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**A Novel Control System for Offshore Wind Turbines under the Effects of Ice and Tide
**

K. Faley and M. Garcia-Sanz

mt1 mt2 Kb Kh Kl Kt1 Kt2 Ωr P ρair rb rp Rt Tg Tr tice θg θh θl θr yt y’t v1 Tower mass above sea level Tower mass below sea level Blade stiffness coefficient High-speed torsional shaft stiffness coefficient Low-speed torsional shaft stiffness coefficient Tower stiffness above sea level Tower stiffness below sea level Rotor speed Power Density of air Blade radius Distance from center of rotor to point where FT is applied Gear ratio Electrical torque Aerodynamic torque applied by wind on the rotor Ice thickness Generator position Angular displacement of gearbox high-speed part Angular displacement of gearbox low-speed part Rotor position Top of tower displacement due to bending from torque and drag forces Top of tower velocity Upstream, undisturbed wind speed II. INTRODUCTION [1],[2],[3],[4] Wind turbines work in several operating regions based on the wind speed. Rated wind speed is the wind speed at which a wind turbine starts producing its rated power. The goal of a turbine operating below rated speed is to maximize its efficiency and then its power output. Typically, in this region the power coefficient (efficiency) is maximized by varying the rotor speed, by controlling the electrical torque, while following the variation of the wind speed [1]. The goal of a turbine operating above rated speed is to control its power output to its rated value, usually by varying the pitch angle, so that the generator continues to operate without overloading. Power is given from [1] as:

Abstract-- This paper summarizes (1) the dynamic model of a general purpose offshore wind turbine (WT) operating under the effects of ice and tide, and (2) the design of a novel torque control system able to reduce the mechanical fatigue of the turbine in these extreme weather conditions. By examining the frequency response and model uncertainty of the WT, this work shows the challenging effects of ice and tide, which increase the amplitude of tower vibrations at some particular frequencies, creating greater mechanical fatigue. To counteract these effects, the paper also develops a novel torque control system, varying the generator torque in the above rated wind speed region, while (a) meeting the thermal specifications of the power converters and generator and (b) maintaining an average torque over time that continues to produce the rated power of the WT. The control strategy is validated with a realistic nonlinear simulator. Index Terms—Control Design, Offshore Wind Energy

I. NOMENCLATURE β Bb Bh Bl Bt1 Bt2 ζst_a ζst_w ζice_w cp d D Dice Es FT h1 h2 htide Ig Ir Iw mh mn Pitch angle Blade damping coefficient High-speed shaft torsional damping coefficient Low-speed shaft torsional damping coefficient Tower damping coefficient above sea level Tower damping coefficient below sea level Damping ratio of steel in air Damping ratio of steel in water Damping ratio of ice in water Power coefficient Inner tower diameter Outer tower diameter Diameter of ice formation in water Elastic modulus of steel Thrust force applied by wind on the rotor Tower height above sea level Tower height below sea level Height of tide Moment of inertia at generator, shaft, etc Moment of Inertia at rotor, blades, etc Equivalent moment of inertia of gearbox elements Hub mass Nacelle mass

P=

1 ρ air rb2π c p v13 2

(1)

This work was financially supported in part by The Milton and Tamar Maltz Family Foundation and the Cleveland Foundation. K. Faley is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA (email: kxf79@case.edu). M. Garcia-Sanz is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA (e-mail: mario@case.edu).

The aerodynamic power coefficient, cp, is the fraction of wind power that can be converted to mechanical power. The aerodynamic power coefficient (cp), depends on wind speed (v1), rotor speed (Ωr), and the pitch angle (β). Typically, only the pitch angle is controlled in the above rated speed region in

In the second tower scenario. In the third tower scenario. the rotor angle. In this approach. We also assume that there are no ice floes. only the tower equivalent damping term would vary because the damping ratio for air and water are different. Wind Turbine Model The wind turbine dynamic model in this paper applies to offshore monopile foundations and works for doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). Although the controller helps to achieve power closer to its nominal power. essentially acts as an onshore wind turbine where the foundation is now the sheet of ice. This paper focuses on the above rated speed region. OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE [1]. changing some terms of its dynamic model. III. including ice and tide. this model can be easily extended to direct drive generators. This wind turbine model takes into account several degrees of freedom which include the axial displacement of the nacelle. and pitch angle in a nonlinear way. These parameters include the equivalent tower mass. therefore. and the blades. the above water section and the below water section. Defining the Plant The WT model is nonlinear due to the fact that the power and thrust coefficients depend on the wind speed. However. but causes significant changes in the rotor speed and requires a bigger and much more expensive power converter. the ultimate goal is to expand the offshore model to incorporate the effects of ice and tide. The tower is broken down into two regions. A third study [10] uses the approach of designing both a pitch controller and a generator torque controller. However. B. tower stiffness. and the ice freezes as a massive constant flat sheet of ice due to the calmness of the water. Section III defines the WT system plant and gives an analysis of the frequency response and model uncertainty by using the so-called Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) templates. ⎡ FT ⎤ ⎡ K F Ω ⎢T ⎥ = ⎢K ⎣ r ⎦ ⎣ TΩ K Fv KTv ⎡Ω ⎤ KFβ ⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ ⎢ v1 ⎥ KT β ⎥ ⎦⎢ β ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4) K t = 3 Es π D4 − d 4 64 h3 (2) These K-value gains contribute to the uncertainty in the model. none of these studies show results for nacelle movement or mechanical fatigue of the tower. and damping. the water is completely frozen. above the sea level and below the sea level. The use of only the torque controller (and not pitch control) leads to better power regulation. There are a few cases where torque has been controlled in the above rated speed region. In order to design the control system. and the gearbox angles. there is no ice. this new layer creates a third tower term for mass. This paper first discusses the description a general wind turbine dynamic model and its expansion to offshore conditions. and tower damping. the fuzzy controller ultimately causes more damping in the system and too much variation in the torque. This section reaches depths of about only ten centimeters. it first forms a thin layer of ice.[11]. However. where ice can reach thicknesses of about two meters [13].[12] A. Therefore. and damping terms. The wind applies an aerodynamic torque on the low-speed shaft while the generator applies an electrical torque on the high-speed shaft [1]. thus. and Section V presents the main results and analysis. As the ice continues to thicken. The multivariable control approach leads to a suitable power regulation and rotor speed closer to its nominal value. only the height of the tide affects the tower. This effect makes it seem as if the top of the tower is completely cut-off from the bottom of the tower due to the frozen sheet of ice. The outcome of the system with the addition of the controllers must satisfy all possible scenarios. the tide gradually raises and lowers the level of the water. In the first scenario. Tower stiffness is calculated from [1] as: The assumption is made that the water submerging the offshore turbine is completely still. Tower damping is calculated from [1] as: Bt = ζ 2 Kt mt (3) . in this scenario. the rotor. mass. Fig.2 order to limit the energy capture. often caused from large wind gusts. rotor speed. and damping for each region. [7]. Refer to the nomenclature at the beginning of this paper for symbol definitions. [6]. the generator angle. 1 shows the model of a variable-speed DFIG wind turbine. and therefore. the generator. The goal of the torque controller is to use the torque to help eliminate large rotor overshoot. Changing the pitch angle causes the maximum achievable power coefficient to decrease. This controller would then cause less aggressive pitch movements during the gusts. Based strictly on this assumption. a thin layer of ice forms. Another approach [9] uses fuzzy logic to design a generator torque controller in the above rated region. The tide still affects the height of the below and above sea level sections of the tower. However. it forms into nilas ice. stiffness. The tower of the turbine is the part most impacted by the offshore characteristic. causing there to be a small middle tower section. stiffness. Section IV designs a novel torque control system. stiffness. An onshore wind turbine dynamic model taken from [1] is expanded to an offshore model. the nonlinear part of the overall system is linearized around a working point for wind speed. and pitch angle into a transfer gain matrix. the gearbox. There are five independent masses which include the tower. which would ultimately reduce the blade loading. helping to limit the power. The assumptions are then made that the water is calm with no waves or current. The incorporation of ice and tide creates three tower scenarios that affect the equivalent tower mass. As the ice freezes. There have been multiple approaches to pitch control strategies [5]. One study [8] uses a nonlinear dynamic state feedback torque controller and a linear pitch controller in order to vary the rotor speed for a 600kW wind turbine. rotor speed. the tower is broken into two sections. there is a different tower height. known as frazil ice. The tower.

Bt. The all the model uncertainties that define the extreme weather plots display resonances at the natural frequencies of the conditions and the offshore WT.3 β rb FT rp Tr mh Bl θr Kl Kb V Wind Iw θl Rt θ Ix Bh h θg Ig yt Tg Transformer Bb Shaft Kh Generator Nacelle mn mb mt1 Tower h1 Ir Rotor Grid Kt1 mt2 Bt1 Sea Level h2 Kt2 Bt2 C. The transfer functions based on the uncertainties and their main objective of the pitch control system is to keep the rotor dependencies on each other. Fig. Effect of Weather Conditions on Range of Nacelle Movement 40 35 Foundation Fig. when tide uncertainties are added to those of ice. torque. and then with only tide uncertainties incorporated.01 0. Analysis of Templates The P-matrices are entered in the QFT Control Toolbox (QFTCT) [14] in Matlab. alone.25 1. and the damping ratio of ice in water ζice_w. with no ice and tide uncertainties incorporated. stiffness. Its coefficients take into consideration the uncertainties [12].1 0.5 1 1. The P-matrix process is Different from classical approaches. and damping.22 1. These additional effects increase the amplitude of tower vibrations at some particular frequencies. has a very significant effect on the system. The templates are generated for four scenarios in order to examine the effects of ice and tide. The transfer function for the pitch controller is: yt′( s ) =P 12 ( s ) = Tgd ( s ) It is important to note that the biggest magnitude difference happens around the tower’s natural frequency of about 1.1 rad/sec to about 1. 2. the plant model is validated. Both controllers are designed by using robust In order to validate the plant model for the torque control Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) and taking into account system. which causes greater mechanical fatigue. It shows that tide. the tower. These response examinations are referred to as templates in the QFTCT. the damping ratio of steel in water ζst_w. Difference in Magnitude (dB) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1E-05 0. . the damping ratio of steel in air ζst_a. and that ice.. Robust stability and robust output disturbance rejection specifications are necessary for the design of the pitch controller.. The general plant transfer function for the model is shown below. and mt are the height of the tide htide. alone. the Bode plot of an arbitrary plant is examined. the first control objective is to All of the uncertainties are used to produce a P-matrix in an regulate the power by controlling the rotor speed with pitch m-file in Matlab. controlled later in the design process. keeping the electrical torque constant. The parameters that contribute to the uncertainty in Kt. This the mechanical fatigue of the turbine by varying the electrical process is used for both plant systems. has very little effect on the system. the thickness of the ice tice.001 0. Control specifications are blades. 1. with only ice uncertainties incorporated. The overall control system a11s11 + a10 s10 + . + a2 s 2 + a1s + a0 structure contains two controllers.0001 0.21 1. CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN [9] (5) This section presents a novel a torque control system with b8 s 8 + b7 s 7 . the diameter of the ice sheet Dice. These resonances indicate that chosen once the templates are examined. 2 gives the difference in the range of magnitudes between no effects and the incorporation of ice and/or tide effects for the plants at each frequency determined from examining the templates for each scenario. The affected terms are tower equivalent mass.05 0. These plants are what are to be speed close to its nominal value.5 rad/sec. + b2 s 2 + b1s the ultimate goal of decreasing the nacelle movement so that mechanical fatigue is reduced. Templates are generated with both ice and tide uncertainties incorporated. This P-matrix generates all possible plant angle variation.205 1. there is a noticeable effect from the incorporation of ice and tide in the model.5 2 Frequency (rad/sec) Tide Ice Ice and Tide Fig.. After examining the frequency response and the model uncertainty of the system plants.. As typically done in the above rated speed region. Numerical Results of Effects IV. However. Offshore Wind Turbine Model with Effects of Ice and Tide The effects of ice and tide also contribute to the uncertainty in the model. this paper aims to also used to generate the wind and pitch activity disturbance implement a second controller with the objective of reducing plants based on the uncertainties and their dependencies. and the shaft. Refer to the nomenclature at the beginning of this paper for further symbol definitions. there is a noticeable effect.

32) L(j1.01) L(j.32) B(j1. .33) -350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 Fig. It has a nominal torque of 12733 Nm and a nominal rotor speed of 1. 4.1 Pow er (MW ) 2 1. The ice can be a thin sheet (less than 0.885 rad/sec. and therefore meets the system’s requirements. The simulator is run with a Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty selection.30) B(j1.31) B(j1.886 1. the electrical torque needs to be examined in order to make sure it varies around its rated value. The average torque across the simulation time is its nominal value. Loopshaping adjusts the controller parameters until the optimal controller is designed while staying within the frequency specifications. designed by loopshaping. 5. 20 0 -20 Fig.30) L(j1.097 ⎝ ⎠ r 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1. Fig. representing low and high tides respectively. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS [12] A nonlinear simulator is created in Simulink in order to validate the torque control system. This plot further validates the torque control system. torque is held constant at its rated value in the above rated region. This fact is important because. Also.4 Omega w/o Control (rad/sec) ⎛s ⎞⎛ s ⎞ −18 ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎜ + 1⎟ 8 0.31) L(j1.5) L(j5) L(j10) B(j1. The torque stays within about 10% of its rated value. Both plots depict a very similar rotor speed near the turbine’s nominal value of 1. Therefore.1) L(j1) L(j1. (a) without Additional Torque Control and (b) with Additional Torque Control O p e n-lo o pg a in (d B) -40 -60 -80 -100 L(j1e-005) L(j. x 10 6 r (7) Pow er w ith C ontrol 2.885 1.884 0 100 200 300 time (sec) 400 500 600 The controller.35) L(j1. The output disturbance rejection specification must reduce the effects of both the pitch activity and the effects of the wind around the natural frequency of the tower.7 -120 -140 -160 O p e n-lo o pp ha se (d e g ) Fig. 4 shows the rotor speed before and after the torque control system is implemented.885 1.6 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 time (sec) 400 450 500 550 600 Fig.25 ⎠ Gtorque ( s ) = ⎛ s ⎞ + 1⎟ ⎜ 1. Pitch Control and Torque Control Next. representing a completely frozen sea.061 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ G pitch ( s ) = ⎛s ⎞ s ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ rad/sec.33) L(1. This plot is the next step in validating the torque control system.886 1. The transfer function for the torque controller is: ⎛ s ⎞ 1500 ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝ .885 1. the goal to sustain nominal power is reached. The model describes a 2 MW DFIG machine with a blade radius of 40 m.23) L(j1. Power with both.9 1.15 meters thick) or a thick sheet (0. Rotor Speed with the Pitch Control System. 3. Fig.8845 1.2) L(j1.29) L(j1. the average power over the time of the simulation remains at 2 MW. while meeting the thermal specifications of the generator and converters.3 2. 3.8855 1.8845 1. This plot shows that the power remains around its nominal value of 2 MW.8855 1. after Control Design for Torque Control System V. typically. 5 shows the power after the torque control system is implemented.8 1. (6) Rotor Speed 1.29) B(j1.15 meters or more) with a massive diameter of 500 meters.34) L(1. including different icy conditions and tides. 6 shows the electrical torque after the implementation of the torque control system.884 Omega with Control (rad/sec) Robust stability and robust output disturbance rejection specifications are also necessary for the design of the torque controller. is shown to meet its specifications in Fig. L12(s) = P12(s) Gtorque(s). This plot is the first step in validating the novel control system. The tide varies from -5 meters to +5 meters.2 2.4 2. The input scenarios consist of a randomly varying wind input between 12 m/s and 17m/s.

Based on these results. Pitch Angle Beta w/o Control (deg) Generator Torque (Nm) 1. Mechanical fatigue is the damage that results from cyclic loading and is a function of amplitude and frequency. The frequency (or number of cycles in the simulation) is essentially the same for the system before and after the torque control system is implemented. a much more in-depth calculation would need to be made in order to quantify the exact value of the mechanical fatigue for each system. Tip-Tower Velocity 1 yt* w/o Control (m/s) 0 100 200 300 time (sec) 400 500 600 Fig. proves that the value of fatigue for the new control system will be noticeably less than that of the classical fixed-torque system. The torque control system is now validated. 8. an increase in pitch activity could actually. Therefore. Although the tip-tower velocity has decreased. increase mechanical fatigue. therefore.4.5 -1 0 100 200 300 time (sec) 400 500 600 Fig. 7 shows the nacelle velocity before the torque control system is implemented.5 -1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1 yt* with Control (m/s) 0. 7 shows the nacelle velocity after the torque control system is implemented.3 1. the goal to reduce mechanical fatigue by controlling the electrical torque is achieved. rounded to the nearest 0. The mechanical fatigue of the wind turbine structure needs to be reduced in order for the turbine to function for a longer lifespan.5 x 10 4 Generator Torque with Control 1. The tip-tower velocity varies much closer to its desired velocity of 0 m/s. with the goal to have a higher concentration of cycles at lower amplitudes. and therefore the pitch angle does not contribute to the mechanical fatigue.15 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1. 7. 9 shows that the system without the additional torque controller (the dark-colored concentration from 0. while the system with the additional torque controller (the light-colored concentration from 0 m/s to 0.2 1. Pitch Angle with (top) and without (bottom) Torque Control System 0.5 0 -0. The bottom plot of Fig. This graph. decreasing mechanical fatigue. and the torque control system is almost completely validated. thus appearing to decrease the mechanical fatigue. while maintaining nominal power. . the goal to reduce tower oscillations is achieved. Fig. Tip-tower velocity without (top) and with (bottom) Torque Control The comparison of the nacelle velocity before and after the torque controller is implemented shows that the amplitudes (defined at each peak as opposed to peak to peak) of the velocity are overall significantly reduced with the addition of the torque controller. The goal of the torque controller is to reduce tower oscillation by reducing the velocity of the oscillation.18 m/s) contains more cycles at higher amplitudes concentrated around 0. 9 shows the number of cycles at each amplitude.08 m/s to 1. Therefore. Technically. Therefore.19 m/s) contains more cycles at lower amplitudes concentrated around 0. Electrical Torque with the Torque Control System Beta with Control (deg) 20 15 10 5 0 The top plot of Fig. formally validating the torque control system.25 20 15 10 5 0 1. is the ultimate goal for any wind turbine system. once again.1 for the system before and after the torque controller is implemented Fig. 6. In fact. the two systems rarely have any overlapping values because the torque controller improves upon the system so significantly that the amplitudes are considerably lower for the torque controlled system. Fig.5 0 -0.1 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 time (sec) 400 450 500 550 600 Fig.35 8 shows the pitch angle before and after the implementation of the torque control system. however. The two plots are essentially identical. mechanical fatigue for this system becomes a function of simply amplitude. the pitch angle needs to be examined. The number of cycles at the absolute value of each amplitude needs to be counted.08.4 1.

Thesis. VII. UMIST (UK. (2008). Cleveland. I. B. [7] Geyler. Control of variable speed wind turbines. Beyond the linear limitations by combining Switching & QFT. I. 32 (8). in electrical engineering in January 2011. Mauch A. Symposium conducted at the 2nd Annual International Conference & Exhibition on Ecologic Vehicles & Renewable Energies.6 reduction. Application to Wind Turbines Pitch Control Systems. are widely acknowledged as the best books in wind turbine control technology and QFT robust control respectively. This method has been validated for onshore and offshore wind turbine applications with the incorporation of ice and tide effects. 1295-1310. Jelavic.8 1 [11] Faley. S.. Control Design to Reduce Mechanical Fatigue in Offshore Wind Turbines Affected by Ice and Tide. 031014-2. S. M. (2009). 1273-1287. 50.2 0. Madercic. The results show that the average power and the average torque remain the same after the implementation of the torque control system. Multivariable control strategy for variable speed.. (2009). Monte Carlo. Reardon. 1. and at the European Space Agency ESA-ESTEC (The Netherlands. Symposium conducted at the Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition. 1-116. OH for both her Bachelor’s Degree and her Master’s Degree. BIOGRAPHIES Katherine Faley was born in Kent.. Vol. Mechanical Fatigue Comparison with and without the Additional new Torque Control System VI. Automatica. and Elso. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was generously supported by grants from the Milton and Tamar Maltz Family Foundation and the Cleveland Foundation. & Dieckmann. Robust Nonlinear Control.. No. degree in electrical engineering in January 2012. Denver.6 Amplitude (m/s) 0. She graduated with a B. M. W.. As a full professor at the Public University of Navarra and senior advisor for the president of the M. M.. 2009. D. with over 20 patents and 160 research publications. Garcia-Sanz. Milan. H. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.S. 52. P.H. & Caselitz. (2006). Oxford.4 0. Italy. 5 0 0 0. pp. Int. Design of a wind turbine pitch controller for loads and fatigue IX. & Petrovic. Haifa. Mario Garcia-Sanz is an endowed chair professor at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). J.. De la Salle.. G. Special Issue. & Peric.Wind turbines: New challenges and advanced control solutions. 135-151. Review of wind turbine control. Free download at: http://cesc. (2009).S. M. Taylor & Francis. D. Robust multivariable pitch control design for load reduction on large wind turbines. H. CRC Press. J. Ohio. Sea ice. M. K. (2007. Number of Cycles at Each Amplitude Before and After Controller is Implemented 25 With Controller Without Controller 20 Number of Cycles [8] 15 [9] 10 [10] Jelavic. Israel. (1990). 19. pp. [14] Garcia-Sanz M.. No.E.. 6th IFAC Symposium on Robust Control Design. Garcia-Sanz. Leithead. Int. Finland. Jelavic. Robust Nonlinear Control.case.. 2011.A. May).031014-12. the inaugural Milton and Tamar Maltz Professor in Energy Innovation. (2011). Vol. The concentration of the absolute values of the amplitudes of the nacelle velocity is noticeably less than that of the classical fixed-torque system.. 9. Boukhezzar. M. Wind Energy Systems: Control Engineering Design. (2007. His two books. and director of the Control and Energy Systems Center at CWRU. the velocity of tip-tower movement is reduced. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Philippe C. [13] Thomas. Symposium conducted at European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition. M." M. –Editor. 40-58. Int... Peric. Vol. ROCOND’09. (2009). 1. The new QFTCT Matlab toolbox he developed for ESA-ESTEC is considered internationally as the top tool for [6] . N. M. Damping of wind turbine tower oscillations through rotor speed control. CO. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 1996). Therefore.. Garcia-Sanz held visiting professorships at the Control Systems Centre. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This paper presented a novel control strategy for varying torque while staying within the thermal specifications of the converters and generator in the above rated speed region of a wind turbine. Monaco. Tampere.. variable pitch wind turbines. J. Wind turbine control for highly turbulent winds. She attended Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland.. Renewable Energy. 130 (3). Her research interests include wind energy and control systems. Tampere University of Technology. K. of Control. Ohio. and Grimble. OH.. & Garcia-Sanz. pp. 1995).S. "Control system design for offshore wind turbines under extreme icy/tide-variable weather conditions. J. M. Petrovic. N. REFERENCES [1] Garcia-Sanz. 2004). Peric. N. J.. 6. VIII. [2] [3] [4] [5] Dr. March).. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. “Wind Energy Systems: Control Engineering Design” (2012). Wiley. (2012). (2002). and Houpis.Torres Group he played a central role in the design and field experimentation of advanced multi-megawatt wind turbines for the European leader industry. and "Quantitative Feedback Theory: Fundamentals and applications” (2006). “QFT Control Toolbox: an interactive object-oriented Matlab CAD tool for Quantitative Feedback Theory”.E. C. & Hand. which ultimately reduces the mechanical fatigue of the system while maintaining rated power. L. Vihriala. She recently just completed her M. Siguerdidjane. 2008). 19. M.. ISBN: 978-1-43982179-4.edu Fig. [12] Faley. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory NASA-JPL (California. Lupu. No. Dr. Car. M. at Oxford University (UK.

7 designing quantitative robust control systems. and is widely used at both industry and academia. .

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