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Revived and Recently Created Orders of Chivalry

Contents

Introduction

This page describes a few modern orders of knighthood, which are either recreations of specific medieval orders, or imitations of medieval or monarchical orders without specific reference to any one.

The term "bogus" is one I don't like, because it was so abused by Arthur Fox-Davies, who thought that any arms which were not delivered on parchment by a royal official were "bogus"; thus relegating 90% of heraldry into inexistence. As far as I am concerned, there is no good reason why anyone could not create "orders of chivalry" today; how seriously such associations would be taken will depend on many factors, such as their membership, stated goals and veritable activities; but also on what they claim to be. Only people who would reject as "bogus" any such organization might be offended by the choice of certain orders. I discuss the general question of legitimacy of orders separately.

I discuss two kinds of orders, revived and recently created. I use the term revived to refer to associations which call themselves orders of chivalry but are the only ones to do so, and which also claim to be identical with or directly emanated from well-defined historical orders of chivalry. I discuss here a few, sometimes entertaining examples of associations which have sprung up in the past. In some cases, like Lazarus or the British Order of Saint-John, the origins are what they are, but the orders have, to a large degree, transcended them.

By recently created orders I mean institutions which call themselves orders of chivalry, and imitate in their general appearance (name, style, insignia, activities) well-known orders or monarchical orders, without claiming to be the continuation or revival of any specific historical order.

Guy Stair Sainty also discusses a large number of self-styled orders (including many not mentioned here) on his Web site (and he predictably disagrees with my placement of the Most Venerable Order on this page!).

A note: in the references, I have listed all documentation that I have found mentioned in various

bibliographies, but I have had access to a small portion only. Those books I did consult are marked

with an asterisk.

I thank James Algrant and Guy Sainty for helpful comments, although the opinions expressed here are mine only and do not engage their responsibility.

Revived Orders:

The Modern Templars (18th-20th c.)

The abrupt and dramatic end of the Order of the Temple in 1312, and the execution at the stake of its last Grand-Master Jacques de Molay in 1314, created the right conditions for future claims of resurgence. A similar phenomenon has occurred in the past with dynasties: the various impostors Czar Dimitri Ivanovich in 1605, the various people claiming to be Louis XVII (the most famous being Naundorff), the woman who claimed to be Anastasia daughter of the Czar Nicholas II, etc.

In Spain and Portugal, the surviving Templars were regrouped into new orders founded by the

sovereigns. Elsewhere, the Templars endured various fates, but the organisation itself disappeared,

its leadership killed, its assets confiscated and turned over to the Hospitallers of Saint-John.

In the 18th centuries several legends emerged, claiming that the Templars had in fact survived as an

order. Jacques de Molay, on his way to death, had allegedly appointed someone as his successor and entrusted him with perpetuating the Order in secrecy. That successor is variously named as the preceptor of Auvergne (who fled to England but died there in jail) or an English knight. The successor is said to have gone to England or Scotland and found refuge among the mason guilds. Thus the secret traditions and knowledge of the Templars (acquired in the East, of course) were passed on to the masonic associations. Not surprisingly, these legends appear at the time when freemasonry is created in England and Scotland, in the early 18th century. Knights Templars became a grade in some forms of free-masonry in the mid-18th century, and it seems that an offshoot of that grade became an order in the US and Canada in the late 19th century (see Land, Robert Ernest Augustus: Fifty years in the Malta order. Toronto, 1928).

One particular revival occurred in 1804. Two French masons, Philippe Ledru (1754-1832) and Bernard-Raymond Fabré-Palaprat (1775-1838) found the Order of the Temple, and Fabré-Palaprat

is made its grandmaster. Napoleon I, who viewed freemasonry favorably, allowed them to carry on

their activities, including solemn processions in the streets of Paris (albeit in modern attire with

mantles and toques). Later, in 1815, Sir William Sydney Smith (1764-1840) linked up with these neo-Templars. As admiral of the British navy he had successfully defended Acre against Napoleon in 1799, and supposedly was given by the Greek archbishop a Templars' cross (left in Acre by Richard Lionheart) in gratitude. This cross opened the doors for Sir Sydney who became a Templar and tried to create a branch in England, for which he was made Grand-Prior. His aim was to send the order to participate in the liberation and pacification of Greece and other areas under Ottoman control. He also dreamed of establishing a base in Malta and taking over the old activities of the order of Saint-John (since Malta was then in the hands of the British). He managed to get Augustus-Frederick, Duke of Sussex (1773-1843) interested in the project. The duke of Sussex (6th son of George III) became Grand Prior of England. Another individual active in the revival was Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt (uncle of the poet Alfred Tennyson). On the death of Fabré-Palaprat Smith became Regent of the order, but his subsequent death soon followed by that of the duke of

Sussex dissipated the order in England. D'Eyncourt himself lost interest and resigned from the order in 1849. The French branch seems not to have outlived its founder.

In the 20th century, pseudo-Templars proliferated. They are chronicled in Chaffanjon anf Galimard-Flavigny.

References

* Malcolm Barber (ed): The military orders : fighting for the faith and caring for the sick Aldershot, Great Britain, 1994; Variorum.

Manuel des chevaliers de l'Ordre du Temple. Paris, 1817 (2d ed.: 1825.) The manual of Palaprat's French order.

The Order of Saint Thomas of Acre (18th-19th c.)

This order was originally founded as a purely religious order in in Acre in 1190, probably by Richard Lionheart. It was devoted to Saint Thomas Becket, and retained an English character throughout its history. In 1228, Peter des Roches, bishop of Westminster, reorganized the order into a military monastic order on the model of the Teutonic Order. The order did not play a major military role, and after the fall of Acre in 1291 it retired to Cyprus. Sometime in the 1370s the order was moved to its London house. There it survived as a mainly hospitaller order until it was dissolved along with other orders in 1540.

At what time it was revived I do not know for sure. It appears again in the early 18th century in Jacobite circles, and was one of several organizations active in promoting the Jacobite cause. It seems to have been under the protection of the exiled Stuarts in France. George Keith, Earl Marischal of Scotland (1692-1778) was its Grand Master until he transferred the office to Seignelay de Colbert Traill, younger son of Laird Castlehill and bishop of Rodez. Later we find Sir Robert Strange as its Grand Master, and in 1848 Lord Elphinstone (1807-60). At some later point Bertram, 5th earl of Ashburnham (1840-1913) is Grand Master, succeeded in 1908 by Melville de Ruvigny (1868-1921).

Other Jacobite orders or associations include the Realm of Sion and the Order of Sangreal. In 1848 Henry Lascelles Jenner, bishop of Dinedin in New Zealand, founded the grandly named Sovereign Sacred Religious and Military Order of Knights Protectors of the Sacred Sepulchre of Our Lord Jesus Christ and of the Most Holy Temple of Zion, which was later merged with Sion and Sangreal into a "federal chivalric condominium" called the Sovereign Order of the Realm of Sion.

References

* Alan Forey, The Military Order of Saint Thomas of Acre, in the English Historical Review (1977), 92:481-503.

* Roger Ararat, Preface to Ruvigny: The Jacobite Peerage. 1914.

The Prehistory of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of

Saint-John of Jerusalem (MVOSJ) (1827 to 1888)

See the official site of the US priory, with links to an in-depth history of the order. What follows is my personal interpretation.

This Victorian invention has its origins in the turmoil of the Napoleonic era. Following the capture of Malta in 1798 and the conquest of most of Europe by Napoleon, the Order was quite disorganized in 1814. The return of the Bourbons to France prompted the formation of a "capitular commission" of the French langues by an assembly of French knights in May 1814, which was initially recognized by Louis XVIII, and approved by a papal bull of August 10, 1814. It began lobbying for a return of the Order's French properties, and acting at the Congress of Vienna for a return of the island of Malta. Camille de Rohan was head of the commission, followed in 1816 by Lasteyrie du Saillant and later by Jean-Louis de Dienne. It failed to persuade Britain to return the island, but it obtained French government pensions for the professed knights (about 90 survived) and worked on the return of the estates, which seemed possible if the Order regained its territorial sovereignty. Offers of Elba from the Austrian government were rejected because Metternich demanded control of the Grand-Mastership. The search was on for some vacant island.

The French Commission, then controlled by its Chancellor Pierre-Hippolyte de Sainte Croix- Molay, then turned to the possibility of helping the Greeks in their war of independence, and a treaty was signed between the Commission and the Greek rebels in June 1823. The treaty promised the order several Greek islands and Rhodes (should it be conquered), and in exchange the Order would raise troops and 10 million Francs. To begin the process the Comission started making knights rather indiscriminately, at least 200 in the space of a few years. But the treaty was opposed by other Greek rebel groups, as well as England and Austria. Under international pressure the French government withdrew its recognition of the Commission and henceforth acknowledged only those knights which had also been authorized by the Lieutenancy of the Order in Messina. (In fact, a royal ordinance of April 16, 1824 stated that only the French royal orders were legal in France, and bearers of foreign orders needed authorization from the government; an instruction of the Chancery of the Legion of Honor of May 5, 1824 provided further details). The Lieutenant of the Order dissolved the commission. The floatation of the loan in the form of bonds on the London market collapsed before it started.

The Commission nevertheless revived itself in 1826, under the presidency of Calonne d'Avesnes but still controlled by Sainte Croix-Molay, and continued in its attempts at raising money for its Greek operation. At this time it was totally unofficial, disavowed by the Order of Malta and unrecognized by the French government. The Commission decided to search private sources of funds in England, and opened negotiations with a Scot called Donald Currie, an acquaintance of Sainte Croix-Molay. In 1827 Instruments of Convention were signed between the Commission and Currie, enabling him to raise L240,000 by recruiting new members (even non-Catholics). Currie did not raise much money but he recruited avidly.

Greek independence having been achieved without any participation of the Order, Sainte Croix- Molay now turned to the possibility of settling in Algeria, conquered in 1830 by the French. But the same year Charles X was overthrown, and the Commission lost all influence with the French government, which also broke diplomatic relations with the Lieutenancy in Messina. Nevertheless the Commission continued to encourage the formation of an English Langue, which took place in January 1831, with the election of Sr Robert Peat, Bart, former chaplain of George IV, as "Prior ad interim of the Tongue of England". However, a split amongst the British members occurred the next year. By 1837, the party which the French Commission had recognized had more or less disappeared, and the other party led by Robert Peat continued on its own. Peat was succeeded by

Sir Robert Dymoke in 1838, Lt-Col. Sir Charles Montolieu Lamb, Bart, in 1847, Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Arbuthnot in 1860.

The English group made contact again with the French knights in 1838, only to learn that Sainte Croix-Molay was considered a disreputable and disavowed character. The English group nevertheless tried to negotiate recognition from the Lieutenancy, who replied that they could not accept non-Catholics. The English also sought the patronage of the duke of Sussex, who turned them down in 1839.

The English group almost disappeared, but, led by Sir John Broun, it persisted in hoping for recognition, basing themselves on letters patent of 1557 recreating the order in England (although it was abolished again by Elizabeth I in 1560). Now called "the Sovereign and Illustrious Order of Saint-John of Jerusalem: Anglia", it made contact again in 1857 with the Lieutenancy of the Order in Rome, through a Catholic member of the English group, John James Watts. Negotiations started, with the aim of establishing a Catholic priory, which in turn would form a Protestant branch (the existing group, of course). The Lieutenancy was initially favorably disposed, but the three English knights of Malta, led by Sir George Bowyer, and including John James Watts, who had just been received as members and were to form the Catholic priory decided to break off with the English group instead. A British Association of the Order of Malta was to be founded in 1876.

The English association nevertheless persisted in its efforts at some kind of recognition. It enlisted the support of the 7th duke of Manchester who became their grand prior in 1861. The group drew up a Constitution in 1871 and renamed itself more modestly "Order of Saint-John of Jerusalem in England". A corps of ambulances was created in the 1860s, roughly around the same time as (or preceding) the real Order of Malta's charitable activities and those of the Red Cross. The Princess of Wales became Lady of the Order in 1876, and she in turn secured the membership of the Prince of Wales.

The priory finally received a royal charter in 1888, which changed its name to The Grand Priory in the British Realm of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint-John of Jerusalem, and made the sovereign of Great Britain its Sovereign Head and Patron. The Prince of Wales was appointed Grand Prior in 1890 by Queen Victoria, and since then the Prior has always been a member of the royal family.

After the Royal Charter

This royal charter changed the nature of the order. It now enjoys official recognition in Great Britain, and is indeed a British order of chivalry (albeit one with a peculiar status, totally independent of the government, and the only one conferring neither precedence nor use of the title "Sir"). That is an advantage that few orders, self-styled or otherwise, possess. This, however, changes nothing to the origin of the order: it started as a 19th century revival of a defunct organization, the English branch of Malta, abolished in 1540 by Henry VIII.

The desire to represent the Venerable Order as the heir to the historical Order of Saint John is evident in the Librarian of the Order's work, Edwin James King's The Knights of St. John in the British realm: being the official history of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (continued after King's death in 1952 by Sir Harry Luke), published in 1967 in London by the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. This was the 3d edition of E. J. King's history of the Venerable Order. The book studies the Priory of the historical Order until its abolition in the 16th century, and describes the organization since 1831 as a "revival" which received "official regonition" (not existence or legitimacy) from the charter of 1888. He writes, for

example: "[In 1871] So far the Order of Saint John had succeeded in re-establishing itself in

England and in reviving certain of its ancient dignities (p. 144) [

now to receive their official recognition in the form of a Charter from Queen Victoria [

Victoria's charter expressly defines the continuity between the original Grand Priory and its revival in these words: 'The Grand Priory of England is the Head of the Sixth or English Language of the Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem'" (p. 149). Among many other examples, one can cite Appendix F of the book "On the seals of the grand priory", which shows "the ancient seals" (until the 16th c.) and "the modern seals" (since 1831); this is not innocuous, since in English law corporate seals are the legal mark of identity.

]

The knights of Saint John were

] Queen

But Queen Victoria cannot make the Venerable Order into what it cannot be: it cannot be "the Priory in Great Britain" of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, because the latter is a Catholic order with its own British association, and the Queen of Great Britain does not have the power to create priories of that order. The language of the 1888 charter is even more jarring: by calling the new order "the sixth or English language" a clear reference was made to the historical Order of Saint John, in which, until the reorganization of the 19th century, the knights were grouped in Languages or Tongues, and England was the 6th. Before and after its transmutation into a British order of chivalry, the order has used a name (Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem) which belongs, or is a purposeful imitation of a name which belongs to another institution. The aim of such use is to assume some of the historical prestige and legacy of the historical order of Malta: self-styled orders do no less.

The relations between the English Order and the Order of Malta were predictably icy for a long time. But in the end, time worked its magic, and a reconciliation of sorts took place. A Joint Declaration was issued by the Order of Malta and the British Order of Saint John on 26 November

1963:

The relationship which exists between the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta and the Grand Priory in the British Realm of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem is not always clearly understood, and it is to dispel any misconceptions which may exist that this statement is being made.

A dispute, long since relegated to the realms of academic discussion, as to whether the Most Venerable Order was the lineal desdendent of the old Grand Priory of the Sovereign Order, at one time caused division amongst those concerned with such questions. Certain it is that the Most Venerable Order acquired a completely independent existence when it was granted a Royal Charter by Her Majesty Queen Victoria, who became its Sovereign Head.

Since this time the Most Venerable Order has pursued the same high ideals of charity, especially to the poor and sick, which were the very cause of the foundation of the Sovereign Order nearly one thousand years ago.

It will be easy to understand, therefore, why two great Orders, representing the same traditions, pursuing the same ideals, serving the same cause and wearing the same famous eight pointed cross, should have the greatest respect and esteem for each other. It is our happiness to declare that such a relationship does truly exist, and that it is the dearest wish of both Orders, to seek ever more ways in which they can collaborate, to serve God's glory and to alleviate the sufferings and miseries of mankind.

Notice that the issue of legitimacy and recognition is skirted adroitly; in particular, the Order of Malta does not recognize the British Order to be "the" Order of Saint John, as its name implies. What one can conclude from this, is that, from Malta's point of view, the British Order is worth collaborating with for purposes of charity, and questions of legitimacy and usurpation of name are secondary. Few other orders enjoy this form of recognition. To this day, members of the Order of Malta are also members of the British Order (as was, e.g., Mgr Bruno Bernard Heim), as good a sign of reconciliation as any.

References

*King:, Edwin James: The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of Saint-John of Jerusalem in England: a Short History. London: Fleetway Press, 1924.

King, Edwin James: The Knights of St. John in the British empire; being the official history of the British Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. London: St. John ambulance association, 1934.

*King, Edwin James: The Knights of St. John in the British realm: being the official history of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. (3d. edition, continued by Sir Harry Luke). London: Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, 1967.

* Henri de Pierredon: Histoire politique de l'Ordre Souverain de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem:

(Ordre de Malte) de 1789 à 1955. Paris, 1955; Ed. Scaldis.

* Malcolm Barber (ed): The military orders : fighting for the faith and caring for the sick Aldershot, Great Britain, 1994; Variorum.

Order of the Militia of Jesus-Christ (ca. 1885)

Saint Dominic founded an order by that name in 1216; but it was not an order of chivalry, and it did not survive very long.

The modern revival began, innocently enough, in 1870, after the capture of Rome by Italian troops. Former members of the Papal army, under the comte de Beaumont, decided to found an association

which would fight for the rights of the Holy See and stand ready to assist it against its enemies. The name of the association was Milizia di Cristo, crociata di preghiera e di azione (Militia of Jesus- Christ, crusade of prayer and action). This society, which admitted women, was organized in sections headed by "promoters," and was placed under the spiritual guidance of the Dominicans. Its name recalled the Militia of Jesus-Christ founded by Saint Dominic in 1216, although no claim to

be a continuation of that institution was made. The Dominicans looked favorably on the new

institutions, affiliating its members with the Third Order of the Dominicans. The comte de Beaumont merely called himself Organisateur de la Milice de Jésus-Christ pour la défense du Saint Siège, and the cross worn by members consisted simply of a cross potent argent with a medallion in the center.

One day things changed abrutply. On the occasion of the funeral of the French admiral Courbet in 1885, a Paris newspaper, L'Univers (Aug 30, 1885) mentioned the presence of a representative of

the Militia, and asserted that "the Militia [was] a religious and chivalric order founded by Innocent

III and Saint Dominic, and Pius IX had appointed the comte de Beaumont as Grand Master of the

Order in France". The General of the Dominicans, Padre Larroca, was rather surprised, and made inquiries. He discovered that the comte de Beaumont had retired and been succeeded by Domenico Piccoli, who started calling himself Lieutenant General and Grand Prior of the Cross of Paris of the

Order. The Order was renamed Ordine religioso cavalleresco della Milizia di N.S. Gesu Cristo, its members calling themselves knights and commanders, wearing a uniform with white jacket, and the shape of the insignia had become the black and white cross flory of the Dominicans. Alarmed, the General of the Dominicans wrote to Piccoli and informed him that all links between the Dominicans and the Militia were severed, and asking him to stop using insignia related to those of the Dominicans. His successor also wrote to Piccoli in 1888 telling him not to use titles such as Lieutenant-General or Grand-Master, since theirs was an association, not an order. Some years later, Piccoli made another attempt at obtaining official endorsement, and received a reply from P. Cormier, Procurator General of the Dominicans, once again refusing to have anything to do with the Militia (1897).

refusing to have anything to do with the Militia (1897). Badges of the Militia of Christ.

Badges of the Militia of Christ. Source: By courtesy of Hermann Historica, Munich.

At this point, Piccoli turned elsewhere for patronage, and persuaded the Melkite Catholic patriarch of Antioch, Peter IV, to become Grand Master, in 1900. Peter IV died in 1902, and the Mastership

was offered to his successor Cyrill VIII, who immediately wrote to the Pope for his approval. The

Holy See's reaction was swift. In 1904, the Secretary of State of the Holy See wrote to Piccoli to

inform him that the Order of the Militia of Christ was not approved by the Holy See, and that Cyrill

VIII would not accept the Mastership.

In the end, Piccoli assumed himself the Grand Mastership of his order. He died in 1916, but the association seems to have survived him; and it was still in existence in the 1970s. Some members of the Militia, however, went on to found other revived orders. In particular, Paul Watrin, knight of the Militia in 1902, founded in 1910 a revived order of Saint Lazarus and placed it under the protection of the same Melkite patriarch in the same year.

References

* Alberto di Montenuovo: article in Rivista Araldica, 1916, pp.364-7.

Piccoli, D. Constitution de l'Ordre de la Milice de Jésus-Christ. Paris, 1887.

Piccoli, D. Histoire de la chevalerie, des croisades et de l'Ordre de la Milice de Jésus- Christ depuis leur origine jusqu'à nos jours. Paris, 1905.

Bertrand, Paul. L'ordre de la Milice de Jésus-Christ, de Saint-Dominique et de Saint Pierre Martyr. Paris, 1938. (I have not seen this book; the author is the official chronicler of the revived order of St Lazarus).

Noble Ordre de Saint-Georges au Comté de Bourgogne ou de Rougemont (ca. 1920-1937)

This noble confraternity, known in English as Saint George of Burgundy, was founded in 1390 by

Philippe de Mollans, a nobleman from Franche-Comté or comté de Bourgogne. A tradition claims that he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and brought back a relic of Saint George. Soon after he

founded the Order in question. Its statutes are known: members had to prove 16 quarters of nobility

and 10 degrees of nobility in male line, be natives of Franche-Comté, Catholics and 16 or older,

and pay 300 livres. A governor was elected for life; other officers included a chancelor (a cleric), a treasurer and two secretaries. Assemblies were held every year. The society lapsed but was revived in 1485; it swore allegiance to Philip II of Spain in 1569, expelled a Protestant in 1584; it stopped

meeting during the Thirty Years War but resumed after 1648, and met yearly in Besançon. The arms of the order (Gules Saint George or) were registered in 1696. In 1768 the statutes were revised. Many of the order's members emigrated or died during the Revolution, and it had only 25 members in 1814. In 1816 the survivors regrouped under the leadership of Charles-Emmanuel,

marquis de Saint-Mauris (1753-1839), baron-pair in 1828, of an ancient local family that had counted many members of the order (Révérend, vol. 6, p. 194). The statutes were revised to allow for speedy reception of siblings and children of former members, and other receptions brought the order to 78 in 1817, date of the last reception of members. But the order was abolished in 1824 when an Royal ordinance of April 16, 1824 made it illegal to wear decorations and insignia other than those of the Royal orders. An instruction of the Chancery of the Legion of Honor of May 5,

1824 specifically cited the Order of Saint George as abolished. No knights were subsequently

received. The last knight, the marquis de Jouffroy d'Abbans, died in 1869, at which point the Order became extinct.

In the Bibliothèque nationale, collection Clairambault, are two volumes on this order: 1318 contains printed material, 1319 contains a list of members from 1575 to 1703.

The insignia of the order was a medallion showing Saint George killing the dragon, hung from a ribbon, initially red (with the approval of the duke of Burgundy Philippe le Bon), changed to blue under Louis XIV.

There exists a book on this order or confraternity: La Noble Confrérie des Chevaliers de Saint- Georges by Eric Thiou.

Confrérie des Chevaliers de Saint- Georges by Eric Thiou. Badge of St. George of Burgundy. Source:

Badge of St. George of Burgundy. Source: By courtesy of Hermann Historica, Munich.

This story is told by Pidoux de la Maduère in an article in Rivista Araldica (Aug 1905 pp. 465-72). Great was his surprise some 25 years later when he learned of a revival of the order (in fact, he even received a diploma as "commander" of the order in December 1929!)

The revived order followed a worn pattern. In a typical fashion, it was claimed that the order was actually founded in 1167 in Palestine by Roger, bishop of Arimathea, brought back to France around 1300, reinvigorated in 1390 by Philippe de Mollans. Supposedly, it was not abolished in

1824 but survived until 1880, when, allegedly, new statutes were given to it. It only really surfaces

in the 1920s, when it is headed by a Grand Referendary named the comte de Maupas (false title of comte, non-noble family name changed from "Maupas" to "de Maupas" in 1853; Dioudonnat, p. 447). Maupas was succeeded in 1923 by a marquis de Golbery (another false title) and in 1926 replaced by a General Government assisted by a Sacred Council headed by a duc de Lavillatte (yet another false title). In 1929 Francesco Antonio di Gonzaga di Mantua was elected Governor of the

order, and revised statutes of the Apostolic and Hospitaller Order of Saint George and Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel were published. The new order was rather different in spirit: the nobility requirements were dispensed with, the exclusion of non-Catholics was relaxed, and recruitment extended outside of Franche-Comté. The name "Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel" was added, based on the claim that knights of the French order of Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel had merged their order with that of Saint-Georges (never mind that N-D du Mont-Carmel was never an independent order, but merely a duplicate of Saint-Lazare). The same year, the French Association of the Knights of Saint George was registered as a non-profit association under French law (14 Mar

1929). In 1931, the order in question dropped any reference to Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel

1934, the Order of Saint-Georges claimed the membership of the French generals Weygand and Gouraud, as well as 3 Italian generals and 3 American generals. It found an ardent supporter in

By

Adriano Colocci-Vespucci, who wrote several articles in Rivista Araldica (1934, p.562-7, 1935 p.61-63). An article by A. de Rubeis (Rivista Araldica, Feb 1938, pp.79-83) lists other eminent members: the archduke Franz-Josef of Habsburg-Lothringen, the archduke Ferdinando of Lorraine- Tuscany, prince William of Wied (king of Albania in 1914), the French general de Castelnau, the admiral Dartiguez, the vice-admiral de Neresteny, the presidents of Venezuela, Peru, Cuba, the Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia, two cardinals, Victor Dowling (New York Supreme Court), etc. Note that Dowling was also a knight of Saint-Lazarus.

One of the individuals involved was an orthodox priest, the archmandrite Demeter de Ser Leo (already connected to the contemporaneous revival of Saint Lazarus, of which he was a member). He was tried in November 1937 by a military court in Rome and found guilty (along with two Frenchmen) of illegal sale of decorations; the same court declared the order to have been abolished in 1824 and inexistent. Even worse, the "duc de Lavillatte", a.k.a. "duc de Saint-Simon", whose real name was Philippe Dissandes de Lavillatte (an old non-noble family from the Berry, according to Dioudonnat), was sued for usurping the name of Saint-Simon and for wearing false orders and impersonating a general. The offending occasion, though not the sole one, was his appearance at the funeral of a general at the Invalides on 10 Jan 1934, styling himself "Most Serene Highness general duc de Saint-Simon", wearing the uniorm of an Italian general, and wearing no less than 22 decorations. He claimed that his father had received the ducal title from the king of Montenegro in 1920, and also claimed to descend from the famous writer duc de Saint-Simon (d. 1755). The court sentenced him to a suspended sentence of 8 days in jail, a criminal fine of 500F and a civil fine to the Saint-Simon family of 8,000F (Tribunal correctionnel de la Seine, 9 Dec 1936; Recueil Sirey, 1937, 2:133).

Not surprisingly, the order disappears completely after that date, although it is included in the list of false orders condemned by the Holy See in 1953.

The parallels with the revived order of Saint-Lazarus are striking: an ancient order which died out in France after 1830, revived in the 1920s (albeit with membership requirements much loosened), with vague claims that it had survived secretly in the 19th century, some of the same individuals involved in both activities, a Grand-Master with an impressive name chosen in 1929, a sudden surge of activity with famous people supposedly becoming members, including presidents of Latin American countries, etc.

There appears to be a recent revival of this order by Pierre Pasleau, an habitué of the false title circuit.

References

Jürgens, G. Storia dell'Ordine equestre di San Giorgio di Borgogna. Roma, 1935.

Uyttenhove, J. Ordre souverain de Saint Georges de Bourgogne. Gent, 1960.

* various article in Rivista Araldica, cited above.

The Modern Order of Saint-Lazarus

I discussed briefly the prior history of the Order of Saint Lazarus. It was a hospitaller order founded in the 12th c. in Jerusalem to serve as hospital for knights who had contracted leprosy. Since leprosy did not necessarily incapacitate, the hospital acquired a structure modelled on the other military-monastic orders in the Holy Land, and, as manpower grew scarce in the late 13th c.,

some members were involved in battles against Muslims. After the fall of Acre in 1291, the last remnants of the order moved back to Western Europe, mainly France and Italy. The Pope tried to merge it with the Order of Saint John in 1489, then merged it with the Savoyard order of Saint Maurice in 1572. The remaining French priory, which refused to obey the Pope, was transformed into a French royal order and united with the Order of Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel in 1608; it underwent many changes and was abolished in 1791. Not restaured in 1814, it disappeared with its last members in the mid-19th century.

The Order was revived in 1910 and the organization still exists today. I discuss its modern history in a separate page.

The Niadh Nask

The Niadh Nask was a self-described "non-chivalric order of knighthood" which was claimed to have roots in a medieval caste of Irish warriors and to be associated with the MacCarthy family (princes of Desmond until the 16th c.). Evidence of its existence prior to recent times was scant (for example, a cross-shaped badge hangs around the neck of the last prince of Desmond in a 19th century copy of an alleged 16th c. portrait, now lost, and of stylistically dubious authenticity). Its defenders claimed that it had survived until the 1970s as a rather confidential order confined to the MacCarthy family. It considerably extended its public presence under the grand-mastership of Terence MacCarthy, a.k.a. the "MacCarthy Mór". There was substantial overlap in the memberships of the Niadh Nask and the Order of St. Lazarus.

In late 1999, what many people had suspected became patently clear: Terence MacCarthy, whose descent from the princes of Desmond was debunked by Sean J. Murphy, was a complete fraud, and had completely invented the Niadh Nask. Elements of this now obsolete controversy can be found in this page.

Recently Created Orders

Although bona fide orders have been created out of private initiative for charitable, military or religious purposes ever since the original order of Saint John (now known as Malta), since the 19th century there has been a large number of orders created either to satisfy personal vanity, or to enrich a group of people (or both). Not all recently created orders of chivalry need be condemned by such a blanket statement, but caveat emptor remains the rule.

Legal Status

Legally, some (but only few) governments have adopted a stand on orders of chivalry:

On the Web

Here are some links randomly collected while surfing the Web (some links may be out of date or broken).

Patriarchal Order of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem Founded in the late 1960s by the head of the Melchite Greek Catholic Church, the Patriarch Maximos V. It has ranks, titles, fees ($1500 for a knight, $11750 for a grand cross), decorations, fancy costumes, investiture ceremonies, etc. Coincidentally, the patriarch is also the spiritual protector of the order of St Lazarus.

Order of Saint Ignatius founded in 1976 by the metropolitan of the Antiochian Orthodox archdiocese of North America, with the blessing of the Antioch patriarch Elias IV.

Order of Saint Andrew the Apostle of the Ecumenical patriarchate of Constantinople was founded in 1966, with Pierre DeMets as Grand Commander.

Order of Saint Constantine the Great (OMCM), Order of St Helen, Order of St Eugene of Trebizond run by Theodore IX Lascaris Comnenos

Sacred Orthodox Order of the Most Holy Cross of Saint Constantine the Great This self-described "ecclesiastical order of merit" made a brief appearance on the Web; it is apparently tied to the Orthodox bishop of Milan. Its badge is a stunning likeness of the badge of the Constantinian Order of St George of the Two Sicilies. Its recognition by the ICOC is said to be pending. There are two associated orders, the Supreme Order of St. Ambrosius and the Orthodox Order of Saint Mary Magdalen at the Holy Sepulchre of Christ.

The Religious and Military Order of Knights of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem Created by Lloyd Worley, a professor of English at the University of Northern Colorado (and also count palatine of Mazalla, courtesy of the "house of Alabona-Ostrogojsk", see below).

The Order of the Noble Companions of the Swan Created by William Maszer, a.k.a. "His Royal and Serene Highness Prince William I de Alabona-Ostrogojsk-Garama".

Noble Order of the Guards of St Germain an invention of "Prince Michael Stewart of Albany"

The Emperor of Palm Beach by D. Kinnane-Roelofsma (on Caltrap's Corner)

"Peerage Conferred" This title peddler (be a duke for $1500!) also confers the "Order of Saint Andrew of Jerusalem". Dukes get the "Order of St. Victor" for free.

Bibliography

I include here a bibliography taken from Ivo Suetens: Bibliographie Numismatique: Ordres et Décorations, Bruxelles, 1969, 1977. I have not seen these books, and it is likely that they are quite rare, many of them being 16-page pamphlets without place or date of publication. But the list is, of itself, instructive, as it provides traces for the activities of these orders over time.

See also the list of fantasy orders established by the Italian Foreign Ministry and another list drawn by the Holy See in 1953.

General Some general sources on self-styled orders.

Gillingham, H. E. Ephemeral Decorations. New York, 1935. American Numismatical Society: Numismatic Notes and Mongraphs 66.

Zeininger de Borja, H. C. Vanitas Vanitatum, o el trafico de condecoraciones fantasticas. Leysin, 1939. (Zeininger, a serious heraldist, spent a lot of time denouncing self-styled orders, and was a fierce critic of the order of S. Lazarus.)

Chaffanjon, Arnaud and Bertrand Galimard-Flavigny. Ordres & contre-ordres de chevalerie. Paris : Mercure de France, 1982.

Gonzaga Orders

A19th century creation of the so-called prince of Gonzaga-Castiglione, convicted of fraud in 1853.

La famille des Gonzagues et l'Ordre de la Rédemption du Précieux Sang. (mid-19th c.).

Villamora, A. de. Notice historique des ordres de chevalerie appartenant a la maison royale des princes de Gonzaga, ducs de Mantoue. Lyon, 1863. Marseille,

1866.

Lusignan orders

In 1880, a former Maronite priest named Kafta and his wife started peddling an Order of Melusina, claiming to represent the royal house of Lusignan (which reigned over Cyprus in the 13th to 15th centuries) and calling themselves Guy and Marie de Lusignan. After his death, her lover became Grand Master and called himself comte d'Alby de Gratigny, but became involved in a fake art intrigue in 1910.

Lusignan, M. de. Ordre de Mélusine, chevalerie d'honneur de Marie de Lusignan. Paris, 1888.

Lusignan, G. de. Statuts de l'Ordre royal de la Saint Catherine du Mont Sinaï. Paris,

1896.

Cornaro, F. Reale Ordine di Cipro. S.l., 1948. 16 p.

Pelliccioni di Poli, Luciano Il sovrano ordine di Cipro. Rome, 1973.

Golden Horn

Gybels, V.G.M. Geschiedenis en Symbolen der Geheime orde van den Gulden Hoorn. Merksem, 1933.

Grand Centaure

Miera, F. de. Statuts de l'Ordre Equestre du Grand Centaure. Verviers, 1872.

Saint Agatha of Paternò Created in the 1950s by a cadet of the Sicilian family of Paternò. See more info.

Santippolito, C. L'Ordine dinastico di S. Agata dei Paterno. Messina, 1961.

Saint Brigitte of Sweden

Orden de los Caballeros del SS. Salvador o de S. Brigida de Suevia. Estatutos. 1948.

Ordine dei Cavalieri del S.S. Salvatore o di S. Brigida di Svezia. Statuti. 1950.

Bisogni. La Sacra e nobile milizia del SS. Salvatore o di S. Brigida di Suezia. 1950.

Van Dijk, B.J.M. De ridderlijke orden van St.-Birgitta van Zweden en van de Roos en het Kruis van Jerusalem, tempelorde. Amsterdam, 1968.

Saint Mary of Bethlehem

Vargas Machuca, A. de. Il Sacro militare ordine di S. Maria di Bethlemme. Naples,

1936.

Saint Denis of Zanthe Founded by Pericles Voultsos in the 1950s, headed now by Thomas John Taglianetti. See more info.

Ordre grec-souverain et international de Saint-Dennis de Zante: Histoire, Administration, Buts et activites. New York, 1953.

The International American Institute. The story of the ancient and most exalted Greek Order of Saint Dennis of Zante. Washington, D.C. 1958.

Historia de la muy antigua e nobre Ordem grega de S. Dionisio de Zante. Lisboa, n.d. A Spanish version, printed in Santiago de Chile, ca. 1960.

C.N. Packett. The story of the ancient and most exalted Greek Order of Saint Dennis of Zante. Bradford, 1962.

The Sovereign Greek Order of Saint Dennis of Zante. Historical summary and roster. New York, 1965-.

Voultsos, P. Hoi hippotai tou hagiou Dionusiou Zakunthou. Athens, 1973.

Saint George of Carinthia Revived in the mid-20th century; seems to be still active.

Pelliccioni di Poli, Luciano: L'Ordine di San Giorgio in Carinzia. Rome, 1975.

Another edition in 1983 with slightly different title: L'Ordine Sovrano Militare Ospedaliero di San Giorgio in Carinzia. On the cover of the first edition the author is styled "conte di Montecocullo, Gran Cancelliere dell'Ordine".

Saint Hubert of Bar

A nobiliary confraternity of this name did exist in Old Regime France, similar to S. George

of Burgundy. Like it, it was revived in the 20th century by Ernest-Diomede Caprotti during

World War II; its chancellor was a Dutchman, Charles J.A. Begeer. This order had as its head a prince Galitzin and later Eugene-Leopold of Bavaria (cf. Zeininger 1953).

Caprotti, D. Capitularis Ordo Sancti Huberti Lorenensis ac Barensis e pia Unione

dell'Ordine di S. Huberto. Florence, 1944.

Saint Sébastien et Saint Guillaume

Originally a crossbow practice group of the 15th century, briefly revived in the 1730s. Recreated by L. Doucet inthe 1900s as a pseudo-nobiliary order with Grand-Cross, Commander, Officer and Knight. The insignia was a Maltese cross with two arrows crossed between the branches and surmounted by a countal coronet.

Doucet de Chermont, L.M. Documents, statuts et privilèges de la noble institution de l'Ordre des Chevaliers de Saints-Sébastien et Guillaume. Montligeon. 1911.

Breve Historia da ordem dos Cavalheiros de S. Sebastiao e Guilherme. Rio de Janeiro, 1954.

article by Ugo Orlandini in Rivista Araldica, October 1910, p. 624.

Constantinian Order and Royal Crown of Vandalia

A creation of "Flavian Eugene, 47th duke of Athens". (Cf. Zeininger 1953).

Sanz de Andino, F. J. La Orden de Constantino el Grande y de la Real Corona de Vandalia. Madrid, 1947.

Cross of Constantine the Great One of the creations of Fortuné Koller, who also served as propagandist for the Belgian G. Proot, so-called prince of Thomond.

Koller, Fortuné. Ordre sacré impérial angélique de la Croix de Constantin le Grand. Rome, 1950.

Our Lady of Mercy (N. S. Della Mercede)

Ajtay de Vajasd, L. L'Ordine della Mercede. Rome, 1914.

Vico, A. Costituzioni del celeste, reale e militare Ordine di N. S. della Mercede. Rome,. 1926.

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François Velde

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Knighthood and Orders of Chivalry

The following pages deal with knights and knighthood, as well as the related concept of order of knighthood, both in its original form as a medieval institution, and its modern form as an award of merit. See the introduction for a development of these distinctions.

Contents

Specific Orders:

The Order of Saint John (Sovereign Military Order of Malta)

Bibliography

There are many, many books on the topic of orders of chivalry. There is an excellent bibliography:

Suetens, Ivo: Bibliographie Numismatique - Supplément: Ordres et Décorations. Bruxelles, Cercle d'Etudes Numismatiques, Travaux: 1969, 1977 (2 vol.).

Lists of British knights

To identify a British knight (knight bachelor or knight member of an order), one can use:

Shaw, William Arthur: The knights of England; a complete record from the earliest time to the present day of the knights of all the orders of chivalry in England, Scotland, and

Ireland, and of knights bachelors; Incorporating a complete list of knights bachelors dubbed in Ireland, compiled by G. D. Burtchaell. London, Printed and published for the Central chancery of the orders of knighthood, Sherratt and Hughes, 1906. Shaw's lists go "from the earliest time" to 1904 inclusive. For any honour awarded sinec January 1, 1900, the online edition of the London Gazette can be searched.

Other Resources on the Web

Listings of Knights

ORB's page on military orders with scholarly contributions, primary documents (such as the rules of the Templars and Teutonic nights) and links

Page on Chivalric Orders by Guy Stair Sainty, the most complete site on the subject.

A Page on Honours from the British monarchy's official website.

The British Venerable Order of Saint John, US priory (with further links)

Official Web Page of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta's Assocation in the United States.

The Orders of Chivalry Web Site, currently contains articles the British Orders of Chivalry, the Orders of St John (the Sovereign Order of Malta and on the four non-Catholic Orders of St John known as the Alliance Orders), the Order of St Lazarus, and the Order of St Stanislas.

International Commission on Orders of Chivalry originally founded in 1962, refounded in

1999-2001

originally founded in 1962, refounded in 1999-2001 Return to Heraldica Main Page François Velde Knighthood

Knighthood and Chivalry

No substantial change since September 1996.

Terminology

The terms are often confused, and often needlessly distinguished. The term knighthood comes from the English word knight (from Old English cniht, boy, servant, cf. German Knecht) while chivalry comes from the French chevalerie, from chevalier or knight (Low Latin caballus for horse). In modern English, chivalry means the ideals, virtues, or characteristics of knights. The phrases "orders of chivalry" and "orders of knighthood" are essentially synonymous.

The German translation for "knight" is Ritter (literally, rider). The Latin term in the Middle Ages was miles, since a knight was by definition a professional soldier. In modern times, the Classical Latin term eques was preferred.

History

The Emergence of knights

Succintly, a knight was a professional soldier. The old "citizens' armies" of Antiquity had been replaced by professional armies. This trend was reinforced by the appearance in the 8th century of the stirrup, which made mounted men much more powerful and turned cavalry into the most important element of medieval armies. But being a mounted soldier was expensive, since it required enough income to buy and sustain a horse and the equipment (armor, weapons) to go with it. Thus, those who were too poor to provide this service became mere peasants, attached to the land.

In feudal society as it emerged in the 10th century, everyone held land from someone else in exchange for goods or services of some kind. Men who were not free provided a portion of their crops and labor services. Men who were free provided military service, either personally or (if they were rich enough) using others' services. Thus, a man who held his estate in knight's fee owed service as a knight to his lord. A more sizeable vassal, when called by his liege, would summon his knights and form a contingent in his liege's army.

The Development of Knighthood

Knighthood was originally a professional association. It included those men who could afford to make and maintain the heavy capital investment required by mounted warfare (horse and armor). It emerges in the 11th century, and its members are nobles (members of the great land-owning families) as well as small land-holders, free men, craftsmen, etc (in Spain, caballeros villanos were common until the 14th c.). It must be understood that, even in the feudal era, the boundaries of knighthood were quite fluid. Anyone who, by luck or effort, managed to obtain the training and equipment to be a knight, could eventually enter that class. In Flanders, there is a famous case of a family of servile (i.e., unfree) origin who entered into knighthood and became castellans of ??? in the 12th c.

In the course of the 12th century, a social and ethical dimension is added to this professional aspect. The strong influence of Cluny monks, who try to give an ethos to savage warfare, leads to the

definition of the true miles Christi, a soldier who follows a certain code of behavior, which we now call chivalric. Starting in the second half of the 12th century, literature (gests and Arthurian romances) also provides a model for the knightly community, as well as a means of glorifying it.

Knighthood and Nobility

Thus, knights were not necessarily nobles, nor were nobles necessarily knights. The noble class and the knightly class slowly came to merge from the late 12th century onward. Nobles become knights with increasing frequency. The French prince (future king Louis VI) was knighted without the knowledge of his father who remains distrustful of a rather heterogeneous professional class, but thereafter every French king is knighted (Favier 1993). Conversely, heredity enters the knightly class in the 13th century. The son of a knight is automatically a squire, thus making him eligible for knighthood on the basis of his ancestry; at the same time, knighthood is more and more restricted to descendants of knights by various legal restrictions imposed over the course of the 13th century. In the late 13th century, a decision of the Parliament in Paris forbade the count of Artois from making unfree men into knights without the king's consent; interesting to note, the two men who had been so knighted were allowed to remain knights subject to the payment of a fine. This marked both the closure of the knightly class as well as the beginnings of a new form of access, by purchase.

In England, the evolution was different: those who held land in knight's fee but did not wish to take up the profession could pay a tax. Knighthood did not become a hereditary class in England, and instead the knightly class (those eligible to be knights) became the nucleus of the gentry.

See also my page on women knights.

The End of Knighthood

As a military institution, knighthood was on the wane from the late 13th century on. The end of feudal society meant that sovereigns gained a monopoly on war-making, and the old form of military service owed to one's immediate lord became obsolete. Kings still summoned their knights for wars, but increasingly they turned to other sources of manpower, namely mercenaries whose use became common in the 14th century. The war preparations of Henry V of England, which are well-documented, show how the king formed an army: he signed dozens of contracts (or indentures) with individuals who pledged to provide a specified number of men-at-arms and archers (usually 3 archers for each man-at-arm) at muster time.

The development of gunpowder and increasingly more powerful archery meant that the use of massive cavalry charges to break enemy lines and carry swift victory could not be relied upon, and the dominance of cavalry came to an end. If any battle summed up this change, it was the battle of Agincourt in 1415. The charging French knights, compressed by the terrain and the English arrows into a fragmented and ever constricted line of attack, reached the English line without any room to maneuver, and it only took a few fallen horses to prevent all other knights from moving in any direction. Thus, in half-an-hour the battle was decided, and thousands of French knights lay prisoners. The fear of a second attack prompted the English to kill them on the spot, and the French nobility was horribly decimated in a single day. The French learned their lesson; Charles VII, who finally expelled the English, formed the first standing, professional army in Europe.

The chivalric ideals continued to live on, perhaps precisely because the reality of knighthood had disappeared, and a free rein was given to romanticizing. The French king François Ier insisted on

being knighted on the battlefield of his first victory at Marignano in 1515. Tournaments, pas d'armes were favorite entertainment at the French court of the 16th century. More and more elaborate suits of armor were forged for pure display, in increasingly baroque imitations of earlier models. Ariosto's poetic retelling of the crusades popularized the figures of Orlando and Ruggiero and extended the knightly myth for another 200 years. In the 19th century, when no one read Ariosto anymore, Sir Walter Scott and Romanticism took up the cause.

Orders of Knighthood

The origins of orders of knighthood are in the Crusades. In the Latin Orient, a new institution emerged, in which knights (professional soldiers) associated themselves under a strict, quasi- monastic rule of life, for the purpose of protecting pilgrims and defending Christian conquests in

the Holy Land. In the 14th century, just as the original military-monastic orders were searching for

a new mission after the loss of the Holy Land, kings began creating orders of their own, modelled

in part on these original orders, but with a different purpose, to bind their nobility to themselves.

Still later, in the late 16th century, these monarchical orders were imitated in form by the new orders of merit which became common throughout Europe.

Because each institution tried to use the prestige of the previous one by imitating it, the term "order of knighthood" has been passed on and is now used for modern awards and decorations which are neither orders nor composed of knights. In modern society, only a very few orders survive from the times of the Crusades, and most "orders of knighthood" awarded by sovereigns or governments (such as the English Garter or the Spanish Golden Fleece) are, in spite of their historical connection, awards of merit.

I discuss orders of knighthood at greater length.

Heraldry and Knighthood

The relations between heraldry, nobility and knighthood are often completely misunderstood. Briefly stated, heraldry appeared in the landed aristocracy and quickly spread to the knightly class in the 12th century, at a time when knighthood and nobility remain very distinct classes. Over the course of the 13th century, knighthood and nobility came to merge, just as heraldry spread far beyond either class to be used by all classes of society. Thus, heraldry is not particularly linked to nobility, although the most easily documented uses of heraldry are among nobles, simply because nobles were the elite.

The initial development of heraldry certainly owes a lot to the practices of the knightly class, in particular the growing fashion of tournaments, which became more and more popular from the 13th century, just as knighthood as a military institution was on the wane. Tournaments were the occasion to display coats of arms, and heralds, who were originally a specialized group of minstrels, became responsible for identifying and cataloguing the arms of participants. Their knowledge of coats of arms also helped them identify fighters in battle and dead on the battlefield, and for this reason heralds became associated with battles, truces, declarations of war, in an official capacity.

References

Favier, Jean: Dictionnaire de la France Médiévale. Paris: 1993, Fayard.

Walrop: La Noblesse de Flandres avant 1300.

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Women Knights in the Middle Ages

Were there women knights in the Middle Ages? Initially I thought not, but further research yielded surprising answers. There were two ways anyone could be a knight: by holding land under a knight's fee, or by being made a knight or inducted into an order of knighthood. There are examples of both cases for women.

Female Orders of Knighthood

The Order of the Hatchet

There is a case of a clearly military order of knighthood for women. It is the order of the Hatchet (orden de la Hacha) in Catalonia. It was founded in 1149 by Raymond Berenger, count of Barcelona, to honor the women who fought for the defense of the town of Tortosa against a Moor attack. The dames admitted to the order received many privileges, including exemption from all taxes, and took precedence over men in public assemblies. I presume the order died out with the original members.

Here is a description taken from Ashmole, The Institution, Laws, and Ceremony of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (1672), Ch. 3, sect. 3:

"The example is of the Noble Women of Tortosa in Aragon, and recorded by Josef Micheli Marquez, who plainly calls them Cavalleros or Knights, or may I not rather say Cavalleras, seeing I observe the words Equitissae and Militissae (formed from the Latin Equites and Milites) heretofore applied to Women, and sometimes used to express Madams or Ladies,though now these Titles are not known.

"Don Raymond, last Earl of Barcellona (who by intermarriage with Petronilla, only Daughter and Heir of King Ramiro the Monk, united that principality to the Kingdom of Aragon) having in the year 1149, gained the City of Tortosa from the Moors, they on the 31 of December following, laid a

new Siege to that place, for the recovery of it out of the Earls hands. The Inhabitants being a length reduced to gread streights, desired relief of the Earl, but he, being not in a condition to give them any, they entertained some thoughts of making a surrender. Which the Women hearing of, to prevent the disaster threatning their City, themselves, and Children, put on mens Clothes, and by a resolute sally, forced the Moors to raise the Siege.

"The Earl, finding himself obliged, bythe gallentry of the action, thought fit to make his acknowlegements thereof, by granting them several Privileges and Immunities, and to perpetuate the memory of so signal an attempt, instituted an Order, somewhat like a Military Order, into which were admitted only those Brave Women, deriving the honor to their Descendants, and assigned them for a Dadge, a thing like a Fryars Capouche, sharp at the top, after the form of a Torch, and of a crimson colour, to be worn upon their Head-clothes. He also ordained, that at all publick meetings, the women should have precedence of the Men. That they should be exempted from all Taxes, adn that all the Apparel and Jewels, though of never so great value, left by their dead Husbands, should be their own.

"These Women (saith our Author) having thus aquired this Honor by their personal Valour, carried themselves after the Military Knights of those days." Jeanne Hachette, who fought to repel a Burgundian assault on the town of Beauvais in 1472. The King exempted her from taxes, and ordered that, in an annual procession to commemorate the event, women would have precedence over men. This story seems to be a carbon copy of the Order of the Hatchet story

In Italy, the Order of the glorious Saint Mary, founded by Loderigo d'Andalo, a nobleman of Bologna in 1233, and approved by pope Alexander IV in 1261, was the first religious order of knighthood to grant the rank of militissa to women. This order was suppressed by Sixtus V in 1558.

In the Low Countries, at the initiative of Catherine Baw in 1441, and 10 years later of Elizabeth, Mary and Isabella of the house of Hornes, orders were founded which were open exclusively to women of noble birth, who received the French title of chevalière or the Latin title of equitissa. In his Glossarium (s.v. militissa), Du Cange notes that still in his day (17th c.), the female canons of the canonical monastery of St. Gertrude in Nivelles (Brabant), after a probation of 3 years, are made knights (militissae) at the altar, by a (male) knight called in for that purpose, who gives them the accolade with a sowrd and pronounces the usual words.

In England, ladies were appointed to the Garter almost from the start. In all, 68 ladies were appointed between 1358 and 1488, including all consorts. Though many were women of royal blood, or wives of knights of the Garter, some women were neither. They wore the garter on the left arm, and some are shown on their tombstones with this arrangement. After 1488, no other appointments are known, although it is said that the Garter was granted to a Neapolitan poetess, Laura Bacio Terricina, by Edward VI. In 1638, a proposal was made to revive the use of robes for the wives of knights in ceremonies, but it came to nought. (See Edmund Fellowes, Knights of the Garter, 1939; and Beltz: Memorials of the Order of the Garter).

Unless otherwise noted, all the above is from the book by H. E. Cardinale, Orders of Knighthood, Awards and the Holy See, 1983. The info on the order of the Hatchet is reproduced elsewhere as well, e.g., a Spanish encyclopedia. I have seen the order of glorious Saint Mary discussed elsewhere, but without mention of women. I have yet to identify the orders of the Hornes family.

Women in the Military Orders

Several established military orders had women who were associated with them, beyond the simple

provision of aid. The Teutonic order accepted consorores who assumed the habit of the order and lived under its rule; they undertook menial and hospitaller functions. Later, in the late 12th century, one sees convents dependent on military orders are formed. In the case of the Order of Saint-John (later Malta), they were soeurs hospitalières, and they were the counterparts of the frères prêtres or priest brothers, a quite distinct class from the knights. In England, Buckland was the site of a house of Hospitaller sisters from Henry II's reign to 1540. In Aragon, there were Hospitaller convents in Sigena, San Salvador de Isot, Grisén, Alguaire, headed each by a commendatrix. In France they are found in Beaulieu (near Cahors), Martel and Fieux. The only other military order to have convents by 1300 was the order of Santiago, which had admitted married members since its foundation in 1175. and soon women were admitted and organized into convents of the order (late 12th, early 13th c.). The convents were headed by a commendatrix (in Spanish: commendadora) or prioress. There were a total of six in the late 13th century: Santa Eufenia de Cozuelos in northern Castile, San Spiritu de Salamanca, Santos-o-Vello in Portugal, Destriana near Astorga, San Pedro de la Piedra near Lérida, San Vincente de Junqueres. The order of Calatrava also had a convent in San Felices de los Barrios.

and thirteenth centuries,' Studia Monastica 1987 (vol. 29).

Women Knights

Medieval French had two words, chevaleresse and chevalière, which were used in two ways: one was for the wife of a knight, and this usage goes back to the 14th c. The other was as female knight, or so it seems. Here is a quote from Menestrier, a 17th c. writer on chivalry: "It was not always necessary to be the wife of a knight in order to take this title. Sometimes, when some male fiefs were conceded by special privilege to women, they took the rank of chevaleresse, as one sees plainly in Hemricourt where women who were not wives of knights are called chevaleresses."

I could find no trace of any title bestowed on Jeanne d'Arc. Her family was made noble, with nobility transmissible through women, which was quite unusual. She did ride a horse and dress up in armor, but she did not wield a sword and never killed anyone, but rather grasped her banner pretty tightly.

Female Grand-Cross in the ORder of Saint John

In 1645, when a Turkish fleet threatened the island of Malta, a French nobleman, Louis d'Arpajon (1601-79), called his vassals, raised an army of 2000 men, found ships and provisions and sailed for Malta. On 27 July 1645, a grateful Grand Master granted to him and his eldest son the right to wear and to bear in his arms a cross of Malta, and to one of his younger sons the right to be admitted as a minor in the order and to be promoted grand cross at the age of 18; furthermore this privilege was to be transmitted to his successors as head of his house, and in case of extinction of the male line it would pass to females. (See his arms).

This privilege was The male line became extinct with his grandson Louis d'Arpajon, knight of the Golden Fleece, who died in 1736. He left a daughter Anne-Claude-Louise d'Arpajon (1729-94) who married Philippe de Noailles, comte de Noailles, baron de Mouchy (1715-94). She was received Grand-Cross on 13 Dec 1745 in Paris by the ambassador of the Order, and her husband was received 17 Nov 1750 (he was also knight of the St Esprit 1767, knight of the Golden Fleece

1746, and maréchal de France 1775, grandee of Spain 1st class 1741, styled duc de Mouchy 1747. (source: La Chesnaye-Desbois; the président Hénault, maternal uncle of the countess of Noailles, witnessed her reception and mentions it in his Mémoires, p. 146.).

Their younger son Louis-Marie, vicomte de Noailles (1756-1804) was called to the privilege. He married his cousin the daughter of the duc d'Ayen and had among others a younger son Alfred- Louis-Dominique (1784-1812), baron of the French Empire, whose only daughter by his cousin Charlotte de Noailles de Mouchy was Anne-Charlotte-Cécile (d. 1858). She married Charles- Philippe-Henri de Noailles, duc de Mouchy, and their son Antonin-Just-Léon-Marie (1841-1909) was grand-cross of St. John. The Gotha Français also names his grandson and successor Henry, duc de Mouchy (1890-1947) as grand-cross, but does not say if the privilege continued.

Hénault adds that (in his time, c. 1750), there were only three other female grand-crosses: the "princesse de Rochette in Italy", the princess of Thurn and Taxis (Maria Ludovika von Lobkowicz, 1683-1750), and her daughter Maria Augusta von Thurn und Taxis, duchess of Wurttemberg

((1706-56).

Modern Women Knights

Modern French orders include women, of course, in particular the Légion d'Honneur (Legion of Honor) since the mid-19th c., but they are always called chevaliers. The first documented case is that of Marie-Angélique Duchemin (1772-1859), who fought in the Revolutionary Wars, received a

military disability pension in 1798, the rank of 2nd lieutenant in 1822, and the Legion of Honor in

1852.

Traditionally, French women on whom the Légion d'Honneur or other order is conferred use the title "chevalier." However, a recipient of the Ordre National du Mérite recently requested from the order's Chancery the permission to call herself "chevalière" and the request was granted (AFP dispatch, Jan 28, 2000).

The first woman to be granted a knighthood in modern Britain seems to have been H.H. Nawab Sikandar Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal, who became a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) in 1861, at the foundation of the order. Her daughter received the same honour in 1872, and granddaughter in 1910. The order was open to "princes and chiefs" without distinction of gender. (Thanks to Christopher Buyers for this item).

The first European woman to have been granted an order of knighthood was Queen Mary, when she was made a Knight Grand Commander of the same order, by special statute, in celebration of the Delhi Durbar of 1911. She was also granted a knighthood in 1917, when the Order of the British Empire was created (the first order explicitly open to women). The Royal Victorian Order was opened to women in 1936, the Order of Bath and Saint Michael and Saint George in 1965 and 1971 respectively. Queen consorts have been made Ladies of the Garter since 1901 (Queens Alexandra in 1901, Mary in 1910, Elizabeth in 1937). The first non-Royal woman to be made Lady Companion of the Garter was Lavinia, duchess of Norfolk in 1990 (†1995), the second was Baroness Thatcher in 1995 (post-nominal: LG). On Nov. 30, 1996, Marion Ann Forbes, Lady Fraser was made Lady of the Thistle, the first non-Royal woman (post-nominal: LT).

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François Velde

Last modified: Oct 21, 2005

History of Orders of Chivalry: a Survey

See also Guy Sainty's Chivalric Orders; this page benefited from his comments, although I remain responsible for the opinions expressed here.

Contents

The Crusades provided the conditions for the emergence of a new institution combining elements of monasticism with elements of chivalry. It was soon imitated in Spain and in Eastern Europe.

In partial imitation of the monastic orders, kings created institutions designed to reward and bind subjects to them. Also, at the same time a wide variety of associations came into being, which are classified here.

The emergence of centralized states made monarchical orders unnecessary, and they turned into honorific orders, rewarding past behavior or conferring distinction rather than encouraging future loyalty. New honorific orders, many without nobiliary requirement, start multiplying from 1693.

Introduction

Orders of Chivalry are, primarily, a historical phenomenon peculiar to Western European Christendom of the Middle Ages. It is in that context that they are most easily defined and understood.

An Order of Chivalry is a certain type of institution. In the category of orders of chivalry, a number of institutions have been placed over time. One can distinguish several phases in the history of that type of institution. The original form, during the Crusades, deserved its name of order, since it consisted of individuals bound together by a permanent religious rule of behavior. After the Crusades were over, in the 14th c., monarchs used the trappings of these orders to create a new institution to serve their purpose of binding vassals to their person. After the Renaissance, the old

monarchical orders (and some monastic orders) became purely honorific orders, and other honorific orders were created, once more using the trappings of orders of chivalry.

As a result, we have today such disparate institutions as the Order of Malta, The Order of the Holy Sepulchre, the Garter, the Golden Fleece (one of the two, at any rate), Bath, Calatrava, all using the name "order of chivalry" or "order of knighthood" even though they are all very different organizations in history, form and purpose.

1100 to 1350: The Military-Monastic Orders

Origins

Orders of chivalry first appear in the context of Western Europe's military activities against non- Christian populations and states. Starting in the 11th century, Western Europe went into an aggressive expansionary phase, leading it into conflict with non-Christian populations on two fronts: in Spain and in the Middle East. These wars were engaged in for a variety of motives, but they were, at least in some respects, religious wars. The first orders of chivalry inherit this dual aspect, religious and military.

The first orders of chivalry were associations of individuals, committing themselves to certain goals and regulated activities. The commitment typically took the form of vows, and the regulation

of activities took the form of a Rule and an institutional structure defined by statutes and managed by officers. Thus, orders of chivalry were religious orders, in the same sense that purely religious

or monastic orders were created at the same time (Carthusians, Cistercians, Franciscans,

Dominicans, etc). The goals were both the sanctification of their members through their devotional and charitable activities, as well as participation in the fight against the "Infidels", either by

protecting pilgrims or actively taking part in defensive or offensive military operations.

A lot has been written about the origins of this new institution. As with heraldry, it seems difficult

for some to accept that Western Europe could invent anything on its own; but, as in the case of heraldry, no convincing evidence has ever been adduced to show that orders of chivalry were an imported concept. Rather, this institution must be seen in the context of the 11th century, when monks and clerics were trying to establish a code of conduct for the new professional class of

knights by turning them into "soldiers of Christ." During the Crusades, where religious fervor was

at its peak and military skills at a premium, it was natural that these religious and military

components fused into the military-monastic orders.

The first orders of chivalry in the Middle East (Templars founded as a military order ca. 1119, Saint-John ca. 1080, militarized ca. Saint Lazarus ca. 1100, Teutonic Knights founded ca. 1190) were all created by private initiatives, as were the Orders in the Iberic peninsula (Avis in 1143, Alcantara in 1156, Calatrava in 1158, Santiago in 1164) created in imitation of the orders in the Holy Land. They typically saw their statutes confirmed or recognized by the Pope after a few years.

Organization

Orders of chivalry, like the Church in general, were recipients of many donations, often in the form

of land (e.g., a lord would become a knight and give his possessions to his order). Quickly, the

orders became large landowners throughout Western Europe, far from their center of activity. As a

result, structures were created to manage these estates which had been entrusted to them: these estates became known as commendatoriae (cf. the English verb "to commend") and their managers commendatores. Only later was the word corrupted into commander, which gives it a semblance of military rank which it never was.

As religious orders, these institutions naturally fell under the authority of the Pope, who typically approved the statutes of the order and thereby gave it a form of official recognition. In practice, the orders managed their own affairs, but in times of crises or uncertainty, the pope could and often did intervene directly, either by abolishing an order, merging it with another order (which usually came down to a transfer of assets to the other order), reforming its statutes, appointing a grand-master, etc. The large degree of autonomy that the orders had enjoyed for long periods of time sometimes led them to resent such outside interference. However, only the Order of Saint-John and the Teutonic Order ever gained enough independence and territorial sovereignty to be thought of as "sovereign orders", and in both cases this only happened after the 14th century. It should be kept in mind that the military-monastic orders were, before all, religious orders. They owned land in various countries, their membership was international, and they managed their own affairs, but so did the Benedictines and the Jesuits, and no one ever calls them "sovereign".

The military aspect of these monastic orders explains why they are called Orders of Chivalry. Fighting was a professional activities, and professionals were called knights. Entrance into the social-professional category of knighthood entailed a number of religious rituals which made the idea of a monk-knight only an extension of the general idea of knight. The orders simply recruited individuals who had attained, or could attain, the status of knight. This connection became even stronger as time passed and knighthood became romanticized even as it was losing its professional aspect.

I call these orders military-monastic, to emphasize their dual nature, which sets them apart from any other organization of the time. While it may appear difficult for modern-day Christians to understand how one could sanctify oneself by killing, this notion did not seem shocking in a time which took the expression milites Christi quite literally. Some orders, however, did separate the tasks, and had fighting knights alongside praying chaplains (e.g., the Order of Saint-John). In fact, these orders reflected in their structure (chaplains, knights, sergeants) the Three Orders of feudal society (clergy, nobility and third estate).

At this point, then, orders of chivalry are an association of individuals, typically members of the knightly class, committing themselves through solemn vows to obey the rules and statutes of a religious order and to engage as professional soldiers in a permanent religious war, but also in religious and charitable activities. As religious orders, these associations usually need the approval of the Pope, and fall to some degree under his authority.

Lesser-known orders in the Middle East, the Iberic peninsula and Eastern Europe include :

the Sword, founded by Guy of Lusignan, king of Cyprus, in 1192, disappeared with the conquest of Cyprus by the Turks in 1571,

Saint Blasius in Armenia (13th c.-15th c.),

Saint-John and Saint-Thomas in the Middle East (1254),

Saint Thomas of Acre founded as a military order by Peter des Roches, bishop of Westminster, in 1228,

Mountjoy later known as Holy Redeemer and Montfragüe, founded in 1175 and merged with Calatrava in 1221,

Our-Lady of the Rosary in 1209 by the archbishop of Toledo, soon extinct

Our-Lady-of-Mercy in 1233 in Aragon, played a part in the conquests of Valencia and

Majorca but became a purely religious order in the 14th century,

Sant-Jordi d'Alfama by the king of Aragon in 1201 (merged with Montesa in 1399),

Concord in the 1240s by Ferdinand III of Castile, disappeared after his death in 1252,

Saint-James of the Sword, an offshot of the Spanish order in Portugal in 1275,

the Sword-Brethren, created in 1197 by a citizen of Bremen, soon militarized by the bishop of Riga, and merged in 1237 with the Teutonic Order.

After 1291: The Orders look for new missions

A major change occurred in 1291, when Acre, the last Crusader stronghold in Palestine, fell to the Arabs. The remaining orders of chivalry had to find a new raison d'être, since the Holy Land was lost with little hope of regaining it. Some orders managed the transition skillfully: the Teutonic Knights, who had already settled in Eastern Europe and absorbed the native Order of the Sword- Brethren, transferred all of their activities to Eastern Europe, where they engaged in colonization of still-pagan areas in Poland and the Baltic, and later in fighting against Orthodox Russia (and even Catholic Poland). The Order of Saint-John conquered Rhodes in the early 1300s and transformed itself into a naval power, pursuing the fight against Arabs and later Turks. Remnants of other orders found refuge in Rhodes under the protection of the Order of Saint-John.

The Templars, which, by virtue of their vast network of fund-collecting, had become bankers of sorts, resisted attempts at a merger with the Order of Saint-John, a project the Pope and other rulers insisted on to better marshal resources for new crusades. Impatient with this resistance, irritated at the disorder and lack of morality which prevailed in the order, and probably mindful of the Temple's riches, the King of France arrested the Templars, had them tried on trumped-up charges, and coerced the Pope into pronouncing the dissolution of their order (1312). The Order of Saint- John became the recipient of the Templars' estates. Two offshoots of the Templars survived in the form of new Orders: the Order of Christ in Portugal (1318) and the Order of Montesa in Spain (1319). Since the 18th century, many other groups have sprung up claiming a filiation with the Templars.

1335 to 1470: The Monarchical Orders of Chivalry

A new generation of orders

As the Crusades became a thing of the past (the last one floundering in 1271), they became romanticized, just as chivalry itself. The aura of orders of chivalry was being actively maintained by the exploits of the Knights of Saint-John ruling their kingdom of Rhodes and fighting the Turks; but most of all by the popularity of the Arthurian novels, international bestsellers of the time, detailing the glorious deeds of the Knights of the Round Table. Indeed, the knights of Saint-John, alone in their kingdom of Cyprus and fighting the nearby Infidels, seemed to many to be the epitome of the Arthurian myth. The emergence of this myth, that of a group of loyal knights devoted to a monarch did not take place in a vacuum of by accident. The 13th and 14th centuries saw the end of feudalism and the emergence of what would become the nation-states of modern Europe, centered on increasingly powerful monarchs. However, the glue of the feudal system, personal fealty to one's immediate superior in the hierarchy, needed a substitute. Until such time as the concept of absolute monarchy became fully developed, monarchs seized on the concept of orders of chivalry. They thus created institutions which recycled some of the trappings of the original orders of chivalry, but with the aim to create a close-knit and devoted circle of noblemen

around the person of the sovereign. These were the monarchical orders of chivalry.

These were not the only associations to be called, either at the time or later, "orders of chivalry". The second generation of orders of chivalry, which might be collectively called lay orders of knighthood, included a wide variety of institutions and associations.

It should be noted that, at the time, lay devotional confraternities were quite common: these were lay institutions which grouped members for devotional activities, met regularly, and had some form of statutes. One might think of them as the medieval (and religious) equivalent of clubs. Also, princes and lords made a common use in the 14th century of badges and liveries which they distributed to their servants but also to their followers. The fact that some confraternities, and some orders of knighthood, also began using insignia and outer marks of membership results in a great deal of confusion.

D'Arcy Boulton (1987) has proposed a classification of these associations:

1. Monarchical Orders: organizations loosely modeled on lay devotional confraternities, but whose presidential office (and the control of membership) was attached to a crown or dominion, and whose main purpose was to foster loyalty to the president (Garter, Golden Fleece).

2. Confraternal Orders: these are like the first kind, but with an elective presidence and cooptive membership. Boulton further distinguishes two classes:

Princely Orders founded by princes. Most were created after the Golden Fleece in 1430. These are similar to the monarchical orders, but the presidency was not hereditary.

Order of Saint George, founded by Charles I of Hungary in 1325-6,

Order of Saint Catherine, founded ca. 1335 by Humbert, Dauphin du Viennois,

Order of St. Anthony, founded in 1384 by Albrecht I of Bavaria (although this order may not have been knightly).

Society of the Eagle, founded by Albrecht von Habsburg in 1433,

Selschapp unnser Liuen Frowen (Society of Our Lady, a.k.a. Order of the Swan, founded in 1440 by Friedrich II of Brandenburg,

St. Hubertus Orden (Order of Saint Hubert), founded in 1444 by Gerhard V of Jülich and Berg,

Ordre du Croissant (Order of the Crescent), founded by René d'Anjou in

1448,

Society of St. Jerome, founded in 1450 by Friedrich II of Wettin, Elector of Saxony.

Baronial Orders which were like aristocratic versions of the professional guilds of the time. Examples:

Order of Saint-Hubert, in Barrois, 1422

Noble Order of Saint George of Rougemont, Franche-Comté, 1440

3. Fraternal Orders: these were a form of brotherhood-in-arms, formed for a specific purpose and a limited duration, binding members with pledges of aid an loyalty. They are similar to the emprises of the time, and distinguished by the use of the name "order" and of insignia. Only four are known:

Compagnie of the Black Swan, created by 3 princes and 11 knights in Savoy in 1350,

Corps et Ordre du Tiercelet (a kind of falcon), founded by the vicomte de Thouars and 17 barons in Poitou between 1377 and 1385,

Ourdre de la Pomme d'Or founded by 14 knights in Auvergne in 1394,

years, converted into a Confraternal order of Saint-Hubert in 1422.

4. Votive Orders: these were a form of emprise or association formed for a specific purpose and for a definite term, on the basis of a vow (hence the term votive); these were chivalric games, without the mutual pledges which characterized fraternal orders. Only three are known, on the basis of their statutes:

Emprise de l'Escu vert à la Dame Blanche (Enterprise of the green shield with the white lady), created in 1399 by Jean le Maingre dit Boucicaut and 12 knights for 5 years,

Emprise du Fer de Prisonnier (Enterprise of the Prisoner's Iron) undertaken by Jean de Bourbon and 16 knights for 2 years in 1415,

Enterprise of the Dragon, undertaken by Jean comte de Foix for 1 year.

5. The Cliental Pseudo-Orders: these were not really orders in that they had no statutes, no limited membership, etc. They were a group bound by a simple oath of allegiance to a prince who bestowed a badge or insignia. These were in fact glorified retinues, misnamed orders, which makes them often confused with princely orders:

Ordre de la Cosse de Genêt (Order of the Broom-Pod), founded by Charles VI of France ca. 1388,

Order of the camail or Porcupine, created by Louis d'Orléans in 1394,

Order of the Dove, Castile, 1390,

Order of the Scale of Castile, ca. 1430,

Order of the Thistle of Scotland.

6. Honorific Pseudo-Orders: these bodies of knights required no specific obligations, and were usually just an honorific insignia bestowed with knighthood, upon a festive occasion or a pilgrimage. They consisted of nothing else than the badge:

Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, bestowed by the custodian of the Holy Sepulchre to knights who made the pilgrimage, starting in the 15th century. It was formally organized into an order of merit by the Pope in 1868.

Knights of St. Catherine of Mount-Sinai, bestowed in similar conditions from the 12th to the 15th century.

Order of the Golden Spur, a papal order, many times reformed.

Knights of the Bath, in England. The name was used again for an order of merit created in 1725.

Boulton's classification allows us to concentrate on the most complex, long-lived and influential of these associations, the monarchical orders of chivalry. The first example is perhaps the Order of Saint-George founded in 1325 by Charles I of Hungary. Although its statutes did not define a hereditary presidency, it was clearly intended to function as a monarchical order. another is the Order of the Sash (Banda) founded in Castile by Alfonso XI in 1330. Alfonso XI in 1330, which probably lost its formal character in the 1360s and, by 1416, was merely a device or insignia, persisting until the 1470s. The English king Edward III formed the Order of the Garter, in 1344, the best known of its kind. The French Ordre de l'Étoile (Order of the Star) soon followed in 1351.

Other monarchs or powerful lords followed suit. Here is a partial list of these orders:

Saint-George, Hungary (1325-95?),

Sash or Band, Castile (1330-1474?),

Garter, England (1344-present),

Star, France (1351-64?),

Knot, Naples (1352-62?),

Collar or Annunziata in Savoie (1362-present),

Tress, Austria (1365-95?),

Golden Shield, founded by Louis de Bourbon (1367-1410?),

Saint George, Aragon (1371-1410?)

Ermine, Brittany (1381-1522),

Ship, Naples (1381-6?),

Salamander, Austria (1390-1463?),

Jar, Aragon (1403-1516),

Dragon (Renversé), Hungary (1408-93),

Golden Fleece in Burgundy (1430-present),

Eagle, Austria (1433-93)

Saint Maurice, Savoie (1434),

Elephant, Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1457?-1523?), later revived

Ermine, Naples (1465-94),

Saint-Michel, France (1469-1791).

In the above list, the character of some orders is difficult to ascertain because of the lack of documentation, and the boundary between monarchical and princely orders is not very sharp.

In fact, Boulton's classification has been criticized as too rigid and detailed. In Germany, in particular, there were dozens of noble associations in the Middle Ages which combined various characteristics which span Boulton's categories (see Kruse, Paravicini, Ranft 1991). ein systematisches Verzeichnis, Frankfurt am Main ; P. Lang 1991). The main lesson to be drawn from such studies include:

1. In the 14th and 15th centuries, a large variety of associations of noblemen and/or knights appeared, which were then or later called "orders" or "orders of chivalry".

2. These associations span a whole gamut of arrangements, from rigidly controlled institutions with detailed statutes to informal associations limited in time. A number were created by or organized around kings or powerful feudal lords, while others were private initiatives. Their objectives varied: some were designed to honor recipients as well as bind them to an individual or authority, others were formed for a specific purpose, military or devotional, limited or indefinite in time.

3. Almost all used some kind of badge, insignia, or protector saint by which they were known. This common feature has led to the common denomination of "order of chivalry", and the term "order of chivalry" has thereby become confused and imprecise.

4. The last ones appear in the1460s, and a handful survive beyond the 1530s.

New wine in old bottles

These institutions were quite different in nature from the military-monastic orders, yet they have been placed in the same category. The confusion was of course voluntary, so that some of the prestige and fighting spirit of the famous crusading orders might be acquired by these monarchical creations. To this end, various outward elements of the military-monastic orders were adapted. For example, the structure of the institutions were imitated, by copying nomenclature of members and officers. Members were knights, the head of the order (always the sovereign, whereas the military- monastic orders typically elected their head) was the grand-master. Insignia were developed, to be worn by members on their cloaks or in the form of badges, suspended from collars or attached to vestments. This was a direct borrowing from the military-monastic orders, but the insignia were not based on the cross anymore, but on an emblem (garter, golden fleece) or the figure of a patron saint (Saint Michael). Members met regularly in chapters where matters pertaining to the order were discussed. The orders were placed under the protection of a tutelary saint (in imitation of the devotion of the order of Rhodes to Saint-John the Baptist), and regularly held religious offices. The knights swore oaths of allegiance, but to the sovereign rather than to the rule of the order, which

was never monastic in nature. The sovereign usually controlled the membership, at least to some degree. Occasionally, a crusading spirit was explicitly invoked, as was the case originally for the Golden Fleece (whose emblem recalled the quest of the Argonauts).

From chivalry to honorific

As time went by, many of these orders simply disappeared precisely because they had been too closely tied to their founder, or because of political changes such as the absorption of the founder's domains in a kingdom. Those orders that did survive (in 1525, only four orders survived: Garter in England, Annunziata in Savoy, Golden Fleece in Spain and Saint-Michel in France) began to change in nature, because they had outlived their purpose. With the 16th century, the monarchs' transition from powerful head of the feudal pyramid to absolute ruler of a modern state was complete, and the need for binding a restless nobility to the sovereign's person became less pressing. In fact, there are no creations of monarchical orders between 1469 and 1578, due also to the fact that, by that time, most countries had at least one such order in existence (and a number of dominions had been united, obviating the need for different orders).

However, the prestige which still surrounded these monarchical orders made them useful for other purposes, namely honoring individuals or rewarding good behavior. As a sign of this changing functions, some of the elements borrowed from military-monastic orders were abandoned; for example, the Order of the Golden Fleece held its last chapter in 1555. Restriction of membership to the knightly class became meaningless as the knightly class itself had already evolved from a professional class to a hereditary caste (on the Continent; interestingly, this did not happen in England, and membership in the knightly class by itself became a reward granted by the sovereign to individuals who had no military training, starting in the 15th century).

For some of the old military-monastic orders, the transition was at times abrupt. The Spanish orders, which had lost their primary purpose with the end of the Reconquista in 1492, were quickly brought under royal control, each time with papal assent (Santiago in 1476, Alcantara in 1474, Calatrava in 1489, Avis in 1550, Christ in 1551, Montesa in 1587). Some orders (Alcantara, Calatrava) were relieved of their vow of chastity. Similarly, the Pope approved the merger of the Order of Saint-Lazarus with Savoie's order of Saint-Maurice in 1572. This merger was effected only in Italy, however, and the remaining estates of the order in France were joined with the newly created Order of Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel in 1608. The Pope accepted the transfer of assets but never recognized the Grand Master of the new order as "Grand Master of Saint Lazarus". The French king never made himself Grand Master of the order, but did keep a close eye on it, making himself "protector" in 1757 and appointing the Grand Master himself.

Thus, when a military-monastic order had estates over several countries, the fate of various parts diverged. The Teutonic Order was all at once secularized by the Elector of Brandenburg in 1525, who, embracing Lutheranism, dispensed with papal assent. In England, Henry VIII simply confiscated the assets of the Order of Saint-John without any pretence of perpetuating the order. Restored by Mary in 1557, it was finally abolished in England in 1560. But in German lands, the Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Order of Saint-John had already acquired a degree of autonomy, and some of its priories decided of their own movement to follow the local movement and embrace Protestantism. The situation was settled by the Treaty of Augsburg in 1648, and the Evangelical Order of Saint-John or Johanniter Order emerged with Hohenzollerns as Grand Masters, retaining some of its religious nature. It has subsisted to this day (with an interlude from 1812 to 1852).

The transition from monarchical order to honorific orders proved disastrous in some cases: the Order of Saint-Michel in France was quickly devalued by being handed out too generously, and

lost all prestige within 100 years of existence. It was replaced in its role as premier French order by the Saint-Esprit in 1578, with a numerus clausus of 100. This order was the first purely political order; only its strict nobiliary requirements distinguished it from the next generation of orders. Its insignia broke with the tradition of monarchical orders, and set a precedent, by borrowing from the Order of Saint-John (now Malta) and using a Maltese cross, albeit with a dove (to represent the Holy Ghost) in the middle. This use of the Maltese cross would be much imitated (Saint-Louis, Bath, etc). Also, the Saint-Esprit used distinctively colored blue ribbons and sashes; again in imitation of the Order of Malta, and again repeated by many later honorific orders.

1560 to present: Honorific Orders

New orders soon multiplied throughout Europe, to serve the new purpose devolved on some of the old military-monastic orders or the more recent monarchical orders. In reality, they were honorific orders, designed either as a reward for past services to the sovereign, or as a way to confer prestige and distinction, and entailing no real commitment to any course of action, or any loyalty to the sovereign beyond what was required of any ordinary subject. In this fundamental respect, they were different from earlier orders, whose possibly honorific character derived from their history and activities, but was not the raison d'être. In the case of orders without nobiliary requirements, the distinction between an "order" and a decoration, especially for 20th century creations, becomes almost arbitrary.

Some of the orders maintained nobiliary requirements and limited membership (Saint-Esprit in France, Black Eagle in Prussia, Saint-Andrew in Russia, Passion in Saxony, San Gennaro in Sicily). But many orders followed a pattern set by Louis XIV when he created the Order of Saint- Louis, with a Maltese cross and red ribbon and sashes; he also imitated Maltese nomenclature with three ranks: grand-cross, commander and knight. These ranks would be imitated by many later orders. The Order of Saint-Louis was awarded for military merit; it had no nobiliary requirement, no limited membership, no chapter, no mandatory activities, etc. Although it was considered and called an order of chivalry at the time, it was already a new breed of order.

Many such orders were created in the 17th and 18th centuries, and the following list can only be very partial (an asterisk marks those who were knightly, or more exactly nobiliary orders):

* San Stefano in Tuscany (1561),

* Saint-Esprit in France (1578),

* Mont-Carmel in France (1607),

* Precious Blood in Mantua (1608),

* Amarantha in Sweden (1645),

* Constantinian Order of Saint-George in Parma (1669-present),

Dannebrog in Denmark (1671, statutes in 1693; 4 ranks in 1808),

Generosity in Brandenburg (1685; becomes Merit in 1740),

* Thistle in Scotland (1687),

* Elephant in Denmark (1693; revival),

Saint-Louis in France (1693; 3 ranks),

* Saint Michael in Bavaria (1693),

* Saint Andrew in Russia (1698),

* Black Eagle in Prussia (1701),

* Hunt in Württemberg (1702),

* Noble Passion in Saxony-Weissenfels (1704),

* Saint Hubert in Bavaria (1708),

Eagle of Saint-Michael in Portugal (1711),

White Eagle in Poland (1713),

Fidelity in Baden (1715),

Bath in Great-Britain (1725; 3 classes in 1815),

Saint Alexander in Russia (1725),

Saint George in Bavaria (1729; 6 ranks),

* San Gennaro in Sicily (1738),

* Seraphim in Sweden (1748),

North Star in Sweden (1748; 4 ranks),

Sword in Sweden (1748; 5 ranks),

Maria Theresa in Austria (1758; 3 ranks),

Military Merit in France (1759; 3 ranks),

Military Merit in Württemberg (1759; 3 ranks),

Charles III in Spain (1771; 5 ranks),

Vasa in Sweden (1772; 3 ranks),

Saint-George in Russia (1769; 4 ranks),

Red Eagle in Prussia (1790; 5 ranks),

Tower and Sword in Portugal (1808)

This list covers a wide variety of orders, from pure merit orders like the Order of Saint-Louis to orders which retained more closely the trappings of the monarchical orders of old (Saint-Esprit, San Gennaro, Constantinian Order); but these differences remain small when monarchical orders themselves changed as feudalism gave way to absolutism. Santo Stefano is rather unique, in that it imposed substantial obligations on its members, and engaged in naval activities against piracy in the Mediterranean.

Some of the more exclusive orders often claimed to be (sometimes accurately) merely revivals of older orders: thus the Dannebrog was allegedly founded in 1219, the Polish Eagle in 1325, the Tower and Sword in 1452, the Thistle in 1451, the Elephant in 1462, the Seraphim in 1334, the Bath in 1399. The Constantinian Order of Saint-George claimed to have been founded by Constantine in 312! (see some interesting remarks by James Algrant on the true origin of this order). The aim was again to let some of the prestige of the older monarchical orders rub off on this new generation of honorific orders. In other cases, such as the Piemontese order of Saint-Maurice and Saint-Lazarus, transformed into a 5-rank order in 1814, or the Order of Notre-Dame du Mont- Carmel and Saint-Lazare in France, or the old Spanish orders, remnants of military-monastic orders were transformed into modern-style honorific orders, with or without nobiliary requirements. Usually, their estates ceased to support any independent activity of the order, and merely became added revenues for the king's treasury or a source of perks for recipients of the king's favors (although the French order of Saint Lazarus briefly engaged in maritime activities similar to those of Malta and S. Stefano).

It is also interesting to note the trend towards democratizing older orders by opening up their membership: after the 1720s, purely nobiliary orders have become very rare. Another trend is discernible, that of naming orders after the sovereign. The Order of Saint-Louis was a transparent allusion to Louis XIV disguised as a religious dedication, but Maria-Theresa was the first to be explicit; she was followed by Charles III, and in the 19th century by many sovereigns (queens in particular). By now, the religious connotations of the orders have completely disappeared, and the name and profile of the sovereign replaces saints and religious emblems on the insignia.

The 19th century witnessed a lot of political turmoil, and the development of new forms of government, from military dictatures (Napoleon Bonaparte) to constitutional monarchies and democratic republics. Yet all governments felt the need to maintain or imitate honorific orders, and

the habit has spread to non-Western countries and, in the 20th century, to Communist countries as well. It was rather ironic to see a regime such as that of the Soviet Union award something called the Order of Lenin, where the link with the military-monastic orders of 12th century Jerusalem is tenuous at best: yet these modern institutions are still called Orders

The Fate of the Original Military-Monastic Orders

What became of the original military-monastic orders?

The Order of Saint-John (Malta) lost its territorial sovereignty in 1798. Since then, it has retained its statutes (although massively expanding membership in recently created categories) and is dedicated to medical and charitable activities. As a subject of international law, the order enjoys recognition from a number of countries and institutions.

The Templars were abolished in 1312.

The Teutonic Knights abandoned their status as order of chivalry in 1929 and became a simple religious order instead.

The Order of Saint-Lazarus split into two branches, one obeying papal orders and merging with the Savoyard order of Saint-Maurice in 1572, the other falling under the protection of the French crown in 1608 and merging with Notre-Dame du Mont Carmel. It was abolished by Louis XVI in July 1791 and not revived when the monarchy was restored in 1814. Currently, an organization claims to be the Order of Saint-Lazarus. The Savoyard order was an Italian state order from 1860 to 1946, at which date it ceased to be conferred in Italy; the heir to the Italian royal dynasty continues to confer it, see that order's website.

The Portuguese orders (Avis, Santiago, Christ) were all secularized in 1789, and remained as national orders. Abolished at the fall of the monarchy in 1910, they were recreated as national orders in 1918. Avis currently rewards military services, Christ rewards civilians and foreigners, and Santiago rewards accomplishments in arts and sciences.

The Spanish orders (Santiago, Calatrava, Alcantara, Montesa), secularized in the late 15th and 16th centuries, briefly abolished in 1873-74, were abolished in Spanish law in 1934, although this had no effect in canon (Church) law. Their activities were unofficially revived in 1978, and king Juan Carlos I is their Grand Master (a title first used by Alfonso XIII in 1916) and Perpetual Administrator on behalf of the Holy See. They are thus dynastic orders of the royal house of Spain but not Spanish state orders.

References

There are many, many books on the subject. Here are just a few outstanding works, whose extensive bibliographies should be consulted:

Boulton, D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre: The knights of the crown : the monarchical orders of knighthood in later medieval Europe, 1325-1520. Woodbridge, Suffolk : Boydell Press, 1987. Second revised edition (paperback): Woodbridge, Suffolk and Rochester, NY :

Boydell Press, 2000. Excellent and thorough work by an academic historian.

Forey, Alan John: The military orders : from the twelfth to the early fourteenth centuries. Basingstoke : Macmillan Education, 1992. One of the foremost historians of the "military orders".

Kruse, Holger, Werner Paravicini, and Andreas Ranft, eds: Ritterorden und Adelsgesellschaften im spätmittelalterlichen Deutschland: ein systematisches Verzeichnis,

Frankfurt am Main ; P. Lang 1991. A broad study of knightly orders, confraternities, societies in late-medieval Germany.

orders, confraternities, societies in late-medieval Germany. Knighthood Main Page | Search Heraldica | Heraldic

François Velde

Last Modified: Mar 12, 2006

The Sovereign Military Order of Saint-John (a.k.a. Malta)

This page is mainly interested in the heraldic aspects of the Order. The historical overview provided here is meant as a framework for a better understanding of the heraldry. For more information see the other resources on the Web.

Contents

Heraldic tour of coats of arms in Rhodes (Greece)

Heraldic tour of the Knights' Castle in Bodrum (Turkey)

Other Resources on the Web

The Order of Malta By Guy Stair Sainty, and the links there

the Order of Saint John, Knights Hospitaller, the British branch of an Orthodox order of that name (Russian Grand Priory in exile, founded 1928), whose headquarters are in America Contains numerous links worth pursuing.

The Regular order of Saint-John Holy Land, formerly known as "The Sovereign Order of St John of Jerusalem" until the SMOM sued for usurpation of name and mark. A French off-

shoot founded in 1962 of the American order founded in the 1950s by Pichel (see Guy Sainty's page on self-styled orders for more information).

History of the Order

This section provides a brief historical sketch and some information on the current state of the Order. It owes a lot to H.J.A. Sire: The Knights of Malta, New Haven, 1994; Yale University Press. I have also consulted Berthold Waldstein-Wartenberg: Rechtsgeschichte des Malteserordens, Wien, 1969; Verlag Herold.

Please see Guy Sainty's page as well.

The Origins

The origin of the Order lies in a hospice for pilgrims created next to the Benedictine Abbey of St- Mary of the Latins in Jerusalem. The abbey was founded ca. 1050 by Amalfitan merchants, and the hospice ca. 1080 by Brother Gerard, and dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. Its servants formed a lay fraternity under the Augustinian rule. With the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 and the establishment of the Crusader states throughout Palestine, the numbers of pilgrims increased, but the semi-permanent state of war in the area exposed them to greater dangers. A papal bull of 1113 recognized the Hospitallers of Saint-John as a monastic order, and soon after, perhaps under the influence of the Templars (founded in Jerusalem in 1120) the Hospitallers turned into armed guards, and soon into fighting monks, participating alongside the Crusaders and holding fortresses as well as hospices across the Holy Land. This militarization probably occurred in the 1130s. The structure of the order is unclear in the 12th century, as there seemed to have been professed fratres alongside lay confratres, fighting knights in large numbers. Many of them perished in the battles which led to the fall of Jerusalem in 1189, and the Order fell back to Margat in the county of Tripoli, and a few years later to Acre.

In 1206 the first Statutes of the Order were issued, which divided the order between priests or chaplains, knights and sergeants (fighting men who were commoners). The Mastership (a title copied from the Templars around 1140) was restricted to knights in 1262.

After the fall of Acre in 1291 the Order fell back to Cyprus, then managed to conquer Rhodes ca. 1310 and inherit the Levantine estates of the Templars who had been abolished in 1312. They stayed in Rhodes until forced out by the Turks in 1522, at which time the Emperor and Spanish king Charles V gave them the island of Malta (1530) where they established themselves again.

The Order in the Old Regime

The name of the Order, until the 18th century, was Holy Order (or Religion) of [the Hospital of] Saint-John of Jerusalem, modified in the late 15th c. by the addition of and of the Sepulchre of Christ to reflect the incorporation in 1489 of the Order of the Canons of the Holy Sepulchre (distinct from the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre).

The Grand-Master was made Prince of the Holy German Empire in 1607, a title which carried with it the rank of Serene Highness; in 1630, the Pope granted the Grand-Master the rank of Eminence, similar to that of the cardinals. In 1741, the Grand-Master combined the two into Most Eminent

Highness, a style which is still used today.

In 1301, the Order had organized itself in seven Langues: Provence, Auvergne, France, Spain, Italy, England and Germany, with a Pilier at the head of each, holding one of the top six offices of the order: Grand Commander, Marshal, Hospitaller, Drapier, Admiral, Turcopolier (Germany did not have an office; the office of Treasurer was never ascribed to a Langue).

The Langues corresponded to regional groupings of priories, the priories themselves groupings of commanderies. These consisted in the large number of estates which had been given over time to the Order (commendatoria meaning trust, and commendator meaning trustee; the words were later corrupted into commandery and commander). The commanderies could simply be estates, or houses where lay people were allowed to live and share some of the spiritual life of the Order (the corrodaries), or men and women who did not meet the nobiliary requirements (the confratres or donats), or where novitiates prepared for their vows. Some houses were convents of monks and nuns. The Langues were expected to send a set number of Knights to the main Convent in Rhodes (and later Malta).

The requirements to be a knight were initially to be of knightly family, but over time they became more stringent: in the 1350s nobility of both parents, in 1428 nobility of four generations on the father's side, in 1550 nobility of four quarters (all grandparents). The Langues each had their own requirements which could be stiffer: the French called for 8 quarters, the Italians 200 years in all four lines, the Germans 16 quarters, etc. In the 17th century nobility of robe or office was excluded.

Knights entered the novitiate, took simple vows after 1 year and solemn vows after the age of 21. Professed members (be they knights, chaplains or sergeants) were called "of Justice". The sergeants wore the "half-cross". Individuals who did not meet the nobiliary requirements but had otherwise distinguished themselves could be made Knights of Grace (the painter Caravaggio in 1608), while Knights of Justice who had to renounce their vows and marry for family obligations could become Knights of Devotion. The Donats were also entitled to the half-cross. In the 1630s there were about 1700 knights in the Order.

After 1789

The French Revolution marked the beginning of a new era for the order. In 1792 the estates of the order within France were confiscated. This confiscation was extended to their estates in other parts of Europe as French conquests advanced. In 1798, Bonaparte captured Malta with outrageous ease and expelled the Order. Some knights who had found refuge in St. Petersburg proclaimed the married, non-Catholic and non-knight Czar Paul I as their Grand-Master, and most surviving priories (except in Spain) acknowledged the election (1798) against the Pope's wishes. The Czar even created an Orthodox priory in 1799, and bestowed membership most liberally. He died assassinated in 1801. His successor Alexander I declined to assume the grand-mastership and instead turned to the Pope to name a new grand-master. Pius VII appointed Giovanni Tommasi in 1803, and the Grand-Master reformed the Convent (the heart of the order) in Messina. On his death in 1805, a new Grand Master was elected but the Pope refused to recognize him, and the Mastership fell in a 70-year hiatus, the Order being governed instead by elected lieutenants. In the next years, various attempts at reestablishing territorial sovereignty failed. In 1814, contrary to expectations, Malta remained in British hands and the order settled in Catania. Various plans to settle in Elba or Greece floundered. Relations between the Lieutenancy in Messina (and from 1826 in Ferrara) and the knights in France and Spain were severed. Remnants of the Order were finally offered a home by the Pope in the old Maltese embassy in Rome in 1831. Starting in the 1860s a number of national associations sprang up in various European countries, replacing the old system

of Langues, and in 1879 the Pope appointed the existing Lieutenant as Grand Master. Good relations were maintained with the Italian government which accorded extra-territoriality to the Palazzo Malta, and finally signed a treaty modelled on the Lateran Treaty in 1930.

It was in the period between 1798 and 1961 that the Order thus acquired its present character. In particular, forms of membership which did not require solemn vows or even proofs of nobility were created or vastly extended: knights of honor and devotion, conventual chaplains ad honorem, knights of magistral grace and donats. Among professed knights, a series of three ranks was created: knight, commander, and bailli-grand-cross. In the category of knights of honor and devotion, a rank of honorary bailli-grand-cross was created, as well as a rank of grand-cross among the knights of magistral grace.

Membership grew as follows:

 

1880

1900

1921

1932

1949

-Professed-

Knights of Justice

99

84

55

65

63

Conventual Chaplains

18

13

7

6

9

Chaplains of Obedience

43

138

37

15

6

Donats of Justice -Non Professed-

11

16

9

4

6

Knights of Honor

969

1078

1175

1563

1883

Dames of Honor

119

111

155

196

272

Knights of Magistral G. 23

37

95

444

1500

Donats

78

111

294

308

1090

Honorary chaplains

3

9

16

58

150

-----

Total

1363

1597

1843

2658

4979

The growth in Knights of Magistral Grace and Donats (the ranks which do not require nobility) is particularly striking. As a result, in 1961 the total membership stood at 7557, of which less than 1% were professed.

The present status and organization of the order dates from 1961.

Current Status and Organization

(Warning: I have not yet found a clear and detailed explanation of the various categories and ranks in the Order, so the following is likely to be inaccurate.)

The Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint-John of Jerusalem, Rhodes and Malta or Sovereign Order of Malta, whose present constitution dates from June 24, 1961, consists of three distinct entities or categories:

1. A Religious Order: its members, Knights of Justice and Conventual Chaplains, once they have made solemn vows, are called professed. They are headed by an elected Grand Master and the Sovereign Council. There are currently 38 Knights of Justice, with 16 quarters of nobility, recruited from the Knights of Obedience and the Knights of Honour and Devotion. Among the Knights of Justice one find Knights Commanders and Knights Grand Cross. The heads of the Langues were called Baillis.

Some members are in the Sovereign Council. 3. An International Order of Chivalry: the Grand Master confers knighthoods to mostly Catholic men and women around the world. There are over 10,000 knights and dames,

grouped in 39 national associations. There are three categories, each with ranks of knights, commanders, grand-cross and bailli. They are, in decreasing order of nobiliary requirement:

1. Honour and Devotion,

2. Grace and Devotion (created in 1959),

3. Magistral Grace, non-nobles; comprises 60% of the total membership of 11,500 in the order.

There are also similar ranks for chaplains:

4. Conventual Chaplains ad honorem

5. Magistral Chaplains (or of Magistral Obedience, or Grace)

6. Donats of Devotion (3 classes)

The order also confers a decoration since 1916, the Cross of Malta pro merito melitensi for services to the Order's charitable works. This decoration has three ranks: Collar (for heads of state), Cross (including Grand-Cross, Grand-Officer, Commander, Office and Cross of Merit), and Cross pro piis meritis for members of the clergy (including Grand-Cross and Cross). The insignia of the decoration is a white cross moline with a red roundle in its center bearing a white Maltese cross.

The Order is governed by the Grand-Master and the Sovereign Council, which includes members ex officio and elected members. The Order's four oficers are the Grand-Commander, the Grand- Chancellor, the Hospitaller and the Receiver of the Common Treasury.

The Order considers itself to be an internationally recognized sovereign entity although without territorial basis. Two of its possessions, the Palazzo Malta, via Condotti, Rome and the Villa Malta, also in Rome, are given extra-territorial status by Italy since 1869. The order also owns The fortress Sant'Angelo in Malta since 1991. It mints coins, which do not circulate, but it also prints stamps accepted by 45 national post offices. The Order enjoys recognition from and has diplomatic relations with 67 countries (including Spain, Italy, Russia, Austria, Egypt, Brazil), has "legations" in 6 countries (including France, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland), and is a permanent observer at the UN since 1994.

For all its sovereignty, however, the Order is also an Order of the Roman Catholic Church, and as such recognizes the authority of the Pope over the Order's professed members in religious matters. This authority, finally clearly delineated in the 1950s, had been the source of conflicts, most notably the during 1951-62 interregnum.

The sovereignty of the order is a complex and controversial matter examined in greater detail here.

The Order's main activities are religious and charitable (hospital and medical assistance). The Order is financed through members' fees and donations, as well as charitable contributions from well-wishers; these sums are mostly collected and spent by the national associations.

Heraldry of the Order

The Order

Modern arms of the Order, from a panel in the palace of the Grand Masters,

Modern arms of the Order, from a panel in the palace of the Grand Masters, Rhodes.

The arms of the Order are Gules a cross argent. The full arms show the shield surrounded by a chaplet and placed over a cross of Malta, all within a mantle and surmounted by a closed crown. In 1776, when the (religious) order of Saint-Antoine in France was united with Malta, a double- headed eagle displayed holding in each beak a Tau was added behind the shield; the eagle had been granted to Saint-Antoine by Maximilian I. The eagle appears on 18th century coins from Malta (see a silver coin of 1790) but disappeared in the 19th century.

silver coin of 1790 ) but disappeared in the 19th century. The arms of the Grand-Master

The arms of the Grand-Master Pinto de Fonseca (1742-73), from a gold coin. Notice the closed crown and the Baroque, asymmetric shape of the shield.

Grand Masters

The head of the order was traditionally called Magister Hospitalis Sanctis Johannis Hierosolym (master of the hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem), although on their seals they are only called custos until they left Jerusalem in 1291. The name of the order lengthened to "Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem and Acre", then "Jerusalem, Acre and Rhodes" after the conquest of that island in 1308. With that conquest came sovereignty, (immediately indicated by the style "by the Grace of God" for the Master) and among other rights that to coin money. The order minted coins more or less continuously until 1798 and the legends and figures reflect changing styles (see Mémoires Numismatiques de l'Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem, by Edouard-Henri Furse; Rome, 1885).

The arms of the Master first appear on the obverse of coins with Roger de Pins (ca. 1360). They appear on the obverse, which shows the grand-master wearing a cape with a cross, kneeling before a reliquary of the True Cross. The shield is behind him on the right of the coin. The reverse of the Order's gigliati coins shows a cross flory, rather similar to that on French gold coins of the time. The mention of Acre disappears under Philippe de Nalhac (1396-1421); the title of "Grand Master" first appears under his successor Antoine Fluvian ("grammastro di Rodi" in Italian on an imitation of a Venetian sequin; cf. the title given to Pierre d'Aubusson on the gate of Saint Athanasios, Rhodes: "Rhodiorum Magnus Magister"). In a letter sent in 1423 by Venice to the Grand Master to express displeasure at the minting of imitation Venetian ducats, he is styled "reverendissimus dominus Magister Rodi" (cited in Papadopoli: Le Monete di Venezia, 1912; vol. 1, p. 250).

Grand-Masters quarter their arms with those of the order ( Gules a cross argent) since Philibert de Nalhac. With Jean de La Valette the Maltese cross is first shown on the reverse of some coins. The distinctive shape of the Maltese cross seems to date from the 16th century. Miniature illustrations of Caoursin's history of the siege of 1480 show the Grand Master's cape with a cross that is not yet of the classic shape; the arms of the cross are split and the ends of the arms taper out. In 1581, a coronet was added above the arms of the grand-master: a row of pearls, later intermingled with leaves, and then (under Adrien de Wignacourt) only leaves. In 1630 the Grand-Master was given by the pope the precedence of a cardinal and the style of "Most Eminent Highness". The closed crown of sovereignty was first used in 1741. At the same time, the arms of the order itself appear in their modern form on the coins: the shield, the Maltese cross behind it, the chaplet around it and the closed crown. Since the 18th century, a princely mantle has been placed behind the arms. Two Grand Masters who were made cardinals, Pierre d'Aubusson and Hugo Loubenx de Verdala, and displayed the cardinal's hat over their arms.

See also the armory of the Grand Masters with some illustrations.

Bailliffs

of the Grand Masters with some illustrations. Bailliffs Arms of Philippe de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam as

Arms of Philippe de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam as bailli; Rhodes.

Bailliffs (or Baillis) were the heads of the Tongues and holders of the great offices of the order. Since the 15th century they bear a chief with the arms of the order. Miniatures in Caoursin's manuscript show the Baillis in session around the Grand Master, each holding a string of beads with a fiocco at the end; also, the tombstone of the French Bailli Montmirel in the Archaeological Museum, Rhodes, shows two such strings placed on both sides of his coat of arms.

Insignia

The insignia comes in four varieties:

1. A white Maltese cross surmounted by a closed crown and above it by a trophy of armour and flags with an escutcheon of the Order in the center; for Knights of Justice, Obedience and Honour and Devotion

2. A white Maltese cross surmounted by a closed crown and above it an escutcheon of the Order with an antique helmet and two swords per saltire above it; for Knights of Grace and Devotion

3. A white Maltese cross surmounted by a closed crown and above it a golden tie with an escutcheon of the Order in the middle: for Knights of Magistral Grace, Donats of Justice, Chaplains ad honorem, Donats of Devotion 1st class

4. A white Maltese cross surmounted by a closed crown: for Chaplains of Magistral Grace, Donats of Devotion 2d and 3d class.

of Magistral Grace, Donats of Devotion 2d and 3d class. Portrait of a commander of the

Portrait of a commander of the Order of Malta, by Jean-Marc Nattier. (Source: France, Ministère de la Culture, base de données Joconde).

Only the professed members (and perhaps the Knights and Chaplains of Obedience as well) are entitled to place a cross of Malta behind their arms. Knights Commanders also surround their shield with the chaplet from which hangs their insignia. Baillis quarter their arms with those of the order. Professed Chaplains surround their shield with a chaplet from which hangs their insignia.

Professed knights have the full cross hanging from a black ribbon. The non-professed categories of knights have their insignia hanging from a black ribbon (with no cross behind the shield), but Knights Grand-Cross or Bailiffs within each class edge the ribbon with gold and add a chief with the arms of the Order (chef de la religion) to their coat.

Ecclesiastics who are members of the Order are exempted from the prohibition on display of exterior ornaments.

See also a heraldic tour of Rhodes and a heraldic tour of the 15th century Castle of Saint Peter in Bodrum, Turkey.

References

Edouard Henri Furse: Mémoires numismatiques de l'Ordre souverain de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem. Rome, 1885. Reprint: Bologna, Forni, 1967.

de Jérusalem. Rome, 1885. Reprint: Bologna, Forni, 1967. Knighthood Main Page | Search Heraldica | Heraldic

François Velde

Last Modified: Aug 02, 2004

The Teutonic Order

See a much more ddetailed account on the Chivalric Orders web site.

History of the Order

The Teutonic Order was founded in 1190 during the siege of Acre, when a hospital brotherhood was established to care for the many sick German crusaders. It was given a building after the conquest of the city, and in 1198 was turned into a military-monastic order on the model of the Hospitallers of Saint John and the Templars. This creation reflected the growing involvement of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in the Holy Land.

From the start, the order started a policy of conquering land and building up independent territory:

in the Holy Land, in Hungary in 1211-25, and later in Prussia, after it absorbed the Sword-Brethren in Livonia. It was in Prussia that the order fought with the Polish dukes of Masovia and Silesia to subjugate the pagan Prussians and fight against Novgorod. After the fall of Acre in 1291 the Grand Master went to Venice, and, following the conquest of Pomerelia in 1309, to Marienburg in Prussia.

Thus the Order, by now exclusively nobiliary, came to form an independent political entity. In 1243, Pope Innocent IV had placed the Order's possessions in the Pope's domain, but in practice the Order was completely independent. Its fortunes began to fade in 1410 with the defeat inflicted at Tannenberg by Poland-Lithuania, and a revolt in its territories in 1454-66 further diminished it and it became a vassal of Poland.

The Reformation brought many changes to the Order. In 1525, the Hochmeister Albrecht of Brandenburg-Anspach secularized the Order's Prussian holdings into the duchy of Prussia, resigned from the order, became Lutheran, and gav ehomage for the duchy to the king of Poland on April 10, 1525. In Livonia, the Ordenmeister Livlands Gotthard von Ketteler did the same in 1561 and turned the remnants of the order's estates (most of which had been divided between Sweden and Poland) into the duchy of Kurland. In the German Empire, the Deutschmeister became Grand Master in 1530 and the seat of the Order transferred from Marienburg to Mergentheim; the order survived in Germany, adapting to local politics. The protection of the Habsburg dynasty (which reformed the order in 1606) proved a mixed blessing: the order survived, but it never regained any independence, and its efforts were redirected in the Habsburgs' wars against the Turks. With the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist knights received equal rights within an order headed since the late 16th century by a Habsburg Grand Master. Some bailliwicks like Elsass, Burgund, Koblenz, Österreich, Bozen remained Catholic, others like Thüringen, Sachsen were Protestant, and Hessen was tripartite (Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist). In 1637 the (Protestant) Dutch knights broke away and formed the Ridderlijke Duitsche Orde, Ballij van Utrecht, which still exists. In 1809 the order was expelled from most German states, and survived only in Austria. Reduced to four knights in 1839, it was reorganized by the Austrian emperor as a Catholic charitable institution. Nuns were introduced (they had existed in the medieval Order). Knights of honor (1866) and Marianer (1871) were created to attract financial support, while the knights themselves were essentially noble Austrian officers.

With World War I and the end of the Habsburg monarchy the order lost its last possessions. In 1923 archduke Eugen resigned as Grand Master; in 1929 the Pope reorganized the order as a purely religious order of priests. No more knights were created and the last one (Friedrich Graf Belrupt- Tissac) died in 1970. The order suffered during World War II when it was abolished by the Nazis in Austria and Czechoslovakia, but it survived in Italy and started again after 1945 in Austria and Germany.

In its current form, the order has 87 brethren, 294 sisters, 12 honorary knights and 613 Marianer or associates. The Hochmeister resides in Vienna.

Heraldry of the Order

The arms of the Order were originally Argent a cross sable. The emblem of the Order was a cross potent sable, thereon a cross flory or, thereon an escutcheon of the Empire. The cross sable was supposedly granted by the Emperor Henry VI, the cross or by the king of Jerusalem John, the fleurs-de-lys by Louis IX of France, and the escutcheon by Frederic II Hohenstaufen.

Insignia of the Teutonic Order, from Diderot's Encyclopédie Insignia of the Teutonic Order, by Arnaud

Insignia of the Teutonic Order, from Diderot's Encyclopédie

of the Teutonic Order, from Diderot's Encyclopédie Insignia of the Teutonic Order, by Arnaud Bunel Originally,

Insignia of the Teutonic Order, by Arnaud Bunel

Originally, the Hochmeister quartered his arms with those of the order, as did occasionally the Deutschmeister and the Baillif of Brandenburg. The high officers, baillifs, preceptors and commanders added the chief of the order to their arms.

Historical source: Udo Arnold, Eight Hundred Years of the Teutonic Order, in Malcolm Barder: The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick, Variorum, Aldershot (UK), 1994. A great book is:800 Jahre Deutscher Orden : Ausstellung des Germanischen Nationalmuseums Nurnberg in Zusammenarbeit mit der Internationalen Historischen Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens (edited by Udo Arnold with the collaboration of Irmtraud Frfr. von Andrian- Werburg, Ronny Kabus, Andrea M. Kluxen; Gutersloh : Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag, 1990.

M. Kluxen; Gutersloh : Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag, 1990. Knighthood Main Page | Search Heraldica | Heraldic

François Velde

Last Modified: Jun 01, 2002

Orders of Chivalry in France

See also the page on Orders of Chivalry.

Other resources:

The French Ministry of Defense has a web page on orders and decorations (in French)

The Musée des Invalides, Paris has a small section on medals

The Paris Mint produces all official medals and decorations

Various makers of decorations are listed here

Armorial des Chevaliers du Saint-Esprit complete listing of knights from 1578 to 1789, with depictions of their arms

some Old Regime orders and decorations are pictured here

Contents

Introduction

Orders of chivalry come in roughly three flavors:

Military-monastic orders appears during the first Crusades: their members were usually monks who also served as soldiers or caretakers to protect pilgrims on their way to the Holy Land, or otherwise assist in the struggle against infidels. The most famous orders in this category are the Order of the Temple, the Order of Saint-John of Jerusalem (Malta), the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, the Order of Saint-Lazarus, all four originating in Palestine. These orders typically had chaplains, knights and sargents, mirroring the tripartite medieval society.

The orders in the Holy Land were often the recipients of many donations, often in the form of estates, in all of Europe. As a result, they had to create a structure to administer these estates locally (a commendator was originally a trustee of such an estate, word later corrupted into commander). Thus, orders such as Malta, Saint-Lazarus and others became by nature far-flung, with estates and their administrators in various European countries, and the Order itself in the Middle East.

After the final expulsion of the Franks from Palestine in 1291, these orders either found new bases and activities, or else fell into oblivion. Naturally, their vast estates represented tempting targets, either for outright confiscation (the Order of the Temple was abolished by the Pope in 1312 at the instigation of the French king just for that reason; likewise, Henry VIII confiscated the estates of Malta in England), or else simply subjection of the order to the local sovereign so that its estates could be used as a source of favors and pensions. This was in essence the fate of the Order of Saint- Lazarus. Only Malta managed to survive through the ages, although by the 20th century it had lost its estates everywhere except in Austria.

To the category of military-monastic can also be added the Teutonic Knights (Deutscher Orden) and the Orders in Spain (Calatrava, Alcantara, Santiago, Montesa), which represented analogs of the crusading spirit deployed in the colonization of Eastern Europe or the Reconquista of Spain on the Muslims.

The national orders are orders of chivalry, usually restricted to the nobility, with limited membership and only one class, which sovereigns created in order to find new ways of binding to their person the loyalty of an aristocracy whose feudal allegiance was waning. The model for these orders was that of the Knights of the Round Table around King Arthur. The most famous and one of the oldest ones is the Order of the Garter in England, created in 1348. These orders proliferated in the 15th and 16th centuries. From the 18th century to the present, sovereigns and governments have tended to create orders of merit, without nobiliary requirements and few if any knightly characteristics (such as ceremonies, oaths, duties).

Private orders are less well-known. A number of them were created for devotional or moral

purposes by private citizens, who often sought the protection or approval of the Pope or of a sovereign. In fact, military-monastic orders often started as private orders, organized by an individual or group of individuals; they later gained papal recognition as Orders of the Church and acquired wealth and influence which placed them above ordinary private orders. In France, a number of orders were created by important lords, vassals of the king of France such as the dukes of Orléans, Burgundy or Bourbon. Some of these orders were similar in intent to the national orders, at a regional level so to speak; others were like private orders, for devotional purposes. I placed them in a separate category although I tend to think of them as private orders.

Whether Orders of Merit should be included as orders of chivalry is a complex question. I see them as distinct, because they usually have no nobiliary and religious requirements, and because they tend to reward past behavior rather than summon for future action. However, in many ways they extend the traditions of national orders of chivalry, particularly in the names of ranks, types of insignia, and in their general purpose of both rewarding meritorious subjects and binding their loyalty to the sovereign. In France, the order of Saint-Louis (1693) was the first of this kind, and became the prototype for the Legion of Honor.

Military-Monastic Orders in France

The famous Middle-Eastern orders had branches or priories in France since the Middle Ages. The following orders still maintain a presence in France: Malta, Holy Sepulchre, others?

On Malta, see the separate article on the Order of Malta. As far as France was concerned, three of the seven "Langues" of the order (Provence, Auvergne and France) were within the kingdom of France. Each langue was headed by a Pilier (pillar), the pillar of Provence was grand-commander, the pillar of Auvergne was grand-marshal, and the pillar of France grand-hospitaller. Each langue was divided in grand-priories and commanderies (89 in Provence, 40 in Auvergne, 134 in France). The nobiliary requirements in the French langues were four generations of nobility on both paternal and maternal side. The Maltese cross as worn by French knights had fleur-de-lis between the branches, and the ribbon was black.

The case of the Ordre de Saint-Lazare is particular. After leaving Palestine, the order survived in obscurity in several places, including Italy and France. In 1572 the order was placed under the protection of the duke of Savoie and merged with that house's Order of Saint-Maurice, and became one of the dynastic orders of Savoie and later Italy, bestowed to this day by the head of the house of Savoie. The French branch, however, refused to obey the Papal bull and continued in existence. It was amalgamated in 1608 with the newly created order of Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel (founded by Henri IV in 1604 to publicize his conversion to Catholicism) with the Pope's approval in 1668. Louis XIV merged into this order the order of Saint-Esprit de Montpellier (1711), and the fraternities of the Saint-Sépulcre (founded in 1317 by Louis de Bourbon) and Saint-Antoine. The Order of Saint-Lazare et Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel was placed in 1757 under the French king's protection, who made himself sovereign head, and made his 3-year old grandson the duc de Berry (future Louis XVI) grandmaster; later, in 1773. another grandson, the comte de Provence (future Louis XVIII) became grandmaster at the ripe age of 16. Under French kings, the order was mainly used as a source of appointments to plum positions, much as abbés-commenditaires who were abbots only in name and in collecting the revenues of their abbeys. Both orders ceased to be bestowed after they were abolished on July 30, 1791 and their estates nationalized.

Elsewhere I discuss the 20th century revival of the Order of Saint-Lazarus.

As a French order (1608-1791), the insignia of the united order was as follows. The ribbon of Saint-

Lazare was purple (amaranth) and the Maltese cross or. For Carmel, the ribbon was brown and the cross purple. The arms of the the combined orders were Argent a cross quarterly vert (Saint- Lazare) and purpure (Mont-Carmel).

The arms of the the combined orders were Argent a cross quarterly vert (Saint- Lazare) and
The arms of the the combined orders were Argent a cross quarterly vert (Saint- Lazare) and

Arms of a knight grand-cross of Saint-Lazare and Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel. Notice the chief argent bears a cross quarterly vert and purpure. The cross behind the shield is vert fimbriated or, as is the insignia hanging from the collar.

There is more information on the Order of Saint-Lazarus.

The Ordre du Saint-Esprit de Montpellier was founded in 1195 and given a religious, hospitaller and military status in 1198. It was suppressed by Louis XIV in 1672, then recreated in 1693 and finally merged with Saint-Lazare in 1711.

National Orders

Ordre de l'Étoile

The newly-created Order of the Garter probably influenced Jean II's decision to create the Ordre de l'Étoile in 1351. The existence of the order is known (a miniature shows a meeting of the order, with knights in red robes lined with vair bearing black stars of 8 points on their cloaks; the motto was monstrant regibus astra viam), but it seems that most knights, who had sworn never to cede in battle, were killed at the battle of Poitiers in 1356, and the order did not survive Jean II's years as a prisoner in London and the hectic times that followed. Charles VI is known to have created an Ordre de la Cosse de Genêt, but little else is known.

See a miniature from the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris representing the foundation of the Order by Jean II. The large badges, in the form of 8-point stars, are visible pinned to the red mantles of the knights.

Ordres du Roi

On August 1, 1469, Louis XI created the Ordre de Saint-Michel, a saint for whom he had a peculiar devotion, and which could serve as a good emblem for the recent expulsion of the English out of France. The collar consists of SSS with escallops (called "coquilles de Saint-Michel" in distinction to the "coquilles de Saint-Jacques"), from which hangs a medallion showing the archangel slaying the dragon (as it appears in a 17th century example). The motto was Immensi tremor Oceani. The order's membership was initially limited to 36, but prestige soon declined, however, because admission standards became very lax. Louis XIV reduced membership to 100 in

1665.

See more information on Saint-Michel on Guy Sainty's Web site.

information on Saint-Michel on Guy Sainty's Web site . Portrait of François Ier by Jean Clouet.

Portrait of François Ier by Jean Clouet. Notice the collar of Saint-Michel.

On December 31, 1578, Henri III created the Ordre du Saint-Esprit (Order of the Holy Ghost), in memory of his accession to the throne of Poland (1573) and France (1574) both on Whitsunday. The order had strict nobiliary requirements and a membership limited at 100 (for French nationals). Four cardinals and four other prelates were members and were called commandeurs, the other members were called chevaliers. There were no other ranks or distinctions among members. The

order also had a number of officers (treasurer, chaplain, etc) who were not subject to the nobiliary requirements. The insignia consisted of a collar of alternating crowned Hs, trophies, and flaming heraldic flints, from which hung a Maltese cross azure lined argent, on which a dove descending from Heaven argent was shown. Fleurs-de-lys appear between the arms of the crosses, and pearls are placed on the tips of the cross. The sash was blue (hence the expression "cordon bleu" to mean something of first class). The motto was Duce et auspice.

something of first class). The motto was Duce et auspice . Portrait of Etienne François, duc

Portrait of Etienne François, duc de Choiseul (1719 - 1785), by Alexander Roslin.

Portrait of the cardinal de Richelieu (Philippe de Champaigne). The insignia were shown surrounding the

Portrait of the cardinal de Richelieu (Philippe de Champaigne).

The insignia were shown surrounding the coat of arms of a knight. Knights wore a breast plaque and a blue ribbon (clerics wore the cross hanging from a collar ribbon as shown above).

Henri IV holding the first chapter of the Order of the Saint-Esprit in the church

Henri IV holding the first chapter of the Order of the Saint-Esprit in the church of the Grands Augustins, 1595. (Painting by Jean-François de Troy. source: France, Ministère de la Culture.)

Conferral ceremony of the Saint-Esprit in 1724, in the royal chapel at Versailles (by Nicolas

Conferral ceremony of the Saint-Esprit in 1724, in the royal chapel at Versailles (by Nicolas Lancret).

From that date, the Saint-Esprit was always conferred with the Saint-Michel (both called "les Ordres du Roi"), although Saint-Michel continued to be conferred alone, especially to artists and writers. The orders were abolished by decree of June 20, 1790. Louis XVIII awarded both orders while in exile (although, according to the statutes of the Saint-Esprit, he could not do so until after his coronation, which never took place). Both orders were reestablished in 1814 upon the Restoration of the monarchy without the nobiliary requirement, and abolished again in 1830 by Louis-Philippe.

Some pretenders continued to bestow the Saint-Esprit. The comte de Chambord, grandson of Charles X, wore the cross. The duc d'Orléans (†1926) wore the cross and awarded it to a few people: his cousin Ferdinand I of Bulgaria (1861-1948), his brother the duc de Montpensier, his cousin the duc de Vendôme, his cousin Manuel II of Portugal (1889-1932). The comte de Paris refuses to bestow the order, considering that it can only be done by a ruling monarch. Among the Spanish Bourbons, various pretenders have considered themselves to be grandmasters of the Saint- Esprit, and have bestowed the order to various people: Don Carlos duke of Madrid (1847-1919) who inherited the insignia of the comte de Chambord, his son Don Jaime duke of Madrid (1870- 1931) to Prince Paul of Yugoslavia and to Xavier of Bourbon-Parma in 1927, the eldest son of Alphonse XIII, don Jaime, duke of Segovia (1908-75) to the duc de Bauffremont, the duc de Polignac, and his son Don Alfonso duke of Anjou (1936-89) to the present duke of Anjou among others.

See Arnaud Bunel's Armorial des Chevaliers du Saint-Esprit, a complete listing of knights from 1578 to 1789, with depictions of their arms.

Ordre du Pavillon

"L'ordre du Pavillon a esté institué depuis peu par sa Majesté pour les jeunes Seigneurs qui lui font la Cour: les Croix sont d'or émaillées: Sur le milieu, on voit d'un côté un Pavillon, et de l'autre, c'est un anneau tournant qui est le jeu du Roy. Le Cordon auquel est attaché la Croix est rayé de blanc et de bleu; SM le porte Elle-même sous le Cordon bleu." Source: Nouveau Mercure, nov 1717, p. 187.

Mythical Orders

Mythical orders were supposedly created by earlier kings; all of the following are poorly documented if not fanciful.

Charles Martel created the Ordre de la Genette in 732 after defeating the Arabs at Poitiers, supposedly because many furs of this animal were found in the loot. The genet is a small carnivore of the civet family (gen. Genetta, fam. Viverridae), whose fur was used in the Middle Ages (cf. Ducange's Glossarium, vol. 4 p. 54, s.v. geneta, citing a 1244 manuscript describing the cloak of a countess as "fouranda et orla de geneta"; see also Godefroy's Dictionnaire de l'ancien français, vol. 4, page 258).

Laroque, in his Traité de la Noblesse, p. 372, calls it Ordre de la Côte de Geneste citing François La Louette (Histoire de Coucy) and Pierre de Beloy (De l'origine et institution des divers ordres de chevalerie, 1604). He also cites Pierre de Saint-Julien (De l'Origine des Bourguignons et Antiquités des Estats de Bourgogne, Paris, 1581; chap. 28) according to whom the collar was "d'or à trois chaines entrelacées de roses émaillées de rouge, où pendoit une Geneste émaillée de noir et de rouge, et que ces chevaliers portoient un anneau d'or auquel estoit gravée l'effigie d'une Geneste". (There may be some confusion with the Ordre de la Cosse de Genêt.)

Charlemagne created the Ordre de la Couronne-Royale

Robert II founded the Ordre de l'Étoile in 1022, that order was then revived by Jean II. This legend is typical of 17th c. creations of orders by sovereigns, who often preferred to claim that they were reviving an ancient order.

Saint-Louis founded the Ordre du Navire (or Navire et Croissant or Deux-Croissants) before embarking for Tunis in 1269 (Joseph Micheli, Thesauro Militari, cited by Laroque, op. cit.).

Ordre de la Cosse de Genêt

A rumour circulated in August 2000 that the French pretender, the comte de Paris, planned to revive this order.

This order is often mentioned in the 17th c. literature. The mythical version is that Saint Louis founded it in 1234 (alias 1238) upon the occasion of his marriage with Marguerite de Provence. Diderot's Encyclopédie (s.v. "cosse de geneste") states that its collar was made of "cosses de genestes" (fruit of the broom plant) intertwined with fleurs-de-lys, and its badge was a cross flory; and that its motto was "exaltat humiles". It is said to have subsisted until the late 14th c. Pierre Luyt, in Le plus illustre ornement de la noblesse (Troyes, 1661), states that it was founded on the day of the coronation of his wife, that the collar was made of "branches ou cosses de genêt, émaillées au naturel, entrelacées de fleurs de lys do'r encloses dans des losanges cléchées, c'est-à-

dire percées à jour, émaillées de blanc et enchaînées ensemble, d'où pendait au bas une croix florencée d'or", that members wore a white coat with a purple hood, and gives the same motto. Citing Pierre de Saint-Julien (op. cit., 1581), he says that St. Louis conferred it on Robert d'Artois the day after the latter's wedding to Mahaut of Brabant in Sainte-Cornille de Compiègne; and also on his eldest son Philippe, his nephew Robert d'Artois, and several other noblemen on Whitsunday 1267 in Paris.

Firm evidence of a decoration by that name and design only exists for the period 1380-1422, the reign of Charles VI. D'Arcy Boulton (The Knights of the Crown) explains the origin and meaning of the decoration:

Charles V and his grandson Charles VI developed an alternative system of cementing the patrono- cliental relationship between themselves and their most eminent subjects based on the unlimited distribution of badges and livery uniforms ? a system that persisted untuil the death of Charles VII, the son of Charles VI, in 1461. Colette Beaune (Note: ?Costume et pouvoir en France à la fin du Moyen Âge: les devises royals vers 1400?, in Revue des Sciences Humaines, 183 (1981), pp. 125- 146) has recently demonstrated that, although distinctive livery badges and colors had first been introduced into France from England in the reign of Jean II himself,[Note: The Company or Society of

Our Lady of the Noble House, commonly called the Company of the Star was the only true Monarchical Collar Order in France before that of Saint Michael, founded by Jean II in 1352 (its genesis, however, lay in a plan by Jean that never came to fruition, in 1344). Unfortunately, it died with its founder and there is no evidence at all thatit survived him, despite claims by a variety of later historians to the contrary.] it was only after the accession of Charles

V in 1364 that they were used extensively in the royal court. She has further shown that, after what seems to have been a period of experimentation (in which the badge of the defunct Company of the Swan was treated as sort of pseudo-Order), a truly revolutionary system was finally introduced by Charles VUI in 1382, under which all members of the compagnie du roy from the king and the princes of the blood royal down to the humblest servants were constantly dressed in costumes of particular colors and bearing particular devices.

Through most of the long reign of Charles VI (which lasted until 1422), the king and his councilors decided at some point in every year what colors and devices would be worn by the court, and had hundreds of vestments in those colors and bearing those devices, their material, decoration, and cut varying according to the rank of the recipient, distributed to the courtiers. An appearance of equality an fraternity was thus imposed upon the members of the king's retinue, similar to that which had been imposed (supposedly) by Arthur on the knights of the Round table, and by the founders of the monarchical orders upon their 'companions', but based solely upon their common clientship to the king rather than upon their common status of knight. Indeed, one of the advantages of the new system was that it was not restricted to knights, or even to members of the male sex.

Most of the devices adopted by Charles VI to serve as livery badges were employed for a short period of time, and reflected the current preoccupations of the king or dominance of one or another of the political factions of the greater nobility, but certain devices (for reasons that are from clear) were distributed and displayed over a long period of time, and came to be recognized as standard symbols of royal authority and favor. Most important among these were the geneste, or broom- plant, adopted by Charles V as a badge towards the end of his reign,[Three patents conferring the collar

exist in 18th century copies preserved in the Bibliotheque nationale.] and inherited by his son, and the winged

white stag, a modified version of the very similar device of Duke Louis of Bourbon, chosen by Charles VI himself at some time before 1388. The former device, little used during Charles' minority, was apparently brought to the fore by the return of the co-called 'Marmousettes' in 1388, and was displayed thereafter in a variety of forms, including flowers and branches as well as the more familiar pods (cosses). At about the same time Charles seems to have decided to distribute a

collar composed of paired broom-pods, with a similar pair as a pendant, [Several representations of this

collar survive. One is perhaps that worn by Richard II in the Wilton diptych (London, National Gallery, one of the few examples of English renaissance art to survive the Reformation), and in several miniatures, although often with other

devices worn also. ] to certain selected members of his entourage, as a sign of his special favor, and although no corporate statutes are known to have been associated with it at any time, this collar was referred to as that of the ?Order? of the Broom-Pod. It was perhaps the first honorific pseudo- order deliberately founded as such. An average of twenty persons a year received the collar in the four years for which records have been preserved (1388, 1390, 1399, and 1400), and when this is compared with to the 491 houppelandes embroidered with interlaced sprigs of broom and may that were distributed to the court as a whole in the last of these years, its honorable character is clear. In fact, unlike the bestowal of ordinary badges, the bestowal of this collar was normally accompanied by a royal letter by granting the recipient the right to wear it thenceforth as a sign of royal favor.

The collar of broom-pods, which was worn by the king himself and distributed on occasion to other kings and princes as well as to simple squires of his household ? seems to have served the purely honorific functions of the monarchical orders until Charles' death in 1422, when the country was temporarily divided between Henry VI of England, the son of his adoptive heir, and his only surviving son Charles, recognized in the southern half of the kingdom as Charles VII. In his much- reduced court at Bourges, Charles VII continued to wear livery-colors and badges much as his father ha done, but he rarely distributed livery-uniforms except to members of his household proper and of his armed forces. Although he retained the winged stag as a device throughout his reign, I have found no unequivocal evidence for his use of the broom-pod either as a simple device or as the badge of a pseudo-order, and he may well have abandoned it altogether, either immediately after his accession or at some later date.

There is firm evidence of the order's existence under Charles VI. The texts of three patents (cited by Boulton above) are found in 17th c. copies in the Bibliothèque Nationale, manuscripts, Fr3886, fol. 94. Two of them (dated 1378 and 1406) are copied from André Favyn (Le Théâtre d'honneur et de chevalerie; Paris : R. Foüet, 1620; reprint 1720; English translation 1623) and Pierre de Saint-Julien (De l'Origine des Bourgongnons, et antiquité des Estats de Bourgogne; Paris, N. Chesneau, 1581). The first is reprinted in Douet d'Arcq: Choix de pièces inédites relatives au règne de Charles VI, Paris, 1863-4; vol. 1, p. 287). The original of the second patent, dated 1391, is said to have been in Ypres; Laroque (op. cit.) had seen the text and cites it. A copy of a fourth grant, dated 1412 to Pierre de Févin or Fénin, is in Fr 16166, fol. 103.

"Charles par la grace de Dieu Roy de France, a tous ceux qui ces presentes lettres verront salut. Scavoir faisons que pour la bone relation qui faite nous a este de Geoffroy de Belleville notre feal Chambellan, et de sa bone et noble generation, nous luy avons done et octroye de grace speciale qu'il puisse & luy loise en toutes festes et compagnies porter le collier de la cosse de geneste sans quil en puisse estre repris en aucune maniere. Done a Tours sous nostre scel le sixiesme jour de juillet lan mil trois cent soixante et dixhuict, et de notre regne le quatorzieme.

Cette piece est raportee par Andre Favyn en son theatre d'honneur et de chevallerie page 586. Il doit (?) avoir dans l'original "le collier de nostre ordre de la cosse de la geneste".

Charles pas la grace de Dieu Roy de France, a tous ceux qui ces presentes verront salut, scavoir faisons que nous pour le bon rapport et grand temoignage qui fait nous a este par aucuns gentilhomes de nostre hostel dignes de foy de la personne de Victor de Lichtereielve [sic; recte Liestervelde] escuyer du pays de Flandres, et de la bone et noble generation dont il est issu et procree, nous de notre certaine science et grace especiale par ces presentes luy avons done congie et license que doresnavant il puisse porter nostre ordre et collier des cosses genestes et par tous les

lieux, places ou festes et compagnies qu'il ira de bon luy semblera sans quil en soit ou puisse estre repris en aucune maniere. Donne sous nostre scel du secret a Paris le 17e de decembre lan de grace mil trois cent nonante huict, et de nostre regne le dixhuitiesme. Par le Roy, signe Ferron.

L'original de cette piece est a Ypre en Flandres.

Charles etc. Scavoir faisons que nous a plein informes de la bone et noble generation dont nostre ame sergent d'armes Robert de Mauny ecuyer est issu et procree, a iceluy avons done et octroye, donons et octroyons de grace especiale par ces presentes conge et license que doresnavant il puisse et luy loise porter le collier de nostre ordre de la cosse de geneste en touts lieux et par toutes places, festes et compagnies quil luy plaira et bon luy semblera. En tesmoin de ce nous avons fait mettre nostre scel secret a ces presentes. Done a Paris en nostre hostel de St Paul le 17e de mars lan de grace mil quatre cent et cinq, et le 26eme de nostre regne, signe par le Roy Ponhieu (?)

Cette piece est rapportee par M de St Julien de Balleure en ses memoires de l'origine des Bourguignons p. 152."

Luyt also mentions conferral on Louis II d'Anjou and Charles, prince of Tarento (d. 1404), in Saint- Denis in 1389 on the day of the arrival in Paris of queen Isabeau. (This is questionable since neither is mentioned by Froissart as having attended the ceremony. They arrived in Paris in April 1388 and stayed until October 1389. It is known that Charles VI knighted Charles on 2 May 1389 in Saint- Denis; see the tables to Froissart's Chroniques, in Oeuvres, 1867-77, 23:186).

There appears to have been decorative elements in medieval jewelry (cf. the Inventaires et documents relatifs aux joyaux et tapisseries des princes d'Orléans-Valois, p. 40, 43, 50, 53):

"gosses", "cosses", "cosses de geneste", "fleurs de geneste" are mentioned as elements of belts, chains, "hoppelandes", some weighing 7g and enameled, others weighing 1.5g. Cf. this citation from Barante's Histoire des Ducs de Bourgogne (1854; p. 38), describing the costume of the duke of Burgundy in : "Les boutonnières étaient faites d'une broderie courante en genêt, dont les cosses étaient aussi de perles et de saphirs. C'était un souvenir de cet ancien ordre de la cosse de genêt, qu'avaient institué les rois de France, et qu'ils donnaient encore parfois en récompense à leurs loyaux serviteurs." (The notion of a badge for servants and retainers is consistent with the motto.)

Chevaliers de la Sainte-Ampoule

Another curious order is the Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Dais de la Sainte-Ampoule. This order was supposedly created by Clovis on the occasion of his baptism, during which a miraculous dove from Heaven brought a flask containing the oil to anoint him. The modern origins of the order are unclear, but it is a fact that these knights make an appearance in 17th and 18th century coronations of French kings. The Sainte-Ampoule was a flask containing the Chrême or holy ointment used in the sacrament of the kings (in French, the ceremony was a "sacre" foremost, and the coronation was secondary). The Ampoule was kept in the abbey of Saint-Rémi. On the day of the coronation, it was taken thence to the cathedral in a procession. Four knights held the four posts of the "dais", or baldachin, over the Sainte-Ampoule, and it is said that the charge of holding the baldachin belonged to the possessors of the baronnies of Bellestre, Louvercy or Neuvizy, Souastre and Terrier, all vassal fiefs of the abbey of Saint-Remi (the owners of the baronnies had to be gentlemen-nobles; the bailli of the abbey could substitute for any missing knight). They seemed to have performed that function in the coronations of Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV and Louis XVI. At Louis XV's coronation on October 25 1722, the knights were de Romanie, Godet and de Sainte-Catherine; the fourth knight being replaced by Clognet, bailli of the abbey (Buvat: Journal de la Régence, 1875, 2:421). At Louis XVI's coronation on June 11 1775, they were Charles Deslaires de Gernicourt, baron de

Souastre; Louis-Alexandre d'Auger, baron de Neuvizy, Pierre-Alexandre d'Auger, baron de Bellestre, and Jean-Charles de Romanie, baron de Terrier.

The knights were clothed in white satin with black coats, with the cross of the Sainte-Ampoule (a white Maltese cross with the dove flying downwards bearing the flask) embroidered on the coat, and also a cross hanging from a black ribbon around their necks. (Reference: Le Sacre et Couronnement de Louis XVI, 1775, fac-simile edition 1989).

Orders founded by Vassals of the King of France

These orders fall in-between categories. They were created by various dukes who were vassals of France, mostly members of the French royal family. Although their founders were not sovereigns, some of them were created with the same intention as national orders, that is, to personally bind vassals to their lord (the best example being the Golden Fleece). But their founders and grand- masters were not sovereigns, since they were in turn the vassals of the king of France. And some orders, such as those founded by the duc de Bourbon, clearly had a religious and devotional purpose, very close to that of the private orders. For these reasons, I am inclined to view them as a variety of private orders.

(See the page on orders of chivalry for a more detailed discussion of the different types of orders and confraternities in the Middle Ages.)

Ordre du Croissant: said to have been created in 1272 by Charles d'Anjou, brother of Saint-Louis and king of Naples; the Order was revived on 11 Aug 1464 by René d'Anjou of the second house of Anjou, and placed under the patronage of Saint Maurice; it disappeared soon after his death in 1481. The collar is reported to have consisted of a gold chain intertwined with a ribbon of black silk, and the pendant, a silver crescent inscribed with the motto "Los en croissant". (Laroque cites Philippe Moreau, Traitté, p. 271; Louis de Sainte- Marthe, Histoire de la Maison Royale, vol. 1).

Ordre de Sainte-Catherine: created in 1335 by Humbert II, Dauphin de Viennois, who was not a royal prince. He left his dominions to the eldest son of the king of France at his death in 1349 and the order did not survive.

Ordre de l'Écu d'Or: created in 1364 (alias Candlemas 1369 in Moulins) by Louis II duc de Bourbon for 26 knights; it disappeared after his death in 1410.

Ordre du Bourdon or de Notre-Dame du Chardon: created by the same in Moulins, 1370 (alias 1368). A thistle was the emblem. It numbered 25 noblemen and the grandmaster, the duke himself. The motto was "espérance". This may be the same as the previous order. (Laroque cites Philippe Moreau on the latter).

Ordre du Porc-Épic: created in 1393 by the duc d'Orléans, brother of Charles VI; the order disappeared after his grandson became king as Louis XII in 1498, although he made a last promotion of knights upon his accession. The order's motto was "cominus et eminus". It numbered 24 knights with four proven degrees of nobility and the duke as grand-master. The porcupine was the family badge of Orléans with the motto "qui s'y frotte s'y pique". (cited in Joannes Camerarius, de emblematibus).

Ordre du Fer d'Or: created on 1 Jan 1415 (o.s.) by Jean duc de Bourbon in Paris (see the full text of the document creating this "emprise" in Douet d'Arcq: Choix de pièces inédites

relatives au règne de Charles VI, Paris, 1863-4; vol. 1, p. 370). Eight knights and eight squires bore a prisoner's irons on the left leg. The order disappeared with its founder in

1434.

Ordre de l'Hermine: created in 1381 by Jean IV, duc de Bretagne, or by François II in

1450. The ermine was the badge of the duke of Brittany, an allusion to his arms (ermine plain). The motto was "À ma vie!". It disappeared when Brittany became part of France in the late 15th century.

Ordre de la Toison d'Or (Golden Fleece): created in 1429 by Philippe duc de Bourgogne, on the occasion of his marriage to Isabelle of Portugal. This order later passed through his grand-daughter Marguerite de Bourgogne to her husband Maximilian of Habsburg and their descendants. The order remained in the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs until 1700. After Louis XIV's grandson became king of Spain, the Austrian branch claimed that the order had passed to them (alleging that the former Burgundian territories of the Low Countries had passed to Austria in 1713; although the loss of those territories in 1797 did not prevent the Austrians from keeping the order). From that date, there have been two orders of the Golden Fleece. The Spanish order is not an order of chivalry anymore since the 19th century, it is awarded by the Spanish king as an order of merit to Spaniards and foreigners. The Austrian order is now held by Otto Habsburg who still awards it on the basis of the original criteria to Catholic nobles. Also, the duke of Segovia, eldest son of Alfonso XIII of Spain and head of the house of Bourbon, declared himself grandmaster in 1963 and awarded the order to various people, including the ducs de Bauffremont and Polignac.

people, including the ducs de Bauffremont and Polignac. Portrait of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy,

Portrait of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, founder of the Golden Fleece (after Rogier van der Weyden).

founder of the Golden Fleece (after Rogier van der Weyden). Portrait of Philip the Fair, archduke

Portrait of Philip the Fair, archduke of Austria (anon.).

Portrait of Philip the Fair, archduke of Austria (anon.). Portrait of Charles V (after Barend van

Portrait of Charles V (after Barend van Orley).

Private Orders

Just as monastic orders (and some of the most famous ones) were created by private individuals of their own initiative, so were a number of orders of chivalry. In fact, that is how the orders of Saint- John and the Holy Sepulchre came to be. But such initiatives were usually short-lived, unless they found a royal or papal patron.

Many of the following examples are, as usual, hard to characterise for lack of documentation. Some, like Boucicaut's "order", have the hallmarks of an "emprise", an association of noblemen committing to a particular goal for a particular period of time. Badges might be worn by members as outward sign of their commitment. Others seem to have been, or evolved into, local nobiliary associations, which were surprisingly common in 18th century France (St. Hubert de Bar, St. Georges de Franche-Comté).

Around 1380 a group of noblemen from Poitou and Saintonge, among them the vicomte de Thouars, created the Corps et Ordre du Tiercelet as a means of mutual assistance and moral improvement. In the late 14th century, Jean II Le Maingre, called Boucicaut, founded the Ordre de la Dame Blanche à l'Écu Vert, which disappeared with its founder in 1421. Boucicaut was a marshal of Charles VI, who fought against the English, then with the Teutonic knights in Poland; he joined the 1396 Crusade and was captured at Adrianopolis. He took over Genoa in the name of the

king of France and ruled it from 1401 to 1409, starting another crusade in 1403 and reaching Beyrut. He was captured at Agincourt and died in London. He was one of the most famous knights of his time.

Around 1431, Philippe de Molans, squire of the duke of Burgundy, founded an order of Chivalry, the Ordre de Saint-Georges de Franche-Comté, after having brought back relics of Saint George from a pilgrimage in Holy Land. The members had to be from Franche-Comté and have 16 degrees of nobility. Also, in May 1416, Louis I, duke of Bar and cardinal, founded the Ordre de la Fidélité, with a gold greyhound as emblem. The name was changed to Ordre de Saint-Hubert de Bar in 1423. It similarly survived, perhaps as a local nobiliary association, and was abolished in 1824 when a royal ordinance regulated the badges and orders that could be worn (see more details in the history of the St. Lazarus order).

According to Jean Jovet (Histoire du château de Coucy, Paris, 1984, p. 37-8), Enguerrand de Coucy founded ca. 1378 the Ordre de la Couronne, whose badge was an upside-down crown. The badge is shown on a seal of Enguerrand in 1379. The existence of the order is mentioned in the charter founded the Celestine convent in Soissons. It had knights and squires as well as dames and damsels. Supposedly, a seal of Charles d'Orléans, nephew of Charles VI, displays the badge of the order beneath his right arm (he owned the lordship of Coucy).

There is a curious example of the Ordre de la Madeleine, created in 1614 by Jean Lechesne, sieur de La Charonniere Breton, to combat duelling. It met with royal approval but never created much of a following and soon disappeared (Andrç Favyn: Thçatre d'honneur et de chevalerie, 1620).

Other orders that I have seen mentioned without having any idea of what they are (some are probably not orders of chivalry):

Ordre de Fous (1380),

Ordre de Saint-Jacques du Haut-Pas (1400; probably Altopascio in Italy, where an important hospital existed),

Ordre des Dames de la Cordelière (founded in 1498 by Anne de Bretagne, for noble ladies),

Ordre de la Charité Chrétienne (founded in 1589 by Henri III for invalid soldiers),

Ordre du Ruban Jaune (1606),

Ordre du Collier Celeste et du Rosaire (1645),

Ordre de la Loyauté (1770),

Ordre d'Albrac,

Ordre de Constance,

Ordre du Coq,

Ordre de la Paix,

Ordre du Chien founded by the barons of Montmorency (Laroque, citing Philippe Moreau and André du Chesne),

Ordre de la Vache of the counts of Foix,

Ordre du Lion of the barons of Coucy,

Ordre des Chevaliers de la Table-Ronde in Bourges (1486; citing Jean Chenu);

two orders cited in a royal edict of Dec 1671, Sainte-Christine de Somport and Saint-Louis de Bochereaumont.

Orders of Merit

Orders of Merit can be distinguished from orders of chivalry in that they are designed to reward

past behavior, their membership requirements are not nobiliary, they have mild or inexistent religious associations, they require no oaths, allegiance or ritual ceremonies, and impose no specific duties on their members. However, they extend the traditions of national orders, borrowing the names of ranks and the shapes and forms of insignia from them (or even from military-monastic orders such as Malta), and also serving a similar purpose: by rewarding and honoring good service, the sovereign found a way to bind more closely to him the loyalty of his non-noble subjects. The idea of the order of merit was a clever adaptation to modern times, and it proved extremely successful. It is now widely used throughout the world.

Saint-Louis

The first such order in France was created by Louis XIV in 1693 and dedicated to Saint-Louis. It was reserved for French Catholic officers having served at least 10 years in the army. They were not required to be noble. There were three ranks: chevalier (unlimited), commandeur (limited to 24) and grand-croix (limited to 8; the limits were later raised). The king was Grand Master, the Dauphin or heir presumptive was automatically a member.

The badge was a gold Malta cross edged in white, with large fleurs-de-lys between the arms. On the obverse, a medallion with the effigy of Saint-Louis on a field gules, in armor gold and wearing a royal ermine-lined mantle, holding a laurel crown in his left hand and the crown of thorns on the other, surrounded by a bordure azure with the legend "Ludovicus Magnus Instituit 1693". On the reverse, a sword upright with flaming blade through a laurel wreath, tied with a white scarf, on a bordure azure the motto bellicae virtutis praemium, the reward of warring valor. The cross was worn hanging from a short red ribbon on trhe breast for knights, from a red neck ribbon for commanders, from a large red sash and accompanied by a metal or embroidered breast-star for grand-cross. In heraldry, a grand-cross placed a Maltese cross or ("croix d'or à huit pointes boutonnée par les bouts")behind his shield and placed a red riband around the shield, inscribed with the order's motto "Bellicae virtutis praemium", from which the badge was shown suspended. The commander was entitled to the riband around the shield with the badge, while the chevalier placed the badge hanging from a short red ribbon beneath the shield (Edict of March 1694).

a short red ribbon beneath the shield (Edict of March 1694). Edict of November 1750 In

Edict of November 1750

In 1750, it was decided that three successive generations of recipients would confer nobility under certain conditions ( Edict of November 1750). The conditions were for the 1st and 2d generation of officers to serve at least 30 continuous years, of which at least 20 in the rank of captain, or 18 in the rank of lieutenant-colonel, or 16 in the rank of colonel, or 14 in the rank of brigadier (art. 4 and 6); the duration conditions were waived for those in the rank of captain or above killed or maimed in service (art. 8). The 3d generation had to be born in wedlock, and either received the Order, or served the prescribed times, or reached the rank of captain and be killed or maimed in service (art. 10). The nobility was transmitted to all legitimate children of the 3d individual, even those born before he fulfilled the conditions (art. 11).

The order's name was changed to Décoration militaire in July 1791, and abolished on October 15, 1792. It was reestablished in 1814, abolished in 1830, although recipients were allowed to wear it into the 1860s. In 1814, the conditions for hereditary transmission of nobility with the title of

chevalier were modified and aligned with those of the Legion of Honor (see more details).

and aligned with those of the Legion of Honor (see more details ). Portrait of Jean-François

Portrait of Jean-François de Mignac (anon.).

Portrait of Louis XV by Carle Van Loo; he wears the insignia of the Saint-Esprit

Portrait of Louis XV by Carle Van Loo; he wears the insignia of the Saint-Esprit (blue sash and breast plaque), Saint- Louis (red sash), Toison d'Or (badge hanging from red ribbon).

A Protestant version, called the Mérite militaire, was instituted in 1759. It did not have a grandmaster, but had the same ranks, a similar cross with a dark blue ribbon. It was reserved for foreign officers of Protestant religion serving in the French army (Swiss, Germans, Swedes). In 1814, it was extended to Muslims and to French Protestants. Its fate was that of the order of Saint- Louis.

This order was a novelty in France (and indeed in Europe), having no nobiliary requirements and being military in nature. It was explicitly designed as an order of merit, yet it was called an order of chivalry and even its lowest rank was called "chevalier". The names of its ranks and the design of its insignia were directly imitated from the Order of Malta. It was to be the inspiration for the Legion of Honor and a number of other European orders of merit.

The following, besides chronicling the history of the order, contains a complete listing of its members with biographical information:

Mazas, Alexandre: Histoire de l'ordre royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis depuis son institution en 1693 jusqu'en 1830 (completeed by Théodore Anne). Paris: Firmin Didot, 1860-61. (3 volumes).

The names of 3099 members up to 1817 have been transcribed online.

Another book contains the names from 1693 up to the Revolution. It is available in PDF format online:

Jean-François-Louis, comte d'Hozier: Recueil de tous les membres composant l'ordre royal et militaire de Saint-Louis depuis l'année 1693. Paris, 1817-18. Vol. 1, vol. 2

Légion d'Honneur

The Légion d'Honneur was created on May 19, 1802 by Bonaparte, First Consul of the French Republic. Bonaparte himself was head of the Legion (chef de la Légion) and President of the Council of the Legion, and members were called légionnaires. The ranks were, in decreasing order:

grand-officier, commandant, officier and légionnaire. The badge was the well-known five-branch star, worn from a red ribbon. It was gold for the first two ranks and silver for the other two. The Legion was conceived as a military institution, as the names of the ranks indicate; members were organized in cohorts which were distributed geographically. This elite group would serve as a cadre for the civil society.

With the Empire, the nature of the institution began to change. On Jan. 30, 1805 a new rank was created above the other: it was called "la grande décoration de la Légion-d'Honneur", later called grand-cordon (from the red sash) or grand-aigle (from the badge which hung from the bottom of the sash, and the breast plaque). It was limited to 60 members and conferred only to grand officers, not counting members of the imperial family and foreigners who could receive it without being members of the Legion. This rank was created in imitation of that of grand-cross in other orders; Napoleon wanted to be able to award it to foreign sovereigns and their highest officials, so as to receive in exchange the grand-cross of various national orders of Austria, Prussia, Spain, etc.

At the Bourbon restoration in 1814, Louis XVIII made clear early on that he intended to maintain the institution: an explicit promise to that effect was contained in the Charte of June 1814, and an ordinance of July 19, 1814 confirmed it, while making the king its "sovereign head and grand- master" (chef souverain et grand-maitre). Later, by an ordinance of March 26, 1816, the Legion took the name of Royal Order of the Legion of Honor. The rank of grand-aigle was changed to grand-croix, that of commandant to commandeur, and légionnaires were henceforth known as chevaliers. The badges and decorations were altered to their present status.

Ranks

The Order has a grand-maître. From lowest to highest, it has three ranks: chevalier, officier, commandeur ; and two dignities, grand-officier and grand-croix. The insignia consists of a five-arm cross with (currently) the profile of the French Republic surrounded by a wreath of oak and laurel. The motto is Honneur et Patrie.

Knights and officers wear the cross hanging from a red ribbon, commanders from a red ribbon around the collar, grand-officers and grand-cross from a red sash with a breast plaque. On business suits, the ranks are represented by small threads and/or a button woven into the lapel next to the button-hole. Chevalier is indicated by a red thread, officier by a red button, commandeur by a red button on a silver thread, grand-officier by a red button on a silver and gold thread, and grand-croix by a red button on a gold thread.

The term grand-croix, borrowed from the Order of Saint-Louis, itself imitating Malta, originally

designated the insignia, but has come to mean the rank and the holder of the rank as well. In modern French, it is not an adjective, and it is invariable. In imitation of the Order of Saint-Louis, a decree of 1810 conferred the hereditary title of chevalier de l'Empire to the third generation of recipients in male line; this provision was confirmed as an ennoblement by ordinance of October 8, 1814. The decree has never been rescinded, but since 1875 the French government does not grant the necessary letters patent. There exists a private association of individuals who meet the criteria for the "honneurs héréditaires", 295 families in all. (See also an anonymous but accurate article on this topic.)

As can be seen, Napoleon's creation, as amended by Louis XVIII, was closely modeled on the order of Saint-Louis, including the style of the cross, the names of the ranks, the color of the ribbon and the hereditary honors. The five rays of the star was the only major break with other orders of Merit. The Legion of Honor, however, survived every change in regime. Successive heads of state have acted as grandmasters. Currently, the French president is grandmaster upon inauguration (and also becomes grand-cross automatically). To this day, the Legion of Honor is the most prestigious civil or military award in France.

Nominations to the rank of knight are made by presidential decree from lists proposed by the various ministers: the honors are announced every year on January 1 and July 14, and the usual number of nominations is about 2900 annually. Twenty years of public service or 25 years of professional activity are normally required, as well as passing an enquiry of good moral standing. Promotion to the rank of officer requires a minimum of 8 years as knight, and additional meritorious achievements; 5 years are required to become commander, 3 years to become grand- officer and 3 years to become grand-cross. Jumping ranks is not allowed, except for the French president upon inauguration as noted, but the time requirements can be waived, and promotions through all the ranks within the same day have occurred (in 1873).

Numbers

When Charles de Gaulle became president and Grand Master of the Order, its membership had risen to 300,000. He decided to reduce its numbers and bring it down to 125,000 by the end of the 20th century, an objective that has been reached.

The following numbers are for French nationals only. They come from the annual reports on the Legion of Honor found in annexes of the annual budgetary laws (see the National Assembly's web site).

Membership by grades (Dec. 31)

 

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Grand'croix

59

60

61

60

63

56

Grands officiers

338

323

322

321

322

329

Commandeurs

3,772

3,686

3,664

3,610

3,479

3,508

Officiers

23,381

22,631

22,702

22,330

21,468

21,849

Chevaliers

88,868

86,852

87,426

87,058

85,029

87,161

Total

116,418

113,552

114,175

113,379

110,351

112,903

Note that, until 1998 or so, the numbers are over-estimated because the chancery did not have the means to accurately check which members were still alive.

Two thirds of the members are military (active or retired). Among the civilians, 30% are from the public sector and 25% from the business sector. Local elected officials represent 10%, medical and social work account for 13%, sports and entertainment 8%.

Annual appointments and promotions

 

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Grand'croix

4

6

4

5

4

5

4

4

5

7

6

Grands officiers

13

18

18

16

16

21

18

18

20

26

33

Commandeurs

131

124

131

138

188

156

159

136

151

128

152

Officiers

639

605

702

658

698

655

667

735

638

642

708

Chevaliers

2058

2007

2111

3335

2964

2901

3027

3058

3007

2956

3,159

Total

2845

2760

2966

4167

3870

3737

3875

3951

3821

3759

4,058

In 2002, the 4058 nominations and promotions consisted of 2051 civilians, 1151 military on active

duty, 499 retired military, and 170 veterans.

The president of the Republic sets annual quota for nominations and promotions by decree, every three years. The quota are not exactly enforced, as the following table shows.

Planned:

1991-93

1994-96

1997-99

2000-02

2003-05

GC

4

4

4

6

6

GO

16

16

16

24

24

C

129

129

133

144

144

O

690

690

730

730

730

Ch

1940

1940

2910

2910

2910

Actual:

1991-93

1994-96

1997-99

2000-01

2003-05

GC

 

5

4

6

 

GO

 

17

18

23

 

C

 

152

150

140

 

O

 

686

686

640

 

Ch

 

2803

2995

2982

 

The quota are currently equally split between civilian and military for the three top grades; officiers are split between 384 civilians and 346 military, while chevaliers are split between 1710 civilians and 1200 military.

Foreigners can be appointed, to any rank, and they are not subject to any of the time requirements.

A few Americans who received the order in the 19th century: Thomas A. Edison (commander in

1889), Alexander Graham Bell (officer in 1881), the astronomer Simon Newcomb (officer in 1896), the sculptor Augustus Saint Gaudens (officer in 1901), the painter John Singer Sargent (knight in 1889, later promoted officer). The quota of foreigners for each grade is also set by decree of the President, but the quota do not apply to conferrals to foreign heads of state, their aides and to members of the diplomatic corps (article R131 of the code). The quota are as follows, in annual numbers per period of three years:

 

1994-96

1997-99

2000-01

2003-05

grand'croix

3

3

2

2

grands officiersj

15