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Name: Eldee R.

Student Number: 2007-58545
Class-Section: Chem 28.1-1
Date Performed: August 28, 2008
Date Submitted: August 15, 2008

I. TITLE. Determination of Bleaching power by Iodometry


Sta ndar dizat ion of Sodi um T hios ulf ate Sol utio n

Primary Standard used: K2Cr2O7

Formula mass of 1O standard: 294.07 g/mol

% Purity of 1O standard: 99.80%

Trials 1 2 3
Mass of K2Cr2O7 (g) 0.1007 0.1009 0.1008
Corrected Mass of K2Cr2O7 (g) 0.1005 0.1007 0.1006
Final Reading Na2S2O3 (ml) 20.40 41.00 20.65
Initial Reading Na2S2O3 (ml) 0.000 20.40 41.00
Volume Na2S2O3 (ml) 20.40 20.60 20.30

Molarity of Na2S2O3 0.1005 0.09970 0.1011

Average Molarity of Na2S2O3 0.1004

Sa mple Ana lysis

Brand of Bleaching Solution: ZONROX

Trials 1 2 3
Mass of the sample (g) 0.1447 0.1447 0.1447
Final volume Na2S2O3 (ml) 9.500 32.90 21.10
Initial volume Na2S2O3 (ml) 0.000 21.10 9.500
Net Volume Na2S2O3 (ml) 9.500 11.80 11.60

mg Cl2 in sample 0.2385 0.2962 0.2912

% Cl2 in sample 0.01648 0.02047 0.02013
Average % Cl2 in sample 0.01903

III. Sample Calculations

A. Corrected Mass of K2Cr2O7 (g)

Masscorrected=MK2Cr2O7 * 0.9980

Masscorrected=0.1007 g * 0.9980

Mass corrected =0.1 005 g

B. Net Volume Na2S2O3

Vnet of Na2S2O3=(Vfinal Na2S2O3)-(Vinitial Na2S2O3)

Vnet of Na2S2O3=(20.40 mL)-(0.000 mL)

V net of Na2S2O3 =20 .40 mL

C. Molarity Na2S2O3

Molarity Na2S2O3=[((Masscorrected of K2Cr2O7 x 1000)mg/294.18 mg

K2Cr2O7/mmol of K2Cr2O7)) x (3 mmol I2/1 mmol of K2Cr2O7) x
(2 mmol Na2S2O3/1 mmol I2)]/ V Na2S2O3 used

=[(1.005 g x 1000) mg/294.18 mg K2Cr2O7/mmol K2Cr2O7 x (3

mmol I2/1 mmol of K2Cr2O7) x (2 mmol Na2S2O3/1 mmol I2)]/
20.40 mL Na2S2O3

Molarit y Na2S2O3 =0 .100 5 mmo l Na 2 S 2 O 3 /mL Na 2 S 2 O 3

D. Average Molarity Na2S2O3

MolarityAve=(0.1005 M + 0.09970 M + 0.1011 M)/3

Molarit y iodine =0 .100 4 M

** for the sa mp le analy sis

A. Net volume of Na2S2O3

Vnet=9.5 mL- 0.0 mL

V net =9 .5 mL

B. Mg Cl2 in sample

MgCl2=(VNa2S2O3)(MNa2S2O3)(1 mmol I2/2 mmol Na2S2O3)(1 mmol OCl-/1 mmol

I2)(1 mmol Cl2 /2 mmol OCl-)

MgCl2=(9.5 mL Na2S2O3)*(0.1004 mmol Na2S2O3/mL Na2S2O3)* )(1 mmol

I2/2 mmol Na2S2O3)(1 mmol OCl-/1 mmol I2)(1 mmol Cl2 /2 mmol OCl-)

Mg Cl2 =0.2 385 mg C l 2

C. % Chloride in sample

% Chloride=(Mg Cl2/(mass of sample *1000))*100%

% Chloride=(0.2385 mg Cl2/(0.1447 g *1000))*100%

% C hloride= 0.0 1648 % is chlor ide in the sa mple

D. Ave. % chloride in sample

Ave % Chloride= (0.01648% + 0.02047% + 0.02013%)

Ave % Chlor ide= 0.0 1903 %

E. Mass of the sample

***The mass of the sample was taken with respect to the density of the
given compound; liquid bleach was used, thereby mass of the sample at
first cannot be taken.

Mg sample=(Vliquid bleach used)*(Densityliquid bleach)*(1 mmol OCl-/(51.45 mg OCl-

/mmol OCl-))(1 mmol Cl2/1 mmol OCl-)(70.91 mg Cl2/mmol Cl2)

Mg sample=(2 mL)*(5250mg/100mL)*(1/51.45)*(1/1)*(70.91/1)

Mg sample =144. 7 m g or 0.1 447 g

*the same mass of sample was used throughout the experiment where
there was equal volume of ZONROX used.

IV. Discussion

Potassium Dichromate is a fairly strong oxidizing agent. It is not however as

strong as potassium permanganate or the Cerium (IV) ion. It has the advantages of
being inexpensive, very stable in solution, and available in sufficiently pure form for
preparing standard solutions by direct weighing. Amidst its level of being an
oxidizing agent and its slowness, still this was used in the above experiment possibly
because of economical purposes. Most of the time, this kind of primary standard is
principally used in the titration of iron in hydrochloric acid solutions.

In analytical processes, iodine is used as an oxidizing agent(iodimetry) and

iodide ion is used as a reducing agent(iodometry); in the experiment, iodometry was
used to determine the bleaching power by iodometry; and the Cl 2 content is a way to
determine it.

Bleaching is the process of whitening, or removing the natural color of

textile fibers and many other materials through the treatment with chemicals
or by exposure to the sun, heat or water. Oxidizing agents play a huge part in
this bleaching process and a lot of pigments and dyes are changed into
substances of little or no color. Because of this, substances such as
CHLORINE compounds, hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, and
potassium permanganate are most commonly used as bleaches. Many
pigments and colored substances can be decolored by such reducing agents as
sulfur dioxide; and decoloration through the use of reducing agents is referred
to as stripping, particularly, when used to remove artificial colorants such as
dyes from textiles. Oxidizing agents usually produce more permanent whites
than do reducing agents.

Bleaching was practiced already before in some parts of Asia, Europe and
Africa. In 1785, the powerful bleaching properties of Chlorine were
discovered by Berthollet. Bleaching powder, produced by the reaction of
chlorine gas on slaked lime, with the same effect as chlorine, was introduced
in 1799 by the Scottish chemist Charles Tennant. Bleaching powder is a
mixture containing calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl] 2) as the active bleaching
agent. Bleaching powder was used as the standard bleaching agent until about
1925. Since that time the use of so-called liquefied chlorine, a solution of
sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), has largely replaced bleaching powder. Liquid
household bleaches are commonly based on sodium hypochlorite as the active
ingredient at a concentration of 5.25 percent. Industrial strength versions are
often several times more concentrated. ("Bleaching." Microsoft® Student
2008 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2007. )

With Chlorine being a so much important chemical in the industry makes

it so much in demand in the textile industry being a huge compartment in
bleaches. With Iodine here being the titrant, it is reduced to I2 and in turn
reacts with thiosulfate ion; thereby oxidizing it in this step. With a lesser
value of I2 produced, there would already be a fading of color in I3-.


With the given experiment, I being one of the experimenters experienced a lot of
difficulties facing this experiment; with so much vague terms pushes me further to stop
reading in advance the experiment itself. Our school of course is undeniably the best in
instruction; but I hope packaged in this ‘title’ is a huge responsibility to help students be
stimulated by the experiment and on how we can apply this later in life.