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FLEXIBLE AC

TRANSMISSION
SYSTEMS

BY:-
SUSMITA PANDA
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 WHAT IS THE NEED?
 LIMITATIONS OF LARGE AC SYSTEMS.
 ADVANTAGES of FACTS.
 SERIES COMPENSATION
• Static Synchronous Series Compensator. (SSSC)
• Thyristor controlled series compensator. (TCSC)
• COMPARISON
 PARALLEL COMPENSATION
• STATCOM
• SVC
• COMPARISON
 COMBINED SHUNT AND SERIES CONNECTED
CONTROLLER.
 SCCL with FACTS.
 HVDC and FACTS.
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
 The FACTS technology is a collection of controllers, which
can be applied individually or in coordination with others to
control one or more of the interrelated system parameters,
such as series impedance, shunt impedance, current,
voltage, and damping of oscillations.

 GENERATIONS:-
• 1st Generation of FACTS (SVC & TCSC).
• 2nd Generation of FACTS (STATCOM & SSSC).
• 3rd Generation of FACTS (UPFC & IPFC).
What is the Need?
 Thermal
For overhead line, thermal capability is a function of ambient
temperature, wind conditions, conditions of conductor, and ground
clearance.
The FACTS technology can help in making an effective used of
newfound line capability.

 Dielectric
Being designed very conservatively, most lines can increase
operation voltage by 10% or even higher.
FACTS technology could be used to ensure acceptable over-
voltage and power flow conditions.

 Stability
The stability issues that limit the transmission capability include:
transient stability, dynamic stability, steady-state stability,
frequency collapse. Voltage collapse, and sub-synchronous
resonance.
The FACTS technology can certainly be used to overcome any of
the stability limits.
LIMITATIONS OF LARGE AC
SYSTEMS
 (LONG DISTANCE  (INTERCONNECTED
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS) SYSTEMS)
• Voltage stability • Load Flow Problems
• Reactive power problems (needs management of
• Steady state stability Congestion)
• Transient Stability • Voltage Stability
• Frequency Control
• Oscillation Stability
• Inter-Area Oscillations
ADVANTAGES of FACTS
 Increase of Power Transfer without adding new
transmission lines.
 Transmission Cost minimization.
 Steady state and dynamic voltage control.
 Improvement of System Stability and Voltage
quality.
 Active damping of Oscillations.
BASIC TYPE OF FACTS
CONTROLLERS
 Series controllers:
The series controller could be a variable impedance or a variable source
both are power electronics based. In principle, all series controllers inject
voltage in series with the line.

 Shunt controllers:
The shunt controllers may be variable impedance connected to the line
voltage causes a variable current flow hence represents injection of current
into the line.

 Combined series-series controllers:


The combination could be separate series controllers or unified series-
series controller--- Interline Power Flow Controller.

 Combined series-shunt controllers:


The combination could be separated series and shunt controllers or a
unified power flow controller.
BASIC TYPE OF FACTS
CONTROLLERS

FACTS

SERIES- SERIES-
SERIES SHUNT
SERIES SHUNT

SSSC TCSC SVC STATCOM UPFC IPFC


SERIES COMPENSATION –
STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES
COMPENSATOR (SSSC)
 Allows rapid and continuous changes in the
transmission line impedance so that the active
power flow along the compensated transmission
line can be controlled within a specified range .

 Its output voltage is in series with the line, thus,


it controls voltage across the line.

 Used for
• Damping Oscillations.
• Voltage Stability Improvement.
STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES
COMPENSATOR (SSSC)
STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES
COMPENSATOR (SSSC)
THYRISTOR CONTROLLED
SERIES COMPENSATION(TCSC)
 Series Capacitor banks installations protected by
thyristors.

 BENEFITS
• Increased Power Transfer Capability.
• Improved Transient Stability.
• Lower Transmission Losses.
• Improved Grid voltage control.

 OTHER APPLICATIONS
• Power Oscillation Damping.
• Sub-synchronous Resonance Mitigation.
• Transient Stability Mitigation.
THYRISTOR CONTROLLED
SERIES COMPENSATION(TCSC)
THYRISTOR CONTROLLED
SERIES COMPENSATION(TCSC)
COMPARISON
PARALLEL COMPENATION -
STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR(SVC)
 Consists of fixed capacitor banks in parallel with
reactor bank.

 BENEFITS
• Increased Power Transfer Capability.
• Improved Grid Voltage Control.
• Improved Power Factor.

 OTHER APPLICTIONS
• Power Oscillation Damping.
• Power Quality (Flicker Mitigation, Voltage Balancing).
STATIC VAR
COMPENSATOR(SVC)
STATIC VAR
COMPENSATOR(SVC)
STATCOM-STATIC
COMPENSATOR
 Same as SVC but its capacitive or inductive o/p
current can be controlled independent of system
voltage.
 It can be based on Voltage sourced or Current
sourced Converter.
 When inverter fundamental o/p voltage is higher
than the system line voltage, then STATCON acts
as a capacitor and reactive VARS are generated.
 Otherwise, It acts as inductor and absorbs
reactive VARS from the system.
 Can be designed to be an Active Filter to absorb
System harmonics.
STATCOM-STATIC
COMPENSATOR
STATCOM-STATIC
COMPENSATOR
STATCOM-STATIC
COMPENSATOR
 BENEFITS
• Increased Power Transfer Capability.
• Improved Grid Voltage Stability.
• Improved Power Factor.
• Eliminated Flicker.
• Harmonic Filtering.

 OTHER APPLICATIONS
• Power Quality ( Flicker Mitigation & Voltage Balancing).
COMPARISON
UNIFIED POWER FLOW
CONTROLLER (UPFC)
UNIFIED POWER FLOW
CONTROLLER
 It is a Combined Series-Shunt Controller.
 STATCOM and SSSC used for shunt and series
compensation respectively.
 BENEFITS
• Increases Transmission line capacity (by
installing a series capacitor which reduces the
net series impedance) .
• Power System Oscillation Damping.
• Control of active and reactive power flow at
both sending- and receiving-end.
UNIFIED POWER FLOW
CONTROLLER-OPERATION
UNIFIED POWER FLOW
CONTROLLER-OPERATION
 Reactive power is generated or absorbed by the
shunt inverter to control bus voltage.
 Reactive power is generated or absorbed by the
series inverter to control the real and/or reactive
power flow on the transmission line.
 A portion of the real power flow on the
transmission line is drawn from the bus by the
shunt inverter to charge the DC capacitor.
 Real power is inserted into the line through the
series inverter.
SCCL (Short Circuit Current
Limitation) WITH FACTS.
 REASONS OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT
• Increasing Generation in high load density networks.
• Interconnection between systems.

 If the short-circuit current rating of the


equipment in the system is exceeded, the
equipment must be either upgraded or replaced,
both are either very cost- or time-intensive.

 Previously,Current Limitation by using reactor


was done but it reduces system stability.
SCCL (Short Circuit Current
Limitation) WITH FACTS.
 This new device operates
with zero impedance in
steady-state conditions
and in case of a short
circuit, it is switched to the
limiting-reactor impedance
within a few milliseconds.

 Uses a reactor along with


TPSC (Thyristor Protected
Series Compensator).
HVDC and FACTS
 HVDC  FACTS
• Economically transmit • Offers low-cost power
electrical energy long delivery with the same
distances via overhead advantages as HVDC.
lines or cable.
• Increases Capacity of
• Connects asynchronous existing electrical
grids or grids with Transmission System.
different frequencies.
• Rapidly Implemented
• Costly equipments used Installations.
and takes time-not so
widespread.
THANK YOU
ANY QUESTIONS?