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and development of the individual towards more satisfying human relations. Better family life, improved schools better housing, more hospitals and medical care facilities, protected economic conditions and better relations between religious groups help the individual in his adjustment and development. But his adjustment and development depend on the use of these resources by him. Sometimes due to certain factors, internal or external, he fails to avail existing facilities. In such situations, social case worker helps him. Thus, social case work is one to one relationship which works in helping the individual for his adjustment and development. DEFINITIONS Social case work may be defined as the art of doing different things for and with different people by cooperating with them to achieve at one and the same time their own and society’s betterment.1 RICHMOND (1917) Social case work is the art of bringing about the better adjustments in the social relationship of individual men, or women or children.2 RICHMOND (1922) Social case work means, “those processes which develop personality through adjustment consciously affected, individual by individual between men and their social environment”3
JARRETT (1919) Social case work is “the art of bringing an individual who is in a condition of social disorder into the best possible relation with all parts of his environment”4 TAFT (1920) Social case work means “Social treatment of a maladjusted individual involving an attempt to understand his personality, behaviour, and social relationships, and to assist him in working out a better social and personal adjustment.5 WATSON (1922) Social case work is “the art of untangling and reconstructing the twisted personality in such environment.6 QUEEN (1922) Social case work is “the art of adjusting personal relationship”.7 LEE (1923) Social case work is the “art of changing human attitudes”.9 manner that the individual can adjust himself to his
TAYLOR (1926) Social case work is ‘a process concerned with the understanding of individuals as whole personalities and with the adjustment of these individuals to socially healthy lives. 9 REYNOLDS (1932) Social case work is the process of counseling with the client on a problem which is essentially his own, involving some difficulty in his social relationship.
REYNOLDS (1935) Social case work is ‘that form of social work which assists the individual which he struggles to relate himself to his family, his natural groups, his community.11 KLEIN (1938) Social case work is “a technical method in social work…. A way of adjusting the client to his personal problems.12 SWIFT (1939) Social case work is the art of assisting the individual in developing and making use of his personal capacity to deal with problems which he faces in his social environment’.13 DESCHWNINTIZ (1939) Case work means ‘those processes involved in giving service, financial assistance, or personal counsel to individual by representatives of social
agencies, according to policies established and with consideration of individual need.14 STRODE (1948) Social case work is the process of assisting the individual to the best possible social adjustment through the use of social case study, social resources, and knowledge from relative fields of learning.15 TOWLE Social case work is one method… by which certain special services are made available in areas of unmet needs.16 BOWERS (1949) Social case work is an art in which knowledge of the science of human relations, and skill in relationship are used to mobilize capacities in the individual and resources in the community appropriate for better adjustment between the client and all or any parts of his total environment.17 HOLLIS (1956) Social case work is a method employed by social workers to help individuals find solution to problems of social adjustment which they are unable to handle in a satisfactory way by their own efforts.18 HAMILTON (1956) In social case work the client is stimulated to participle in the study of his situation, to share plans, to make an active efforts to solve his problems, using
his own resources and whatever community resources are available and appropriate.19 HOLLIS (1957) Social case work is a method employed by social workers to help individual find solution to problems of social adjustment which they are unable to handle in a satisfactory way by their own efforts.20 PERLMAN (1957) Social case work is a process used by certain human welfare agencies to help individuals to cope more effectively with their problems in social functioning.21 The credit goes to Mary Richmond for defining the social case work scientifically. In 1915 she said that social case work is an art through which help is provided to people for their betterment as well as for the betterment of society. It means that social case work is essential if any country wants to improve and develop society and community. But this definition was not clear and therefore, she defines again in 1917 in which she emphasized the specific purpose i.e. better adjustment in the social relationships. Again in 1922 she told that social case work is for change of the personality of he individual for proper social adjustment. The position of social concerned, entered the definition of Jarrent. The same was repeated by Taft. Watson opposed the psycho- social model of treatment and emphasized an ego psychology. Total personality appear on the scene of social case work for
consideration to social workers. Porter Lee also emphasized that the goal of social case work is to change human personality. Taylor stressed upon the need for understanding the total personality of the individual for bringing healthy adjustment in social life. A counseling function was introduced into the case work definition by Reynolds 1932. Klein also suggested that the social case work is for helping the client for adjustment. Swifts talks to developing the strength and capacity in the individual to solve his problems himself. De Schweinitz in 1939 advanced definitions containing the functional activity. She linked the social case work with representatives of social agencies and established policies. The work which is done through the social agencies by the social case worker comes in the purview of social case work. Strode expresses his view by saying that social case work uses social resources for helping the individual to obtain adjustment in social life. Towle made very simple definition by saying that case work is for unmet needs of the individual. Bowers told two instruments of social case work, i.e knowledge of the science of human relations and skill in relationship; which are used to strengthen his capacity for gaining purposeful adjustment. Hollis talks to finding a solution to problems for the individual client. According to Perlman, the case worker’s task is to restore or reinforce the client’s ability to deal with problem rather than to deal with the problem for or with him. Perlman while defining the social case work process the indicated the four essential components of social case work in their relationship to one another. A
person with a problem comes to a place where social worker helps him through a well defined process. The person is a men, women or child, anyone who finds himself, or is found to be, in need of help in some aspect of his social emotional living, whether the need be for tangible provisions or counsel. As he begins to receive such help, he is called a client. 22 The problem arises from some need of obstacle or accumulation of frustrations or maladjustments, and sometimes all of these together, which threaten or has already attacked the adequacy of the person’s living situation or the effectiveness of his efforts to deal with it.
place is a social service agency or a social service department of another kind of human welfare agency. It is a particular kind of social problems at large but with human beings who are experiencing such problems in the management of their won personal lives. Its purpose is to help the individual with the particular social handicaps which hamper good personal or family living and with the problems created by faulty person to person, person to group, or person to situation relationship. The Process, named ‘social case work’ do denote its centre of attention and its individualized aspect. is a progressive transaction between the
professional helper (the case worker) and the client. it consists of series of problem - solving operations carried on within a meaningful relationships. the end of this process is contained in its means to go influence the client - person that he develops effectiveness in coping with his problem and influence the problem as to resolve it or vitiate its effects. 25 / or to so
PURPOSE OF SOCIAL CASE WORK The basic of social work is to enable the client to enjoy with some degree of permanency, more satisfying, effective and acceptable experiences in the social situation in which the finds himself. to achieve this goal efforts are made to bring effective changes in the client’s environments or social living situation through clarifying the client’s possibly distorted perception of its or strengthening his capacities for coping with it.
Its essential task is the
facilitation of social relationship. According to Witmer ‘the chief aim of social case work is that of helping people to mobilize their capacities for the solution of the problems that brought them to attention of social agencies.27 the purpose of social case work is not only to help those troubled in their immediate present but to help in such a way that each client will, from the experience, be better able to meet future difficulties with a more effectively, organized personal strength. Most of the writers of social work like moffett.
have emphasized that one of
the main objectives of social case work is to bring about an adjustment between the individual client and his situation of environment. Towle31 has proposed both a remote and more proximate purpose of social case work . According to her the ultimate and is the promotion of the welfare of the individual in the interest of society, the proximate and is the making available of certain special services in the areas of unmet needs. Bowers 32 Mentioned two basic objectives: better adjustment in the social
relationships of the individual, and the developments of individual personality.
according to Perlman, within the boundaries of what the client’s wants, his capacities, and the resources of skill and material means of the agency (and community) the specific goal is to help him achieve his previous level of functioning and / or to promote the most effective functioning of which he is capable at this time.33 In general, the purpose of social case work is to help an individual client to solve his psycho – social problems in such a way so that he finds himself capable of dealing with these problems at present and also may solve in future if such problems arise. thus social case work has the following objectives. 1. To understand and solve the internal problems to the individual. 2. To strengthen his ego power. 3. Remediation of problems in social functioning 4. Prevention of problems in social functioning 5. Development of resources to enhance social functioning. CLIENT CASE WORKER RELATIONSHIP The term ‘relationship’ in social case work was used for the first time by Miss Virginia Robinson in her. Book ‘A Changing psychology in Social Case Work in 1939. Relationship is the case worker’s responsible and disciplined use of himself in working with a client. The relationship is the channel through which the mobilization of the capacities of the client is made possible. The relationship is the medium through which the client is enabled to state his problem and through which attention can be focused on reality problems, which
may be as full of conflict as emotional problems. 34 A case work relationship is the professional meeting of two persons for the purpose of assisting one of them, the client, to make a better, a more acceptable adjustment to a personal problem.
Within the democratic frame of reference the professional
responsibilities, recognition of other’s rights, acceptable of difference, with the goal, not of isolation, but of socialized attitudes and behaviour stimulating growth though interaction.36 The essence of relationship has been called an interplay, a mutual emotional exchange , an attitude , a dynamic interaction, a medium, a connection between two persons, a professional meeting and a mutual process.37 Hollis38 distinguishes two types of relationship, the basic and the special. The worker brings to all relationship in his ability to help and function as a worker. This type of relationship is similar in many ways with some social relationships. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS There are five ways in which the professional relationship may differ from customary social relationships. 39
Social Relationship Professional Relationship
Open – ended
Ends when the problem is solved
Limited, according to the problem
3. Place 4. Focus
Home, Club, Invitation, Mutual satisfaction of
Office or institution Focus on client’s needs
range of needs emotional, problem solving work social intellectual, aesthetics etc 5. Role Relationship Mutual Helper and helped
CHARACTERISTICS OF CASE WORKER – CLIENT RELATIONSHIP Perlman
has described the following characteristics of case worker
client relationship. 1. Vital relationship between people arise out of shared and emotionally situations 2. all growth producing relationships, of which the case work relationship is one, contain elements of acceptable and expectation, support and stimulation. 3. The identifying mark of professional relationship is its conscious purposiveness growing out of the knowledge of what must go into achieving the goal.
4. The case worker, too, has relationship, and part of his professional skill in their management. ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP Despite the general concern with relationship, we find great difficulty in specifying just what is meant by the term ‘relationship. Rapport41 explains this problem thus that ‘Relationship is rather fuzzy concept since we cannot state with clarity what aspect of relationship, what kind, what symbolic value, what degree of intensity and so on are essential ingredients of treatment. The pertinent question is whether there are components of relationship that can be identified. These components are accurate empathy, non – possessive warmth and genuineness. Accurate Empathy If refers to the ability of the case worker to perceive and communicate accurately and with sensitivity both feeling and experiences of client and their meaning and significance. The worker should be sensitive to express feelings of the client as well as that may only be hinted by voice, posture and content ones. Non - Possessive Warmth If refers to the workers communication of respect, acceptance, liking, caring, and concern for the client in a non- dominating way. When this component is at low level the worker evaluates the client and expresses likes, dislikes, approval, disapproval in a highly conditional way. At high level, the worker warmly accepts the client’s experience as a part of his personality.
Genuineness If refers to worker’s being himself, being real. He should be honest in his approach, Whatever he reveals should be real aspect of himself. These components can be measured and on that basis closeness of relationship may be explored. PURPOSE OF RELATIONSHIP The case work relationship is the dynamic interaction of attitudes and emotions between the case worker and the client, with the purpose of helping the client achieve a better adjustment between himself and his environment.43 Thus the purpose of establishing relationship is to help the client with his psycho – social needs and problems. Other purposes are:
1. Better solution of clients problem 2. Exploitation of means for solving problem, 3. Stating reality and emotional problems. 4. Solution of the personal problem. 5. Development of personality.
THE PRINCIPLES OF CASE WORK RELATIONSHIP Biestek44 has described seven principles of case work relationship. There are 1. Individualization Individualization is the recognition and understanding of each client’s unique qualities and the differential use of principles and methods in assisting each toward a better adjustment. Individualization is based upon the right of human beings to be individuals and to be treated not just as a human being but as this human being with his personal differences. 2. Purposeful Expression of feelings Purposeful expression of feelings is the recognition of the client’s need to express his feelings freely, especially his negative feelings. The case worker listens purposefully, neither discouraging nor condemning the expression of these feelings, sometimes even actively stimulating and encouraging them when they are therapeutically useful as a part of the case work service. 3. Controlled Emotional Involvement The controlled emotional involvement is the case worker’s sensitively to the client’s feelings, an understanding of their meaning, and purposeful, appropriate response to the client’s feelings. 4. Acceptance Acceptance is a principle of action where in the case worker perceives and deals with the client as he really is including his strengths and weakness, his
congenial and uncongenial qualities his positive and negative feelings, his constructive and destructive attitudes and behaviour, maintaining all the while a sense of the client’s innate dignity and personal worth… The purpose of acceptance is therapeutic; to aid the case worker in understanding the client as he really is thus making case work more effective, and to help the client free himself undesirable defenses, so that he feels safe to reveal himself and look at himself as he really is, and thus to deal with his problem and himself in a more realistic way. 5. The non- Judgmental attitude The non- judgmental attitude is a quality of the case work relationship. It is based on a conviction that the case work function excludes assisting guilt on innocence, or degree of client responsibility for causation of the problems or needs, but does include making evaluative judgments about the attitudes, standards, or action of the client. The attitude which involves both thought and feelings elements is transmitted to the client. 6. Client self – Determination The principle of client self – determination is the practical recognition of the right and need of clients to freedom in making their own choice and decisions in the work process. Case workers have a corresponding duty to respect that right recognize that need, stimulate and help to activate that potential for self direction by helping the client to see and use his own personality. The client’s right to self – determination, however, is limited by the client’s capacity
for positive and constructive decision making, by the framework of civil and moral law, and by the function of eh agency. 7. Confidentially Confidentially is the preservation of secret information concerning the client which is disclosed in the professional relationship. Confidentially is based upon a basic right of the client; it is an ethical obligation of the case worker and is necessary for effective case work service. The client’s right, however, is not absolute, Moreover, the client’s secret is often shared with other professional persons within the agency and in other agencies, the obligation then binds all equally. a. Generic Principles 1. The principle of acceptance 2. The principle of communication 3. The principle of individualization 4. The principle of participation 5. The principle of client self – determination 6. The principle of confidentially 7. The principle of case worker self – awareness 1. Differential Principles 1. In a stressful situation, involving a client who presents evidence of inadequacies in current role functions, whose current mode of adaptation to this loss seems appropriate (not markedly regressive) and who demonstrated the
possession of a clear perception of the problems and what may be needed for the solution – which is an evidence of effective ego functioning – the goal and techniques of environmental modification and ego support are applicable 2. In a successful situation, involving a client who presents evidence of inadequacies in current role functions, and whose mode of adoption seems either (a) appropriate (not markedly regressive) or else, at he other extreme,(b) markedly inappropriate and regressive, and who demonstrates the possession of either (a) a clear perception of the problems and what may be needed for their solution evidence of effective ego – functioning or (b) markedly inaccurate or distorted perception of the problems evidence of grossly ineffective egofunctioning- the goals and techniques of environmental modification and egosupport are applicable. 3. With a diagnosis of relatively strong ego- functioning, of some but not marked regressive modes of adaptation, and of rather satisfying and effective performance in key social roles, the case worker may engage himself with clients in the goal and techniques of clarifying the effects and meaning of the client’s behaviour. 4. When problems in role fulfillment are based primarily on intraspychic hindrances and satisfying modes of adaptation and the client’s potential level of ego- functioning is a high one, the goals and techniques of uncovering the “forgotten causes” of behaviour are applicable.
SOCIAL CASE WORK PROCESS
There are three phases of social case work practice: Social investigation or psycho-social study, diagnosis and treatment or management.
SOCIAL INVESTIGATION (PSYCHO-SOCIAL STUDY)
Nothing happens on this earth without any reason. In other words, every happening has definite cause. Definite cause does not exist in vaccum rather a natural phenomenon. It is very interesting to note that today man is just
considered the creature, rather a creator as well. This particular change in the status of man has tempted him to quench his thirst of knowledge not only about the natural phenomena but today’s man is much interested to understand human behaviours in a very scientific and precise way. Social case worker is also interested in gaining this knowledge for its successful functioning. Before conceiving the term “Social investigation,” Mary Richmon herself toyed with such terms as “Social – evidence”, “learned seeking”, “Social inquiry” and ultimately shifted her choice upon the term “Social investigation.” Social investigation is the foundation upon which the various helping processes, actions and treatment techniques are built. For every social work activity, whether it is at individual level or family level or community and societal level, the find out the social realities of the clients and their families, to identify the problem area and to formulate treatment, rehabilitation and aftercare strategies. It is rightly pointed out by Hamilton that social investigation is a psychosocial process. It transcends much beyond the assessment of the individual client
or family. The intra – psychic forces are inseparably linked with social forces. To understand the individual as psycho – social entity, the analysis of his relationship with others related with him is equally important.
CONTENTS OF THE SOCIAL INVESTIGATION
Perlman46 has given the following contents of the case work study in the beginning phase: 1. The nature of the presenting problem, 2. The significance of this problem 3. The causes(s), onset and precipitants of the problem, 4. The efforts made to cope with problem- solving, 5. The nature of the solution or ends sought from the case work agency, 6. The actual nature of this agency and its problem solving means in relation to the client and his problem. Social case worker attempts to investigate the following facts: 1. Picture of the problem He tries to know major complaints, beginning of the problems, the nature of the problem, severity of the problem, implications of the problem, location of the problem, causation of the problem, scope of the problem (who are other affected persons) etc. 2. Client’s Feelings and Reactions Case worker attempts to find out the attitude of the client towards his problem, the analysis and interpretation made by him about his problem, the
relationship between client and problem, capacities, competencies and weaknesses of the client. 3. Client’s Efforts to Solve Problems Social case worker acquires knowledge about the efforts made by the client to deal with his problems, the help taken so far, help taking organization and agencies, effects of help, client’s evaluation towards these help receiving agencies, and the time spent in these agencies. 4. Social Conditions He investigates the clear picture of family, its environment, and its impact on the client. He also gains knowledge of schools and its effect on client. Apart from these social agencies, he makes attempts to know the impact of neighbor, working place and religious, economic and political institutions. 5. Psycho-social Development of the Client In this area, the case worker gets information about the pre- and post-natal care of the client, his early development, childhood, schooling, socialization patterns, home environment, marital history, occupational history, habits, relationship with others. 6. Personality of the client For the proper diagnosis, the case worker gives much emphasis to gather information regarding personality characteristics of the client i.e., knowledge, feelings, wishes temperament, ego-strength, sensitivity, adaptability,
communication patterns, cooperation, sympathy, tolerance, responsibility,
expression of emotions, devotion to work, motivational state, and level of aspirations and weakness in his personality. THE TECHNIQUES OF SOCIAL INVESTIGATION There are two fundamental techniques of social investigations, i.e, (i) Interview and (ii) Observation. The process of social investigation is initiated and carried through by the process of interview. Professional skill in this area requires not only theoretical knowledge about the psychology of human behaviour but also considerable case work experience in which the worker’s technique is repeatedly analysed. The interview is used for securing information about the clients as well as his problems including his relationship with other persons in his social and personal environment. Through the interview situation, the case worker attempts to
inst4rcut and give both the client and others who play significant roles in his life and attempts to manipulate the environment for the benefit of the client. Observation is always coupled with interviewing. It makes possible to record the behaviour of the client as it occurs. It yields clues as to the pathological patterns of communication, pathogenic relation and defective role playing and polarization of power and authority among the family members who are of ehological significance. Tools of Social Investigation The following tools are used by social case worker in collecting the relevant information for diagnosis and treatment:
1. Interview guide and schedule 2. Life chart 3. Video recording of family interaction 4. Tape recorded interview Format of Interview Guide/Schedule I. History of Problem 1. Major complaints( Problems) 2. History of the problems 3. Treatment or helps taken so far. II. Personal History 1. Early development 2. Process of socialization 3. Coping patterns of day-to-day stress 4. Schooling – likes, dislikes difficulties, academic achievement, extra – curricular activities, model teachers’ behaviour, significant incidence. 5. Marital History –age at marriage, willingness for marriage, types of marriage, consanguinity, age of the spouse, personality of the spouse, expectations from marriage, relationship and compatibility with the spouse, with the in- laws and the offspring, sexual gratification, birth of the first child and its impact on the marital life. Difficulties in communication, role playing, interaction, reinforcement, stress managing patterns and social support system.
Habits: i. ii. iii. Drinking, gambling, smoking, addictions, etc. Reading, creative activities, music, writing, painting, etc. Social habits.
6. Occupational History: When and why started working, job satisfaction in every work, relationship with the supervisors and colleagues, promotion work environment, reasons of changing occupation/job. 7. Income: Income per month, level of satisfaction, needs and income, spouse’s attitude towards your income earning, capacity, debt, other problems. 8. Sex experience: Sexual perversion if any, failure in love, its effects, etc. III. Family History 1. Family structure 2. Economic status in community 3. Educational History 4. Occupational History 5. Marital History 6. Ethical and moral standards 7. Family Habits 8. Personality Patterns 9. Interaction Patterns 10. Patterns of decision making
11. Existing role structure in family 12. Patterns of managing problem 13. Social support system 14. Interaction of the family members with the client. IV. Analysis and Social Diagnosis: Problematic Areas V. Treatment Plan SOCIAL DIAGNOSIS Diagnosis like treatment begins with the first glance between the help giver and help seeker.47 Social diagnosis is the attempt to arrive at an exact definition as possible of the social situation and personality of a given client.48 It is a search for the causes of the problem which brings the client to the worker for help. Diagnosis is (i) an explanation formulated in the light of known facts ( both tangible fact items and psychological fact items); (ii) an explanation made in the knowledge of the other possible explanations; and (iii) subject to change or revision whenever subsequent material warrants a different explanation.49 Diagnosis is, therefore, concerned with understanding both psychological or personality factors which bear a casual relation to the client’s difficulty and the social or environmental factors which tend to sustain it.50 The diagnostic process consists of a critical scrutiny of a client – situation complex and the trouble concerning which help is sought or needed for the purpose of understanding the nature of the difficulty with increasing detail and accuracy.51
Content of the Social Diagnosis The content of the case work diagnosis falls into the triangular pattern. It consists of 1. The nature of the problem brought and the goals sought by the client, in their relationship to; 2. The nature of the person who bears the problem (his social and psychological situation and functioning) and who seeks (or needs) help with his problem, in relation to ; 3. The nature and purpose of the agency and the kind of help it can offer and / or make available.52
The Process of Making Diagnosis A diagnosis has been broken up into a number of stages: gathering the data, the diagnostic study, the diagnosis itself or the evaluation, and the diagnostic product.
Gathering Data Data are gathered of the interview of the client, reports agency’s records reports, from other members of the team, other agencies, schools, relatives. Home visit is also an important source of data collection. The accuracy of data depends on worker’s skill of interviewing, individualization, acceptance, communication and involvement.
Diagnostic Study The study attempt to identify the problem areas which are important for social case work involvement. Diagnosis or Evaluation This means finding the nature of the problem, its organization and extent and who is going to be affected. Factors responsible for the problem may be one or more than one of the following: i. Physical – Physical illness or disability, how the sufferer feels, how his family and others feel. Effect of physical illness – dependent, tired, irritable, depressed, self image lowering, distort relationship, disrupt communication. ii. Psychological – The assessment is made of the quality of libidinal relationship, dependency, narcissistic tendencies, sexual identification, quality of aggressiveness, channelization of aggressiveness, native of super ego, consistency of ego and super ego, reality perception, self analysis, self-criticism, judgment, defense used, degree used, degree of discomfort the problem causes him, the nature of desire to change it, the effect that change may have upon other members. iii. Social – The following facets of social environment generally come within the diagnosis: 1. Income level – High, low, consistent, uncertain, effect on the present problem.
overcrowding, basic facilities lacking/sufficient. 3. Neighborhood – Tolerant/intolerant/supportive/conflict, views toward client etc. 4. Employment – Job availability, prospects, remuneration, level, security, status, condition of work, job satisfaction. 5. Religion – Beliefs in values, offering support – consolation, expressive outlets, sublimation, reinforcing problems – guilt, tension. 6. Availability/quality/attitude and attitudes (client) to social organization and services : medical facilities, courts, credit organization, legal advice centres, Post – Office, social security. 7. Prejudice, tension etc. 8. Educational problems.
Diagnostic Product After identification of the problem areas and the factors relating to them, the attempts are made towards possible solution. But before determining solution we need to think about the potential contribution to solutions of the client, others, the agency and the worker. The client’s work ability (capacity and motivation) is the base for further determining the treatment techniques and procedures. Perlman53 discuses this capacity under three headings: Emotional – Ability to relate others, ability to feel, experiencing, contacting, etc.
Social Intelligence Capacity - Perceptivity, attention, communication, self- management technology, management of situations. Physical capacity – How much the client has left over work on problem solving. Types of Diagnosis Perlman 54 has described three types of diagnosis that is carried on in social case work process. These are : dynamic diagnosis, clinical diagnosis and etiological diagnosis. 1.Dynamic Diagnosis Dynamic diagnosis gives an understanding of the current problem of the client and the forces currently operating within the client, within social environment and between him/his environment. It gives the answers of the question – what is the trouble?, What psychological, physical and social factors are contributing to it?, What solution is sought? What are the means available within the client, his environment? What are organized services and resources by which the problem may be affected? The nature of such diagnosis is changeable because it is the beginning phase of social case work practice. 2.Clinical Diagnosis Under clinical diagnosis, the case worker attempts to classify the client by the nature of his sickness/problem. He identifies certain forms and qualities of client’s personality maladaptation and malfunctioning in his behaviour. The clinical diagnosis describes both the nature of the problem and its relation to the
client and the helping means and goals. Such type of diagnosis is useful only when it becomes apparent that a disorder of personality accompanies the social disorder, creating and complicating it. 3.Etiological Diagnosis Etiological diagnosis is concerned with the explanation of the beginnings and life-history of problem of the client, basically that problem that lies in the client’s personality make up or functioning. The history of his development as a problem encountering, problem-solving human being may provide the case worker with an understanding of what his client suffers from and what the extend of his coping ability is like to be.55 Etiological diagnosis is more useful in explaining or rigid reactions. When in spite of the fact that the client’s present problems are in the centre of attention, the clients responses are not in accordance with, the past history and its appraisal in the light of client’s current capacities goals and problems are used for the treatment. This type of diagnosis contributes to understanding the nature of the problem to be dealt with, the person who has the problem, and the ways and means can be anticipated as helpful.
Date for Diagnosis The data for diagnosis can be collected by at lease three primary means: 1.Interviews Interview guides are used for collecting information. There are a number of standard guides prepared by psychologists but most recent guide is of
Goldfried and Davison56 having the categories of information: Client’s behaviour during the interview and physical description; presenting problem(s) (nature of problems, historical setting, events, current situation determinants, relevant organizmic variables, dimensions of the problem, consequences of the problem): targets for modification; recommended treatment(s), motivation for treatment; prognosis; priority for treatment; client expectations; other information, comments, or observations.
2.Checklists and Inventories The following inventories may be used: The Fear Survey Schedule (of Wolpe)57, questionnaire on client’s perception of himself (Goldstein) 58, family functioning (Stuart and Stourt)59 marital functioning (Knox), sexual functioning (Annon) and instruments for assessing environments (Moos).
3.Direct Observation Observation in those situation in which the behavior actually occurs, e.g., home or place of work makes the work of diagnosing very easy.
Steps in Diagnosis The following steps are taken while diagnosing a problem: 1. The worker begins to focus on problematic behaviors. He begins with the survey of both functional and dysfunctional behaviors in his environment. He classifies the various complaints and problems in terms of excesses
and deficits. He evaluates client’s personal strength as well as of his environment. 2. He specifies the target behaviors. This involves an attempt of breaking down complex behaviors into their component parts, being as clear and precise as possible about them. 3. Baseline date are collected to specify those events that appear to be currently controlling the problematic behaviors. 4. The collected information is summarized in an attempt to anticipate any and major problem in treatment and as a way of beginning to establish objectives for treatment. 5. Selecting priorities for treatment as the final step of the diagnosis. Concentration on one problem at one time makes treatment process more manageable and allows both client and worker to channel their energies into one area. It is the best of handling and proper use of available resources.
Social case work consists of those processes which develop personality through adjustments consciously affected ----------between men and their social environment.60 Generally, two types of efforts are required for social adjustment – environmental modification and /or change in behavior and attitudes. Early case work treatment was placed on modification through the environment. Later on the development of ego psychology helped social case workers to use
intensive and direct treatment techniques. Now the aim of social case work treatment is to restore the individual to social functioning or to help him develop this capacity in order that he may achieve at one and at the same time his own and society’s betterment.61 According to Hamilton, treatment is the sum total of all activities and services directed towards helping an individual with a problem. The focus is the relieving of the immediate problem and, if feasible, modify any basic difficulties which precipitated it.62 The objectives of social case work treatment are as follows: 1. To prevent social breakdown; 2. To conserve client’s strength; 3. To restore social functioning; 4. To provide happy experiences to the client; 5. To create opportunities for growth and development; 6. To Compensate psychological damage; 7. To increase capacity for self – direction; 8. To increase his social contribution. Thus the objective of social case work treatment is to alleviate the client’s distress and decrease the malfunctioning in the person- situation system. It is to enhance the client’s comfort, satisfaction, and self – realization. This may require enhancing the adaptive skills of his ego and the functioning of the person- situation system.63
Social Case Work Treatment Process Social case work treatment process begins with the initial contact with the client. The process of treatment passes through many phases, i.e.,(i) Initial phase, (ii) Motivation and role induction, (iii) primary contract, (iv) diagnosis and assessment, (v) establishing treatment goals, (vi) developing treatment plan, (vii) preparation for actual treatment, (viii) treatment in practice (ix) monitoring and evaluating the effects of treatment, and (x) planning of follow-up termination of therapeutic relationship.
I.Initial Phase The main task of social case worker in the initial phase is to examine how the problem was brought to his attention. He would attempt to focus on various aspects of the problem that seem fit to case work treatment. Here the decisions of the worker are tentative. The initial phase of social case work treatment will be thought to be completed when the case worker meets the following conditions. 1. The issues have been sufficiently identified so as to substantiate that they are appropriate to the purposes and goals of the service. 2. The participants understand the nature and meaning of the problem with enough explicitness to permit engagement and participation. 3. The problem is appropriate to the programme, resources, and services of the setting. 4. The problem fits the practitioner’s skill and capabilities.64
Social case worker develops a preliminary understanding of the problem and of the client. He also provides psychological support and help to the client and engages him in a therapeutic relationship. It is quite possible that through this initial process of treatment, client may learn that he really does not need further help as the problem has been sufficiently clarified and explained. It is also possible that the agency may not have concrete service to the client and the case worker may become bound to refer the case to the particular agency. If the case is to be continued with the case worker, he takes a decision whether to move system oriented treatment or towards person centered treatment.
II. Motivation and Role Induction One of the most important tasks of social case worker at the beginning of the treatment process is to build and develop the therapeutic relationship between himself and the client. Workers’s empathy, warmth and genuineness feelings are high motivating force for the client to take part in the therapeutic process. The objective of this phase is to the minimizing of premature terminations and enhance motivation to continue the treatment. At this phase the worker find the resistances of the client, and its genuineness. He explores client’s perception of why he is involved in the treatment and how he feels about being in the agency. He also encourages the client to specify his expectations of treatment and feelings about seeking help. He attempts to clarify the roles and responsibilities of both himself and the client. He also clarifies about the type of services agency can offer and extends the boundaries to those services. These
activities and role of social case worker help to engage the client in therapeutic planning. III. Primary Contract The objective of this phase is to develop a preliminary contract with the client. This contract may be oral or in writing. The case worker thus by making psychological contract (relationship) sets the stage to move towards more formal assessment. IV. Diagnosis and Assessment Diagnosis and assessment process are ongoing throughout the entire treatment. Social case worker provides detailed information about the problem situation that will help in establishing the treatment goal, a strategy of treatment and selection of specific procedures of treatment. The case worker assesses the client’s ego strength, skillfulness, capabilities and capacities in relation to his problem. He classifies the excesses and the deficiencies in his behavior, and selects the specific treatment procedures to be used to overcome the problem. He assesses whether the client needs advice, counseling, behavior modification, crisis intervention or consultancy services like teaching, consultation, interpretation, supervision or provision of adult services i.e., material help, resource location and referral.
V. Establishing Treatment Goals Social case worker after diagnosis and assessment of the problems of the client establishes goals for the solution of the problem. He selects any one or more goals of the following: (i) prevention of breakdown, (ii) ego strengthening, (iii) restoration of social functioning, (iv)creation of opportunities for growth and development, (v) self-direction experience, (vi) social participation experience, (vii) change in the environment. Social case worker along with this work, points out the negative and positive result that may come out due to change in the behavior patterns of the client or due to environmental manipulation. Though the client has the major say in deciding on goals the case worker plays an important role by clarifying a variety of alternative goals for his consideration.
Developing Treatment Plan Treatment planning involves three major dimensions: formulating of a strategy, selection of specific treatment procedures and developing a method for evaluating the impact of the treatment programme. Social case worker decides whether the primary thrust of the invention or treatment will be system – centered, person – centered or both. He, then, makes a judgment as to which of the key roles of case worker are most suited to the particular problem. The entire process of formulating a treatment strategy may be depicted as.
Preparation for Actual Treatment Preparation for actual treatment phase involves several specific steps such as collecting all possible information, formation of action system, preparation of mediator (s) if needed, change of significant elements in the client’s environment to increase the probability of getting desired result, make an attempt to make the new behaviour acceptable to the client and to provide high level of close relationship with the client.
Application of Treatment Methods In order to achieve the goals set by the case worker, conventionally the following method of social treatment have been mentioned 1. Administration of practical service 2. Indirect treatment (environmental manipulation) 3. Direct treatment.
1. Administration The client is extended help to choose and use the social resources afforded by the community. Porter Lee66 was the first social worker. Who emphasized and classified such resources into executive and leadership. Administration of practical service means to help the client in such a way that he could select and use the resource available in the community. Social case worker, helps he client for an adequate knowledge of available resources through the techniques of discussion information. Clarification and direction. The use of
services is essential to solve any kind of problem and if the problem is of social nature, then it becomes more essential for the worker to help the client in this direction. These services take the form of treatment as they satisfy his needs and give satisfaction. The client knows the type of services he need but he does not know how to reach these services. It is the job of case worker to take the client to the resources. Money, medical care, nursery schools, scholarships, foster homes, legal aid, recreational facilities, etc., are such type of services that any person may nee in order to resolve a given problem in his daily living.
Indirect Treatment (Environmental Manipulation) Environmental manipulation means to bring change in the social conditions of the client so that he may be relived from excessive stresses and strains. The case worker suggests as to what steps may or may not help the client to cope better with hi problems. He plans with him a to his emotional, professional and recreational activities. He gives an appropriate advice to members of his environment and modifies their attitudes favorably. Through interview is used in this method but the man emphasis is laid to change in his conditions. When social resources and systematized social conditions are used as main sources for the solution of the problem, it becomes social treatment. Home services, camps, group experience activities, training and employment for livelihood and other activities of adjust mental nature are such type of programmes. The purpose of such activities is always to minimize the load of tension in the client.
Social case worker organizes such type of activities through which the client’s experiences help in his personality growth and adjustment in the society. Through practical services are also made available but eh focus is always on change in conditions. Attempts are also make to change and modify the attitude of parents, teaches, spouse, employer, friends and relatives in accordance with the needs of the client.
In general, environmental modification (manipulation) is undertaken by the case worker only when environmental pressures upon the client are beyond the latter’s control but can be modified by the case worker. 67
3. Direct Treatment Perlman sees direct treatment a the provision of a systematic but flexible way in which the client can work over his problem, his relation to it and possible solutions. Here case worker exerts his influence directly on the client. Direct treatment techniques are used where the clients needs direction because of his ignorance, anxiety, and weaken of his ego strengths. The degree of influence, the case worker I able to exert, may depend on the relationship between himself and the client.
Direct treatment is given through counseling, therapeutic interviewing, clarification and interpretation leading to an insight. Supportive treatment for the direct benefit of the client I provided through guidance, externalization of interests, re – assurance suggestion, persuasion and advice.
Counseling: is a personal help directed toward the solution of a problem which a person finds that he cannot solve himself and on which he, therefore, seeks the help of a skilled person whose knowledge, experience and general orientation can be brought into play in an attempt to solve the problem. It is a psychological help in which information and clarification are used for making the client aware about the problem. It is always used for some particular purpose like marriage counseling, occupational counseling, family counseling, school counseling, etc.
Therapeutic Interviewing: Therapeutic interviewing is used where intra – psychic conflict is projected to the environmental or neuroses or behaviour disorders are acted out. The purpose of such interviewing is that of psychotherapy which aims towards personality growth in the direction of maturing, competence and self – actualization. For the analysis of the unconscious, social case worker applies the techniques of free association, dream interpretation, analysis of resistance and transference. For behaviour
modification, social case worker makes use of the techniques of positive enforcement, negative enforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment, systematic desensitization and covert desensitization.
Sometimes faulty communication, faulty interaction play basic role in developing maladaptive behaviour. For the improvement case interpersonal relations an correct communication social case worker practices martial and family therapy techniques and transactional analysis.
Clarification: it is also a kind of counseling through which clarification of clients himself, his environment and the public with whom he is associated is made. Social case worker gives such an understanding to the client that he becomes capable of understanding himself, his environment and his social network. Clarification my consist of giving the client information about the environment or people in the environment, which he does not posses and without which he cannot see clearly what steps he ought to take. 68
Interpretation and Insight
Sometimes conflicting feelings and strong emotions lead the individual to distort reality so seriously or react to it so inappropriately that understanding is impossible without the deeper perception. Social case worker interprets the factors of the problem, related fact, attitude of client and unconscious feelings in relation to the reality situation. He helps the client to an awareness of his strong projection of his inner needs and his subjective responses upon the outer world.
Insight development is always accompanied by some degree of clarification
and psychological support. Psychological Support: Psychological support is useful in decreasing tension and guilt, increasing self – confidence, encouraging healthy functioning or a way of functioning that maintains the client’s equilibrium and in helping him to build up compensatory strengths and satisfaction.
The following help is provided to the client. He I
encouraged to express his feelings. Case worker accepts him and his feelings,
and shows keen interest in him. He clarifies the problem and encourages him to take his own decision. Social case worker, though psychological support does not develop understanding in the client but applies reinforcement for his ego strength through the technique of guidance, reassurance, suggestion, persuasion and advice.
Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring provides the crucial feedback to case worker and the client regarding whether the treatment programme is succeeding a desired, whether established goals have been achieved, whether modifications in the programme are necessary and whether the client is being helped in real sense. Social case worker evaluates the content of the programme and its effectiveness inner strength gained by the client and success of himself in helping the client.
Planning Follow – Up And The Termination Of Therapeutic Relationship It is neither wise nor necessary for the termination to be an abrupt one. The frequency and amount of contacts should be gradually decreased. Particularly, the follow- up should be planned on a progressively demising basis, first, perhaps alter two weeks, then a month hence then three months, six month and a year following the termination of the formal programme.71
BASIC CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL CASE WORK
The goal of social case work is to solve client’s problems by developing his capacities and capabilities so that he may realize satisfaction and happiness. To achieve this goal, case worker studies social and psychological conditions of each client. The problems generally arise when an individual fails to fulfill his role in a particular situation or hi ego is not performing its obligations satisfactory. Both the situation make the process of adaptation difficult for the individual. Thus, the case worker studies social roles of the clients’ adaptation level and ego functioning to put clear diagnosis for proper treatment. These concepts, are discussed here.
THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL ROLE The term role is used to designate the sum total of the cultural patterns associated with a particular status. It thus includes the attitudes, values and behaviour ascribed by the society to any and all persons occupying this status… in so far as it represents overt behaviour.
A person’s role is a pattern or type of social behavior which seems situationally appropriate to him in terms of the demands and expectations of those in his group. When a number of interrelated behavioural patterns are clustered around a function, we call this combination a social role. Social rolemay be defined as the institutional group expectation as to behaviour, attitudes and other attributes for the occupant of a given position in a
Every society is composed of familial, educational, economic,
political, religious, etc, institutions of ensure the adequate development of each and every member of society. the ensue proper and continuous functioning of these institutions every individual is assigned to fulfill certain obligation. Expectations vary according to the position the individual occupies in a family, a work situation, in a school or in other institutions. Expectation are also being changed according to the changing social system. Normally balance is maintained between the changing expectation of the society an the changing values and capacities of an individual.
When there are period of sharp transition either in individual’s life cycle as he enters in another role expectations, or modification and sudden changes happen in the social system, a critical imbalance develop between person – social equilibrium. In such a situation he is bewildered and confused in understanding his role. If he find position and status in society otherwise he will no longer enjoy the same position is the social system. And because of lowering of social position, he suffer from stresses and strains. When this kind of problem occurs social work may provide services which enable the person to reassume productive membership in the institutionalized group of his society. 76
BEHAVIOUR AND SOCIAL ROLE The person’ ‘being and becoming’ bahviour is both shaped and judged by the expectations he and his culture have invested in the status and the major social roles he carries. Every person occupies some position or status in a society. he has status in lieu of certain major functions which he fulfils. Every status is associated with certain expectations. For example, a man in the role of further is supposed to act in a certain way toward his children, a women in the role of wife to behave in certain ways towards her husband. Such types of behaviour in the form of roles an individual learns through the process of socialization. In the social transaction if he fails to perform his roles as expected, he feels shy and shame, mental stress and strains.
ROLE CONFLICT In complex society the individual needs high level of adaptability to fulfill the numerous roles. He is supposed to perform different type of roles every day. He may feel difficulty in doing so because of the lack of training or knowledge or skill and thus conflict occurs within the person himself. On other occasions conflict occurs when there is refusal or inability to conform to the expectation inherent in status and role. Conflict may also arise when a person has not adequate opportunity to learn the roles. Sudden new situations also bring conflict in the performance of the roles.
When a person’s feelings and ideal of himself are compatible with each other and with the social reality, and when he is clear about permissions and obligations, his role is a source of gratification and of expansion of his personality.
If he feels satisfaction in performing a major role as of father/
mother/ husband, it becomes possible for him to learn or struggle with frustration in other aspects of his life. But when he fails or feels disturbance and barriers in the social outlets, some degree of frustration is experienced by him resulting in self – devaluation.
CONCEPT OF SOCIAL ROLE TO SOCIAL CASE WORK PRACTICE The person who is in trouble approaches the social case work agency for help. He needs help because he is unable to carry on one or more of his roles with satisfaction. This maladjustment or be either because as to what,
realistically, the role’s requirements are, its firm requisites, and the range of variations permissible within it. Then, within this objective frame of reference, the individual client’s behaviour must be viewed and assessed as to the nature of the maladaptation whether it stems from conflict between what he wants and what he can be or between what he wants and what he must be, from some unrealistic interpretation of what his role embraces, from some lack of preparation to engage in the necessary behaviours, or from the loss of external supports. 78
THE CONCEPT OF EGO The forces of the human personality are combined in three major functions: (1) the life emerges that seek satisfactory outlets;(2) the check system, automatic or voluntary, that halts, modifies, or rechannels those drives to make their ends acceptable to their owner and his environment; and (3) the organizing and governing operations that control the negotiations and balance within the person himself, as between himself and his physical and social environment the names Freud gave to these are the ‘Id’, ego’, the super – ego.
Ego is the sum total of the integrating efforts of the personality, the sum total of all the mechanisms of dealing with conflicts. The functions of ego are four fold; perception of internal subjective wants and needs; perception of external and relevant reality demands and opportunities, integration mediation operations between the two sets of perception towards selection an choosing of means for gratification by the ‘reality principle’, planning and/ or management of conscious, voluntary behaviour. From the very beginning of birth to the moment of death every human being is continuously engaged in problem – solving work in order to maintain hi stability, and effectiveness to achieve higher status in society. that process of ego functioning by which a person perceives inner or outer reality, reads it mean, an variously adapts, defends, protects, copes, accommodates, treats, renounces, compromises, chooses, grapples and engages himself with his reality that process is the way by which a person feels with his encountered problems, whether those problems are in the nature of
pleasure to be gained or unpleasantness to be avoided. 80 Ego qualities are many; among them are abilities of perception (accurate/ distorted), judgment (rational/ irrational, considered/hasty), reality testing (working at things as they are, or, resorting to fantasy), self – image (realistic, inflated / denigrated), impulse control (too little, too much), and executants ability ( can they do things organize themselves to achieve, persist). In persons with ‘weak’ or under – developed ego, these functions may not be fulfilled satisfactorily and the person may feel incapability in problem solving. The job of the case worker is to deal whose ego functions either are undeveloped or are under the excessive anxiety, strains and conflict.
The problem under great stress and strains due to failure of ego – functioning uses defense mechanisms consciously or unconsciously to protect the ego. These defenses may be rational or irrational. Irrational defenses are unstable techniques for adjustment as they create more problem. Social case worker analyses other defences and tries to know how the client perceives his current situation, utilizes knowledge gained in past experiences and how he tries to solve his problems. He thus, by studying functioning of the ego, obtains the knowledge of client’ inner strength, thought process and perceptional insight. On the basis of this knowledge he prepares plan for his treatment or help.
THE CONCEPT OF ADAPTATION When a person faces new adjective demand he receives it in the form of particular problem based on its similarities to and differences from previous ones. If he faces a stress situation for which existing categories are inadequate, he is forced to examine it as a unique situation and tries to discern its key dimensions. If the individual evaluates the stress situation as non – threatening or only mildly menacing, he is likely to deal with it in terms of old patterns that require little thought or effort. On the other hand, if he anxiety and to interrupt other ongoing activities and focus on coping with it. The individual’s threat appraisal may be in error. He may perceive danger where none exists, fails to perceive it where it does exist or exaggerate, or minimize the threat. If he feels competent to handle a stress situation, his behaviour tends to be task oriented i.e., aimed primarily at dealing with the requirements of the adjustive demand. He offers the bet channel for using and coordinating resources in constructive action, but if he faces severe stress and feels incapable of meeting the demand he uses mechanism such as denial of reality, fantasy, repression, rationalization, projection, reaction formation, displacement, withdrawal, etc. thus its is quite clear that adaptation to stressful situation is made basically on three different levels: 1. Use of well known practiced method of adaptation. 2. Simple defensive mechanism like pairing, flight, withdrawal, etc. 3. Destructive defenses like severe regression, severe withdrawal, adathy, and other mental disorders symptoms.
The first level of adaptation gives satisfaction and new energy to the person but others two are harmful for he proper growth an development. In a stressful situation, involving a client who presents evidence of inadequacies in current role functions, and whose mode of adaptation seems either (a) appropriate (not markedly regressive), or else, at the other extreme. (b) markedly inappropriate and regressive, and who demonstrates the possession of either (a) a clear perception of the problems and what may be needs for their solution – evidence of effective ego functioning or (b) markedly inaccurate or distorted perception of the problems - evidence of grossly ineffective ego
functioning, the goals and techniques of environmental modification and ego support are applicable.
With a diagnosis of relatively strong ego functioning,
of some but not marked regressive modes of adaptation, and of rather satisfying and effective performance in key social roles, the case worker may engage with clients in the goals and techniques of clarifying the effects and meaning of the client’ behavious. 82
DIAGNOSTIC AND FUNCTIONAL SCHOOLS OF SOCIAL CASE WORK
The diagnostic school is basically founded on the Frudian Theory of Psycho - analysis. The credit for giving shape to these thoughts in the form of a school goes to Mary Richmond who wrote a first book on social case work i.e., “Social Diagnosis’ in 1917. however, the approach changed drastically as it wa
influenced by the happening of the world and growth of personality and social therapy. The contributors of this school were Marion Kenworthy (New York School of Social work). Betsey Libbey ( Family Society of Philadelphia), Gordon Hamilton, a teacher and writer, others were Bertha Reynolds, Charlotte Towle, Florence Day, Lucille Austin, and Annette Garrett who contributed by their writings and practices.
The Diagnostic School is based on the following main foundations.
1. Principles of Diagnosis Social case work help is based on the understanding of each client individually and his problem. It is essential because it gives a realistic basis for differentiation and gives a base for the improvement of the client’s social situation and personal satisfaction and adjustment. In 1922 Marry Richmond
pointed out that the case work involved two types of insights, one into the individually and another into the social environment, and two types of action, one through direct action of mind upon mind and another through indirect action in the social environment. The diagnosis is based on the following principles:
1. The diagnostic process consists of a critical scrutiny of a client situation complex and the trouble concerning which help is sought or needed for
the purpose of understanding the nature of the difficulty with increasing details and accuracy. 2. Diagnosis is based on the knowledge of the worker about the interplay of social and psychological factors effecting the clients 3. The knowledge of interaction between inner and outer forces influencing the client makes the process of diagnosis helpful and therapeutic. 4. Every problem of the individual should be understood in the light of multiple factors theory. 5. In the initial stage also, relieving of pressure of stresses and strains on the client, helps the case worker to arrive at a proper diagnosis. 6. The initial appraisal of personality and motivations and their significance in the development of client’s problem, provides the basis for planning the treatment of the client’s problem. 7. For the solution of the problem of the client, it is of utmost importance to gain some knowledge of his current capacity to work and to recognize the motivating forces in his behaviour 8. The understanding of the psycho – dynamics and the pathological symptoms of the personality of the client provides the basis of determining the kind of help that can be appropriately offered.
2. Principles of Treatment The main objective of the treatment is of alleviating the client’s distress and decreasing the malfunctioning in the person – situation system. The above
objective is achieved by enhancing the adaptive skills of his ego and functioning of the person – situation system. It is based on certain principles: 1. The focus of the discussion in the interview is centered on the problem and ways of resolving it attention is paid to know the obstacles (both situational and behavioral) that stand in the way of solution. 2. Nature and extent of both the social and psychological factors differ in each situation, treatment goals and techniques are planned after the careful study of the particular need of the client. 3. The success of the treatment programme is based on the utilization of the relationship purposefully. 4. Change in the client is brought largely through a correctional emotional experience in the relationship an through stimulating growth experiences in the social reality. 5. Social therapy and psycho – therapy are the two broad classifications of social case work treatment
3. Use of Techniques The treatment objectives determine the use of techniques. They include, within the framework of relationship, encouraging, emotional, discharge, reassurance, support, suggestion guidance and direction, provision of new experiences, clarification interpretation, and so forth.84
4. Use of Relationship The relationship is the medium of treatment through which client is enabled to find new ways to perceiving his problems and of handling himself. It gives the client a sense of being listened, being given importance. The case worker’s understanding of the dynamics of the relationship makes it possible to provide some gratification, protection, an guidance to the client when his ego need support, and at the same time to help the client marshal strength to meet his life situation. 85
The ‘functional approach’ to social work practice was developed by the faculty members of the School of Social Work of the University of Pennylvania. This approach is based on the personality theory of Otto Rank. According to Functional School social case work is a method for engaging a client through a relationship process, essentially one to one, in the use of a social service toward his own and the general social welfare.
Function case work is a method of
helping people through special services given by social agencies, in such a way that the constructive. 87 Thus the functional approach of social case work has two inseparable aspects,
1. Potentials for help to a person is inherent in the existence of service. In spite of the differences in the clients, an ways of using of agency’s
services, the kind of service an agency gives and its purpose remain the same. 2. The use of agency services gives psychological experience that differs from the form of another kind of service regardless of the similarity of problem in the people using the two services.
Diagnosis That diagnosis is most effective which is related to the use of some specific service an which is developed in the course of giving the service. This school does not recognize the significance to understand total situation of the client. The worker bring his own understanding through a process of professional education and experience. Functional diagnosis recognizes that people cannot be categorized and a plan with a specific kind of service or plan on the basis of firm diagnosis by category of clients, may deny potential growth and change. In establishing a diagnosis each individual makes his own diagnosis of himself and revises that diagnosis, as he in fact becomes different. Diagnosis is a way of engaging in a human relationship process which frees the help seeker to determine his own goal for himself. He himself is the cantre for change capable of continuous growth and development.
Treatment Functional School A patient’s transference to the analyst is only that part of the patient’s reaction to the analyst which repeats the patient’s reactions to a person who has, at some previous time, played an important role in the patient’ life.93 When a patient recounts free associations, he soon speaks of events or fanatics of vital interest to himself, and when these are told, the listener is gradually invested with some of the emotions which accompany them. The patient gradually begins to feel that the sympathetic listener is loved or hated, a friend or an enemy, one who is nice to him or one who frustrates his needs and punishes him. The feelings toward the listener becomes more and more like those felt toward the specific people the patient is talking about, or, more exactly, those his unconscious “is talking about”. This special of object displacement during psycho – analysis is called transference. 94 TRANSFERENCE IN SOCIAL WORK ‘Transfer’ was introduced into social work literature by Jessie Taft in 1924 who described it as “an emotional relationship to the client”. Hamilton defines transference as a carrying over of irrational elements from other, relationships, particularly in the past, displaced on to the social worker, reflecting unconscious motivation.
All relationships are based on previous
experiences with people however, the psycho – analytic term ‘ transference’ refereeing to specific irrational responses of the client to the worker, as though
the worker was some person in the client’s previous experience, is frequently used to refer any positive or negative feelings of the client for the worker. In this sense, the therapeutic relationships would be viewed as a transference relationship, as opposed to a real relationship, thus permitting the worker to insulate himself or herself from any true reactions and personally meaningful interactions with the client.
A from a home where his father was an arrogant
and domineering person. As a man the client has never been able to get along with his boss or any other figure of authority. In the case work situation, he transfers to the case worker hostile feelings of the type of he originally felt toward hi father and accuse the case worker of the same arrogant treatment at the hands of his father. TYPES OF TRANSFERENCE Transference is of two types: positive and negative. If the parents of the client have been friendly an helpful, even though imperfectly or unsuccessfully but with the child’s (client) interest at heart, he will transfer a desire for help, friendship, guidance, emotional support and interest. It is positive transference. If during client’s early development the parents had not shown interest in him and were indifferent, then the client will transfer feeling of unfriendliness, suspicion and distrust it is negative transference. If the transference is positive, help can be given more quickly and easily. When the transference is negative, then part of the work of the case worker is to help the client understand the origin of he negative feelings and work toward making them more positive.
COUNTER TRANSFERENCE Relationship is a two way process. Social case worker has also unconscious tendency to transfer out the client. As in the case of transference, these counter transference feelings, both positive an negative, are unconscious but operate with force. Therefore, it is the job of case worker to recognize his feelings and must control them. USE OF TRANSFERENCE There are three stages in dealing and using transference in social case work. these stages are: 1. Understanding the Transference. 2. Utilizing the transference, 3. Interpreting the transference.
Understanding of the transference is
essential for the worker as it helps to understand the behaviour of the client and to recognize its significance in his development process. It also explains the present unconscious needs of the client. Understanding of the transference of factors i.e. the present behaviour and problem, the environmental forces, the past experiences and earlier relationships. Utilization of the transference depends on the understanding of the social case worker of the phenomena. It explains many cures or treatments of emotional disturbance by life situations and by fortune relationships with other problems. The recognition of a transference need permits the establishment of a
relationship between a case worker and a client which allows for the utilization of such techniques a suggestion, advice, counseling, and education. 99 The interpretation of the transference, that is, confronting the individual with the awareness that his behaviour is the repetition of a specific unconscious infantile is definitely part of psycho – analytical therapy and requires is preparation of the individual by the careful analysis of his unconscious defense.100 Use of transference in Diagnosis The person who comes for help, knows external factors of hi problem and has little resistance discussing them. In such case a positive reality relationship is sufficient for diagnosis. When the emotional factors are involved in the problem, the client will not like to disclose them easily and most of the time will avoid on that particular issue. In such cases transference becomes necessary because apart from the resistance due to personal reasons due to personal reasons involved in the problem, he is not fully aware about its existence in him. Transference diminishes these resistance to some extent and thus helps him to talk more freely and friendly. It is the transference which gives clues by which social gives an insight into the client’s personality and helps in identifying his weakness as well as his strengths an ego functioning. On the basis of the understanding of the ego strength, social case worker prepares treatment plan for the client. Use of transference in Treatment
In case work, transference is developed in terms of psycho – social interaction to reveal specific relationship and situations rather than being held within the worker client focus, as such.
Transference is designed to free the
patient sufficiently so that he may think and feel more realistically about his behaviour and relationships, to support him in great feelings of adequacy and confidence, and to mobilize him to express his powers creatively in social situation.
Transference promotes a feeling on the part of the client that his
problem is being shared and case worker is genuinely interested in his welfare. This feeling of the client makes him easy, calm, less burdened with anxiety and opens the road for fruitful solution. The feeling of sharing of the client is his identification with the worker who develops transference. Thus the transference helps in treatment in a number of ways. 1. The mature ego strengths of the worker serve to reinforce the weak ego strengths of the client. 2. The client feels relaxed. 3. The client starts abandoning resistances. 4. He perceives the problem situation more realistically. 5. The worker , when he does not respond neurotically, helps the client to see and bear the reality. 6. Identification with the worker gradually helps the client to strengthen his ego power and capacity for reality testing and problem solving.
The effects of transference are many but it is the leaven of treatment, not treatment itself. 103 COUNSELING Counseling is social case work was started by Bertha Reynolds in 1932. counseling is a personal help directed toward the solution of a problem which a person finds the cannot solve himself and on which he therefore. Seeks the help of a skilled person whose knowledge, experience an general orientation can be brought into play in an attempt to solve problem. 104 Counseling is essentially a process in which the counselor assists the counselee to make interpretations of facts relating to a choice, plan or adjustment which he needs to make
it is face to face situation in which by reason of
training, skill or confidence vested in him by the other, one person helps the second person to face, perceive, clarify, solve, and resole adjustment problem.
The process by which the structure of the self is relaxed in the safety of the
relationship with the therapist, and previously denied experiences are perceived and then integrated into an altered self is called counseling.
It is a warm,
permissive, safe, understanding, but limited social relationship within which therapist and patient discuss the effective behaviour of the latter, including his ways of dealing with his emotionally toned needs and the situations that give rise to them. 108
Counseling aims at enabling individuals to solve present problems to prepare themselves for future tasks, to attain higher standards of efficiency and well – being and to develop personal resources for growth 109 The Committee on Definition of Division 17 of the American Psychological Association describes the objectives of counseling by stating that the counseling psychologist contributes to the following. (a) The client’s realistic acceptance of his own capacities, motivations and self – attitude (b) The client’s achievement of a reasonable harmony with his social, economic and vocational environmental, and (c) Society’s acceptance of individual differences and their implications for community, employment, and marriage relations. Classification is the most important technique of counseling. It is a tool through the client becomes aware of certain attitudes, feelings, reality versus subjective concept and permits him to see himself and his environment in a more objective manner which allows better control of the himself an of situations. Counseling may include the giving of information, explaining a regime and analyzing its issue, and analyzing the steps involved in a course of action. COUNSELING IN CASE WORK Social case worker not only offers financial relief, help in getting work, medical and the like to his clients but in addition to these he also provides counseling help. While the term counseling is used very little in case work
circles. It is used here precisely to emphasize the fact that in giving the client an opportunity to release his feelings, to find new solutions to his adjustment problems. The case worker is utilizing the same process a the one used by the other professional individual described.11 Social case worker in all settings gives much emphasis on the process of counseling for realizing services are burden i.e., anxiety and strains. Mostly counseling services are rendered, sanatoria, prisons, welfare agencies of different types, family welfare centres, etc, Counseling is provided to the clients under the following conditions: 1. The individual is under a degree of tension, arising from incompatible describe or from the conflict of social and environmental demands with individual needs. The tension and stress so created are greater than the stress involved in expressing his feelings about his problems. 2. The individual has some capacity to cope with life. He possesses adequate ability and stability to exercise some control over the element of hi situation. The circumstances with which he is faced are not so adverse or so unchangeable as to make it impossible for him to control or alter them. 3. There is opportunity for the individual to express his conflicting tensions in planned contacts with the counselor. 4. He is able to express these tensions and conflicts either verbally or through other media. A conscious desire for help is advantageous, but not entirely necessary.
5. He is reasonably independent either emotionally or spatially, of close family control. 6. He is reasonably free from excessive instabilities, particularly of an organic nature. 7. He possess an adequate intelligence for coping with his life situations, with an intelligence rating of dull, normal or above. 8. He is of suitable age – old enough of deal somewhat independently with life, young enough to retain some elastically of adjustment. In terms of chronological age this might mean roughly from ten to sixty. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN CASE WORK AND COUNSELLING Counselling is one technique of a social case work which is used to prepare the client to participate in the treatment plan. These are: 1. Both have the same objective. The purpose of social case work is to help an individual client to solve his psycho- social problems in such a way so that he finds himself capable of dealing with these problems at present and also may solve in future if such problems arise. Counseling aims at enabling individuals to solve the present problems, to prepare themselves for future tasks and to attain a higher degree of efficiency in dealing with his problems. 2. Both deals with the same Type of Clients
The ‘client’ is a man, woman, or child, anyone who finds himself, or is found to be, in need of helping some aspect of his social – emotional living, whether the need be for tangible provisions or council. 3. Both deals with the Same Type of Problems The problems within the purview of social case work are those which vitally affect or are affected by person’s social functioning. The client of the case
worker sees his problems as lying in some interacting relationship between himself an some other persons or between himself and his environment. Help is provided to the client for some readjustment of the self in relation to the demands and expectations of the social role he plays. Help is also directed to the readjustment of some parts of his social environment. If the client finds that his inner problems exert such pressure over his problems of social functioning, he may need counseling. 4. The effectiveness of Both Depends on ‘Relationship’
The relationship is the medium in case work as well as in counseling through which help is provided to the client. It is the channel of the entire case work process and counseling process through which the mobilization of the capacities of the client becomes possible. It plans throughout in interviewing, study, diagnosis and treatment. 5. Both believe in worth and dignity of the individual Case work and counseling treat the client as an individual who has right to get help and reorganize as a person of worth and dignity. He has every right to make hi choice and decisions himself.
6. Both have common Principles Social case work and counseling, both believe in the individualization of all clients irrespective of their similarities in the problems. Both accept the client as he is and provide opportunities for self – expression. Case worker and
counselor do not give their own judgment to the clients. Client has every right to determine his own path for his easy recovery from malfunctioning. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CASE WORK AND CONSOLING 1. In counseling, help is provided to the client without social service whereas the main base of help in social case work is social service. 2. Agency is not essentially required in counseling but social case work is always practiced in an agency. 3. Concrete help is not provided in counseling. Counselor and client talk together on the problem but in social case work concrete services is rendered along with oral discussion. 4. Counselor is concerned most of the time with one type of problem as there as various counseling agencies but in case work client is studied and understood as a whole. 5. Social case work gives an emphasis on activity but in counseling, the client is enabled to understand his problems. 6. In counseling, an emphasis is laid on the problem, not the person concerned but in social case work the emphasis is basically on client an the type of service to be provided. 7. Counseling is self – dependent in his counseling but case work services are provided through agency.
HISTORY AND GROWTH OF SOCIAL GROUP WORK Just as the charity Organization Movement is the parent of social case work, the club and recreation movements of the nineteenth century and early twentieth are direct forebears of social group work. 13
THE YMCA AND YWCA MOVEMENTS Social group work, has developed as a method from two sources, the Young Men’s Christian Association and Young Women’s Christian Association and Settlements. YMCA was established by George William in 1844 with the objectives of giving social and religious welfare and companionship. It was realized that women and girls were in need of opportunities for recreation, instruction and Christian companionship. In 1877, Mrs. Kinnird and Miss Roberts decided to bring two organizations – prayer Union and Coneral training Institute, together under the name of YWCA. In America, the first YWCA was formed in Boston in 1866 with the objective of the temporal, moral, and religious welfare of young women who were dependent on their own exertions for their support.
2. SETTLEMENT MOVEMENT Jane Addams was one of the founders of settlements for the purpose of formation of clubs through the residents of the area could share the cultural resources of more fortunate segments of the population. The identification of settlement workers with the life of the area, and the responsibility of the same
group for social reform.14 These objectives were based on the philosophical tenets. Of (i) the advantages to those who have not the sharing experiences, (ii) the desirability of strengthening and perpetuating many racial and cultural characteristics, (iii) the wisdom of providing an opportunity to practice the Christian way of life, or in other than religious language, the opportunity to practice democratic and humanitarian principles. 15
3. PLAY GROUND AND RECREATIONAL MOVEMENTS In 1885, Mariezakrzewska, who had visited Berlin where she had seen children playing in sand piles in public parks, opened a sand garden in Boston. The movement was first confined to the summer months but later on it become a regular activity. The support of schools and of social agencies greatly contributed to the rapid development of the playground movement. The school saw them as a means of supplementing classroom instruction by providing a form of socialized experience in harmony with the newer theories of progressive education. Social agencies, including settlements, saw them as an outlet for youthful and as a means of forestalling delinquency. 16 The War Camp Community Service organized during World War I, helped greatly to accelerate the recreation movement. Recreation activities such as playground, sports, athletics, pageants, parades, Community music, dancing, handicrafts, discussion, debates, etc. provide the opportunity for self expression and from them derive pleasure and relaxation.
4. INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION John Deway and William H. Kilpatrick of Columbia University used group process for educational achievements, Kilpatrick profounded certain principles as listed below for education and these principles, formed a foundation for social group work.
1. Life is itself a positive good …. Not something to be denied or reduced or simply to be postponed. 2. Personality as such is to be cherished in all men, and as far as possible, on terms of equality. 3. Change is inherent in human affairs. 4. The free play of intelligence is our final resource to tell us what to think and to do in all human affairs. 5. Society can no longer run itself on the individidualistic basis of each man for himself alone. 6. the conscious improving of our culture should be a chief determining, goal of both social and educational Endeavour. 17
5. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOLOGY Grace Coyle in ‘Social Process in Organized Groups’ Edward Lindeman in social Discovery, Mary P. Follett in ‘the New State’ and other writers study human conduct in society, especially in relation to groups. Their thesis is that for the preservation of democracy and civilization, we must have education system
based on principles derived by Kilpatrick and social Organizations through group associations. It is the human association through which development of integrated personalities is possible and desired social change can be achieved.
7. INFLUENCE OF MENTAL HYGIENE The theories of psychology especially of mental hygiene have become an integral part of social group – work, S.R. Slavson in ‘An Introduction to Group Therapy’ writes: “In group therapy we work with children who are directly rejected by parents, family, schools, street gang, and community centre, or whose powers and personalities are indirectly rejected by pampering and coddling, as a result of which they are unable to get on with their contemporaries an with adults. These children are actively hostile and destructive or reject the world by withdrawing from it. They are either excessively aggressive or excessively withdrawn; obsessed with great fears on guilt, they overcompensate for them by non – social or antisocial behaviour. 18
III. BASIC ASSUMPTION OF SOCIAL GROUP WORK Dougias has mentioned the following basic assumptions upon which group work practice is founded. 1. That group experience is universal and an essential upon of human existence. 2. That group can be used to affect changes in the attitudes, and behaviour of individuals.
3. That groups provide experience which can be monitored or selected in some way for beneficial ends. Life outside the group is in no way neglected the ‘here and now’ situation within the group. 4. That groups offer experiences shared with others so that all can come to have something in common with the sense of belonging of growing together. 5. That groups produce change which is more permanent, that can be achieved by other methods and change which is obtained more quickly also. 6. That groups assist in the removal or diminution of difficulties created by previous exposure to the process of learning. 7. That groups as instruments of helping others may be economical in the use of scarce resources, e.g. skilled workers, time etc., 8. That a group can examine its own behaviour and in so doing learn about the general patterns of group behaviour (process). 19 Coyle has narrate the following basic assumptions of group work. 20 1. A firm conviction of the value leisure time educational and recreational activities can yield both to the individual and to society. 2. The group worker brings an insight to his job. The group worker always is aware of two simultaneous streams of activity within the groups. One the one hand, he sees the programme activities and their progress, games discussion, business meetings, dramatics or ceramics as the case may be.
On the other hand, he sees an interplay of social relationships which make the group. 3. The programme must be viewed always in terms of its effect of individual. This involves, in the first place, keeping his relation to the group person centered and not activity centered. 4. The group worker is aware of the emotional, social as well as physical and intellectual aspects of the lives of those with whom he works as well as their leisure time pursuits related to their work situations, their family relations and their community attitudes. 5. If group workers are to help individuals seeking recreation and education to find them in the most fruitful forms they need to understand behaviour. In general, social group work is based on the following basic assumptions 1. Man is a Group animal, 2. Social interaction is the result of group life, 3. Man’s achievements can be increased, changed and developed through group experiences. 4. The capacity to solve problems may be increased through group experiences. 5. Group experiences change the level of individual’s aspirations and desires. 6. Group recreational activities are beneficial to both individual and society. 7. Group experiences have permanent impact on individuals.
8. Group work always focuses its attention on two types of activitiesprogramme and social relationships in the group. 9. Social group work believes in the principle of ‘whole man’ 10. Evaluation of programme activities is done on the basis of its effects on group members. 11. Individual member may be fully understood and helped in group activities. 12. Knowledge of social sciences is essential for working with the group. 13. Professional knowledge and skills are essential for working with the group.
IV. OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL GROUP WORK When we use the word ‘objectives’ we refer to what we are trying to accomplish. Here our objectives are statements or formulations of what we are trying to do in group work.21 Objectives are not merely goals; they are motivating forces for action, and we move toward them or retreat by concerted action.
The objectives should be clear because they help the worker in the
determination of the kinds of programmes need for the fulfillment of the group goals. They provide the guidance through which the group worker proceeds in his mission. The utilization of skills, techniques, resources, financing, equipments and other physical necessities are based on the objectives. The group worker enables various types of groups to function in such a way that both group interaction and programme activities contribute to the
growth of the individual, and the achievement of desirable social goals.23 According to Wilson and Ryland, social group work has two objectives: (1) to help individuals use groups to further their development into emotionally balanced, intellectually free and physically fit persons, (2) to help groups achieve ends desirable in the economic, political and social democracy.
Trecker’s view is that the purpose of social group work is to bring about the highest possible development of human personality, dedicated and devoted to the democratic ideals. Specht thinks that social group work brings change in internal personality; encourages to accept new roles; brings closeness in interrelations among group members; improves the conditions of systems and also in communication process.26 In short, it can be said that it enables groups to achieve personally enriching and socially productive goals. 27 Konopka 28 has mentioned the following objectives of group work method. 1. Individualization – It helps the individual to free himself while being helped to interact with his fellowmen. 2. Development of sense of belonging. 3. A basic development of the capacity to participate. 4. Increase of the capacity to contribute to decisions on grounds of rational thinking and through group deliberation. 5. Increased respect for differences among people. 6. Development of warm and accepting social climate.
Heap 29 has mentioned different objectives on the basis of the type of groups. 1. Some social work groups aim primarily at alleviating social isolation. Such groups have the preventive function of reducing the debilitating effects of isolation, as well as more creative purposes of life enrichment and increasing self esteem. This is a common aim of work with the aged and infirm, handicapped and psychiatric patients. 2. Another aim is that of orientating and preparing people for new
experiences which may arouse uncertainty, disorientation, or fear, such cases are the predischarge group prison inmates, or psychiatric patients, intake groups in mental hospitals and children’s hospitals. 3. Other groups are mainly intended to contribute to the social learning and maturation of people who encounter obstacles to normal social growth and development. This kind of social group work is most often found in the youth service and maladjustment children. 4. Another aim of social work with groups is that of solving problems. 5. It aims at solving specific environmental problems which affect the group members i.e. helping slum dwellers for the improvement of the environment.
In general social group work fulfills the following needs of the human being. 1. Social group work fulfills human needs such as need of love, affection, feeling security, to have enjoyment, etc. 2. Social group work is a technique means of solving isolation problems especially in urban areas where man lives among thousands but feels alone. 3. Self – reliance is developed through group activities. Maladjusted children are treated through group programmes. 4. The feeling of being accepted is satisfied with the help of group work activities. Evidences have proved that in the becomes either a mental case or antisocial case. Social group work provides the opportunity to each of its members to feel creative and honoured member of the group. 5. Social group work helps in developing self – confidence. Every member is given the responsibility to carry his role independently in relation to other role. Thus, the essential element of life is again re-charged in group members. 6. Social group work helps in solving adjustmental problems. One fails to adjust in family and community because of certain reasons. These reasons may be: his authoritarian attitude, aggressive tendencies, inactivity, not realizing his roles, tendency of dependency, denial of others’ authority, misutilization of group resources or fantasy, Group experience is the best remedy for all these abnormal behaviour symptoms.
7. Sometimes due to physical injury or congenital deformities, one becomes totally or partially dependent on others. In such situations the sufferer feels disgusted, isolated and helpless creature. Social group work gives an opportunity to realize and accept his dependency and encourages to adopt a new way of life that makes his life pleasurable. 8. Relations are made real and productive through group experience. 9. Psychosocial problems are solved and managed through the group work services. 10. Democratic values equality, opportunity, liberty and development, are developed through group experience. 11. Social group work is the best method for proper development of personality. 12. Social group work provides recreation.
V. BASIC SKILLS OF SOCIAL GROUP WORK In a general sense, skill means the capacity to perform.
dictionary defines it as “Knowledge of, and expertness in, execution and performance”. Virginia Robinson refers as “the capacity in such a way that the change that take place in the material is affected with the greatest degree of consideration for and utilization of the quality and capacity of the material.31 Trecker defines method and skill: “Method means the purposeful use of insights and understandings based upon a body of knowledge and principles. Skill is the
capacity to apply knowledge and understanding to given situation. the use of process; skill is capacity to use it.
To become more productive, a group worker needs to develop the following abilities and skills in the group
1. To exchange ideas among the members freely and clearly, using language understood by everyone and with no fears of starting arguments or hurting feelings. 2. To examine objectively how well the group and its members are working. 3. To share the leadership jobs among the group members and to become sensitive to the feelings of all. 4. To accept new ideas and new members into the group without irreparable conflict, and to discipline itself to work toward long range objectives, and to profit from failures. 5. To think clearly about its own problems, finding causes and working through to some solutions. 6. To adjust its procedures and plans to meet the feelings and the desires of the members. 7. To create new jobs or committees as needed and to terminate them, or the group itself, when the need is passed. 33 Trecker 34 has listed the following basic skills of social group work.
1. SKILL ESTABLISHING PURPOSEFUL RELATIONSHIP (a) The group worker must be skillful in gaining the acceptance of the group and in relating himself to the group on a positive professional basis. (b) The group worker must be skillful in helping individuals in the group to accept one another to join with the group in common pursuits.
2. SKILL IN ANALYSING THE GROUP SITUATION a) The worker must be skilful in judging the developmental level of the group to determine what the level is, what the group needs, and how quickly the group can be expected to move. This calls for skill in direct observation of groups as a basis of analysis and judgment. b) The group worker must be skilful in helping the group to express ideas, work out objectives, clarify immediate goals and see both its potentialities and limitation as a group.
3. SKILL IN PARTICIPATION WITH THE GROUP a) The group worker must be skilful in determining, interpreting, assuming, and modifying his own role with the group. b) The group worker must be skilful in helping group members to participate, to located among themselves, and to take responsibility for their own activities.
4. SKILL IN DEALING WITH THE GROUP FEELINGS a) The group worker must be skilful in controlling his own feelings about the group study each new situation with a high degree of objectively. b) The group worker must be skilful in helping groups to release their own feelings, both positive and negative. He must be skilful in helping groups to analyse situations as a part of the working through group or intergroup conflicts.
5. SKILL IN PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT a) The group worker must be skillful in guiding thinking so that interests and needs will be revealed and understood. b) The group worker must be skilful in helping groups to develop programmes which they want as a means through which their needs may be met.
6. SKILL IN USING AGENCY AND COMMUNITY RESOURCES a) The group worker must have skill in recording the development processes that are going on as he works with the group. b) The group worker must be skilful in using his records and in helping the group to review its experiences as a means of improvement. Phillips25 has enumerated the following skills of social group work:
1. Skill in using agency function The skillful worker carries the function in himself, not needing to protest it by words but directing all of his efforts consistency toward what the agency is in the community to do, and contributing to the doing of it.
1. The Intake process The worker who meets the applicant, while carrying out the agency’s procedures for intake, will discuss with him what he particularly wants from the agency as well as what is available there for him to consider both the privileges and responsibilities of agency memberships.
2. Connecting the group with the agency The worker relates the group more firmly to the agency by helping it to understand what the agency stands for and what kind of responsible behaviour is expected of them as well as of other groups. 3. Serving the individual through the group work process Since the function of the agency includes helping group units to develop in socially useful ways, as well as helping individuals, the worker’s attention must simultaneously be on the development of the group as whole, and each individual’s use of the group. 4. Working with the individual outside the group meetings Although the worker’s help toward fulfilling the purpose is offered primarily within the group process, part of that help may be given through
individual contacts with members, to the end that they may make better use of the group experience. 5. The referral process An important part of the group work agency’s service is to work with members and their parents in a process of considering the use of other community services for help with problems that cannot be dealt within the group work agency, possibly eventuating in a referral. II. Skill in Communication of Feelings 1. The Worker’s Feelings High among the qualities essential to a social worker’s capacity to feel the others. 2. The group Members feelings The worker must be skilful in helping the group members to know, accept, express and be responsible for their feelings 3. Group feelings The interaction of each member to the others and to the worker produces some group feelings. This worker helps the groups in understanding their feelings and its meanings skill is the
III Skill in using the Reality of the present 1. Utilizing the Group’s Current Interest for purposeful Activity 2. Helping the group to responsible decision.
IV skill in stimulating and using Group Relations 1. Group relations as the focus for social group work process. Social group work has focused its efforts on understanding and using the worker’s activity in a process that enables each group member to find and take his part in the whole, in relationship with other members. 2. The use of programme to strengthen group relations. 3. Containment of an essential quality in the worker. 4. Group relation in crisis: The group worker controls the process of group relations but not the members, by enabling them to take their active and appropriate part in it.
VI PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL GROUP WORK Douglas36 has described fourteen principles of social group works: 1. Recognition and subsequent action in relation to the unique difference of each individual 2. Recognition and subsequent action in relation to the wide variety of groups as groups. 3. Genuine acceptance of each individuals with his unique strengths and weaknesses. 4. Establishment of a purposeful relationship between group worker and group member 5. Encouragement and enabling of help and cooperative relationships between members.
6. Appropriate modification of the group process. 7. Encouragement of each member to participate according to the state of his capacity and enabling him to become more capable. 8. Enabling members to involve themselves in the process of problem solving. 9. Enabling group members to experience increasingly satisfactory forms of working through conflicts. 10. Provision of opportunities for new and differing experience in relationships and accomplishments. 11. Judicious uses of limitations related to the diagnostic assessment of each individual and the total situation. 12. Purposeful and differential use of programme according to diagnostic evaluation of individual members, group purpose, and appropriate social goals. 13. Ongoing evaluation of individual and group progress. 14. Warm human and disciplined use of self on the part of the group worker Terence J. Cooke37 has derived the following principles to use as a guide in applying the philosophy of St. Thomas 1. All individual have common human needs which they seek to satisfy in groups.
2. The primary objective of social group work is the development of the individual by means of the group in which some of these needs are satisfied and/or the primary objective of group work is the development of the individual and the group. 3. In social group work, the group work process, the dynamic interaction among the members of the group and the worker and the group is the primary means of personality growth, change and development. (i) Group Programme The programme is a means or tool of individual and group development which should be derived from the basic needs an interests of the group.
(ii) Voluntary Attendance Voluntary attendance of group members at meetings is essential to good group work.
4. Since social group work operates in a controlled agency setting, the group worker is essential to the group work process and he is necessarily one who has knowledge, understanding and skill in the art of helping people related to and work with each other.
Friedlander38 has mentioned the following basic principles of social group work:
1. The function of the social group worker is a helping or enabling one. This means that his goal is to help the members of the group and the group as whole to move toward greater independence and capacity for self – help. 2. In Determining his way of life, the group workers uses the scientific method – fact finding (observation), analysis, diagnosis in relation to the individual, the group, and the social environment
3. The group work method requires the worker to form purposeful relationship to group members and the group. This includes conscious focusing on the purpose the sponsoring agency, and as implied in the members’ behaviour. It is differentiated from causal unfocused relationships.
4. One of the main tools in achieving such a relationship is the conscious use of self – this includes self – knowledge and self – discipline in relationships without the loss of warmth and spontaneity..
5. Acceptance of people without accepting all their behaviour: this includes a basaic respect and love for people, a warmth relating to their strength as well as to their weakness. It is not sentimentality and is enhanced by understanding of individual needs and social demands.
6. Starting where the group is. The capacity to let groups develop from their own point of departure without imposing immediately outside demands.
7. The constructive use of limitations: They must be used judiciously in relation to individual and group needs and agency function. The forms will vary greatly. The group worker will mainly use himself, programme materials, interaction of the group, and awakening of insight in the group members. 8. Individualization 9. Use of the interacting process. 10. The understanding and conscious use of non-verbal programme as well as verbal material. Tracker 39 has explained the following principles: 1. The Principle of Planned Group Formation – In social group work, the group is the basic unit through which service is provided to the individual, consequently, the agency and worker responsible for the formation of groups or the acceptance into the agency of already –formed groups must be aware of the factors inherent in the group situation that make the given group a positive potential for individual growth and for meeting recognizable needs. 2. The Principle of Specific objectives – In social group work, specific objectives of individual and group development must be consciously formulated by the worker in harmony with group wishes and capacities and in keeping with agency function. 3. The Principle of Purposeful Worker of Purposeful Worker Group Relationship- In social group work, a consciously purposeful relationship
must be established between the worker and the group members based on the worker’s acceptance of the group members as they are and upon the groups willingness to accept help from the worker because of the confidence the members have in him and in the agency. 4. The Principle of Continuous Individualization – In Social group work, it is recognized that groups are different and that individuals utilize group experience in a variety of ways to meet their differing needs; consequently, continuous individualization must be practiced by the worker. Groups and the individuals in the groups must be understood as developing and changing. 5. The Principle of Guided Group Interaction – In social group work, the primary source of energy which propels the group and influences the individuals to change are the interaction or reciprocal responses of the members. The group worker influence this interaction by the type and quality of his participation. 6. The Principle of Democratic Group Self- determination – In social group work, the group must be helped to make its own determine its own activities, taking the maximum amount of responsibility in line with its capacity and ability. The primary source of control over the group is the group itself. 7. The Principle of Flexible Functional Organization- In social group work, the process through which the worker guides the group in setting up formal organization is just as important as the actual structure details of that organization. Formal organization, should be flexible and should be
encouraged only as it meets a felt need, is understood by the members and can function accordingly. The formal organizational of the group should be adaptive and should change as the group changes. 8. The Principle of Progressive Programme Experiences – In social group work, the programme experience in which the group engages should begin at the level of member interest, need, experience, and competence and should progress in relation to the developing capacity on the group. 9. The Principle of Resource Utilization – In Social group work, the total environment of agency and community possess resources which should be utilized to enrich the content of the group experience for individuals and for the group as a whole. 10. The Principle of Evaluation – In social group work, continuous evaluation of process and programmes in terms of outcomes is essential. Worker, group and agency share in this procedure as a means of guaranteeing this greatest possible self-fulfillment for all.
VII. DEFINITION OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE GROUP WORKER
A National Committee of the American Association of Group Workers60 formulated the following definition of the functions of the group worker:
The group worker enables various types of groups to function in such as way that both group’s interaction and programme activities contribute to the growth of the individual, and the achievement of desirable social goals.
The objectives of group worker include provision for personal growth according to individual capacity and need, the adjustment of the individual to other persons, to groups and to society, and the motivation of the individual toward the improvement of society, the recognition by the individual of his own rights, limitations and abilities as well as his acceptance of the rights, abilities, and differences of others.
Through his participation the group worker aims to affect the group process so that decisions come about as a result of knowledge and a sharing and integration of ideas, experiences and knowledge rather than as a result of domination from within or without the group.
Through experience he aims to produce these relations with other groups and the wider community which contributes to responsible citizenship, mutual understanding between cultural, religious, economic or social groupings in the
community and a participation in the constant improvement of our society toward democratic goals. The guiding purpose behind such leadership rests upon the common assumptions of a democratic society, namely, the opportunity for each individual of fulfill his capacities in freedom, to respect and appreciate others and to assume his social responsibility in maintaining and constantly improving the democratic society.
Underlying the practice of group work is a knowledge of individual and group behavior and of social conditions and community relations which are based on the modern social sciences. On the basis of this knowledge the group worker contributes to the group with whom he works skill in leadership which enables the members to use their capacities to the full and to create socially constructive group activities. He is aware of both of programme activities and interplay of personalities within the group and between the groups and its surrounding community. According to the interests and needs of each, he assists them to get from the group experience and satisfactions provided by the programme activities, the enjoyment and personal growth available through the social relations and the opportunity to participate as a responsible citizen. The group worker makes conscious use of his relation to the group, his knowledge of programme as a tool, and his understanding of the individual and of the group process and recognizes his responsibilities to individuals and groups with whom he works and to the larger social vales he represents.
In general, Social group worker performs the following activities:
ACTIVITIES RELATING TO GROUP 1. Group Formation Worker studies individual’s attitudes, interests, needs and desires and unite them on the basis of certain principles. He forms the group according to the motives and the needs of the agency. He after the interview of the members, brings out such accepted terms and conditions which unite them together. In the group formation process, the group worker desires (i) nature of group activities – recreational, educational, social treatment or mixed; (ii) working methodology, play, drama, role playing, discussion, work experience, etc; (iii) place of activities; (iv) frequency of the group meeting; and its meeting time; (v) process of communications; (vi) selection procedure of the group members ( age, sex, member, educational, cultural background, etc); (vii) need of the community resources. 2. Programme Planning Though group members plan and organize activities for themselves but the worker is the key factor in making these activities lively. He guides and directs the group so that the maximum creative effects may come out room these activities and group may avail full benefit out of these activities. He is more involved in children’s activities. If he works with socially handicapped or mentally retarded people, he dicides himself most of the activities. The worker keeps his eyes on the interaction process of the group. If may member is not taking interest or not participating as he is desired, the worker helps him. He resolves group conflicts and directs them for healthy interaction. 3. Development of Responsible Participation Social group work believes that when members of the group behave in a responsible manner, the group has conductive with more effect on its members.
The following conditions show the nature of belongingness; member accepts the objectives of the group, interprets them and shows interest in achieving them. He fulfils his roles and helps others in doing so. He believes in healthy criticism. The social group worker accomplishes the following activities to gain responsible participation: He selects only those individuals who want to avail the facilities in a real sense. He provides them full information above the programme, facilities in the agency and working methodology. He directs the group activities keeping in view the needs and desires of each member. He develops leadership qualities in them so that they take leadership in their hands and direct their activities. He does not allow any member to dominate the group and individualizes each member regularly.
4. Direction to the Interaction Process The basic function of social group worker is to direct the interaction process of the group. He watches the activities and behaviour of every member of the group. He keeps his eyes on member’s participation, its frequency, time, duration, order of participation, interaction level and is direction, contents of interaction and meaning of activities to the groups members. Generally disorganized interaction appears in he forms of conflict and apathy. Group work resolves such problems with the help of his professional skills.
5. Development of Leadership Group members differ in their talents and abilities. Some are more capable in the realm of leadership than others. Groups worker’s job is to locate those individuals who show signs of being able to assume leadership responsibilities thus, the worker on one hand, finds it necessary to work with these members who are carrying on
leadership duties, and on the other hand helps every member to try our his specific strengths.
6. Study and Help of each Individual Member The group worker works with individual member following ways: 1. He makes aware each member about the aims, objectives, resources, facilities of the agency. 2. He gains knowledge of attitudes, interest needs and problems of each individualization. He introduces each member to the group. 3. He advises each member to fulfil his responsibilities and helps in his tasks. 4. When any member fails to fulfil his responsibilities and feels difficulty, the worker develops an insight and brings the factors to lights which are responsible for his failure. 5. When any member shows aggressive tendencies or shows of sign f withdrawal, the worker helps in changing his behaviour.
7. Evaluation Evaluation is an important task of the worker. Trecker14 has suggested the following activities under evaluation: Social Group Work 1. Formulations of objectives for groups and individuals in terms of agency purposes. 2. Identification of criteria for judging growth and development of individual and group. 3. Provisions of programme experiences designed to foster. Growth and changes.
4. Keeping of full records of individual and group behaviour. 5. Analysis of records by applying criteria of growth and development. 6. Interpretation of analytical data to determine whether objective are being reached. 7. Review of programme content and method. 8. Modification of objectives, continuation of evaluation.
ACTIVITIES RELATING TO THE AGENCY Group worker is an employee of the agency and therefore, he uses his knowledge and skill as a representative of the agency. He must have the following knowledge about the agency. 1. Aims and objectives of the agency. 2. Changing nature of the agency. 3. Geographical, social, psychological, and other factors of the agency. 4. Condition and facilities of the agency. 5. Internal and external policies of the agency. 6. The worker tries to change the group according to the policies of the agency. 7. He helps in the every meeting of the agency. 8. He helps in the growth and development of the agency’s resources.
VIII. Group Diagnosis How to Diagnosis group Problems Three most common group problems are: 1. Conflict or night 2. Apathy and non-participation 3. Inadequate decision-making 42
1. Problem of Conflict or Fight in the Group We find the following group behaviour expressions in conflicting and fighting situations: 1. Members are impatient with one another, 2. Ideas are attacked before they are completely expressed, 3. Members take sides and refuse to compromise, 4. Members disagree to plans or suggestions, 5. Comments and suggestions are made with a great deal of vehemence, 6. Members attack one another on a personal level in subtle ways, 7. Members feel that the group does not have the know-how or experience to get anywhere, 8. Members feel that the group cannot go ahead it is too large or too small, 9. Members disagree to the leader’s suggestions, 10. Members accuse one another of not understanding the real point, of issue 11. Members bear distorted fragments of other member’s contributions. Symptoms 1 Possible diagnosis
Every suggestion made seems impossible for The group may have been practical reasons given an impossible job and members are frustrated because they feel unable to meet the demands made of them.
Some members feel the group is too small Everyone seems to feel pushed for time
Members are impatient with one another Members insist the group does not have the know – how or experience to get anywhere.
Each member has a different idea of what the group is supposed to do
Whenever a suggestion is made, at least one member feels it won’t satisfy the large
organization. 1 Ideas are attacked before they are completely The expressed main concern of
members is to find status in the group
Members take sides and refuse to compromise There is no movement towards a solution of the problem
The group keeps getting struck on in consequential points
Members attack one another on a personal level in subtle ways
There are subtle attacks on the leadership There is much clique formation.
The goal is stated in very general, non-operational Members terms outside
conflicting interests. 2 3 4 5 Members take sides and refuse to compromise Each member is pushing his own plan Suggestions are not built on previous suggestions Each member appearing to start again from the beginning 6 7 Members disagree to plans or suggestions Members don’t listen to one another, each waiting or a change to say something.
1. There is a goal which members The fight being expressed is constructive, understand and agree to; members feel involved and are working
2. 2. Most of the comments are hard on a problem. relevant to the problem; 3. Members frequently disagree to one-another’s suggestions; 4. Comments and suggestions are made with a great deal of
vehemence; 5. There are occasional expressions of warmth; 6. Members are frequently impatient with one another; 7. There is general movement
towards some solution of the problem.
2. Apathy Apathy may be expressed in the form of the indifference to the group task, lack of genuine enthusiasm for the job, lack of persistence, satisfaction with poor work, etc. The following symptoms are generally seen: frequent yawns, dozing off, no point of discussion, low level of participation, conversation drags, members coming late and frequently absent, slouching and restlessness, overquick decisions, failure to follow through decision, ready suggestions for adjournment, failure to consider necessary arrangement for the next meeting, reluctance to assume any further responsibility.
Symptoms 1. Questions may be raised about: What is their job? What do they want us to do? 2. Members fail to follow through decision; 3. There is no expectation will that
4. Confused irrelevant statements are allowed to go without question; 5. Members wonder about the reason for working on this problem; 6. Suggestions are made that we work on something else; 7. The attitude is expressed that we should just decide on anything; 8. The decision does not really matter; 9. Members are inattentive seem to get lost and not to have heard parts of the proceeding discussion; 10. Suggestions frequently plopped are tot taken up and built on y others; 11. No one will volunteer for
additional work. 1. Point are made over and over; 2. Appears to be unable to develop adequate summaries; 3. Little evaluation of the process; Inadequate problem solving procedure.
4. Little attention to fact finding or use of special resources; 5. Complaints are made that the groups’ job is an impossible one; 6. Subgroups are formed; 7. No follow-through on decisions or disagreement or what the decisions really were; 8. Always decision. 1. Two or three members dominate Conflict among few members is creating all over the discussion, but never apathy in others. agree; 2. Conflict between strong members comes out no matter what is discussed, dominant members demand for leader’s
occasionally appeal to other’s for support, but otherwise control conversation. 3. Decisions are made by only two or three members. 3. Inadequate decision-making Symptoms Possible diagnosis
1. The group swings between making Decision is too difficult or group is low in too rapid decisions and having cohesiveness and lacking faith in itself. difficulty in deciding anything; 2. The group almost makes the decision but at the last minute retreats; 3. Group members call for definition and redefinition of minute points.
1. There are long delays in getting Though goal is important but members started much irrelevant preliminary fear working toward the group-goal. conversation; 2. Embarrassment or reluctance in discussion the problem at hand; 3. Members emphasize the
consequences of making wrong decisions, consequences imagine which has dire little
reference to ascertainable facts; 4. Members make suggestions
apologetically; 5. Members are over-tentative and hedge their contributions with may, if’s and but’s; 6. Solutions proposed are frequently attacked as unrealistic; 7. Suggestions are made that
someone else ought to make the decision – the leader, an outside expert, or some qualified person outside the group; 8. Members insist that they have not enough information or ability to make a decision and appear to demand an unrealistically high level of competence; 9. Humorous alternative proposals are suggested, with the group completely unable to select among them. 1. No one is able to suggest the first
step in getting started toward the goal. 2. Members seem to be unable to stay on a given point and each person seems to start on a new track; 3. Members appear to talk of the past to misunderstand one another and the same; 4. Discussion abstraction. 1. Lack of clarity about decision; 2. Disagreement consensus is; as to Decision may be threatening because of wanders into
where unclear consequences, fear or of reaction of others or fear of failure for the
3. A decision is apparently made but individuals. challenged at the end; 4. Group members refuse
responsibility; 5. There is continued effort to leave decision-making to leader,
subgroup or outside source.
IX. GROUP WORK TREATMENT Social group work is a professional service which aims to work generally with the normal people to develop and strength their abilities to establish and maintain positive relationships with others. Treatment in group work means management of group situation ship and problems with a view to satisfy the group needs and achieves satisfying group participation and growth. Persons poorly adjusted in a group are simly those with poor adjustment in their social life. They have not learned to capitalize
suitably their own potentials. They are relatively static in the face of obstacles or retreat from pressures instead of meeting the demands of reality. When group work is used as a therapy, its objectives are different. It is mostly used dealing with functional illnesses which aims at (1) to relieve tensions and anxieties in the patients, (2) to help patients resolve some of their conflicts, (3) to assist patients in arriving at a clear understanding of some of their trouble, and (4) to enable patients to depend upon their personnel resources in substituting methods of behaviour which have been chiefly which are satisfying and acceptable for those which have chiefly defensive. TREATMENT METHODS No specific method have been developed in social group work because its main objective is to strengthen normal personality and socialization process. Group members avail of this opportunity if they find the atmosphere of the group congenial and interest promoting. Group worker’s success depends on the degree of rapport he has built with group members. In general, the following methods are used in social group work. 1. Empathy, warm Genuineness Empathy means to perform the role of others or to realize other’s problems as it own. The job of the works is to study the group members and mobilize them in such a away so that they may develop members mobilize them in such a way so that they may develop an insight of the problem. The worker express this feeling by touching members, showing favourable facial expression and acting accordingly. This helps in creating worker’s acceptance by the group members.
Genuineness means the appropriate methods and media for the group activities to attain its objectives.
2. Self - Discloser The worker express his own experiences before the group members. It helps them in understating their problems and learn members. It helps them in understanding their problems and learn to ease from tension and anxiety. The time, content and nature of self-disclosure one important and the worker must keep in accordance with group situation. 3. Disclosure of Confronting behaviour Sometimes the behaviour of a member of the group is different than what he says. For example, he says that he is not angry with anybody in the group but is voice and word expression show that he is angry. They job of the worker is to clarify these situations and warn members not to allow to happen such situations. 4. Investigation The group worker prepares an interview schedule for the group members in order to know the internal and external and feelings of the members. This helps the worker to diagnose the problem of the group. 5. Support It is a psychological strategy which is used to strengthen or restructure ego power in the members of the group. The worker provides an opportunity to the group to express its feelings and clarifies the positive and negative aspects of these feelings. He takes interest in group activities and helps at the time of need.
He enables the group to take its own decision for the programme and its implementation.
Cognitive Restructuring Cognitive restructuring refers to complex strategy for changing perceptions of emotional sets, which seem to impede the group member’s abilities to changes. Sometimes group fails to arrive at a such help so that it may perceive the reality. It is the work of group worker to provider such help.
7. Role Playing Role playing is such a method through which group members gain knowledge of their roles and other’s roles. Through role playing a member expresses his feelings, thoughts and action in reference to others. This method is used to know the reality of life conditions. 8. Partialization Group worker divides the whole problem into many parts and takes up one for its solution. He directs the groups to organize activities accordingly. Thus he enables the group to work in such a way so that it does not have unnecessary tension. This process helps the group to understand that the problem can be solved. X. TOOLS OF SOCIAL GROUP WORK The major tools the social group worker are: 1. The conscious and disciplined use of himself. 2. The verbal interaction between himself and between members.
3. The discriminate use of programme activities related to the needs of the individual and the group members themselves. 4. Interaction among the group members themselves. The worker must have necessary knowledge of human and group behaviour, skills, techniques, and problem solving capacity. The success of the group work depends on him. If he is skilled, the group will certainly achieves its objectives. He contributes especially in the following areas. 1. Establishes purposeful relationship with group, agency and the community and always tries to make it more effective and purposeful. 2. Participates in the activities f the group, agency and approach and evaluates himself according to the need of the group. 3. Uses his knowledge and relationship timely. 4. Develops self control, patience, tolerance in himself and works with group in healthy atmosphere. The basic need for relationship is contact. Group members and the worker have emotional and psychological variety of tools. They affect another due to contact interaction. The interaction process donated the fact that the worker’s reaction, gesture, words or abstracts, bodily movement stimulate members and they in their turn act toward the worker and group. Stability of relationship is dependent on the reactions of the participant and “interaction among the group members themselves.” The worker must be skillful in directing the interaction process. The members reveal their personally patterns through the away in which they are engaged in activities. Knowledge of the potentialities of programme media makes it possible for the worker to understand the needs so expressed and to help the members
meet these needs through the programme to the group if it is possible to do so. There are many programme media which are used according to the need of the group. There are games, play, dance, music, story, telling, drama, arts, crafts, etc. Growth and development in the group are the result of natural interaction among group members. In the beginning phase of the group activities, group shows the characteristics of collection of individuals and group consciousness is of fellow level. Members take interest in their talks. The social group worker develops a common wish or desire and increased later on. In general, group interaction has six stages. 1. Members collect together but each interest in him self. 2. Group feeling is developed, from of organization is determined and programmes are organized. 3. Rules, regulations, and conditions are framed, closeness is increased. 4. High level of group feelings are found and objective are achieved. 5. Members start taking less interest, low level of interaction gradually appears. 6. Group is dissolved. XI. Democratic Group Process Process are the ways of dong things, the approaches one takes and the steps are followed to reach one’s goals. Democratic group process occurs when there is a permissive, democratic, experimental atmosphere as opposed to a punitive, hostile, competitive, autocratic climate. The following characteristics are found in democratic group process: 1. Everyone participates voluntarily. 2. All action is cooperative. 3. Regular interaction occurs among group members.
4. The group formulate goals. 5. Every group member is a ‘change agent’. 6. Group morale discipline are ‘we-centred’. 7. Leadership is a functional of the group. Analysis of Group Process To achieve maximum effectiveness with democratic group process, a needs group thinking, group discussion, group planning, group decision, group, group action and group evaluation.
GROUP THINKING It means group intelligence in working process. It shows the ability to work out means for their accomplishment.
GROUP DISCUSSION When there is an effective discussion, members participate freely, and the atmosphere of the group is cooperative. Leadership is assumed by various members of the group and passes from one to another. Questions stimulate group thinking. The following techniques should be used to achieve group thinking and discussion: (1) each person should express his views, (2) no debate but cooperative talk,
3.Group action should develop intolerance of group pathologies such as inability to arrive at a decision, failure to use member potential, inability to use resources, inability to evaluate success or failure of group processes, rigidity of organization, prevention of assimilation of new members, rigidity of role structure etc.
GROUP EVALUATION Group evaluation techniques are concerned with the following aspects of evaluation. 1. Evaluation of leadership, 2. Evaluation of the group process, 3. Evaluation of the outcomes or changes brought about in members, and 4. Evaluation of group action in terms of group goals.
XII. EVALUATION By evaluation we mean appraisal or judgement of worth and effectiveness of all the processes of social group work designed to meet the objectives of the group. It is essentially the study and review of past operating experience. According to Trecker, “Evaluation is that part of social group’s experience in relation to the objectives and function of the agency. Evaluation may be centred upon individual growth, programme content, on worker performance.49 Evaluation is essential because it enables the worker to discover to what extent group has achieved its objectives. Evaluation enables the group to see both strengths and weaknesses and is enabled to discover points at which group members need to alter their procedures. Well planned evaluation help to formulate new objectives and to renew unsuited objectives. It further directs the worker to adjust and modernize his methods of working with group. Evaluation can be stimulation to greater professional growth. It can be an extension of the learning process because its very nature is scientific and its aim is educational. 50
CONTENT OF EVALUATION Group worker evaluates the following: 1. Evaluation of Individual Growth Group is composed of individuals. They become the member of the group because of certain needs and desire. Therefore, the main objective of social group work is to fulfil these needs and desires in accordance with the prescribed rules and procedures. But how can the worker be able to know the level of fulfillment of their needs without evaluating their growth process. The worker evaluates the presence of each member. He evaluates their level of participation in the group activities. Sometimes it happens, that the member because of difficulty in adjusting himself in the group, remains usually absent giving one or the other reason. The worker evaluates the growth of skills, methods of problems solving, behavior techniques or knowledge gained by the member through the group experience. The chart (A) has been prepared for the evaluation of the individual member growth. (A) Chart for Evaluation Individual parts Regression as usual Slight progress 1 1. Attendance 2. frequency of participation 3.Contact with group 4.Self- esteem 2 3 Major Progress 4 qualities and Nature of growth and change
5.Reliability 6.Emotional control 7.Contact with reality 8.Frequency of responses 9.Behavioral dynamism 10.Tolerance 11.Leadership qualities 12.Sensitivity 13.Sympathy for group 14.Loyalty for group 15.Capacity solving 16.Discussion conversation 17.Ways of performing task 18.New Knowledge 19.Status in group 20.Breakdown prejudices and of problem
Douglas51 has proposed the following capacities to be evaluated for measuring individual growth. These are : (1) encourages, (2) agrees, (3) arbitrates, (4) proposes action, (5) asks suggestions, (6) gives opinion, (7) asks opinion , (8) gives information, (9) seeks information. (10) Poses Problem, (11) defines position, (12) asks position,
(13) routine direction. (14) depreciates self, (15) autocratic manner, (16) disagrees, (17) self – assertion, (18) active aggression, (19) passive aggression. 2. Evaluation of the group Group is the medium for achieving individual’s objectives and individual personality development. Therefore, it is essential for a worker to evaluate the effects and growth of group as a whole. The group worker evaluates the group organization, a social responsibility fulfilled by the group, maturity that has achieved, skillfulness, and expertness has developed, the techniques of problem solving have been learned and mutual understanding and cooperation have developed among group members. Bernstein 52 has developed the chart (B) for evaluation of the progress in the group.
(B) Chart for Evaluation Group Criteria Trends Regression Static Slight Progress 1 1. Attendance 2.Group Organization 3.Group Standards 4.Wider Horizons 5.Social responsibility : (a) To each other (b) To agency (c) To community 2 3 4 Great Progress 5
6.Enriched Interests 7.Handling conflicts 8.Leadership participation 9.Cooperating planning 10.Group thinking 11.Group loyalty and morale 12.Acceptance of differences 13.Decreasing need of leader and
Douglas53 has prepared the following yardstick for measuring the growth of a group. 1.How clear are the group goals: 1. No apparent goals 2. Goal confusion, uncertainty or conflict 3. Average goal clarity 4. Goals mostly clear 5. Goals very clear 2.How much trust and openness in the group? 1. Distrust, a closed group 2. Little trust, defensiveness 3. Average trust and openness 4. Considerable trust and openness 5. Remarkable trust and openness
3.How sensitive and perceptive are group members? No awareness or listening in the group Most members self- absorbed Average sensitivity and listening Better than usual listening Outstanding sensitivity to others 4.How much attention was paid to process? (The way group was working) 1. No attention to process 2. Little attention to process 3. Some concern with group process 4. A fair balance between content and process 5. Very concerned with process 5. How were group leadership needs met? 1. Not me, drifting 2. Leadership concentrated in one person 3. Some leadership sharing 4. Leadership functions distributed 5. Leadership needs met creatively and flexibly 6. How were group decisions made? 1. No decisions could be reached 2. Made by a few 3. Majority vote 4. Attempts at integrating minority vote 5. Full participation and tested consensus
7. How well were group resources used? 1. One or two contributed but deviants silent 2. Several tried to contributed but more discouraged 3. About average use of group resources 4. Group resources well used and encouraged 5. Group resources fully and effectively used 8. How much loyalty and sense o belonging to the group? 1. Members has no group loyalty or sense of belonging 2. Members not close but some friendly relations 3. About average sense of belonging 4. Some warm sense of belonging 5. Strong sense of belonging among members 3. Evaluation of the Member’s Group Contribution The focus here is on the contribution of the member to the development of the group, not on his total personality. This calls for an assessment at the end of each meeting. Bernstein has prepared the chart (C) for this purpose.
(C) Chart for Evaluation of Member’s Group Contribution Constructive participation 1. Good attention and interest but no outstanding participation Name of member
2. Minor contributions, such as helping to arrange chairs, getting equipment, etc. 3. More important contribution, e.g. thoughtful consideration of new members. 4. A good job handling a committee assignment or of something comparable. 5. An outstanding contribution, such as helping to resolve confects, unusual effort in relation to responsibilities, etc.
Destructive Participation 1. Inattentiveness and tack of interest and
participation. 2. Giggling, restlessness, and similar behavior. 3. Openly opposing and thwarting the plans and activities of the group. 4. Name calling and other arts which tend to stimulate aggressive and negative responses. 5. Violently destructive behaviour which makes it impossible for the group to continue normally for a time.
XIII. IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL GROUP WORK IN MODERN TIMES 1. Man is a group animal. He lives in the group for the purposes of protections, education, exploration of adventure, treatment, promotion, advisement, administration coordination, intergradations and planning.54 He has on existence far from group life. In modern times group life has been adversely affected due to development of technological and materialistic outlook. Man, though lives among thousands yet feels alone. He now thinks himself as a machine. Values of happy life such as love, affection, sympathy, friendliness, etc. are becoming rare values may be of great help to the modern man. 2. Urbanization has increased the problem of isolation and separation. The feeling of separation is gradually increasing. Man is considering himself as a helpless creature and is limiting mental discarders. Social group work attempts to deal with the problem of isolation. 3. Every human being has the basic desire of having importance, worth, respect and a place in the society. Social group work keeps the members busy by providing them worth, dignity, place keeps the members busy by providing them worth, dignity, place, role, creative participation. 4. Modern age is affecting our adaptation abilities. Old techniques are not as suited as those were in the times. Man has to learn new techniques of
behaviour for the proper adjustment in the various fields of life. Social group work provides theis knowledge. 5. Self dependency is a basic characteristic for the personality growth and development. In social group work, each member plays his role and thus learns to fulfil his obligations of life without taking help from others. Group also makes people economically self-dependent by organizing training in small-scale industries and crafts. 6. Social group a new hope to the physically handicapped disable and aged persons. 7. Social group work helps to achieve democratic goals such as liberty, equality, fraternity and social justice. 8. It provides recreation, the most valuable medicine for keeping oneself mentally healthy. 9. Human capacities and abilities are strengthened through the group work. 10. Social group work helps in solving psychocial problem. XIV. RECORD WRTTING IN GROUP WORK MEANING OF PECORD WRITING Writing record generally accepted as necessary practice in social group work. For the worker to keep an accurate, honest and thou ghtful account of the processes which are occurring within the group, it is of utmost importance as no worker is able to keep the variations of behaviour of a group in his mind.
Recording extends and supplements or memory recall, thus increasing the volume of usable memory we have at our command. Recording in group work means writing the description of the individual’s activities, his relationship with the group. Social group worker writes about the individual members and their responses to one another, their behavioural pattern, type and extent of participation, movement, growth and change in individual and group and his own role in the group processes. IMPORTANCE OF RECORD WRITING Preparing records is essential because (i) records help the group work to understand individuals in the group; (ii) help the worker to understand the group as whole; (iii) provide cvidences of growth and change in the members and in the group worker himself; (iv) help the worker to do more effective job with his groups; (v) the worker can see merging and changing interests of individual members; (vii) he gain knowledge of secial problems in the group; (viii) he knows the emergence of group consciousness; (ix) he record provide content for supervisory conference (x ) they are the source of future planning; (xi) they are source of information for other workers; and (xii) the records provide a permanents and continuous register of facts for the agency.
CONTENTS OF RECORD 1. Identifying information of the group: 1) Name of the group. 2) Time of meeting. 3) Place of meeting. 4) Name of the present, absent members. 5) New members (if any). 6) Settings of the agency. 7) Important observations. 2. Member’s participation by name: 1) Role perfumed. 2) Conversation did 3) Talks began. 4) Expressed his views 5) Sequence of participation in activities. 6) Special contribution made. 7) Interaction type, level, duration, and creativeness, took place. 8) Emotional quality of participation. 3. Description of the group as a whole: 1) General atmosphere in the group – formal informal competitive, cooperative, hostile, supportive, permissive. 2) Quantity and quality of work accomplished by the group.
3) Participation of group members – mostly all/few members talk and participates, supported others, took sides/dominated group, etc. 4) Positive and negative responses. 5) Members feelings about their group 6) Group’s status in the agency. 4. Description of the group problems. 1) Conflict or fight-nature, type, reason, involvement, level. 2) Apathy – nature, level and possible causes. 3) Inadequate decision making. 5. The relationship and the role of the group worker: 1) Material provided by the workers. 2) Arrangement made. 3) Agents help taken. 4) Suggestion given. 5) Technique, used for problem solving. 6) Worker’s participation in group processes 6. Special assistance given: 1) Member’s name. 2) Problem. 3) Nature of assistance . 7. Evaluation: 1) Evaluation of programme activities.
2) Evaluation of the group member’s participation. 3) Evaluation of the workers role. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF RECORDING Lindsay55 has suggested the following basic principles of recording: 1. The principle of flexibility The acceptance of this principle means that the group worker recorder as a disciplined professional. As the nature and objectives of the agency and the group change, the worker records accordingly and gives emphasis on the other aspects. 2. The principal of selection Everything should not be recorded in the group work recording. The worker records significant observations about individuals and their interactions. He selects from the movement of the group, behavioural patterns of individual, his own enabling contributions and skills and techniques applied in the group processes.
3. The Principle of Readability The most important aspect is to keep the record as simple as possible in form, in language, in length. Records, must have face sheet, presenting a brief outline of the factual data. If records are detailed, brief summaries should be prepared. In describing individuals, verbatim quotations should be written. Records should be written systematically.
4. The Principle of Confidentiality One of the basic principles of recording in all social work is that records are written on the premise that they will be held in confidence. If records are used for other purpose such as training all names and other identifying information need to be carefully obscured, with fictitious ones substituted. Records should be kept in lockup. 5. The principle of Worker Acceptance The worker should take up this responsibility as one of his important assignment. He should realize that this work is as much important as other responsibilities. 6. Group Member Should Plan Their own Programme. 7. All Decisions Are Subject To Revision As A Result Of Taking Action. If the decisions are not suited for action, the process of changing decisions plays an important and costive role in group work programming. 8. There Should be Definite Rules and Regulations, of Group Activities. 9. Group Should be Found on the Basic of Schismatic Measures, On Mutuality Of Interests, And Needs Of The Individual. PROGRAME MEDIA Programme media are tools which are used within the group setting to help individuals and the group as a whole achieves desirable personal and social goals. Many media such as games, social recreation, dances, music, story telling,
dramas, arts and crafts, drastic arts of cooking, sewing, photography, discussion, educational activities etc. are used. PRINCIPLE ELEMENTS IN PROGRAMMING PROCESS There are the elements of programming process, the members, the social group working and the programme content. The members join the group having their special interest, needs, abilities relationship and desire to advancement. The worker has his norms, values, working methodology, and its variety of rule, regulations, require a change in behaviour patterns. The interaction of these three is essential in programme planning for successful functioning of the group. ROLE OF GROUP WORKER IN PEROGRAMME PLANNING Wiilson and Ryland59 have narrated the following role of the group worker in progrmme planning. 1. Helping the Member Plan the Programme. The social group worker help the group member to plan their own programme. He enable them to engage constructively in the prograamme panning process. He does this by the following ways: (a) Observing, Listening Acting The social group worker observes the actions and words of the members as they make use of programme media, reveal their needs and interests. He is sensitive no only to the actual words but to the way in which they are spoken. The worker picks up conversations in the midst of activates and helps the members to verbalize their troubled thoughts.
(b) Analyzing and Recoating The workers makes ‘on the spot’ analysis which change his procedures with the group. Through the records, he remembers and sees the events of the meeting and the members’ reactions in a little different light and finds new leads for programme related to the needs of the members and the group as a whole. (c) Vesting and Counseliing By another way the worker discovers needs and interests is through his contacts with the family, the school and the community resources. He counsels them to plan the activities according to their needs. (d) Teaching and Leading Sometimes the worker leads the activities when it is urgently needed in such a way that the members enjoy participating in them. The worker his focus on the group experience and on the members. He is catalytic agent between people, programme, ideas, materials, and the facilities. 2. Discovering and Arousing Interests (a) Assumed Interests Because of his general knowledge of the growth and developmental needs of individuals at various age levels, the worker can assume that a group composed of members having the ordinary development for a certain age will have certain interests. (b) Expressed Interests.
Various devices are used to empress their interests. It is worker’s responsibility to see what needs lie behind the expressed interests. (c) Implied Interests Many interest are implied or insinuated rather than expressed directly in words. Group worker analyses these interests and brings them on conscious level of the group.
3. Using the Environment The worker makes an extensive use of the environment simulate new programme actives. He uses agency’s facilities such as gymnasium, swimming pool, game room, record player, library, kitchen, craft, shop, etc. to enrich the activities 4. Using Limitations. Social group worker imposes limitations on the activities on the basis of available materials, rules and procedures, resources and facilities. He also limits the activities within the realm of the possibility of a successful accomplishments. In groups in which some or all of the members are handicapped. The worker’s responsibility is to help the handicapped person to function to the best of his ability within the limitation of his disability.
REFERENCE 1) Phillips. 11.U:Essential of Social Group Work, Association Press, New York, 1957, P.2. 2) Montageu, A:On Being Haman, Henry Sehuman, New York, 1950.p.30. 3) Kulckhohn, C.Murray A.,Schneider, D.M: Personality, Society and Cultrue, Knopf, New York, 1953,p.64. 4) Newsletter, W.I:What is Social Group Work? Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, Ixii, 1935,p.151. 5) Coyle, Grace: Social Group Work Social Work Year Book, National Association of Social Workers, New York, 1937,p.461. 6) Wilson, G.and Ryland, G:Social Group Work practice, Houghton Miffin, Boson.1947.p.61. 7) Hamilton,G. op.cit.p.19. 8) Coyle, C:’Social Group Work Social Work Year Book, AASW, New York, 1954.p.480. 9) Treckre, H.B: Social Group Work’ Principal ad practices Association press, New York, 1955,o.5. 10)Konopka, G:Social Work: A Helping process, Prentice Hall, Englewood Ciffs, 1963.p.29. 11)Trecker. H.B.op.cit.p.3.