# Strength of Materials

(ceng 1002) Semester II 2008

Introduction

specimen in tensile test (ultimate strength), imwf Stuttgar

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Strength of Materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Solids from rigid to deformable bodies …

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stress
Cutting plane – inner action equilibrium at particle

stress

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Stress
example: suspended rod - cross section area A [cm²] - Force F [kN] cutting plane inner action equilibrium at particle F F A σ stress σ = F / A [kN/cm²] F F F F

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Strain
F example: suspended rod -Length L -Elongation ∆L L L L

2F

strain ε = ∆L / L

strain ε proportional to stress σ

∆L1 F F

∆L2= 2∆L1 2F

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Hooke’s Law
linear equation : σ = Eε E = Young‘s Modulus stress σ
[kN/m²]

strain ε

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Hooke’s Law
Example: Bungee Cable - Stress Analysis - Serviceability

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Material Properties
stress-strain diagram of mild steel axial loading tensile test determination of tensile strength and Young’s Modulus

area of plasticity

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Material Properties
tensile test σ ductile material σ brittle material

ε image of failure, compression test

ε

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stress

strain
specimen in tensile test (ultimate strength), imwf Stuttgart

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Material Properties
Concrete specimen in compression test

free

blocked

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tension

compression

bending

torque

shear

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Material Properties
Timber perpendicular tensile stress due to shrinkage

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Material Properties
Timber orthotropic material behaviour

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Material Properties
cycling curves for material creep e.g. synthetics, textiles
Danzer, S.18

time

time

time

time

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Material Properties
Steel deflection due to temperature (fire exposure) Brandschutzatlas
time

time

time

time

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Material Properties
Steel deflection due to temperature (fire exposure) Brandschutzatlas

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Stability
Buckling of columns Euler Formula

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Stability
Buckling of columns

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Stability
Buckling of columns

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Concept of Design

load assumption : material strength : stress analysis serviceability : :

safety factor reduction factor design stress < allowable stress (stability) design deflection < limit deflection

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Design Project “Bottle Bubble”

Example: from an unknown material to construction University of Karlsruhe, 2005

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Material Behaviour - determining the Elastic Modulus

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Calculation

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Lectures:

Monday 8:15 – 10:00 a.m. Room No4 Karsten Schlesier

Tutorials:

Friday 8:15 – 11:40 a.m. Mesgana Seyoum

Room No4

Consultation: Thursday 4:00 – 6:00 p.m. Room 211 Karsten Schlesier

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Calender Semester II 2008 week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 day fr mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo Date 04.04.2008 07.04.2008 14.04.2008 21.04.2008 28.04.2008 05.05.2008 12.05.2008 19.05.2008 26.05.2008 02.06.2008 09.06.2008 16.06.2008 23.06.2008 30.06.2008 07.07.2008 14.07.2008 Final Exam 4 5 6 6 1 2 3 3 Chapter Content Course Information Introduction to SOM Stress - Axial Load Strain - Axial Load Bending of Beams Deflection of Beams Lab Session 1 Mid-Semester Exam Torsion Compound Stresses Stability of Compression Members Buckling Analysis Lab Session 2 Workshop

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Course Outline 1 Stress – Axial Loads Normal Stress, Shearing Stress, Transformation of Stress, Concept of Design Strain – Axial Loads Strain, Stress-Strain Diagram, Hooke’s Law, Deflection under Axial Load, Material Properties Bending of Beams Stress due to pure Bending, Shearing Stress in Beams, Moment of Inertia, Stress Distribution, Deflection of Beams, Design of Beams Torsion Moment of Torsion, Shearing Stresses and Deformations of Circular Shafts Analysis of plane Stress Compound Stresses, Combined Stresses, Transformation of Stress, Mohr’s Circle Stability of Compression Members Euler Formula, Buckling Load, Buckling Analysis

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Assessment / Requirements Minimum of 75% attendance during lecture hours and tutorials, 100% attendance during practical work sessions (except for unpredicted mishaps) – watch notice for further details. Quota of Total Course Credit: 40% mid-semester examination 40% final-semester examination 20% assignments, practical workshop

Literature Popov, E.P., Mechanics of Materials Beer and Johnson, Mechanics of Materials, 2001 Gere and Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials, 1990

E-learning Platform www.elboon.net www.ocw.mit.edu (elearning board online) – under construction! MIT open courseware – Solid Mechanics

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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Faculty of Technology

Department of Civil Engineering

G. Galileo