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# Top 105 Physical Science Concepts

By: Ms. Ancell
JEANCELL@Rochester.k12.mn.us

Questions
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Identify a Problem Scientists often use the scientific method problems. List the Make to a solve Hypothesis steps of the scientific method.
Conduct an Experiment Make Observations Draw Conclusions

1

.2 A __________ is an educated guess about what Hypothesis will occur in an experiment.

Independent . There should only be one of these variables.3 The_______ variable is the variable that is changed or manipulated by the experimenter.

Dependent .4 This variable changes as a result of changes made to the independent variable.

5 _____ variables are variables which must be held constant during an experiment to ensure that there is only one independent variable affecting the results of the experiment Controlled .

control group .6 A ___ ___ provides a basis for comparison in an experiment.

7 For a line graph the ______ variable is place on the x axis (horizontal) and the _____ variable is placed on the y axis (vertical). independent. dependent .

inference . it is an ____.8 When we describe an environment based on our five senses. observation. it is called an _________. When we bring our past experience into making a judgment based on an observation.

balance . gram. Its unit is the _______. mass.9 The ______ of an object refers to the amount of matter in an object. It is measured with a __________.

The SI unit is ______.10 The ______ of an object refers to the amount of space an object occupies. volume. liters .

Newton. It is measured with a ______. scale . weight. The SI unit is the_______.11 The ____ of an object refers to the pull of gravity on an object.

thermometer . It is measured with a _____. Kelvin. The SI unit is ____. temperature.12 The _________ of an object refers to the average kinetic energy of the particles in the object.

13 The kinetic theory of matter states that ___________________. All matter is made up of tiny particles that are constantly moving .

14 ________ is a physical property that measures how tightly the particles are packed together in a substance. Density .

volume .15 Density can be calculated by dividing the ____ of an object by it’s ______. mass.

C 4. A . C. D. 3. Particles are not as close together and free to move around. B. Gas 4. Plasma 1. Particles are far apart and are moving very quickly. Solid 2. D 3.16 1. Liquid A. Electrically charged particles act much like a gas. Particles packed closely together and vibrate back and forth. B 2.

heat of fusion. The energy required to do this is called the _______________. melting. freezing . This same amount of heat must be removed to change a liquid to a solid.17 The process of changing a solid to a liquid is called____. This process is called _______.

18 The process of changing a liquid to a gas is called____. condensation . evaporation. This same amount of heat must be removed to change a gas to a liquid. This process is called _______. The energy required to do this is called the _______________. heat of vaporization.

Sublimation .19 The direct change of a solid to a gas is _____.

but not enough to cause a phase change. This is called ____ _____. density . thermal expansion. This also causes a decrease in _____ because the particles are not packed together as tightly.20 When energy is added to a material. the particles still move faster and move slightly farther apart.

21 The temperature at which all particle motion would stop is called _____ ____. absolute zero .

specific heat 22 .The ______ ____ of a substance measures how much energy must be added to cause the substance’s temperature to increase.

23 Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. Protons. _____ and _____. neutrons and electrons . The sub-atomic particles of atoms are ____.

nucleus. with a mass of approximately ______. 1 atomic mass unit (amu) .24 Protons are _____ charged particles found in the ____ of an atom. Positively.

25 Neutrons are ____ charged particles found in the ____ of an atom. 1 atomic mass unit (amu) . with a mass of approximately ________. neutrally. nucleus.

electron cloud.26 Electrons are _____ charged particles found in the ____ of an atom. 0 . Negatively. It has a mass of approximately___.

27 _____ are substances made up of only 1 type of atom. Compounds . Elements. _____ are substances made up of 2 or more types of atoms that have chemically combined.

subscripts .28 Each element is assigned a 1-3 letter symbol. with ____ indicating the number of atoms of each type of element found in the compound. The symbols are used to write formulas for compounds. Capitalized. The first letter of each symbol is always ______.

unique .29 The number of ____ found in an atom is called the atomic number. Protons. Each element has a ___ atomic number.

30 Protons. Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers are called ___. neutrons. isotopes .The mass number of an atom refers to the total number of ____ and ___ in an atom.

31 A(n) _____ is an atom with a positive or negative charge. ion .

32 Atomic number .The elements are arranged on the periodic table in order of ascending _________.

33 Each row on the periodic table is called a ____. Period .

group. these elements usually have ___ properties. similar .34 Each column on the periodic table is called a ___.

right.35 Metals are found on the ___ side of the periodic table. and metalloids are found along the ____. Left. non metals on the ____ side . stair step .

Stable. following the ___ rule which states that the outer electron level needs to have eight electrons to fill the outer shell.36 Atoms combine with other atoms to become chemically ____. octet .

37 The _____ are group 18 on the periodic table. will not . and thus will/will not combine with other atoms to create compounds. noble gases. These atoms are already stable.

38 When an atom gains or loses electrons to become chemically stable. it becomes an ion and will likely form an ___ bond with one or more atoms of the opposite charge. ionic .

39 When an atom shares electrons to become chemically stable. covalent . it forms a ___ bond with the other atoms.

40 A ____ compound is a compound made up of just 2 elements. Binary. A ____ compound contains more than 2 elements. polyatomic .

Period table .41 Write the name for (?binary compound?) and the formula for (?binary compound?).

It is often the charge of the element when it is chemically stable.42 An ______ is a number that determines how an element will combine with other elements in a compound. Oxidation number .

43 Write the name for (?polyatomic compound?) and the formula for (?polyatomic compound?). Period table .

The mass of the products of the reaction must equal the mass of the reactants to satisfy the law of _______ __ _______. conservation of mass .44 A ______ ____ occurs when atoms recombine to form new compounds. Chemical reaction. molecules or atoms.

45 A _______ ______ is a shorthand way to write a chemical reaction. Coefficients . Chemical equation. _______ are used to balance the chemical equation so that the numbers of atoms of each element are the same on both sides of the equation to show that the law of conservation of mass is being satisfied.

decomposition .46 In a synthesis reaction. one reactant breaks down to form two or more products. In a __________ reaction. an element and compound react to create ___ product(s). one.

In a ________ _________ reaction. two compounds react.In a ____ _______ reaction. double replacement 47 . an element and compound react. creating two new compounds Single replacement. creating a new compound and a new single element.

7 . 14.48 __ is a measure of the acidity of a solution using the numbers from_ to _ with _ representing a neutral solution such as pure water. 0. pH.

indicator . allowing you to determine if the solution is an acid or base.49 A _____ is a chemical that changes colors depending on the pH of a solution.

50
An acid is a compound that produces
_______ ions when placed in a solution.

It has a pH __

(range).

Acids are corrosive,

electrolytes, usually taste _____.

Hydrogen, less than 7, sour

51
A base is a compound that produces _____ ions when placed in a solution. It has a pH _______(range). Bases are corrosive electrolytes, and usually tastes _____ and feel ______.
Hydroxide, greater than 7,bitter, slippery

52
A neutralization reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a base, creating a ____ and ____.

salt, water

53 Electricity involves the movement of ______. electrons .

few .54 Electrons move from areas of ______electrons to areas with __ electrons. lots.

55 T/F Lighting is the movement of many electrons from an area with lots of electrons to an area with few electrons true .

56 T/F When you rub two objects together. true . one object will lose some electrons and the other will gain some electrons.

57 ______ is when you make an object become charged just by bringing another charged object near (not touching) the object. induction .

58 Electrons can move through some materials called _____ much easier than through other materials called______. insulators . conductors.

59 Opposite charges ____ to one another. like charges _____ one another. repel . attract.

electric field .60 The ______ _____ is an area around a charged object that acts like it has the same charge itself.

a ______ _____ must be provided (by a battery or outlet) to get the electrons to move away from their nucleus.61 To keep electrons flowing through a circuit. potential difference .

circuit .62 A _____ is a closed path through which electrons can flow.

it is measured in a unit called ____.63 The number of electrons flowing past one point in the circuit in one second is called ___. current. amperes .

64
The amount of energy available to push electrons along a wire is called ___; it is measured in a unit called ____.

voltage, volts

65
The opposition to flow of electrons in a circuit is called ____; it is measured in a unit called ____.

resistance, ohms

66
If the voltage of a circuit is increased, the current will ____; if the resistance of a circuit is increased, the current will ___.

increase, decrease

it is measured in a unit called ____. power.67 The rate at which electricity does work or provides energy is called ___. watts .

the electrons moving in a circuit alternate direction 120 times every second. the electrons move in one direction only. alternating current (AC).68 In _____ provided by an outlet. direct current (DC) . In ___ provided by a battery.

repel. Like poles ___ each other. and opposite poles ___ each other.69 A magnet has a north pole and a south pole. attract .

magnetic field .70 The _____ is the area around the magnet where the forces of attraction and repulsion can be felt.

Domains. they must be ___.71 Magnetic ___ are groups of atoms with aligned magnetic poles. aligned . For an object to be magnetic.

electromagnets .72 Electricity can be used to align magnetic domains. magnets created this way are called ___.

Electric motor .73 A ______ converts electrical energy to mechanical energy by using the forces of attraction and repulsion between electromagnets and permanent magnets.

Generators at power plants use this process to produce alternating current (AC) electricity.74 _______ is a process used to make energy by moving a wire through a magnetic field. Electromagnetic induction .

75 ______ are used to step up or step down voltage of alternating current using electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction. Transformers .

medium .76 Waves are rhythmic disturbances that carry ____ through space or matter. The material through which it travels is called ____. Energy.

Wavelength .77 _____ measures the distance from the beginning of one wave to the beginning of the next wave.

78 _____ measures the number of waves that pass a place in one second. Frequency . it is measured in hertz.

79 _____ measures the speed of the wave. Wave velocity .

the frequency ____.80 When the wavelength of a wave decreases. Increases .

troughs . crests. The ____ measures the displacement of the medium compared to the equilibrium position. such as light waves. and the low points are called ___. The high points these waves are called ____.81 In ____ waves. the medium moves at a right angle to the direction the wave is moving. amplitude. Transverse.

x-rays. infrared. visible light. ultraviolet. Gamma rays. and radio waves .82 List the waves of the electro magnetic spectrum in order from shortest to longest waves.

83 In ____ waves. the medium vibrates in the same direction as the direction the wave is moving. compressional . such as sound waves.

Frequency. higher pitches are created by _____. higher frequencies .84 The pitch of a sound wave depends on the wave ____.

because the object is catching up to its own sound waves. lower . Doppler effect.85 The ___ is the perceived change in wave frequency when a sound source passes by a listener. the wave pitch is ___ before the sound source passes by.

when added together. when added together. they make ___ light. yellow. blue. black . magenta. cyan. Red. __ and __. __ and __. white.86 The primary colors of light are __. they make __ pigment. The primary colors of pigment are __. green.

87 When waves reflect off surface. reflection . they follow the law of reflection: the angle of ______ equals the angle of______. incidence.

they bend due to the change in velocity. refraction . this is called _____.88 When waves enter a new medium.

89 _______ is when waves bend as they go around tiny barriers in a material. Diffraction .

the ______ tells you not only the rate of change of position.90 The rate of change of position of an object is called _____. velocity . speed. but also the direction of movement.

acceleration .91 The rate of change of the speed of an object is called________.

92 A force is a ____ or ____ on object. The size of the force is measured in a unit called ______. Newtons . push. pull.

resulting in no change in motion. 93 Balanced .______ forces act equally on a object from all sides.

94 ___ forces do not act equally on an object from all sides. resulting in acceleration for the object. Net .

inertia .95 Newton’s 1st law of motion states that ______________________. which is the tendency of an object to resist any changes in its motion. objects will maintain a constant velocity unless acted on by as net force. It is sometimes called the law of _____.

96 Newton’s 2nd law of motion states that ______________________________ _____________. . the amount of acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the size of the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

in other words. forces always occur in pairs. .97 Newton’s 3rd law of motion states that ____________________________ __________. for every action there is a equal and opposite reaction.

98 ______ is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching. Friction .

______ is a measure of the amount of this force acting on an object. Weight . Gravity.99 _______ is a force that pulls two objects together.

________ is a force that slows down moving objects due to the friction between the object and the air. 100 Air resistance .

It is measured in a unit called ______._____ is the ability to cause change. Joules . 101 Energy.

Kinetic energy. Potential energy.102 _____ _____ is stored energy. _______ energy is converted to ______ energy. kinetic . ______ _____ is the energy due to the motion of an object. potential. AS an object falls towards the earth.

The law of ________ __ ____ states that energy cannot be created of destroyed. it can be changed from one form to another. however. 103 Conservation of energy .

it is measured in _____. 104 Work. Joules ._____ is using energy to apply a force over a distance. Like energy.

______ is the rate at which work is done. Watts . 105 Power. It is measured in ____.

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