ABSENTEEISM OF EMPLOYEES”. Initially it appeared to me quite a
simple project, but as I started working on it only then I understood its
real significance.

It is often easier for the organizations to make arrangement to cover

staffs, which are going to be off for long periods. However, employees
taking odd days off here and there are more problematic, can have an
immediate impact.

If remain unchecked, this type of absence can send out the wrong
signals to colleagues who, in some jobs, are likely to have to cover for
those absent. If employers fail to take action, a ‘buggins turn’ mentality
may emerge. Frequent absence may have serious repercussions where
staff are employed in customer-facing roles or employed on production
lines. The impact of absence may be most directly felt and the need to
arrange cover at short notice may be paramount.


It refers to workers absence from their regular task when he is

normally schedule to work. The according to Webster’s dictionary

“Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an absentee and an

absentee is one who habitually stays away from work.”

According to Labour Bureau of Shimla : - Absenteeism is the total

man shifts lost because of absence as percentage of total number of man
shifts scheduled to work.

In other words, it signifies the absence of an employee from work

when he is scheduled to be at work. Any employee may stay away from
work if he has taken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of
sickness or some accident or without any previous sanction of leave.
Thus absence may be authorised or unauthorised, wilful or caused by
circumstances beyond one’s control.

Maybe even worse than absenteeism, it is obvious that people such

as malingerers and those unwilling to play their part in the workplace
can also have a decidedly negative impact.

Such team members need individual attention from frontline

supervisors and management.
Indeed, as prevention is better than cure, where such a problem
occurs, it is always important to review recruitment procedures to
identify how such individuals came to be employed in the first place.

For any business owner or manager, to cure excessive absenteeism,

it is essential to find and then eliminate the causes of discontent among
team members.

If they find their supervisor or job unpleasant - really unpleasant -

they look for legitimate excuses to stay home and find them with things
such as upset stomachs or splitting headaches.

Any effective absentee control program has to locate the causes of

discontent and modify those causes or eliminate them entirely. In other
words, if we deal with the real reasons team members stay home it can
become unnecessary for them to stay away.

Any investigation into absenteeism needs to look at the real reasons

for it.

Sometimes team members call in sick when they really do not want
to go to work. They would not call you up and say, “I’m not coming in
today because my supervisor abuses me.”

Or, “I’m not coming in today because my chair is uncomfortable.”

Or, “I’m not coming in today because the bathrooms are so filthy, it
makes me sick to walk into them.”

There are a few essential questions to consider at the outset if you

want to make a measurable improvement to your absenteeism figures.

Why is your present absenteeism policy ineffective?

Where and when is excessive absenteeism occurring? In many
cases, under- trained supervisors could be a contributing factor.

What are the real causes for absences?

It is commonly expected that low pay, poor benefits and high

workloads will be the major causes.

However, in numerous employee surveys absenteeism generally has

been identified as a symptom of low job satisfaction, sub-standard
working conditions and consistent negative and unfair treatment
received by first-line supervisors.

How much formal training have your supervisors received on

absenteeism containment and reduction? If your answer is none or very
little, maybe you have found the solution.

As with every other element within your organization, you cannot

ask a person to do a job he or she has never been trained to do.

Many human resources specialists have found that repetitive, boring

jobs coupled with uncaring supervisors and/or physically unpleasant
workplaces are likely to lead workers to make up excuses for not coming
to work.

If your team members perceive that your company is indifferent to

their needs, they are less likely to be motivated, or even to clock on at

One way to determine the causes of absenteeism is to question your

supervisors about excessive absenteeism, including what causes it and
how to reduce it.
Of course, if your supervisors have made no efforts to get to know
the team members in their respective departments, they may not be able
to provide reasons.

However, just the act of questioning may get the ball rolling and
signal to your supervisors that their involvement is important.

Once a manager finds the real reasons for absenteeism there is

another important step. Through open communication, you need to
change the team member’s way of reacting and responding to discontent.

Other problems will no doubt arise in the future. If the way of

responding has not been reviewed, then the same cycle is likely to start
all over again.

So often absenteeism problems can be sheeted back to the

supervisor level and to unsatisfactory working conditions. Without
improvement in these areas, you can expect your high rate of
absenteeism to continue.
For calculating the rate of absenteeism we require the number of
people scheduled to work and number of people actually present.
Absenteeism can be find out of absence rate method.

For Example:

a) Average number of employees in work force : 100

b) Number of available workdays during period : 20

c) Total number of available workdays (a x b) : 2,000

d) Total number of lost days due to absences during the period : 93

e) Absenteeism percent (d [divided by] c) x 100 : 4.65%

Since absenteeism is a major barometer of employee morale,

absenteeism above 5 percent has to be considered as very serious
(across most industries 3 percent is considered standard).










jan feb mar apr may jun july aug sept oct nov dec

2008 2009

On the basis of studies undertaken certain observations may be made:

a) The rate of absenteeism is lowest on payday; it increases

considerably on the days following the payment of wages and bonus.
The level of absenteeism is comparatively high immediately after
payday. When worker either feel like having a good time or in some
other cases return home to their villages family and after a holiday,
has also been found to be higher than that on normal days.

b) Absenteeism is generally high workers below 25 years of age and

those above 40. “The younger employees are not regular and
punctual”. Presumably because of the employment of a large no. of
new comers among the younger age groups, while the older people
are not able to withstand the strenuous nature of the work.

c) The percentage of absenteeism is higher in the night shift than in the

day shift. This is so because workers in the night shift experience
great discomfort and uneasiness in the course of their work than they
do during day time.

d) Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character. It is the highest during

March-April-May, when land has to be prepared for monsoon, sowing
and also in harvest season (Sept-Oct) when the rate goes as high as

The Royal Commission Labour observed that high absenteeism

among Indian labour is due to rural orientation and their frequent urge
for rural exodus. According to Acharaya “In modern industrial
establishment the incidence of industrial fatigue, mal nutrition and bad
working conditions aggravate that feeling for change among industrial
worker and some time impel them to visit their village home frequently
for rest and relaxation.”

The general cause of absenteeism may be summarised as below:-


In factory the worker finds caught within factory walls, he is

bewildered by heavy traffic, by strangers speaking different and
subjected to strict discipline and is ordered by complete strangers to
do things which he cannot understand. As a result he is under
constant strain, which cause him serious distress and impairs his
efficiency. All these factors tend to persuade him to maintain his
contacts with village.


Social and religious ceremonies divert workers from workers to

social activities. In large number of cases incidence of absenteeism
due to religious ceremonies is more than due to any other reason.

Workers also experience housing difficulties. Around 95% of

housing occupied by industrial workers in India is unsatisfactory for
healthful habitations. This leads to loss the interest in work.


Low wages compel a worker to seek some part time job to earn
some side income. This often result inconstant fatigue, which
compels to remain absent for next day.


Irritating and intolerable working conditions exist in a factory.

Heat, moisture, noise, vibration, bad lighting, dust fumes and
overcrowding all these affect the workers health causing him to
remain absent from work a long time.


High rate absenteeism is also due to lack of adequate welfare

facilities Welfare activities include clean drinking water, canteen,
room shelter, rest rooms, washing and bathing facilities, first aid
appliances etc.

Some of the habitual drunkards spend whole of their salary during
first week of each month for drinking purpose. Therefore 2 or 3
weeks after getting their salary absent themselves from their work.


All those workers who undergo financial hardships usually borrow

money lenders at interest rate which are very high, which often
cumulates to more than 11 – 12 times their actual salaries. To avoid
the moneylenders they usually absent themselves from work
because they are unable to return the money in stipulated time.


Due to favouritism and nepotism which are in the industry the

workers generally become frustrated. This also results in low
efficiency, low productivity, unfavourable relationship between
employee and supervisor, which in turn leads to long period of


Negligence on part of the employee to provide leave facility compel

the worker to fall back on ESI leave. They are entitled to 50 days
leave on half on pay. Instead of going without pay the worker avail
themselves of ESI facility

It is quite evident from the above figures that absenteeism is a

common feature of industrial labour in India. It hinders industrial growth
and its effect in two fold.


Firstly due to the habit of being absenting frequently worker’s

income is reduced to a large extent. It is because there is a general
principle of “no work – no pay”. Thus the time lost in terms of
absenteeism is a loss of income to workers


On other hand, the employer has to suffer a greater loss due to

absentees. It disturbs the efficiency and discipline of industries
consequently, industrial production is reduced. In order to meet the
emergency and strikes, an additional labour force is also maintain
by the industries. On certain occasions, those workers are employed
who present themselves at factory gates. During strikes they are
adjusted in place of absent workers. Their adjustment brings serious
complications because such workers do not generally prove
themselves up to work. Higher absenteeism is an evil both for
workers and the employers and ultimately it adversely affects the
production of industries.


It was observed that about 40% case absenteeism is family oriented

and more responsibilities of workers. It increases in harvesting


In 20 % cases it was found that social and religious functions divert

worker from work.


In about 30% cases, the workers remain absent because there is no

housing facilities and the workers stay alone and great distance
from factory.


In 20% case the workers remain absent due to ill health and disease
and in 15% cases workers remain absent due to accident.

Most of the workers have to travel long distance to reach the work
place. Most of the workers are not satisfied with transport facilities.


In 13% cases, the workers are not satisfied with welfare facilities.


In 21% cases, the workers feel that there is not good working
condition, because they work in standing position which causes to
remain absence for relaxation.


Near about 34% people are dissatisfied with management system

because they feel that their work is not being recognised and
promotions are biased.

There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a

different type of approach.


Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for

reasons beyond their control; like sickness and injury. Innocent
absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless. In a labour
relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by
disciplinary measures.


Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without

authorization for reasons which are within their control. For instance, an
employee who is on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and it can
be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable
absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a labour relations
context this means that progressive discipline can be applied.

For the large majority of employees, absenteeism is legitimate,

innocent absenteeism which occurs infrequently. Procedures for
disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism. Many
organizations take the view that through the process of individual
absentee counselling and treatment, the majority of employees will
overcome their problems and return to an acceptable level of regular


Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary

action is not justified. It is obviously unfair to punish someone for
conduct which is beyond his/her control. Absenteeism, no matter what the
cause, imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault. The
damage suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee's
right to be sick. There is a point at which the employer's right to expect
the employee to attend regularly and fulfill the employment contract will
outweigh the employee's right to be sick. At such a point the termination
of the employee may be justified, as will be discussed.

The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as


1. Initial counselling(s)
2. Written counselling(s)
3. Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification
4. Discharge

Initial Counselling

Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations

generally and have already identified an employee as a problem, you will
have met with him or her as part of your attendance program and you
should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on his or her

If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she
returns to work. If absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee
regularly and stay updated on the status of his/her condition. (Indicate
your willingness to assist.)

You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical
assessments. This will enable you to judge whether or not there is any
likelihood of the employee providing regular attendance in future.
Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the
employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings
in which verbal warnings are given should be given as appropriate and
documented. If no improvement occurs written warning may be necessary.

Written Counselling

If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally
and provide him/her with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still
continues to persist then the employee should be given a second letter of
concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger
worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance
improves, termination may be necessary.
Reduction(S) of Hours and or Job Reclassification

In between the first and second letters the employee may be given
the option to reduce his/her hours to better fit his/her personal
circumstances. This option must be voluntarily accepted by the employee
and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a
reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline.

If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to
fulfil the requirements of his/her job, but could for example benefit from
modified work, counsel the employee to bid on jobs of such type if they
become available. (N.B. It is inadvisable to "build" a job around an
employee's incapacitates particularly in a unionized environment. The
onus should be on the employee to apply for an existing position within
his/her capabilities.)


Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met
and everything has been done to accommodate the employee can
termination be considered. An Arbitrator would consider the following in
ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case.

a) Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health

and return to work?
b) Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i.e.
counselling, support, time off.)
c) Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable
situation resulting from their sickness?
d) Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by
offering a more suitable position (if available) or a reduction of
e) Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of
f) Has the employer treated the employee prejudicially in any way?

As is evident, a great deal of time and effort must elapse before

dismissal can take place.

These points would be used to substantiate or disprove the following two

fold test.

1. The absences must be shown to be clearly excessive.

2. It must be proven that the employee will be unable to attend work on a
regular basis in the future.


As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences

where it can be demonstrated that the employee is not actually ill and is
able to improve his/her attendance.

Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations

generally, have identified the employee as a problem, have met with
him/her as part of your attendance program, made your concerns on his
specific absenteeism known and have offered counselling as appropriate,
with no improvement despite your positive efforts, disciplinary
procedures may be appropriate.

The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable

absenteeism are generally the same as for other progressive discipline
problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any way. The
general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counselling memorandum]

1. Initial Warning(s)
2. Written Warning(s)
3. Suspension(s)
4. Discharge

Verbal Warning

Formally meet with the employee and explain that income

protection is to be used only when an employee is legitimately ill. Advice
the employee that his/her attendance record must improve and be
maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result.
Offer any counselling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further verbal
warnings as required. Review the employee's income protection records at
regular intervals. Where a marked improvement has been shown,
commend the employee. Where there is no improvement a written
warning should be issued.
Written Warning

Interview the employee again. Show him/her the statistics and point
out that there has been no noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen
to the employee to see if there is a valid reason and offer any assistance
you can. If no satisfactory explanation is given, advise the employee that
he/she will be given a written warning. Be specific in your discussion
with him/her and in the counselling memorandum as to the type of action
to be taken and when it will be taken if the record does not improve. As
soon as possible after this meeting provide the employee personally with
the written warning and place a copy of his/her file. The written warning
should identify any noticeable pattern

If the amount and/or pattern continues, the next step in progressive

discipline may be a second, stronger written warning. Your decision to
provide a second written warning as an alternative to proceeding to a
higher level of discipline (i.e. suspension) will depend on a number of
factors. Such factors are, the severity of the problem, the credibility of
the employee's explanations, the employee's general work performance
and length of service.

Suspension (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors)

If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists, following the next

interview period and immediately following an absence, the employee
should be interviewed and advised that he/she is to be suspended. The
length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the problem,
the credibility of the employee's explanation, the employee's general work
performance and length of service. Subsequent suspensions are optional
depending on the above condition.

Dismissal (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors)

Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above

conditions and procedures have been met. The employee, upon displaying
no satisfactory improvement, would be dismissed on the grounds of
his/her unwillingness to correct his/her absence record.

Absenteeism is a disease that appears whenever a company fails to

inoculate itself through the use of sound management practices. To cure
excessive absenteeism, one has to know the exact causes and then
examine the available, workable and proven solutions to apply against
those causes.

To embark upon a successful absenteeism reduction program, you

need to make sure you have some basic information and facts about
absenteeism in your company. Consider the following four questions,
which should help you further focus your ideas and put a plan into action.

Q. Why is your present absenteeism policy ineffective?

Absenteeism policies vary in effectiveness. Most ineffective policies

I have reviewed have a common denominator: They allow "excused"
absences, whereas those that do work are "no fault" policies.

Q. Where and when is excessive absenteeism occurring?

Numerous studies have concluded that under trained supervisors

is one of the main causes of absenteeism. Therefore, any company
experiencing absenteeism of greater than 3 percent should consider
supervisors as a potential contributor to the problem.
Given that this may be the case, you first should check the
percentage of employee absenteeism by supervisor to see if it is
concentrated around one or two supervisors. If it is, you've begun to
uncover the obvious--undertrained supervisors. If, however, your research
reveals that the rate of absenteeism is almost equally distributed
throughout your factory, you will need to investigate other possible

Q. What are the real causes for absences?

People-oriented companies are very sensitive to employee opinions.

They often engage in formal mini-studies to solicit anonymous employee
opinions on topics of mutual interest. These confidential worker surveys
commonly ask for employee opinion regarding higher-than-normal

In other words, employees revealed that repetitive, boring jobs

coupled with uncaring supervisors and/or physically unpleasant
workplaces led them to make up excuses for not coming to work, such as
claiming to be sick.

One way to determine the causes of absenteeism is to question your

supervisors about their employees' excessive absenteeism, including what
causes it and how to reduce it.

Q. How much formal training have your supervisors received on

absenteeism containment and reduction?
If you find that your supervisors hesitate to provide meaningful
answers to your questions, then you're on the right track toward a
solution. Ask yourself, "How much formal training have I given my
supervisors in the areas of absenteeism reduction and human resources
skills?" If your answer is none or very little, your solution can't be far
behind. The fact of the matter is, you cannot ask a person to do a job he
or she has never been trained to do.

Following are the measures to control absenteeism:-



The selection of employees on the basis of command, linguistic and

family consideration should be avoided. The management should
look for aptitude and ability in the prospective employees and
should not easily yield or pressure of personal likes and dislikes.
Application blanks should invariably be used for a preliminary
selection and tools for interviews. The personal officer should play
more effective role as coordinator of information, provided that he
has acquired job knowledge in the function of selection. Employers
should also take into account the fact that selection should be for
employee’s development, their reliance. They should as far as
possible rely on employment exchange. .


In India, where the climate is warm and most of the work involves
manual labour, it is essential that the workers should be provided
with proper and healthy working conditions. The facilities of
drinking water, canteens, lavatories, rest rooms, lighting and
ventilation, need to be improved. Where any one of these facilities
is not available, it should be provided and all these help in keeping
the employee cheerful and increase productivity and the efficiency
of operations throughout the plant.



The wages of an employee determine his as well as his family

standard of living. This single factor is important for him than
other. The management should, therefore pay reasonable wages and
allowances, taking into account the capacity of the industry to pay.


The management should consider the needs of workers and offer

them adequate and cheap housing facilities, free of subsidised food,
free medical and transport facilities, free education facilities for
their children and other monetary benefits. As for social security is
concern, the provision of Provident Fund, SBI facilities, Gratuity
and Pension, all those need to be improved.

Since a majority of the workers are illiterate or not highly educated

bulletins and written notices journals and booklets are not easily
understood by them. Meetings and concealing are called for written
communication becomes meaningful only when workers can readied
understood them, too many notices should be avoided only the
essential ones should be put on the boards, which should be placed
near the entrance inside the canteen and in areas which are
frequently visited by the workers so that they are aware of the
policies of the company and any sort changes being made.


The management’s strict attitude in granting leave and holidays

even when the need for them is genuine, tempts workers to go on
E.S.I. leave for under this scheme, they can have 56 days leaves in
years on half pay. An effective way of dealing with absenteeism is
to liberalise leave rules.


Safety at work can be maintained and accidents can be prevented if

the management tries to eliminate such personal factors as
negligence, overconfidence, carelessness, vanity, etc and such
material factorizes unguarded machinery and explosives, defective
equipment and hand tools. Safe methods of operation should be
taught. In addition consistent and timely safely instruction, written
instructions (manual) in the regional language of the area should be
given to the work force.



The supervisor should be recognise that industrial work is a groups

task and cannot be properly done unless discipline is enforced and
maintained. Cordial relations between the supervisors and these
workers are therefore essential for without them, discipline cannot
be increased. One of the consequences of unhealthy relations
between supervisors and subordinates is absenteeism.


The system of worker’s education should be so designed as to take

into account their educational needs as individuals for their
personal evaluation, as operatives for their efficiency and
advancement, as citizens for happy integrated life in the community,
as members of a trade union for the protection of their interests.
The educational programs according to their national commission
on Labour should be to make a worker:-

a) A responsible, committed and disciplines operative.

b) Aware of his rights and obligations.

c) Lead a calm, clean and health life, based on a firm ethical


d) A responsible and alter citizen.


The Bradford Factor is a Human Resources tool used by many

organizations to measure and identify areas of absenteeism. The theory is that
short, frequent and unplanned absences are more disruptive than longer

It is based on the fact that it is normally easier to make arrangements to

cover for staffs who are going to be off for long periods, and which are more
likely to be suffering from a genuine illness.

However, employees taking odd unplanned days off here and there
actually cause more disruption to the business. If this pattern is repeated
regularly, the employee will have a high Bradford Factor score; which may raise
questions about how genuine the illness actually is.

The formula for the Bradford Factor is:

E x E x D = Bradford Factor Score

Where E is the number of episodes of absence and D is the total number

of days absent in a rolling 52 week period.

So, for employees with a total of 10 days absence in one year, the
Bradford Factor score can vary enormously, depending on the number of
episodes of absence involved. For example:

One absence episode of 10 days is 10 points (i.e. 1 x 1 x 10)

Five absence episodes of two days each is 250 points (i.e. 5 x 5 x 10)
Ten absence episodes of one day each is 1,000 points (i.e. 10 x 10 x 10)

How do organizations use the Bradford Factor?

There are no set rules for using the Bradford Factor; it is down to each
organization to determine the ways in which it uses the score.

However, used effectively, the Bradford Factor can reduce absenteeism

dramatically, serving as a deterrent and a method for tackling persistent

Studies have shown that by educating staff about the Bradford Factor, and
then showing them their score on a regular basis, absenteeism can be reduced by
over 20%. This is largely down to staff understanding that taking the odd day off
here and there will quickly multiply their Bradford Factor score. The Bradford
Factor places a value on the absence which an employee can clearly see. Where
the absence is not absolutely necessary, this can serve to deter absenteeism.

When this is used in conjunction with a points system the Bradford Factor
can be effectively utilized to deter unnecessary absenteeism.

For example the Bradford Factor can be utilized by creating “triggers”

whereby certain actions are taken when an employee’s Bradford score reaches a
certain point. For example, the UK Prison Service has used the following

• 51 points – verbal warning.

• 201 points – written warning
• 401 points – final warning
• 601 points – dismissal
Setting these triggers is entirely dependent on the organization using the
Bradford Factor. It is usually advisable to use the Bradford Factor as one of a
number of absence policies. However, setting these triggers and making staff
aware of them, in addition to taking action, resulted in the Prison Service
reducing absenteeism by 18%.

By implementing mandatory procedures for tackling absenteeism across

an organization led by the Bradford Factor, an organization can remove the
potential for differences across teams and management and remove the
difficulties and reluctance that line managers often face when having to
discipline a close staff member.

The Bradford Factor can provide organizations with a two pronged method for
tackling absence: proactively deterring absence in the first place and utilizing a
set procedure to identify and tackle persistent absenteeism.

Implementing the Bradford Factor

Calculating the Bradford Factor for one member of staff over a given
period is not a difficult proposition. However, calculating the Bradford Factor
over a rolling 52 week period, across multiple teams and locations and
considering different types of absence is a very difficult task.

As a result of the exponential nature of the formula {E x E x D}, even the

slightest mistakes in calculation can result in a wide variance of an employee’s
Bradford Factor score.

For example: For an employee who has had 10 days off in a year in total, on
two separate occasions:

2 X 2 X 10 = 40 {which does not trigger a warning – fewer than 50}

However, if their absence is either not recorded correctly, or is calculated
wrong by just one day:

3 X 3 X 10= 90 {which does trigger a warning – over 50}

You can see that their score is more than double, despite the small
mistake. Getting the formula the wrong way round can have even more
significant results:

10 X 10 X 2 = 200 {which would trigger disciplinary proceedings – over 200}

If an organization wants to tackle absenteeism effectively, using the

Bradford Factor, including using an employee’s Bradford Factor score in
potential disciplinary proceedings, then the process for calculating the Bradford
Factor has to be full proof, consistent and equal.

To achieve this, an organization will need to ensure:

• Absence reporting and monitoring is consistent, equal and accurate

both over time and across the whole organization.
• The calculation of an employee’s Bradford Factor score is based on
these accurate, equal and updated absence records.
• Management and staff have access to updated Bradford Factor

Without these processes in place the calculation of the Bradford Factor is

extremely difficult and time consuming. In addition to this; unequal processes
for reporting and calculating the Bradford Factor could be discriminatory;
everyone’s Bradford Factor score should be subject to the same, indisputable

The research reveals that one of the major problems is

absenteeism in our industry. Absenteeism hinders planning,
production, efficiency and functioning of the organisation. In fact
high rates of absenteeism affect an organisation state of health and
also supervisory and managerial effectiveness.


i. To identify the rate of absenteeism of “worker”.

ii. To identify the causes of absenteeism.

iii. To suggest any measures to reduce the rate of absenteeism


The population for the study comprised of absentees for current

year, the total sample 50 workers.


The sources of data for the purpose of study were both primary and
secondary. Primary data was collected through questionnaire which
was mainly close-ended questionnaire and discussion with workers
whereas secondary data was collected from records maintained by
personal department and time office. Percentage method is used for
the analysis of data and bar graphs are used to present that data .

There are some limitations for research which are as follows:-

a) As it was not possible to visit each department the true picture of

working condition could not be judged.

b) The workers were busy with their work therefore they could not
give enough time for the interview.

c) The personal biases of the respondents might have entered into their
response .
d) Some of the respondents give no answer to the questions which may
affect the analysis.
e) Respondents were reluctant to disclose complete and correct

Because of a small period of time only small sample had to be

considered which doesn’t actually reflect and accurate and intact picture.
Q . For how many yrs you are working with Indchemie Health
Specialities Pvt. Ltd.?






0-2 Years 2-5 Years 5-10 Years >10 Years

INTERPRETATION – It can be seen that 56% of the workers at

Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd. are working for more than 10
years whereas 36% are working for more than 5 yrs.

Q. How often you remain absent in a month?

50% no of absents in a
40% month
nil once twice >twice
INTERPRETATION - It can be seen that 96% of the workers do not
remain absent.

Q. According to you what are the main reasons for employees


reason for being
stress personal

INTERPRETATION - According to 96% workers, personal problem is

the reason for being absent. 4% think that stress can also be the reason.

Q. Your views regarding present Absenteeism Policy of

Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd.?
40% views regarding
absenteeism policy
excellent good fair poor

INTERPRETATION - It can be seen that 76% workers rate the present

absenteeism policy as good whereas 22% rate it as excellent.

Q. Are you clear about your work / job responsibilities?

40% clarity regarding work
well clear good fairly don't
clear know
INTERPRETATION - It can be seen that 94% of the workers at
Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd. are clear regarding their work

Q. Are you satisfied with your work?

40% satisfaction regarding
30% work
well fair

INTERPRETATION - 82% of the workers are fully satisfied with their

work whereas 16% workers think their work as good.

Q. Views regarding working environment of Indchemie Health

Specialities Pvt. Ltd.?
views regarding
40% working env.
excellent good fair poor

INTERPRETATION - 82% workers feel that the working environment

at Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. good & 14% feel it as

Q. Your relations with your superiors?

40% relations with
excellent good fair poor
INTERPRETATION - 76% workers have good relations with the
superiors whereas 22% have excellent relations with the superiors.

Q. Yours superiors behaviour towards your problem?




30% superiors behaviour

towards your
20% problems


excellent good fair poor
INTERPRETATION - 42% workers think that their superior’s behaviour
toward their problems is excellent & 56% workers consider it as good.

Q. Yours views regarding facilities provided Indchemie Health

Specialities Pvt. Ltd.?
facilities provided at
40% Company
excellent fair

INTERPRETATION – 86% workers consider that facilities provided to

them are good whereas 10% consider them as excellent.
Conclusion &

Finding and analysis reveals the following conclusion

1) Almost 56% of the workers at Indchemie Health Specialities

Pvt. Ltd. are working for more than 10 years whereas 36% are
working for more than 5 yrs.

2) Almost 96% of the workers do not remain absent.

3) According to 96% workers, personal problem is the reason for being

absent. 4% think that stress can also be the reason.

4) Almost 76% workers rate the present absenteeism policy as good

whereas 22% rate it as excellent.

5) Almost 94% of the workers at Indchemie Health Specialities

Pvt. Ltd. are clear regarding their work responsibilities.

6) 82% of the workers are fully satisfied with their work whereas 16%
workers think their work as good.

7) 76 % workers have good relations with the superiors whereas 22%

have excellent relations with the superiors.

8) 42% workers think that their superior’s behaviour towards their

problems is excellent & 56% workers consider it as good.

Absenteeism is a serious problem for management because it

involves heavy additional expenses. The management should take the
following measures to reduce the rate of absenteeism:-

1) Provide Incentives- An incentive provides an employee with a

boost to their motivation and avoid unnecessary absenteeism.
Incentives like two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect
attendance can improve a lot.

2) Employee Assistance Program- If you confront an employee about

his or her frequent absenteeism and you find out that it is due to
personal problems refer them to EAP.

3) Sickness Reporting – Tell employees that they must phone in as

early as possible to advise why they are unable to make it to work
and when they expect to return.

4) Return to Work Interview- When an employee returns to work

then ensure that they have a ‘return to work interview’.

5) Bradford factor can also be used to identify and cure excessive

In the end to conclude this report I would like to specify that the
project allotted to me on ABSENTEEISM was of immense help to me in
understanding the working environment of an organization, thereby
providing a firsthand practical experience.

In this project while identifying the reasons of absenteeism of the

workers of Indchemie Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd. , Mumbai I got an
opportunity to interact with workers to observe their behaviour and

In the end I would once again like to thank the people of Indchemie
Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd. who helped me in accomplishing this
project and boosting my morale by appreciating and recognizing my

Personal Information
Name ………………………………………………………………………..

Age…………………………. Sex………………………..……

Job status…………………………………………………………………….

1) For how many years you are working with Indchemie Health
Specialities Pvt. Ltd.?
(a) 0-1 yr (b) 1-2 yr

(c) 2-5 yr (d) < 5 yr

2) How often you remain absent in a month?

(a) Nil (b) Once

(c)Twice (d) < Twice

3) According to you what is the main reason for employees absent?

(a) Health problem / domestic reasons (b) Stress

(c)Work dissatisfaction (d) Working


4) Your views regarding the present Absenteeism Policy of Indchemie

Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd.?
(a) Excellent (b) Good

(c) Fair (d) Don’t know

5) Are you clear about your work / job responsibilities?

(a) Well clear (b) Good

(c) Fairly clear (d) Don’t know

6) Are you satisfied with your work?

(a) Well satisfied (b) Good

(c) Fair (d) Not satisfied

7) Your views regarding the working environment of Indchemie Health

Specialities Pvt. Ltd. & work place?
(a) Excellent (b) Good

(c) Fair (d) Poor

8) How are your relations with your superiors / co-workers?

(a) Excellent (b) Good

(c) Fair (d) Poor

9) Your superior’s behaviour towards your problems?

(a) Excellent (b) Good
(c) Fair (d) Poor

10)Your views regarding the facilities provided to you by Indchemie

Health Specialities Pvt. Ltd.?
(a) Excellent (b) Good

(c) Fair (d) Poor

Any suggestions / Comments