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Thailand -Prathet Thai, meaning "land of the free"

-previously known as Siam
-21st most populous country
-one of the most devoutly Bhuddist countries in the world
Bangkok - capital
- also called Krung Thep, meaning "city of angels“
-Krung Thep was adapted from it’s original name.(listed in
guinness world book of records as tha longest name of a place):

Krungthep Mahanakhon Bovorn Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya

Mahadilokpop Noparatratchathani Burirom
Udomratchaniveymahasathan Amornpiman Avatansathit
Sakkathattiya- avisnukarmprasit.
• North- Laos and Myanmar
• East- Laos and Cambodia
• South- Gulf of Thailand and
• West- the Andaman Sea and
Maritime boundaries
• Southeast- Vietnam in the
Gulf of Thailand
• Southwest- Indonesia and
India in the Andaman Sea
• Tropical – with temperatures ranging from 28-
• The area of Thailand north of Bangkok has a
climate determined by three seasons whilst the
southern peninsular region of Thailand has only
National Symbols
National Flower: “Ratchaphruek“ (or golden shower)
The color of flowers is shining yellow contrasting great
importance similarly to the color of our national religion
‘Buddhism' and the color of Monday when His Majesty
King of Thailand was born.
National Animal: “Chang Thai” (or Thai elephant)
According to ancient royal Thai traditions, a white elephant
is a noble beast of special importance, exemplifying a
king's honor and glory.
National Architecture: “Sala Thai” (or Thai-style arbor)
Sala Thai reflects knowledge of Thai people. It retains
beauty, which is different from architectures of other
countries, and foreigners can acknowledge ‘Thai-ness'
through Sala Thai.
Sandstone- was used to form door parts, lintels, and
rectangular windows
Brick- (around 12th century)replaced sandstone as the
favoured mortar, bound with vegetable glue, and then
sheathed in carved stone
Stucco- a sand, lime, and glue mixture strengthened by a
terra cotta armature, was later used to cover the brick
Wood- was employed in temple construction and
craftsmen attained great skill in carving decorative
elements, in the heavily forested north.
Porcelain fragments- influenced by the Chinese, it
can be seen in some ornamental decorations

Materials such as glass mosaic pieces highlighted

gables and pillars, as well as wooden and stucco
figures, and other decorative techniques utilized
lacquer, gilt, mother-of-pearl inlay, gold leaf, and
porcelain fragments to obtain the desired effect of
gleaming elegance.
Religious Influences
Theravada Buddhism reached Thailand around the 6th
century AD.
- (228 BC) Sohn Uttar Sthavira ( one of the royal
monks )to Ashoka the great came to Thailand
(Suvarnabhumi or Suvannabhumi) with other monks
and sacred books.
- it was made the state religion only with the
establishment of the Thai kingdom of Sukhothai in
the thirteenth century A.D.
- nearly 95% of Thailand's population is Buddhist of
the Theravada school
• One of the major influences
on Thai Buddhism is Hindu
beliefs received from
Cambodia, particularly
during the Sukhothai
• Vedic Hinduism played a
strong role in the early Thai
institution of kingship, just
as it did in Cambodia, and
exerted influence in the
creation of laws and order
for Thai society as well as Detail of the entrance gate of Wat Phra
Thai religion. That Lampang Luang, showing the
influence of Cambodian's architectural
- Southeast Asia was frequented by traders from
eastern India, particularly Magadha, as well as from
the Tamil kingdoms of South India.
-Numerous rituals derived from Brahminism are
preserved in rituals, such as use of holy strings and
pouring of lustral water from conch shells.
- The city, Ayutthaya, is named after Ayodhya, the
birthplace of Rama.
• Hindu deities are
worshipped by many
Thais alongside
Buddhism, such as the
famous Erawan shrine,
and statues of Ganesh,
Indra, and Shiva, as well
as numerous symbols
relating to Hindu deities
The four-faced Brahma (Phra
are found, e.g., Garuda, a Phrom) statue, Erawan Shrine
symbol of the monarchy.
Islam is most popular
in southern
Thailand, near the
border with
Malaysia, where
the vast majority
of the country's
predominantly Matsayit Klang (Central Mosque), Patanni, Thailand
Malay in origin,
are found.
- Jewish community life in
Thailand dates back to
the 17th century, first
with the arrival of a few
Baghdadi Jewish families,
although the current
community is comprised
mainly of Ashkenazi
descendants of refugees
Chabad house, Chiang Mai
from Russia, and later the
Soviet Union
- Ladha Singh-first
Sikh to migrate to
Thailand (1890)
-Sikhs began
migrating to the
Kingdom of Thailand
in the early 1900s. By
the year 1911, many Guradwaras (Thailand)
Sikh families had
settled in Thailand
-Christianity was first
introduced to Thailand by
European missionaries in
1662, with the
establishment of the
Vicariate Apostolic of Siam
led particularly Portuguese
and French fathers.
-5 major Christian
denominations: The Roman
Catholic Church, The Samruan Church, Samruan Thailand
Southern Baptists, The
Seventh Day Adventists, the
Church of Christ in Thailand
and the Evangelical
Fellowship of Thailand
Historical and Political Influences
five different historical periods where significant changes can be
seen in the various religious architecture styles:
Khmer- (9th to 13th Century)
Sukhothai- (Mid 13th to 15th Centuries)
Ayutthaya- (Mid 14th to late 18th Centuries)
Lanna- (Mid 13th to 19th Centuries)
Rattanakosin- (Late 18th Century to present)
Khmer Influence
Dvaravati- Mon civilization that occupied the central and
western area of Thailand during the 9th -11th century.
-shares the same common lineage as the Khmers and
settle in southern Burma latter
-include Nakhon Pathom, Khu Bua, Phong Tuk , and Lawo
-this was an Indianized culture, Theravada Buddhism was
remained the major religion in this area
-by the 11th – 12th centuries, it’s influence went all the
way to the center of Thailand
-Khmer cultural influence was brought in the form of
language, art and religion
Khmer Influence
• The "Sanskrit" language was
entered in Mon-Thai vocabulary
during the Khmer or Lopburi
• The influence of this period has
affected many provinces in the
north-east such as Kanchanaburi
and Lopburi. The Architecture in
"Angkor" was also constructed
according to the Khmers style
• The Khmer built stone temples in
the northeast, some of which
have been restored to their
former glory, those at Phimai and
Phanom Rung and further
cultures are stone sculptures and
stone Buddha images
Khmer Influence
Khmer Architecture -
was totally dictated by
Hindu beliefs, astrology
and subjugation to the
Gods and their God Kings
- The role of architecture
was to demonstrate
these beliefs for the
believers and enforce by
demonstration the Khmer Temple, Lop Buri Thailand
system to those
subjugated to the system
Khmer Influence
-Architecture was based on
a system where boundaries,
axes, and other
architectural parameters
have measurement or size
based on their physical
extent and internal
divisions [ that is
subdivided parts into logical
parts with each measurable
against the whole ] but
where additionally these Phimai Temple, Isaan, Thailand
structures contained
calendar and cosmological
Sukhothai Influence
Founded in 1238 by two Thai governors, Khun Bang
Klang Thao (Si Inthrathit) and Khun Pha Muang who
rebelled against the Khmers; and gave independence
to the region.
Golden age of Thai culture
– gained independence in 1238 and quickly expanded its
boundary of influence
– boundary of Sukhothai stretched from Lampang in the
north to Vientiane, in present day Laos and the south to
the Malay Peninsula
Sukhothai influence
King Ramkhamhaeng- the
most famous and dynamic
monarch ever to rule the
Sukhothai kingdom
-Much of what we know
about Sukhothai in the 13th
century derives from a 1292
stone inscription attributed
to King Ramkhamhaeng
-tells about King King Ramkhamhaeng's famous stone
Ramkhamhaeng's rule, the inscription, for the first time written in Thai,
power and prosperity of survived intact through the centuries, and
Sukhothai was discovered in Sukhothai by King
Mongkut during his monkhood
Sukhothai influence
Wat Si Chum, Sukhothai – The Temple of the Bodhi Tree
- the largest, the most puzzling and historically important
Buddhist temple from the Sukhothai period
- famous for the enormous stucco Buddha over 11 metres in
width called Phra Achana (one who is not frightened)
-In a book entitled Phra Ratchaphongsawadan Krung Si
Ayutthaya written in the late Ayutthaya period, the temple is
referred as a place where King Naresuan and his troops
assembled before the army marched on Sawankhalok and
from which the legend of talking Buddha Image (Phra
Achana) derives
Sukhothai Influence

The buddha image covered in

stucco and is seated inside a
square brick Mandala building
with a tapering wall structure
which opens in the center of
the top.
Ayutthaya Influence
-Ayutthaya, the capital of the Thai Kingdom was found by U-Thong
King in 1350
-Ayutthaya as an island is formed by the gathering of three rivers,
the Chao Phraya, the Pasak, and the Loburi and surrounded by rice
-King U-Thong and his immediate successors expanded
Ayutthaya's territory, especially northward towards Sukhothai and
eastward towards the Khmer capital of Angkor
-The greater size of government could not remain the same as
during the days of King Ramkhamhaeng
-The society during the Ayutthaya period was strictly hierarchical.
There were, roughly, three classes of people, king at the top of
scale. At the bottom of social scale were commoners and the
Ayutthaya Influence
Ayutthaya was a society of
builders rather than
• It was preoccupied with
building monuments to
impress outsiders by sheer
• it erected a major portion of
its 400 wats in
Ramathibodi's reign and
completed most of its major
monuments in the first 150
years of its existence.
Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Historical Park
Ayutthaya Influence

Ayutthaya had three palaces for

its rulers:
• Wang Luan (Royal Palace)-
occupied by the principal king,
situated on the northern rim
of the city
• Wang Na (Palace to the Front)
built for the second or Vice-
King, situated on the
northeastern corner of the city
• Wang Lang (Palace to the
Rear) later occupied by princes
of the royal blood, situated on
the western part of the city
Lanna Influence
• -Lanna or Lannathai is the given • -founded by King Mengri (1259 -
name of a prosperous self ruling 1317) The town was built in 1296
kingdom, once the power base of and named Nopburi Sri
the whole of • Nakorn Ping Chiang Mai which
• Northern Thailand as well as was later shortened to Chiang
parts of present day Burma Mai.
(Myanmar) & Laos. • -most powerful period of this
• -means "Land of a million rice kingdoms history was during the
fields'. reign of King Tilorokarat (1548-
• -Was a state in what is now 1580).
northern Thailand from 13th to • -began to wane by the end of the
18th century. 15th century-
• -emphasized in the solidifying of • -Chiang Mai swayed between
religious and cultural Burmese and Central Thai control
foundations. with intermittent spells of self-
Lanna Influence
• -Influenced by chinese,indian • This architectural style had its
and mon with mixture of own distinctive characteristics
harpunchai,chiang saen and which emphasizes on the
sukhothai but developed enormous size of the
• its own character. • shrines and relatively small
• -made use of wood but more sermon or temple’s hall.
of stones and bricks. Stupas were later built from
• - Lanna Architectural Style was mid 14th century onwards
found in the northern region • since the entrance of
of Thailand while Chiang Mai Lankawong Buddhism sect.
being its center. The stupas were then built in
Lanka style.
• -Wats or temples were the
main structures built at this
Rattanakosin Influence
• It included vassal states of Cambodia, Laos, and some Malay
kingdoms. The kingdom was
• formation by Chakri Dynasty until 1932
• came into being when King Rama I ascended the throne in
• King Rama I was determined to build a new capital to revive
the glory and splendor of old Ayutthaya.
• The new capital was located on the island of Rattanakosin,
protected by river to the west, series of canals to the north,
east and south.
• Economic activity in the Rattanakosin Era was primarily,
• Thai art, culture, philosophy, and literature was created,
developed and mainly influenced by Buddhism and Hinduism
Rattanakosin Influence
Architectures of this period are divided
into 4 groups:

Architectural style of the declining period

of Ayuthaya (lopburi style and prang)
-Lopburi Architectural Style were
mostly constructed from bricks and cut
stones with influences from both the
Mahayana Buddhism sect and the
Hinduism religion.
-This architectural style flourished in
Kampuchea and later spread to
- A prang is a tall finger-like spire,
usually richly carved. Prang at Wat Arun
Rattanakosin Influence
-Architectures constructed during --Thai architectures with adaptation of
the reign of King Rama III had western architectural style
either one of the two (subsequent to King Rama III’s
distinctive characteristics (‘in’ reign) with prominent western
or ‘out’). The ‘in’ type was the building style.
-one with traditional gable
ends decorating the roof while
the ‘out’ type’s, the gable ends -Modified Thai architectural style
of the roof were plainly (subsequent to King Rama V’s
constructed with bricks and reign) with characteristics of
stucco or applied or modified architectural
-mortar without traditional style of various nations,
decorations of gable ends. -and blent them together before
applied with Thai vision and main
characteristics to pass on the
greatness of national architecture.
Rattanakosin Influence
Wat Phra Keow
• Wat Phra Keow, commonly called the
Temple of the Emerald Buddha, was
constructed in 1782 to house the
Emerald Buddha, the most revered
possession of the ruling Chakri
dynasty. Just 60 cm tall, the Emerald
Buddha is an ancient statue believed
to have magical powers. It is said that
whoever possesses the statue will
rule the entire kingdom. No one
knows the origin of the statue, but it
first surfaced in the 15th century in
the northern town of Chiang Rai
• Unlike most monasteries, there are
no resident monks at Wat Phra Keow.
The temple is reserved for the
exclusive use of the royal family.
Architectural Character
• Thai Architecture
– reflects the influences of the Buddhist countries and of
the various groups with which it has mingle and
associated for two millenia.
– At various stages down the years, the cultures of Burma,
China, Khmer, India and Sri Lanka, can all be seen to have
had an important and distinctive influence on architecture
in Thailand.
– Most noticeable in Thai architecture are the swooping
multi-tiered rooflines, the distinctly ornamental
decorations, the stunning interior murals, the vivid colors
and the lovingly crafted and gold-adorned Buddha images.
Traditional Architecture
Thai House- the basic thai house
of the past, rarely seen today, was
simple structure of bamboo and
thatch, raised off the ground for
protection against floods and wild
-Most family life took place on a
veranda-like platform outside the
one or two rooms that served as
sleeping quarters.
-this model evolved into more
complex structures of wood,
varying both in form and
decoration to suit conditions in
different regions but always
retaining their essential simplicity
Traditional Architecture
Central Plains Houses
-Elevated on stout round
posts, it has steep roofs with
curved bargeboards and
paneled walls leaning slightly
inward; the various
components are prefabricated
to enable easy dismantling and
reassembly. The simplest
house consists of a single unit
with an outside veranda, while
those accommodating larger
families might have several
separate units arranged
around a central platform.
Traditional Architecture
Royal houses
-were similar in design to
those of commoners except
that they were generally
closer to the ground and
had more decorative
Tamnak Daeng (The Red House)
-Built by King Rama I as a residence for
one of his queens, it was originally in
Ayutthaya style but acquired more
Rattanakosin elements during several
Traditional Architecture
Roof Gable (Ngao)
-A distinctive feature of the
Central Plains house is the
elegant curved decoration at the
ends of the peaked bargeboards
surrounding the gables.
-Known as ngao, it evolved from
Khmer architecture and appears
in elaborate form on religious
buildings and palaces. A Stylized
version can also be seen in
domestic houses.
Paneled walls are a relatively Roof Gable (Ngao)
recent addition to the Thai house
Traditional Architecture
-Houses belonging to more
prosperous families usually
have a gate, often sheltered
by a Thai-style roof that
opens on to the central
-A jar of water is placed at
the bottom of the steps so
that visitors and residents
can wash their feet before
coming inside the house.
Traditional Architecture
The Sala
-An open-sided pavilion
-familiar structure in Thailand
found in the courtyards of
temples and along heavily
traveled routes.
-serves as a shelter, giving
shade from the hot tropical sun
and heavy monsoon rain.
-It also is a ‘living room’ and a
hub for community social
gatherings and village activities.
Traditional Architecture
The Northern houses
-The northern Thai houses
differ significantly from its
counterpart in the Central
- The walls lean outward,
giving it a sturdier look, and
windows are often smaller.
- Kalae- V-shaped
decorative feature at the
ends of the roof
- Some authorities
believe they represent a
pair of buffalo horns.
Traditional Architecture
Northern rice barn
-A rice barn is a component
of most traditional
compounds in the northern
-Raised on pillars and with a
ladder for access, it is a
solid structure with few
windows, used to store
Religious Architecture
Regardless of historical period,
the most important area of
religious architecture is the
Thai temple or wat.
The Thai wat is a group of
buildings each serving various
purposes and usually set
within a walled enclosure.
In addition to being a place where
the lessons of Buddha were
taught, the Thai wat was
traditionally a school, hospital,
community center and even
an entertainment venue.
Wat Pho
Religious Architecture
• follows a similar set of design
principles and the same can
normally be said for the functions
of the various buildings within
the complex
• Architectural modifications have
been made and the overall style
of each of the buildings may vary
• There is also a symbolic
significance to each and every
part of the Thai wat complex. The
capitals of the columns, for
example, are shaped like lotus
buds or water lilies symbolizing
the purity of Buddha's thoughts.
Religious Architecture
The Bot
-All wats usually include an ordination or
assembly hall known as the bot or
sometimes known as an ubosot. The bot is
reserved for monks to perform
ceremonies, meditate and sermonize. It
faces east and usually houses the main
Buddha image.

Bai Semas
-Surrounding the bot are bai semas. These
are sacred boundary stones, used to Ubosot: Wat Benchamabophit, Bangkok
demarcate the sacred ground of the bot
and to keep away evil spirits. Normally
eight are used in total, but double slab
stones for royal wats. This is also an
example of how animist beliefs coexist with
Religious Architecture
The Chedi
-The Chedi is a solid dome-
shaped structure where relics
of Buddha may be housed,
such as a bone fragment or
hair, or the ashes of a past
king. Some Thai wat
complexes are specifically
designed and built around the
sacred Chedi.
The Vishnu
-At the top of a Chedi may be
a stylized thunderbolt sign of
the Vishnu, an ancient Hindu Chedi at Wat Kuu Kham, Chiang
lord of the universe. Mai, Thailand
Religious Architecture
The Wihan
-A second assembly hall, similar to
the bot but usually larger, is the
wilhan. Within a complex, there may
be several wilhan and each may have
an eclectic mix of architectural styles.
The wilhan is used by laypeople to
make their offering before a large
Buddha figure. Normally there are no
bai semas surrounding the wihan.

The Prang Viharn at Wat Phrasat, Chiang

-A few wats have prangs, which are Mai, Thailand
towering phallic spires as can be seen
in the famous Wat Arun on the banks
of the Chao Phraya river in Bangkok.
Religious Architecture
The Chofa Chofa on the
-The chofa is perhaps the most top of a roof of
recognizable architectural detail in
any wat. Chofa means, ‘tassel of air’ Wat Pangsank
and its shape is thought to derive Taii.
from a highly stylized Garuda, a fierce
bird featured in Hindu mythology.
The Garuda is also a royal symbol and
can be seen on other buildings
denoting that they operate ‘by royal

The Mondop
-The mondop is a square-based
structure topped with either a Mondop at
cruciform roof or a spire. The edifice Wat Arun
contains sacred text or an object of
Religious Architecture
The Bodhi tree
-Most wats will also include a Bodhi
tree (Ficus religiosa), also known as
the Sacred Figar Pipal tree. The
Buddha is thought to have attained
enlightment (Bodhi) while neditating
under a Bodhi Tree at Boghi-Guy in

The Cloister
-The cloisters or main wall will
enclose the main area of the wat
complex (known as the phutthawat).
The cloisters are sometimes painted Cloister at Wat Phra Kaew
with decorative murals and also may
house a row of Buddha images.
Religious Architecture
The Sanghawat
-These are the monks'
living quarters and
dormitories and are
usually in a separate

The Ho Rakangs
-These are bell towers
and are used to toll the
hour and summon the
monks to prayer. Ho Rakang
Religious Architecture

The Minor Salas

-This hall acts as a meeting
place for Pilgrims.

The Ho Trai
-This is the wat library and
houses Holy Scriptures. A ho
trai is a rare feature of the wat
complex. In the countryside
they are usually on a high base
or surrounded by water to Ho Trai at Wat Phra Singh,
minimize insect damage by Chiang Mai
Royal Architecture
• Royal houses and mansions are
typically a mixture of Thai wat, •The 'red house' at the National
traditional Thai house style and Museum in Bangkok is a typical
western architecture. royal house and a good
• Teak wood is the main structural example of Thai royal
material of such buildings, giving architecture.
them their distinctive rich red
color. The doors and windows •Royal wats can be identified by
usually have ornate pediments the prefixes of Rat, Raja or
and frames, which are sometimes Racha in their names. There are
decorated in gilt bronze. only 186 such wats under royal
• Like the Thai wat, the roof of the patronage in the whole of the
royal building will have a chofar
and normally the roof tiles are country.
made of finest teak wood.
The Grand Palace
• When Siam restored law and
order after the fall of Ayutthaya
the monarch lived in Thonburi on
the west side of the river
• Rama I, on ascending the throne,
moved the centre of
administration to this side of the
Chao Phraya; and, after erecting
public monuments such as This palace came to be known as
fortifications and monasteries, the Grand Palace, in which the
earliest edifices contemporary
built a palace to serve not only as with the foundation of Bangkok
his residence but also his offices-- were the two groups of
the various ministries, only one of residences named the Dusit
which remains in the palace Maha Prasat and the Phra Maha
The Grand Palace
The chapel Royal of the
Emerald Buddha
-Just north of the Royal
Residence of the Maha
Monthian from which there is
a connecting gate lies The
Chapel Royal of The Emerald
-It consists of all the
architectural features of the
monastery without however
the residential quarter, for
monks do not live here.
The Grand Palace
The Upper Terrace -the model of Angkor Wat crafted by
-consists of 12 smalls pavilions Royal Command of King Mongkut
surrounding the Ubosot (Chapel). (Rama IV)
Beside that, Phra Sri Rattana Chedi is -and the Royal Pantheon where
on the left, Phra Mondop (Library) is statues of past sovereigns of the
on the middle and on the right is ruling dynasty are enshrined.
Prasart Phra Thep Bidorn
- On this are four main monuments:
-the Reliquary in the shape of a
golden chedi
- the Repository of the Canon of
Buddhism with its mother-of-pearl
cabinet that displays the palm leaf
scriptures at various times of the
The Grand Palace
Subsidiary Buildings
To the north of the terrace on the
level ground there are three
interesting buildings:
-the Scripture Library, the west
facade of which is said to be
the finest in Bangkok
-the gabled Wiharn decorated
with tiles and porcelain
-and the mausoleum of the
Royal Family where are kept
the crematory relics of a
number of members of the
Royal Family.
The Grand Palace
The Galleries
- The Chapel Royal ground is
enclosed by galleries, the
murals of which depict the
story of the Ramakien of
the first reign version.
- If we start at the east gate
we come to the initial
stages of the war waged by
Rama of Ayodthaya to A famous Scene from the
rescue his wife who had Ramakien Epic (Mural)
been abducted by
Thotsakan (Ravana), King of
The Grand Palace
Phra Maha Montian Chakri Maha Prasat Hall
This consists of three main buildings, -The Chakri Group was built and
namely : resided in by King Chulalongkorn,
1. The Audience Hall of Amarin Rama V (1868-1910). Only the
Winitchai- where the reception portion is now used,
ceremonies of the Court usually consisting of two wings for
take place reception purposes decorated
with galleries of portraiture
2. Paisal Taksin Hall where the
coronation of a monarch takes
place with its coronation chair
and the octagonal seat where
the monarch receives the
people's invitation to rule
3. Descending from here we come
to the antechamber to the
Chakrapat Phiman building
The Grand Palace

Dusit Maha Prasat Hall Boron Phiman Mansion

-Here we have an audience hall -Phra Thinang Borom Phiman: built in
with a throne of mother-of-pearl the western style in 1903 by King
surmounted by the usual nine- Rama V for the Heir Apparent, the
tiered white canopy, the mark of future King Rama VI, this mansion
a duly crowned king. At the back was also used at various times as a
of this audience hall is yet a living royal residence by King Rama VII
quarter. All are built in pure (1925-1935), King Rama VIII (1935-
1946), and the present King Rama IX.
Siamese architecture of perfect
The Grand Palace
Phra Asada Maha Chedi Wat Phra Keo Museum
-The “Eight Prangs” The form of a -This museum exhibits the
Thai Prang (tower) derives from
the Khmer prasat, but whereas a seasonal costumes of the
prasat is “a residence of a king or Emerald Buddha, various
a god,” a prang has the same offerings presented to that
function as a chedi. sacred image, and samples
Amarin Winitchai Hall of architectural temple
-Phra Thinang Amarin Winitchai ( fragments that have been
Throne Hall ) replaced by new ones.
Originally this was the Principal
Audience Hall of the Middle
Palace in which officials of state
and foreign ambassadors were
received in audience.
• Beek & Invernizzi’s The Art of Thailand
• Sir Banister Fletcher’s History of Architecture