Movement Of Ocean Waters

Made By: Shyam & Manthan Animated and edited byANMOL

Introduction
► The movement of ocean waters take palace in different

ways.
  

Through waves Currents Tides

► Sea water moves horizontally as well as vertically. ► The horizontal movement is both at the surface and the

sub-surface level ► These movements are due to variation in density from on part to another, which results from the differences in the salinity and temperatures. ► Winds also provide a motive force for the horizontal movement of surface water

Waves
► Waves are oscillatory movements in water,

manifested by an alternate rise and fall of the sea surface. ► These moving ridge-like curves on the surface of the seas have two parts.
 Crest  Trough

Cont…..

Crest
 The top part of the wave is called its crest

Trough
 The lower part of the waves is called the trough.

Every wave has a wave length, velocity, height and wave period. Wavelength is the distance between two consecutive crests or two consecutive troughs.

The time taken by two consecutive crests to pass any fixed point is known as the wave period. The vertical distance between a trough and a crest is called the wave height.

Tides
► The rise and fall of sea water due to gravitational

forces of the sun and the moon are called tides . ► Tidal currents affect h whole water mass fro the sea surface to the bottom. ► The sea waves produced by the tides are also called tidal waves. ► The rise of sea water and its movement toward the coast is called tide and the result ant high level water level is called high level water . ► The fall of sea water and its movement towards the sea water is called ebb and the resultant low water level is called low tide water.

Factors That Cause Tides
► The tide shave their origin in the gravitational forces of

the sun and the moon. ► The earth rotated from west to east and revolves around the sun following an elliptical orbit. ► Similarly the moon, rotates from east to west and revolves around the earth along an elliptical orbit so that he distance between the earth and the moon changes during different times every month. ► The period of the farthest distance between the moon and the earth is called apogee while the period of the nearest distance is called perigee.

Nature Of Tides
► In 24 hrs. two tides and two ebbs are

experienced twice on the earth’s water surface. ► When the sun and the moon are at the position of right angle with reference to the earth the gravitational forces of the sun and the moon work against each other and hence low tides are formed. ► This situation occurs during the 8th day of each fortnight of a month.

Periodicity Of Tides
► Since the earth completes its rotation in roughly

24hr., every place should experience 12 hrs. but this never happens. ► Each day tide is delayed by 26 mins. Because the moon also rotates on its axis while revolving around the earth.

Types Of Tides
► The oceanic tides are caused due to producing forces of

the sun and the moon. ► There is a lot of temporal and spatial in the tide producing forces because of different positionsof the sun and the moon with the earth. ► Because of variations in intensity of tide producing forces several types of tides are caused. ► Two types of tides are
  Spring tide Neap tide

Spring Tides
► Very high tides are caused when the sun, moon

and the earth are almost in the same line. ► Such high tides are called spring tide situations. ► The gravitational forces of the sun and the moon work together with combined forse and thus a high tide is caused. ► Height is 20%more than the normal tides. ► Take place twice a month

Spring tides

Neap Tides
► The sun, the earth and the moon come in a

position of quadrature on the seventh or eigth day of every fortnight of a month. ► The tide producing forces of the sun and the moon work in opp. direction, with the result ,a low tide occurs. ► The height is 20% lower than the normal tides.

Neap tides

Currents
► Large masses of surface water that circulate in

regular patterns around the oceans ► Types
 Warm currents  Cold currents

Warm Currents
►Those currents which flow from

the low altitudes in Tropical zones towards the high altitudes in the temperate and sub-polar zones. ►They bring warm winters in cold areas.

Cold Currents
► These currents have a a lower surface temperature and

bring cold waters into warm water areas. ► These currents flow in the high altitudes from the polar regions towards the low altitudes in the warm equator regions. ► Based on the depth, the ocean currents can be also divided into two categories
 The surface currents  Deep water currents

Surface Currents
►These

currents constitute about 10% of all the water in the ocean, these waters are the upper 400 m of the ocean.

Deep Water Currents
► These

currents make up other 90% of the ocean waters ► These waters move around the ocean basins due to variations in the density and gravity ► Deep waters sink into the deep ocean basins at high altitudes, where the temperatures are cold enough to cause the density to increase.

Causes of Ocean Currents
► Level

of salinity ► Temperature ► The earth’s rotation ► Planetary winds
   Trade winds Westerlies Monsoon winds

► Land

Major Ocean Currents – Atlantic Ocean
► Warm

currents

       

North equatorial current South equatorial current Counter equatorial current

► Cold

currents

Irminger current or Greenland current Canaries current Falkland current South Atlantic Drift Benguela current

Major Ocean Currents – Atlantic Ocean

Major Currents – Pacific Ocean
► Warm

Currents

      

North equatorial current South equatorial current Counter equatorial current East Australian current

► Cold

Currents

Californian Current West wind drift Peruvian (humboldt) current

Major Currents – Pacific Ocean

Major Currents – Indian Ocean
► Warm

Currents

  

Indian equatorial current South-west monsoon current North-east monsoon current

Major Currents – Indian Ocean

Effects of Ocean Currents

Climate

 Temperature – the type of current (warm or cold) influences the climate of the place. Eg. The otherwise hot climate of Peru is greatly cooled by Peru Current  Rainfall – The air above the warm ocean current becomes warm and absorbs excess amount of moisture causing heavy rainfall. Eg. Kuroshio current bring in sufficient rainfall along the eastern coasts of Japan  Fog – Dense for occurs occurs where the warm and cold ocean current meets. Eg. Newfoundland where the warm gulf stream meets the cold labrador current creates a dense fog  Violent storms – Violent storms also occur where warm and cold current meet. Eg. The mingling of Gulf Stream with the labrador cold current creates hurricanes along the east coasts of United states

Effects of Ocean Currents
► Marine

► Commerce

 Ocean currents move the organic material off the coast which is food for the planktons which further is consumed by fish  Warm current make habours operational even in winter. Eg. The coasts of UK and Norway – Gulf stream  Currents aid the movement of sailing vessels. Eg. Vessels from england bound for Australia move toward Rio De Janerio in order to have a favourable current  Dense fogs and cold currents are a danger to ships as ice bergs are difficult to be located.

Organisms

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