You are on page 1of 957

THE BOOK WAS

DRENCHED
Tight Binding

Damaae

CO

>
164387

UJ

THE HYDERABAD LITERARY SOCIETY


Call No.

il^l'S/P 5 "^'*

Accession No.

Author
Title

This book should be returned on or before the date

last

marked bdow.

HIGHER PERSIAN GRAMMAR


FOR THE USE OF THE

CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY
SHOWING

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AFGHAN AND MODERN PERSIAN


WITH

NOTES ON RHETORIC

BY
LIEUT.-COLONEL
D. C. PHTTJ^TOL^-M.A
PH.D., F.A.S.B.,
Late Secretary, Board of Examiners, Calcutta,
Translator of
the,
*

Baz-Nama-yi Nasiri,* and


l

etc.,

Editor of the Persian Translation of

Hajl Baba

of Isfahan*

and

of the

CALCUTTA

FEINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS, CALCUTTA, AND PUBLISHED

BY THE UNIVERSITY.
1919.

PREFACE.
intended mainly as a book of reference, and for this purpose is printed with a copious index, It has been written chiefly for those students who have learnt, or are now studying, Persian in India. It
is

THIS work

should be borne in mind ^hat considerable differences exist between the


Persian of Afghanistan
diction
J

and

of Persia, not only in pronunciation

and

but also

in construction.

Many

of

these differences are

illus-

trated in this work.

It

is

hoped that the notes on composition and

rhetoric will prove especially interesting to Indian students,

many

of

whom

for their benefit that these subjects

have to study Persian through the medium of English, and it is have been treated from an English

These notes, however, are not intended to supplant the study of Arabic or Persian rhetoric, but merely to supplement it.
point of view.

The author, not being a


Prosody.

poet, has

made no a/t^npt
>*.
4

to deal with

In writing this grammar, the works of Plaits ,* Ranking, Rosen,

Chodzko, Haggard and Le Strange, Tisdale, Socin, Thacher, Wright, and others, including several works in Urdu and Persian, have been My acknowledgments are specially due to Agha freely made use of.

Muhammad Kazim
ers,

Shirazi, Persian Instructor to the


in seeing the

Board

of

ExaminPress,

who has
also

assisted throughout
his

work through the

and

to

brother-in-law,

the

late

8hatns"'l-'Ulama*

Shaykh

Mahmud

Jilan!,

and other Persian


of a large

friends, for constant advice.

The addition

amount

of Arabic (viz. portions of the

Qur*an, the Alif Laylali and other Arabic works) to the Persian Course

has necessitated a far larger amount of Arabic grammar than was anticipated, a task for which I felt myself by no means competent. This portion of the work has grown much beyond the limits originally
set for
it.

In compiling

'Ulama*

Muhammad

thanks are chiefly due to Shams" 7Yusuf Ja'farl, Khan Bahadur, Head Maulavi of
it,

my

the Board of Examiners, to Shams'

7-'

Ulwn&* Shaykh

Mahmud
and

JilanI,

and

to Maulavi

Hidayat Husayn

of

Presidency College,

others,

who

means in modern Persian, for instance, ta mlz " order, medal," )& "stomach," imtiyaz ^ULcf
1

^\

"
clean,

dimagh

U> "

nose,"

IV

PREFACE.

helped

me

throughout

its

compilation

and

also to Professor L.

White-

King, C.S.I., of Dublin,

who

assisted in revising the proofs

and at whose

suggestion numerous additions were made.

Owing
duly long in

to the

proofs at sea

War and the consequent loss of manuscript} and and to other unfortunate causes, this work has been unissuing from the Press.
D. C.

PHILLOTT,

Lieut. -Colonel

CAIRO

March

1918.

TO

THE HON'BLE

MR. JUSTICE

ASUTOSH MOOKERJEE,

aS.L, D.L., D.Sa, F.A.S.B., F.R.S.E.,


VICE-CHAN CELLOR'I OF THE CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY, CHAIRMAN OF THE

TRUSTEES OF THE INDIAN MUSEUM, VICE-PRESIDENT


OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL,
t

DEDICATE THIS BOOK,

IN RECOGNITION

BOTH OF PERSONAL FRIENDSHIP

AND OF THE SERVICES HE HAS


RENDERED TO ORIENTAL
SCHOLARSHIP.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART
I.

CHAPTER

T.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY.


Sec.
,,

1.

The Alphabet

..

..
..

..

Page ..I

2.

Pronunciation of Consonants

..
.

..11
. .

,,

3.
4.

The Short and Long and Dipthong Vowels


The letter a (at the beginning Jazm or 8ukun
.

21

.,

Ilnmza and the Short Vowels at the beginning of words


of

23
27 28

,,

5.
6.

words)
.

.,

.,

7.

Ta*h<Rd and Ughftm

..
.

..
.

..
. .

29

M
, t

8.

Tamcin
Waslah

30

9.

..
. .

..31
31

,,

10.
11.

Solar and Lunar Letters

12.
,,

Ahjad Numeral Figures

..

..
, .

..
.
.

..32
33
of

13

To

find the year A.D. corresponding

to

the year
.
.

the

Hijm
.,

34

14, 15,

Siyaq

..

..
. .

..
.

..
.
.

..34
34 35
37

,,

Letters in Poetry

.,

16.
17.

,,

Handwriting Punctuation

.,

18.
19.

Abbreviations, Contractions and I mala

38

.,

Summary
Accent

..
. .

..
. .

..40
41

.,

20.
21.

Exercise in Translation
..

,.

..

..

..

..45

CHAPTER
Sec. 22.
23.

II.

Division of Persian and Arabic

Grammar
..
.

48

24.

25.
26,
.,

Etymology The Article .. The Substantive


..

_
..
. .

..
.
.

..
. .

..48 ..48
48
51

Declension

27.
28.

,,

29.

Examples of Declension Formation of the Plural Plurals Modern Persian

56
58
64

Classical Persian
.
.

VJii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

III.

PRONOUNS.
Sec. 30.
31.
,,

Persona] Pronouns

Page 68
71

The

Affixed Pronouns

.^
.

32.

Possessive Pronouns

..
.

..
,

..75
77

33.
,,

Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns

34.
35.
36. 37.

,,

Simple Demonstrative Pronouns Emphatic Demonstrative Pronouns

82
87

,,

,,

Compound Demonstrative Pronouns .. Interrogative Pronouns ..


Substitutes for Interrogative Pronouns
Indefinite

88

..
.

..91
98

38.
,

39.

Pronouns

98

CHAPTER
Sec. 40.
41.
,.

IV.

THE ARTICLE AND THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.


The The The
Definite Article
Indefinite Article
.
.

130

..

..

..

..131

42,

Relative Pronouns and the Demonstrative or Relative

^
.

141

CHAPTER
Sec. 43.

V.
.

The Adjective

149
161

M
,.
,,

44.

Compound
Degree
of

Adjectives

45.

Intensive Adjectives

169
171

46.

Comparison and Comparative Clauses

CHAPTER
Sec. 47.
48.
,.

VI.

THE NUMERALS.
Cardinal

Numbers
.

182
191

The Ordinals
Fractions

49.
50.
51.

194
196
197

,,

Adverbial Numerals
Multiplicative Numerals Distributive Numerals

..
.
.

..
. .

..
. .

..
.

,,

52. 53.

198

,;

Recurring Numerals

198
199

,,

54.
55.

,,

Approximate Numbers Numeral Adjectives

199

CHAPTER
Sec. 56.
57. 58.
.

VII
.

Arabian Months The Turki Year-Cycle The Zodiac


. .

200

..
. .

..
.

..
. .

..203
. .

204

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

IX

Sec. 59.
,,

The Seasons

. .

Page 205
206

60. 61.

Ancient Persian year

. .

Yazd-Gardi year

..
.

..
.

,.
. .

..209
, .

62.

Days

of the

Week

210

CHAPTER
Sec. 63.
,,

VIII.
..
.
.

Money
Weights

..

..
.
.

,,
.
.

,.212
213

64.
65.

Measures of Length
..

..

..

.,

..214
1

CHAPTER
Sec. 66.
67.
,,
. .
.

IX.
.

68.

The Verb The Separate Substantive Verb .. The Verb Transitive and Intransitive
.

217

..219
,.
.
.

..
.
.

221

Tenses from the Imperative Tenses from the Shortened Infinitive


,,

223

225

69.

Active Voice

..229
. .

70.
71.
.,

Verbal Adjective Negative Verbs

234
237

..

..
.

,.235
.
.

72.

73.
74.

Euphonical Rules and Accents in the Verbs Interrogative Verbs


.
. . .

238 239
248

Roots or Stems

of

Simple Verbs
.

75.
76.
,,

Hybrid Verbs

. .

The Auxiliary VerbShudan


Tawanistan
Giriftan

..
.. ..

248
249

77.

..

..

78.
79.

..
.
.

..254
. .

80.

The Verbs " to begin, etc/' The Auxiliary Verb Khwastan


"

.,
..

256

..

..257
. .

81.

Guzashtan, Dadan,

Mandan ; and Verbs


"
..

to Permit, Allow
..
,.
.

261

,,82,
83.
,,

Kalian Dashtan

..
.

..263 ..263
. .

84.
85.

Impersonal Verbs Compound Verbs


Certain

2CO

274 280
282 285

,,

86.

,.

87.
88.

Verbs used in the Compounds Causal and Reflexive Verbs


.
.

Common

,,

Passive Voice and Passive Verbs

CHAPTER
Sec. 89.

X.
.

Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases


Prepositions
..

289

90.
91.

..
. .

,.
. .

..
.
.

..322
.
.

Simple Conjunctions

338

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page 354
366

Sec.

92.
93.

Compound Conjunctions
Interjections

. .

and Interjectional Phrases, Greetings, Compli.

ments, etc,
94.
,

Signs and Signals

..

V.
etc.

..
.
.

,.389
.
.

95.

Bibliomancy, Divination, Superstitions,

390

CHAPTER XL
Sec.
,,

96.
97.

Diminutive Nouns
Affixed

394
398
404

and Arabic Abstract Noun


.

. .

98.
,,

99.

The Terminal The Suffixes ban


,,

or van, vana,

un and van
.

406
407

100.
101,

gar, gar, gari, kar


ar, dar, al
.

..

..
.

..408
. .

102.
103,
104.

The Turkish Suffixes fi, cAi, .. The Suffix c5 The Suffixes zar, sar, start
gard, khana, shan,

bash, tash or dash


..

409

..

..410
410

or istan, lakh, kada, yah, abad,


.

na

,,

105.

The

Suffixes

umawJ* wand, mand, nak, ak


bar, yar
.

..413
.
.

106.

413

107.
j,

,,

avar, mr. rar gan, man


}

414

108.
109. 110.

.,

ana, ma,

m,

an,,

an, ra, van


,.

415

agin or gin

.,

111.
112.
113.

The Formative alif .. The Suffixes fam (pam and


,,

,.

..

..417 ..417
.

warn), gun, charta


t
.

418

a-a, sa, san, iw$h das, dl$, vand


..
..
.

419

114.

The Suffix urn The Termination

..

..

420

1$%

..

..

..420

CHAPTER
Sec. 115
.

XII.

Verbal Nouns and Nouns and Adjectives derived from ..421 .. .. .. Verbs
.

3 ,

116.

Compound

Substantive

425

PART
CHAPTER
Sec 117.
118.
119.

II.

XIII.

SYNTAX.

On

the use and omission of izafat


of

433

The Cases

Number

of

Nouns Nouns. Nouns


.

445 464

of Multitude

and

their

Concord

TARLE OF CONTENTS.

XI

CHAPTER
Sec. 120.

XIV.
Paqe,
..

Pronouns

..

..

..

..476

CHAPTER XV.
Sec. 121.
122.
,,

Adjectives

..
.
.

..
. .

..
.
.

..
.

..490
.

Adverbs

405

123. 124.

Conjunctions
Prepositions

..
..

..
..

..

,,

..

..497 ..502

CHAPTER
Sec. 125.

XVI.
.

Use

of the

Tenses

Aorist

505

CHAPTER
Sec. 126.

XVII.
.

Subjunctive

Mood

538

CHAPTER
Sec. 127.

XVITT.

COMPOUND AND COMPOUNDED SENTENCES.


128.
,,

Conditional Co-ordinate, and Optative Clauses. Conditional Clauses (continued)


.

545 552

129.
130.

Concessional Clauses

556
558

Relative Clauses

131.
}J

Predicative (subordinate) Clauses

..

..

,.

562 570

132.

Subordinate Clauses (continued). Local and Modal) Clauses


Subordinate Clauses (continued). Causal) Clauses
. .

Adverbial
. .
.

(Temporal,
.
.

,,

133.

Adverbial (Final and


.

573

134.

Co-ordinate Clauses

576

CHAPTER XTX.
Sec. 135.

Concord of Subject and Verb


Errors in Concord, etc.

585
591 600

130.
, .

(continued)
.
.

..
. .

..591
.

137.

Concord of Adjectives, and Pronoun with Noun Government of Verbs, Prepositions, and Errors

600

CHAPTER XX.
Sec. 138.

Order of Words and Phrases

604

CHAPTER XXI.
Sec. 139. 140.

Apposition
literation

614

Repetition of

Words and Phrases


.

Jingling Sounds
. .

Al.

622

Xii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Sec. 141. 142.
143.

XXIT.
Page
.
.
.

Notes on Rhetoric and Composition

629

144.

Number of Words and Arts of Abbreviation, Further Observation on Style Examples of Errors in Rhetoric
.

etc.
.

644 652
659

APPENDICES,

Appendix A. Appendix B.

Arabic Grammar (with detailed (Continuation of Sec. 125)


.

list

of contents)
. .

675
899

INDEX

..

..

..

..

..

..909

Higher Persian Grammar.

PART
ORTHOGRAPHY
1.
(

I.

t>

fl*

AND ORTHOEPY
(

*dji

The Alphabet.

-*j^

).

The Arabs and other Muslims write from right to left, and their printed books and manuscripts begin at what Europeans would call the end of the book. Their writing may be regarded as a species of shorthand,
(a)

the short vowels being omitted. In printing, each lei er is not kept separate as in the

Roman

character;

there are no capital letters, no stops, and no paragraphs; in short, not one of the devices valuable alike to the printers and readers of Europe; from

cover to cover their books appear to contain but one long unbroken sentence, and many of the words are jumbled together, or, at the end of a line, written

one on the top of the other* In some carefully written MSS. a line in coloured ink^on the top of a word indicates a proper name or the commencement of a new paragraph, but even this aid is rarely given.
,

Of existing alphabets, the Arabic ranks next in importance to the Latin alphabet. It has supplanted the Greek alphabet in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Thrace, and has supplanted the Latin alphabet in North Africa.

Western Asia, Persia, Afghanistan, Tartary 1 Turkey and of all the alphabets employed in India, it is the best known. 44 That the local alphabet of Mecca should have exterminated ail other
It is the sole alphabet of Arabia,
;

Semitic scripts, and have established


is

illustration more striking than any other that can and Asia, be adduced, of the power of religious influences in effecting a wide and rapid

an

diffusion of alphabets.
<l

no more than eighty years (632 712) for the Arab conquerors a dominion wider in extent than the widest empire of Rome, and to found
It took

******
Mecca from the Indus to the Tagus."
it is said,
*

itself

as the dominant alphabet of Africa

to extend the alphabet of

The Arabic and English Alphabets can, same primitive Phoenician source.
1

be traced back to the

" The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor.

THE ALPHABET.

The Arabs
in the

originally used the Syrian alphabet, in

which the characters are


of
this

same order

as

in

the Hebrew.

Remains

former

order

are

still

preserved in the numerical value

of the letters, which in their

numerical order are arranged in a series of meaningless words that serve as a memoria technica and correspond with the order of the Hebrew or Phoenician
alphabet.
1

The Arabic alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters, all consonants. The arrangement of the Arabic alphabet is morphological,* i.e. letters of similar
form are brought into juxtaposition
aid to
for the sake of

comparison and as an
adapted
the Arabic

memory. With the Qur*an, the Persians


ill-suited to their

adopted

and

alphabet, though
or Farsi letters

p,

ch,

requirements, adding to it the four 'Ajami ^J* g. The Persian alphabet therefore and jh
all

consists of thirty- two letters,

Persian 6 and eight 6 are peculiar to Arabic

consonants; four of these letters are pure while the remaining twenty are
,

400. So far as their alphabets extend, i.e. up to From Or, morphl ** form " and " logia." Other methods of arrangement are (1) the Chronological, in which the letters are added according to the date of their adoption; {2} the Ideological, in which the characters are classed according to the meaning
1

names (from Gr. 'idea "idea" 4- loqia\\ as in the arrangement of tho hieroglyphic signs by Egyptologists (3) the Phonological, the scientific arrangement of which the Deva-nagari is the most perfect example in this, the letters are arranged according
of their
;

to the organs of speech by which they are articulated, viz. gutturals, palatals, etc., ** each division being also scientifically arranged. Vide ** The Alphabet by Isaac Taylor.
2

For an account

Taylor.

The Alphabet by Isaac Ancient Persian Scripts, vide At the time of the Arab conquest the Persians uned tho Pahlavi character.
of the
'

9'

* Also In MSS. and in books lithographed in the East, the diacritical printed !> bar that distinguishes g from Jc is generally omitted. This puzzles a beginner. It will be noticed that the body of these four letters is identical with that of Arabic
letters,

and that the only

distinction

is
"

by tho
ant*

diacritical

marks.

They
letters
6

are adaptations of

peculiarly Persian sounds as

new

Persians do not always regard the letters but occasionally represent them by the Arabic

^*

" is they resemble; thu* ^**f "horse frequently written v** !. The four letters purely Persian are enumerated in tho school rhyme:
9

^- ^j
->

J^ w

^j wy ,^
.

f&
I

These eight letters are enumerated in a school rhyme:

The Urdu or Hindustani alphabet contains three more letters to correspond with three sounds, found in words of Hindi or Sanskrit origin; it thus consists of thirty-five
letters.

THE ALPHABET.

3
letters

common

to

both

languages.

The

form of many of these

varies

somewhat according

to their position in a group of letters.

In addition to the Alphabet, there are three vowel signs, which, if written, are placed directly above or below the consonants to which they

which they follow in enunciation in writing, but are sometimes inserted in


belong,
i.e.

in practice they are

omitted

books

printed

specially for

beginners.

There are also certain orthographical signs, a knowledge


necessary.

of

which

is

The following table should be studied, in conjunction with the remarks that follow and elucidate it. The greater number of the letters are by
Persians 2 pronounced as in English:

signs, as

Qur'ans are printed or lithographed with all the vowel-points and orthographical it is considered a sin by Muslims to mispronounce a syllable of the sacred text. if not of the editions printed or lithographed in India this, mo^t, all, Notwithstanding
1

have. numerous orthographical errors. Inserting the vowels and signs adds considerably to the cost of production. The State edition of a Qur'an printed and published in Turkey, and said to be letter perfect, is sold in Baghdad at the rate of thirty rupees,
2 a copy a similar edition, but printed in the Roman character, would probably be sold for five Blullings. The Arabic character, beautiful to look at, is an enemy to printing and an enemy to the diffusion of knowledge.
i.e.
:

The written character of a language is merely a collection of conventional signs, a mere mechanical device used to give it expression. The Arabs have already changed
their alphabet once.

Many Muslims object


sider mutdharrak.
2

to printed or lithographed Qur'ans,

which they do not con-

The Persian Shrahs however do not seem


10.

to share this objection,

Vide

(k)

page

THB ALPHABET.
OS
'

1
09

I
S
C3s

o-

rS

g o a
,

3 bO
d d .S

Q*

8 v o a o a QQ o

<M

eo

(j;

4q

'I

4 -'VI

2 M <
V^

1o>

0}

-oaid

jo
tn

JU

g i

1
8
8.
ar.

!-

THE ALPHABET.

1
s
.3

I
"

*
'S.

Z
P a
.a .g
'3)

"

I I M

.3

.3

.g

.g

A
CO
OO

S
4?

4
.*

r
_D-

\\ H.

^3

*2

%
-5

tf

-if

s
It*

1
ft

P
4
3i!2
"*

Nl

S
e

I|IS
N3

W-

J=

*-

10

co

00

^3

-^

<J

THE ALPHABET.

I
CO

*l ii S
.-S

PH

-<

s
03
eg
ter

^^5^
fl

'a

^
F3

U
W
d m
r-l

1 o
Tr

oo

&0 ^H

.S

i
^j

10

i!^

"^
g

vvi

'

o^J

J3

'-2

...

THE ALPHABET.
<D
00

ii! U
s
sc
13

I 2

^
cp
j-i

1
"bO

^ a
c8
.,

|| a s
a 2 | S

T3
_g

g>

o -^ CD
j

CO

_|

<D

JM CD

'-3

a
'S>

a 1 t

4)

'i "2

g
L<

a
r/:

5 5
S

-S
tf

SO

ans

"&&! t-^1
*T?
5^5

CD

."S

O c p o

Q>

"~*^

ie~

-i?

^ !

Hi
I
*S
c

3
<S
CD

C
Q_)

J-

^ ^

O
oL
02

.^

g r?
4.

P.

**

e 5
u o
>

.2

<y '*

-ri >^2

O
"S
r^

^
o ^

V
-

^ 5~ ^ *
** 4> K^

si

i o
1C?

P^ f^

,1

iS

18

^ o
ice

-Sig
r-^*

S rt

is
CD

sl*;
|
CD

.a

*
11

2
"I
?*^
*^J

"I

^ O

THE ALPHABET.

THE ALPHABET.
(d)

9
i
-

It will be noticed that the letters

a -

--)

j and j never

alter

their shape, and though they are joined to the letter that precedes follows (on their right), they are not joined to the letter that

them
them

hence if they occur in the middle of a word, a gap or left) formed nearly similar to the interval between two adjacent words. Inaccurate spacing is one of the difficulties in reading the cheap lithographed
(on their
;

interval

is

books of the East.

The letters ^ and though they do not change in shape, yet unite letters on both sides of them. the with
(e)
J=>

The eight letters peculiar to the Arabic are ^ ^ - (jp o* - ^ - & and <> The four letters peculiar to the Persian have been enumerated preIn the Table of Consonants these two sets are distinguished viously.
-

(/)

by the abbreviations Ar. and

Per. respectively.

Remark.

The

letter (fiction & occurs generally in Arabi<f ?

words, but
of

is

also found in

Persian words, as
' '

d(&

'"kid"; J^ "comb

bees**;

" jj^ shout


(g)

' ' ;

jj)U

rouge."

resemble each other in shape and are merely etc., are distinguished by the position or number of the dots, ^ g mutamdsil sometimes and called huruf-i mutashabih {^UJlc huruf-i ),

Those

letters :>that

oj^

Sometimes also
3

letters that

have only an imperfect resemblance, such as


vav
1

and

<>,

are included in this term.

* whose names are palindromes && ) (and these are all formed by three consonants) are called Maktubi ( If, however, the first and third letters of the anagram differ, as in fim

(h)

Those

letters as

mlm.nun aud

qaf, etc.,

the letters are styled Malfuzl

u&j&o

).

Masruri ( <s)jf~* ) is a term applied to by two consonants only, as k etc.


() Letters distinguished ) or huruf-i mu'jama
(

letters

whose names are formed

by dots

are called

huruf-i

manqufo

" Combined, these form the Arabic wordoo?m (fj* ) sleep,** A palindrome is a word or sentence that, read either from right to left, or left to right, is exactly the same. Adam made the first palindrome when he introduced him1

self to Eve new word or


*

Madam, I'm Adam/' Letters transposed by, sentence are anagrams, thus * rat * 13 an anagram of
an anagram.
to
**

"

anyhow to make a tar and tear of


*
*
'

rate/
s

A palindrome is also called


Nuqfc Ar.
)

a dot "

* * b*
;

(*?^7

mark with

diacritical

points.
to

The term
alphabet

(for

f?^*+Jf
which

kiJt
it is

<J*>

is

also

applied

the

irrespective of the order in

arranged.

It is so called as containing dotted

letters, in contradistinction to the ancient

Arabic character called *>A*J/ tiJf , in which

there were

no

dots.

10

THE ALPHABET.
Dotted
letters are further
(

subdivided into jawqam ('<^tfy

those dotted

above, and tahtam

^U^j
(

those dotted below.


talitanl,

Dotted

letters,

whether fawqdm or
***

are further distinguished


***

by
)

a^U* ****;* ), musannat ( *^*> ) and musallasa ( marked by one, by two, or by three dots. of transliteration in the present work is practically (j) The system the Hunterian system. Modifications are q (instead of k) for <3, and m for e> before a quiescent b or p for the final Arabic vowels, a small a, i, and u,

***

the epithets muwahhada


according as they are

written above the line, and a small


cases where s-h
t ween

for the

and

z-k are separate letters,

nun of the tanwn. In the rare a mark or comma is placed be.

them. Ex.
C5"
(

A
"

final

or

literated
self

by " and

;.

" thou "

" blossoms." " asjiald^l more or most easy ", az,har )tej\ A silent j as in <^L^ is trans) pronounced like alif is q. In the few words where j is pronounced short, as in zj&>
,

it is

transliterated u.
Cl

The ya

or the

hamza

of the

ya

of unity ". etc., or of the izafat, are

transliterated as pronounced.

Hamza
Remark

in Arabic words

is

shown by a hamza

as in fcfida.

prolongation is omitted, but expressed by fatha written perpendicularly over it: thus haza 4< this" is
I.

In some Arabic words the


}

alif of

always written \&A or at end of j and ^.

!^A

and d+**j

is

usually in Arabic eJ-*^

vidz a ^ so

In Persian, an alif that is not mamduda or 'prolonged', *' abbreviated ", by Indians incorrectly called maqsura or though this latter term is properly applicable only to a final! and & vide under letter ^.

Remark

II.

as in e>i^j^,

is

also

^^

(&)

It

will

be seen in the table that there are two letters


h, four letters
-

transliterated

by
i

^
(

and

and &
ail

by

z,

two

- J> ;

by

t9

and three

&

^*

^o ) by

s.

In Arabic

these represent different

sounds, but the modern Persians

make no

tion of the various letters in each group.

distinction between the pronunciaA few pedants and poets affect

the Arabic pronunciation, generally that of Baghdad. (I) Certain letters, especially at the beginning of words, are frequently placed, not alongside each other, but above one another this is the case
:

in combinations with

it

2 (m) In the case of a change in letters' as fil J* Ar., from ptl JAJ, P., will be found that a labial is changed into another labial, a dental into a

dental, etc., etc.

There are

five labials^
'

o y and
-

*->

J^'

tabaddul-i-huruf.

THE ALPHABET.

11

Something similar occurs in the permutations of weak consonants, a vowel (English) being usually changed into a vowel. Sometimes, however, a palatal becomes a lingual, as in (#*- and
' '

^^

China "; Jtf and

(m.c.)

"squint-eyed."

2.

Pronunciation

(talaffuz

i!3)

of Consonants.

-4K/.

(a)

letter

and not as born from

The Persians, unlike the Arabs, look on alif as an original ^ or> If it commences a word, it is to be reitself
;

garded as having no sound of

it

is

is a prolongation of the short vowel fatha and is transliterated by a, irrespective of its modern pronunciation. In this position most Arabs, Indians, and Afghans pronounce it like a in father Ex. V UT Utah " a book " some Persians and some Afghans would pronounce this more broadly, like a in "ball." This broad pro' '

(written or understood) that accompanies it: If it occurs in the middle of a word, it

merely a prop for the vowel 4 (6). 1 vide under

nunciation
in Persia.

is

characteristic

of

the

tent-people

and

of

certain dialects

In the Ears dialect, a before n or m is nearly always pronounced like u ; 99 Ex. e>&> " a shop " is duJcun <%*, and bam lC roof " is bum &. This incorrect pronunciation of
Is

in certain

common

words, the colloquial pronunciation


u>f

many
its

parts

of

Persia; for

example Jb "bread** and

"that"

and

compounds are generally pronounced as though spelt nun e^ 5 etc. " is In many cases the aUf is pronounced broad thus bad lt wind pro;

&

nounced nearly like bawd, the alif being given the sound of a in the English word jail. 8oine Afghans too have this broad pronunciation, but the Indians
In Persia, always pronounce the aUf like a in the English word father. if this last however, pronunciation be used, the word will be taken to mean **} ba*d ** after *, and even an educated Persian will be puzzled by it,

In Khimlsan, on the other hand, the j is turned into alif; Ex. andaran " " " blood/' e?jM for C>M the women's apartments ; and khan e>^ for &}** For the pronunciation of alif with a hamza (I) in the middle of a word,
vide under a in this section.

Remark

I.

Alif in arithmetic represents the

number one ; and


It also signifies

in astronomical tables

and almanacs,* Taurus and Sunday.

an unmarried man.

In this case

it

is

usually called hamza, to distinguish

it

from

alif as

a letter

of prolongation.
*

are written in

There are two kinds of almanacs, taqvlm-i Farsl t$**r 5 *> which the days, etc.* fdj^* and in full, taqvim-i- ruqiiml (H^ which signs and the letters of the

&*&

Abfad

<**u* are

used to represent the days of the week.

etc.. etc.

12

THE ALPHABET.

" In Arabic it is a particle of interrogation; Ex. A-lastu bi-rabbi-kum, Am " I not Your Lord ? Quran VII. 168, whence the Persian vs*J( or
<j

Q
'

vs*~Jf

jj;

the

day

of

the original covenant between

God and Man

at

the creation.'

Poets frequently compare an erect stature, 1 or the straight nose of a c j ^ = " from the creation of Also jf beauty, or sighs, to alif. jof ^*~ f* Adam to the birth of the Messiah"; t>j*>\ cM "the equinoctial line":

'

alif 9

ba

(e

the alphabet/' etc., etc.


II.

Alif

is

also

a sign of the Unity of God.


alif

Remark

Indian Grammarians assign various names to the letter


:

according to its use

Kinds of
(1)

alif.

Alif-i rabita

*tyj

<-&i )

words that are identical;

as,

%ao &*>
alif
is

"binding or copulative alif" joins two <4 from hand to hand; (a dast-a dast
also
{

ready-money bargain)."
" the
alif of

This

called
<-ft)t

alif-i
.

ittisal

JUri! u&f

junction ", or
(

alif-i inhisar
)

)U**uf
c

Some Grammarians
**
)

style this alif-i vast

JLaj <Jty
is

but vide
the

(10).

Similar to the above


alif,"

alif-i

atf

<-*ke

<-ftJf

the conjunctive

which conjoins two dissimilar words;


(or

as, skab-a-ruz (3jy

and day; always": tak-a-pu (jj&)


bustling."
(2)

takapuy

^j$&)

' '

night search diligent


)
;

M^ "

Alif-i fd'iliyyat
(

oaLU

i_&f )

the adj. bina


participle.
(3) Alif-i

U*>

^seeing",

the alif of agency as the alif in ; which word has the force of a present

ts

"

participle; as, zlba


(4)

tives; as,

v^J, ) that gives the force of the past ( o^Afic " = ^adorned ( ( U?j ) 8^*^ ). which forms abstract nouns from adjecAlif-i masdar ( JXA* J$ " breadth", from (m.c.) ^armand pahn UjS (m.c.) ^warmth",

mafuliyyat

^
)

adjectives.
(5)

AKf-i
#

tanwm

^y3
n

^
w^

the alif of the Arabic accusative case

as,

in the adverb U5f^ da*im


(6) Alif-i-

"

continually, for ever."


(

qasamiyya
as,

&&~$

^\
^g

)
**

the

alif

of the Persian
!

vocative

when expressing an oath;

Haqqa
;

IA^

" O, or by, God


'
!

When
it
is

this vocative alif is


(

called Alif-i nida*

*'*>

not used in an oath, but as a simple vocative, ' " heart bulbula ^Ul " oh uty ) as, lf> dila
grief, etc., as in

If

however

it is
!

" oh
alif of

used in words expressing

help

or oh distress
alif-i

"

U^a

"

alas,"
)

it is
(

called Alif-i
v^Jf ).

nudba

****

%^f

" the

"
plaint

or

madd-i sawt

o^ A*

An

erect stature is also

compared to a cypress tree.

THE ALPHABET.

13

verbs

"

(7)
;

Alif-i

as,

du'autamannq ( ^*3 ^ U^ <Jd\ ) "the precative alif in " " mabada ^ta "may it not be " kunad may he do.
f

(8)

Alif-i

ment "

as, in

#7&/-t zoft'^
(9)

or

<c

"the alif fHf ^-WJ &? " he said." This is also, and more properly, " vide alif
tahsm-i kcdam
(

CA^I

of embellishcalled xfy
<-&(

superfluous
c c

(12).

Alif-i mubalaglia
efl)l )

*xJU<

uftJ,

" the
is

kasrat

ci^Sf

the

alif
!

of excess

' '

tives; as, in

UjA

" Blessed

How
*Jti

happy
(

"
!

afe'/ of exaggeration" or alif-i found at the end of some adjec-

This

is

also called the alif-i


(

firawam
)
;

^\^

*M

(10) Alif-i wasll

JL*>)

beginning of certain Persian

words

said to be the superfluous alif at the " camel " as, in ushtar j^f (or shutur)
is
(

and also the alif


This
is

in Arabic

marked with a wasl cUj ;


alif-i nida*,

~
}
9

but vide

(1).

really alif-i zafid.

(11)

In certain cases the


(

vide

(6),

is

also called alif-i


+jZx** ii^^

mutakallim

" oh my respected kind


(12) Alif-i zafid
(

j*li*

4-afj

};

as,

Dust-a muhtaram mihrbana t>^<l

friend."
*$\\

^
:

superfluous alif"
A>

is sometimes,

in poetry,

added for the sake


cu*st

of

metre

^^^^
tk,-.^,
*

U'i^ l^S

<>juiiU<Jj

^i*Af
Sa^ib.

AaxiiP

Verses written on the

tomb

of

Mirza
'

In m^fa

Vide also

chapa La., ,5a62;a ran^/, ^i; Df-, the a??/ is Derivation of Words for Formative Alif.'
'

(13) Alif-i liyaqat

^^

tJtii

expresses fitness or capability;


*

as,

khwana

U^
in

legible.
;

C^ B

Persian words is sometimes interchangeable with / as, zafan ^3 l " with " ; tongue m; as, ghuzhm ftp [for ghuzhb (for P, za6a ej^J) " with j v; as, vas <j*^ v^c (old)] f< a single grape (for bas ^^o) " ** " <( } khwav and with tcor t?; ^aw? (for fchivab) sleep enough
; ;

as,
*'

aw

f<

(for a6)
55 a

water

"

nahw

(for

the Persian nahlb

fear.

Pronounced as in English.
(

Ba-yi za*id ^fj Verb Transitive and Intransitive


This letter
is

Remark.

^
5

**

superfluous
(

w as m
'

(*J-H-

^^

under

and

Prepositions.'

often called ba-yi muivahhada


*->.

the single-dotted b

'

to

distinguish

it
is

from

i^ P

called &a-/^ farsl

^^

^5^, or 6a-/i 'ajami


it is

u*^

c5^

There

being no p in the Arabic alphabet,

frequently interchangeable

1 Still

used in speaking by Zardushtis.


letter that

The

has been changed,

i.e.

substituted,
is

is

called

mubdal
(

J ***, and
4

the

'<*

original letter

from which the change was made

called

mubdal minh*

***>

(J*** )

14 with
*>ou*
)

THE ALPHABET.
/

J, as

fll

" white "

JA* (for pil JAJ


;

"
)

elephant

"
;

safld **&*

(for

sapid

jlruzl ^)jjt> (for plruzl <s)jj%)

"
victory."

d>

T\ the Arabic * is generally written in Persian o and so pronounced vide under *. <-j 8 by the Arabs is pronounced like th in Cuthbert, and sometimes
:

as s; in

Egypt

it is

pronounced &.
it is

Among

the Persians and Indians,

an English
give
it

s.

Some Afghans and some educated Indians

the sound of

th.

~ J

called jlm-i
it

faw ^j^
It
is

^,

or jlm-i 'arabl

^j*

*&>, to distinguish

from

the contraction for the two Muslim months

Jamadq'l-Ulq a,ndJumadq'l'Akhir. It is sometimes interchangeable " crooked " withc/& - and z\\ with zhj as, kazh (old) (for kaj /) ;
;

as, chuza *}>> (old) for


of

juja
9

**-+** (m.c.)

"a

chicken, and the

young

a bird"; with g; a,a Jilan for Gllan a province S.W. of the " would that." Caspian with sh o2; as, kaj (old) for kash <J&
;

^ Oh

called jim-i jar si

^^- ^^,
&^sJ
(old)
it

or jlm-i ^ajami ^5*^^


It is

+^.

It

is

some-

times confounded with -J


sh ^4; as, lakhclia
(for
(for

lakhsha

sometimes interchangeable with "flame"; with z } as, )

*J
)

puchushk
<c

-^^
;

pizishk
(je>;

^A-V)
**

k<

a physician,"
(for

In

Arabicized words

changes to

as,

Sin ^>/o Ar.

Chm

&**)

China"

^^ sanj,
c^^

Ar

(for

chang

Jj^

Called 1m yi huttl
A!*.^*

C5^> ha-yi halqi

^^

cymbals," ^*> and ha-yi muhmala


9

^U.
this

The Arabs, some educated Indians, and some Afghans,


a strong aspirate, something
in
like the

make
this

h in

"haul"

if

catch this sound, the beginner should copy an Arab or an Afghan many times when 5 Sahib: he says the word (he should also note the sound of
the throat.

word be pronounced

To

v^^

in this word).

By

the Persians this letter

is

pronounced

like *, q.v.

Remark.

Children in Indian schools are taught to


*,

make a
(jo

distinction in
<_r,

pronunciation when reading between ^ and


practice, in speaking, 110 such distinction
is

and between

and

but in

made,

Kh

called kha-yi sakhiz **

^U,

kha-yi

mcmquta *k>*A> ^l^, and

kha~yi mu'jama A*?UUO ^lk. Great care must be taken to make this a guttural and not a k. (There is a story of a doctor who seriously alarmed a patient by mispronouncing the word e^ khun (i
blood.")

sometimes interchangeable with <3; as,cAaMmaM ^UM. (for " flint or cock of a gun and with h as, ctiaqmaq jU^ ) (old) <c earth." (for khak <J()
It is
' '
;
;

uU

In Abjad,

it

has the same value as

viz. 3.

THE ALPHABET.
4>

15

D called dal- iabjad*^


muhmala aU^
o^
J|^.

Jta

dal-i gjiayr

manquta &j&scj*fi
' '

J(a, O r dal-i

sometimes interchangeable with t ci; as, " black with si; as, wsJaz partridge turraj ^[y (for durraj <j& ) " master " ill*! (for wsJad alM ) a kind saza? Ar. form of sada *&
It is

' '

of

plant"

with z):

as,

dizarj^

(for

oWary*^).

mu'jama *+****> Ji. It is sometimes interchanged with d j>; as, tXxi? for >.i?. By the Arabs it " is sounded like the th in though," if, when pronouncing it, the tip of the tongue be thrust well forward between the front teeth of
t

called zal-i

manquta

*k?$x*> Jii, or

za^"

both jaws and slightly compressed: compare with & and u^-

By
month
\

c< zeal." It is a contraction for the the Persians like ), or as z in is while f5 the contraction for Zu* l-qa' Zul-liijjah A^3*J< ji,

is

" are." always rolled and never as r in

Called ra-yi

imtnquta &L^^ j>& ^ci^ or ta-yi muhmala ^tU^c ^^. It is a contraction for either of the months Rnbi'. It is sometimes interchanged

with
<s

as mlufal c-U^US
' *
;

(for

nilufar

^->V) '"a convolvulus;


chanar
;

afc'O

a waterlily
^a-yi

chanal
\$&

J^
^>Cs

(iruc.) (for

JU

^
)

plane-tree/*
sa-^i

called

hnvwiz

2a-?/i

manquta AJJ^VO ^ij^ and


;

s mu'jama *^*-o ^cfj. It sometimes is interchangeable with as, #&;" T > (for suz 3r*) with^; as, gurljA &/ (for gunzjtjS } with 5; as, with - q.v. Zi j ) is a poetical contraction of i?/a$ (for ^?/a^)
;
;
(

the preposition

J*

j ZA

called ^a-?//

/am

u*;!*

^(3,

or 20-^1

a;ant

4^+^ ^3-

It inter-

changes with
Si

q.v.

It is

pronounced as j in French jour or as s in

measure."
called sin-i ghayr-i
f<

^ $

&l*y* ^xvo.

It interchanges

manqula *kj&* j** ^*, and sin-i muhmala sometimes with J^ as, kustl ^L3 (for
;

kushfi ,^+f)

4 wrestling"; also the Zardushti belt worn under the " f or jJ^< *musk/ Also sometimes with ^e; as, clothing, and

J^

j
*,
*""'

for

AS'A

called $Mn-i
is

It

manquia A^s** <^^, and sliin-i mu'jama -. an abbreviation for Shamal JU^ "the North."
<c

It

inter;

changes with -; as, pachan e.^b (tor pashan eA^) scattering" " also with " a with ; as, kaj J (for kash sjk^ ) pine u* Q*v.
*,

^Sf

called sadri
UD.

<thayr-i

manquta

*j?^aix

^x^ ^l*, and

,sad-^"

It is the abbreviation for the

month

of Safar

muhmala yU and

Pathans say usiaz

in Pushtoo.

*^ and J are sometimes interchangeable. 3 Still used in speaking by Zardushtis.


4

Ex.^HJ** or

The Bombay Parsees

call this belt kustl,

but the Persian Zardushtis

call it kushti.

16
also for

THE ALPHABET.
the

word

lt

sadiq <j*l*
;

genuine" which shows that an


(old)

account has been audited

hence sad kardan ^jj? oU>


the Persians
it is

to so

mark an account,

etc.

By

pronounced

like <j.

In Arabic a stronger and harder sibilant than in English. Educated Indians and Afghans affect the Arab pronunciation vide remark
:

to
A

h.

Z,

zad-i

manquta, or zad-i mu'jama.

Pronounced by the Persians

like 3, i.e. like z in zeal.

In Baghdad like the thin though if pronounced

the tongue behind the root of the front teeth with the tip of the upper jaws. (In Egypt a hard palatal d).
of
Jb

T called

td-yl hutti

^k*> ^Lt,

ta-yi ghayr-i

manqutn, and

ta-yi

muhmala.

By the Persians pronounced like o. By the Arabs a hard palatal t. Educated Indians and Afghans imitate the Arab pronunciation. It
interchanges with a
fe
;

as,

&*^

for *&fa=L
9

called za-yi

manqufa
3.

^l^aix

^&

or za-yi mushala &JI&* <^$&*


tl\

By

the

Persians, like
*

In Baghdad like the

in

though
or

pronounced

naturally* called 'aynri g&ayr-i manquta &Jsy*i* j*c


*^*t*
crf^*

^,

'ayn-i

muhmala

It is often in Persian not distinguishable as a separ-

ate letter (as prosody proves).

In some words

it is

interchangeable

with

* h.

It

is

transliterated

by an inverted comma.

is a strong guttural In Arabic the Few Persians can imitate ^ the Arab pronunciation. At the beginning of a word, it is by the Persians treated as though it

were the prop for a vowel.


oaty).*

Ex. eoU* ibadat "adoration "


f

(as

though spelt

At the end
as in tarna'

of

a word

it is,

in Persian, either quite silent as


like

*A.

jam'* or
e

eke more properly there

*k

slight vowel sound The Persians never say jama*


is

a half a or half

like the Indians. 8

Many

words like +^ jam' and (** man' are often pronounced with a drawl, and a peculiar intonation that sounds affected to English ears; such words are not

pronounced in the least

like

^ jam ^ man
or

If so

pronounced they 'will

often be unintelligible. In the middle of a

word

this letter has

a half-bleating sound like

f
i

By

the Persians

Oj*

is

pronounced as though spelt Oj t, but the Arabs would

before pronouncing its vowel u J[ give a distinct and peculiar sound to the consonant * This at least is the case in Southern Persia with some words of three letters end-

ing in

In the more accurate pronunciation of the better classes in Tehran the final
slightly.
,

is

perhaps always pronounced though


8

The Arabs

fully enunciate this final 9

though not quite

like

the Indians.

THE ALPHABET.
a double a; Ex. **~ sa d
(

17

;U*t are Arabic word pronounced i-i-tibar and transliterated, of course, i'tibar. [An with a mute hamza in the middle, has, in Arabic, and should have in
is

pronounced

sa-ad. 1

Words

like

Ex. j^^> ma*mur correctly-spoken Persian, this same half-bleating sound; " ordered a commissary *' (pronounced ma'amur)].
;

a middle salable of a word, there is a very perceptible ^ begins ^ must be taken to pause in the enunciation; Ex. *M qal-'a "a fort": care make this pause in the correct place, as the pronunciation ga-l'a or qal'a is

When

generally unintelligible.
c.

The Arabs do not make


manquta,

Gh

called ghayn-i

**&>

this pause.

or ghayn-i

hard guttural something between gh and r, much like the r in Parisienne, by a " Parisienne."

mu'jama *+^** &** the r being sounded


It represents

ItOO in arithmetic and hence is with Persian poets a symbol for the bulbul-i hazdr dastan e^'j> ;t>* cUl\ It interchanges with (3
as ayngJi
ty

(old for
{

ayaq JM)

" a cup."
interchanges with

V^.3 -^ called /a-y*

sa fas o&ft*-*

^^: sometimes

<

l- v

'-

Sometimes interchanges with q.v. hard a In Baghdad and by Persian Turks of ten pronounced like English g. A guttural like q pronounced from the depth of the throat as if undergoing suffocation, or like ck in stuck when pronounced at the back of the throat.

called qaf-i qarshat

c^^y J'^

It

must not be pronounced

like k,

By
it this

the uneducated

it is

a common English mistake, confused with c, and even educated Turks give

Ex. j>* ghadr instead of two letters seem interchangethe In Turkish words u>ed in Persian, qadr able: a Turk of Persia will often spell the same word with either letter
pronunciation in certain

common words

^.

indifferently.

The
and
tf|

distinction in spelling

is

generally observed between

" Uf " a eunuch


It
is

"

master

"
,

but both are colloquially ag&d.

K called kaj-i tdzl


called kaf-i farsi

^o
^;l*

<,

or kaf-i 'arabi <jj* o!

in Persian

frequently confounded with gaf.


<J^, or kaf-i 'ajami
i

^^^

<Jf^.

It

is

somebridle;

times interchangeable with ^, as lijam halter" (Persia).


<J

^M for lagdm f&


J^^

"

L is

an abbreviation

of the

month

shavvdl

Poets compare

it

to a ringlet.

is

an abbreviation

for the
c^;

month Muharram
ban

interchanges with

as,

3 f^ ^*.

It

sometimes

(in.c.) (for

bam, fb*
In ba'd

(m.c.).

Vide Haggard and Le Strangea' Vazir-i Lankuran.


is leas perceptible.

*xJ, the

doable

sound
&

Pronounced bun and bum.

18

THE ALPHABET.
N.
There
is

y)

no nasal n l in Persia.

In India, however, n

is

in

some

is imperfectly pronounced, as in chunan, then called nun-l g&hunna^ but before a vowel (and jatian; before an It has izdfat) the nasal sound disappears. consequently

words almost nasal or


it is

usually
p^>).
this
is

the sound of

when

it

immediately precedes b

(or

Ex. JAO

(tanbal)

transliterated m.

"lazy" is pronounced tambal: note that Nasal n always follows a long vowel.

W or

F.

At the beginning
1

"an answer ", v "a good work,"

of a word, or in such words as U(9 ^ javdb savab "rectitude", ^ty savab " a reward" or

it is

amongst Persians a consonant

like v;

but

amongst Arabs, Afghans and Indians it is a w, like the w in we or it is pronounced like a v, or between a v and In ^.^ and went.
p*jj*
is

a w.
Before an

The
alif

v sound

common
,

in Isfahan

and Kirmau.

j has, in pure Persian words, no sound ; Ex. are pronounced jchdhar, khdhish, etc. ; there is, therefore, 4^-*^, etc., j*\j=*> in no difference pronunciation between ^A**^ Ichwastan "to wish" and

and after

^.ju.lk

khdstan

"to

rise

up

"
:

this silent j is transliterated w.

Khwish <^y*

and

its

compounds
j

are pronounced khlsh (transl. khwish).


alif
is

however,

before

pronounced

Ex.

u*>*>

In Arabic words, In of u*^. pi-

&yjs* "to eat" and its derivatives, the j is pronounced like pish L and khud < self", is transliterated u\ also 3* du, "two", y tu <c thou" 4< the sun", ^i-;^ khursand c4r^ fckush "pleasant", <vj^ khurshld
?

c<

happy ". j*- and >-+* are often pronounced chi and hamchi. A few Arabic words like ****. hayat ^life", x^ salat "prayer", are generally in Persian phonetically written oU^ and o&.
^
is

sometimes interchangeable with J, as ydfa b'b (old) [for ydva\^ <c vain, foolish ". The vdv that occurs before an alif and is (m.c.)]
not pronounced, as
" distorted a^A*^ y^
in

khwdslan cA-'A>

*s

called vdv-i ma'dula

mv,

or vav-t iskmdniri

zamma

&+>*

this is maktub-i ghayr-i tnalfuz that gives a smell of 9 *' written but not pronounced." A vdv-i malfu$-i ( &f&c j*& v y&* ) gayr-i-maktub ( VJJ*^A* ^AJUy^ sometimes occurs as in ^^Ub
vat?
: )

" the

"

^U^f

j|j

id'us

a peacock," but the more correct form (j*?^^* is also found. In Ar. both the lodws have the sound of w in this word.

**

Remark.
harf~i

A letter that
(

is
<c

masruq

($)j~*

u^
and

a stolen letter."

written, but not pronounced, is also called For further remarks on j, vide

cinder vowels

(b)

(d).

In Arabic the nasal nun occurs before the

letters

et,d>,,^,i,J, crU*f (J*>


**

>, Jo,

J,

o,

(3, <), as in

the words

^&c " from

thee

" sif " thou


-

^wn-* ghhunna only occurs after the weak consonants <^

"

THE ALPHABET.

19

B called ha-yi havvaz ()j*> <*s\*),


ha).

(tyj** C5^) (round decided aspirate like A in hope, except when it ends a Persian word or a feminine Arabic word (which is always preceded by a fatha*). In this case it is called the "obscure," "imper-

or ha-yi

mudawwara

ceptible" or "silent

"a house",
h
is in

**tf

A", and is transliterated a; Ex. gufta "said" (Past Partciple). This


y

*il^
'

khana

obscure'

India pronounced like jaiha but in Persia it is pronounced like a short e, or 6 as Ichani or gufte. (If the silent h precedes an "I have said", there may, it is said, be a slight alif, 'as in fl

breathing sound of the h, as guftah-am, but the writer is of opinion that this sound is imaginary aud that the h generally remains silent.

In the

first

case,

i.e.

when

aspirated, the

* is

called ha-yi malfuzl


(c$
1

), fia-i

muzhar or zahir
i.e.

(^^ ^^

or ^Us), or ha-yi jail


it

(^U ^ cs^
)

"manifest,"
ha-yi

sounded; in the second case


i.e.

is

or (^fti^*> cs-U
>

" concealed ", mukhfafl or makhfl


is distinctly

^^^

mute.

The h
nih

but not too markedly sounded in


**

& nuh
bi,

"

nine",

*>

"place"

(Imper.),
*t

bih

"good"
"

(but

ba or

the preposition

"to"

or "for"),
si

&>

bahbah(m.Q.)
&*. chi

well done, excellent,"

and

in such

like words. 8

In A-

" three ",

" what? ", AT

ki the interrogative
is

"who?"
* is

and the conjunction "that", there


it is silent

pronoun no aspirate, and the final

pronounced like short t. " not In & na and A* <&& ",

&* mih according to rule; but

"

" a mist, fog", and &<Q mah moon. great ", also "a Final ? after king", j or ^5 is fully sounded ; Ex. aUkU* padishah
r

*^ guh

**

human excrement ",


" a month ",
fy

etc., etc.
,

In A

shah

"

king

"
,

**>

mah "

the

moon "
final

or

rah " a road

" where the


words

fatha stands for alif, the


O.'

h
It

is

aspirated,
O

must be

distinctly

pronounced

in

like

j^> mahr, jt* m% ^r an"

X* mt/Jir
*

and in similar words, and in the proper names ctf^ Tih-ran* and Mash- had. A final silent & will sometimes become <3 in Arabic, as ftistaq ^Jl-** Ar.

Some grammarians consider the Persian silent * to be a vowel. Except when changed into o. The * is not silent in Arabic. only be silent (in Persian) when not an original letter,
^

This final

can

Note that when


ten."

final * is

sounded,

it is transliterated

by h and not by

a.

Ex. it

dah
*
*

Three distinct syllables, not two as in India. Two syllables, not three. In 1908 Persian

newspapers changed the spelling

to

20
(for pista
(for

THE ALPHABET.
**w
P.)

" "a pista-nut


suddenly."

also

as nakdj

jJffi

(said to

be Arabic)

nagdh

itfb P.)

In Arabic, final * is in certain cases written i and Arabs id marbuta and by some Indians hd-td, and
l

is

is

then called by the in classical Arabic

except in pause or before a vowel. In Persian this is often pronounced and written o; Ex. oJl*w instead of &U.. In English dictionaries this is generally treated as the fourth letter of the alphabet, i.e.

pronounced

like

as o.

Sometimes the same word


significations.

is

written both with

and o, but with


it

different

Ex.

dla

is

generally so written

when

has the signification

paper signed This distinction is, however, seldom observed and is considered pedantic, " and " thus jihat " cause qimat price*' may be written both *a^ or <^

2 of an instrument or apparatus,' but oJf dial (pi. ojjf ) when it signifies " " is this paper correct ? ", but Ojf> A*^*<juLy penis." ay a d*=^ *iy " " is this ?

and

o~fr*j

or A**?.

Vide also remarks on oU=>- and

o^U at

the end of j.

At the beginning of a word is the yd-i tahtdmijya JuSUao ^Ij. in also consonant the middle of a word after an initial long y\ English vowel; Ex. iff dyd "whether." When, for the sake of euphony, the

(^ 7,

initial alif of

a verb

is

retains its original short

mayd
fall,

" don't come "

changed into ^, $his letter is pronounced y as it <s to come", t* vowel; Ex. from i*>^T dmadan
((

e^s&r uftddan

to

fall

"
,

nay uftad ^&i>

(t

he did not

etc."
also represents the long vowel I (pronounced 3 (d). a ai: vide in pique) or diphthong At the end of a word it is a long *, but at the end of the words ^t* and
it is

In the middle of words,

as

UJU.L

sometimes shortened

thus bale or ball and khayle

(for khayli
is

or

khaiti).

It is long in the verbal prefix

^,

thmmi-guft: but

sometimes

in careless talking
this prefix me).

pronounced short.

(The Afghans and Indians pronounce

final

In Persia, as in India, the dots are never written under the w^ere In Arabic the in some printed books, however, the dots are inserted.
:

dots should be omitted in the

alif-i maqsura.* at the end of a word, and preceded

by a

fatha, is

pronounced

like
is

oK/, and

is

transliterated a: thus

c^o

(also in

India written &j**)


<-Jf
(

pronounced da'wi.

This

is

in Arabic called
alif-i

fy^a*

alif-i

maqsura
)

"the abreviatcd alif",


*

as opposed to

mamduda

aj<Ux)

^|

<the

Colloquially in Indian schools it-gird.

Abb

or

*Wb

j s>

jn

modern Persian, often incorrectly


is

spelt t^**^; it

is

pronounced

baqile.
&

In Persian this <^

often written as aUf.

THE VOWELS.
prolonged alif" [vide
vasl; thus
'

21

(d)],

^j^UJf

^^
.

and is not sounded when in contact with alif-i " the contention of the moderns" is pronounced
*

da'vq l-muta*akhkhirtn

Note that in the Persian-Arabic compound y^M or yjJj! the ^ is in reality a final letter, and the comparative suffix y can be written separately,

>

asy Jj.
Remark
(

<_

is

" In Urdu or in Indian writing ya-e ma' bust or " reversed yd written at the end of a word to show that the has a majhul
I.

sound.

In

modern Persian the

'

ordinary In the Turkish oU^x** suyursat "supplies levied in kind", the


frequently omitted, both in writing and pronunciation; to omit it in both cases this word has no singular.
:

reversed yd

'

has the same sound as the

is

it is

however better

For further remarks on

vide

4.

Remark IL Even when quoting Arabic or reading the Qur'an, the Persians do not try to give the Arabic pronunciation to all the Arabic letters.
Indians and Afghans, on the contrary, not only attempt but greatly exaggerate the Arab pronunciation of certain letters.

For the Arabic and the Persian pronunciation


form
of certain letters before the izafat, vide
'

of the alphabet

and the

Peculiarity of Arabic

In Indian dictionaries a letter preceding another is and one following another is styled **<u I* thus in the word w), the letter ra
:

Words/ termed J ^,

is

<J^5

U ma

qabl-i bd.

3.

The Short and Long and Diphthong Vowels


of words).

(in

the middle

(a)

Arabs make use

There are no regular vowels in the Arabic written language, but the ~ L 1 (c)} which they call of the three signs z. [vide table,
t(

cs^aaJf al-Ji-arakat

motions"), and one of these signs placed above or below a consonant determines its vowel sound. When
the movers
(lit.
<**

"

accompanied by one of these "movers", it is called ^3*^1* " muiahanik or moving." The short vowels were originally quite unrepre. As the "movers" only give the vowel sound essential to a sen ted.
is

a consonant

consonant,

it is

obvious that they cannot stand alone at the beginning of a

word: vide

{c}.

For pronunciation, vide Table. (6) The letter having kasra or


having fatha or zabar above
pish,
it,

z%r

below
(

it, is
),

called maksftr

jr-**), that

maftuh

*)&*

and that having zamma or


inflection, are called ra/,

mazmftm

fo+***

).

(c)

In Arabic, the vowels, as terminal signs of

22
!> )

THE VOWELS.
vp

or genitive (T), and nasb (*-***) or accusative (H), and the words, not the letters, so marked, are styled mar/ft*
(

or nominative jL,/ar

(j*>)

majrur

(^M),
i

and mansub

v^aix>

vide

8.

Remark.
'fen* than
for

The short vowel


in
'

i is in

like

/?n.'

Also fatha

Persian oftener pronounced like e in is locally so pronounced, as kerd

(rf)

Long vowels
} and

(in

the middle of words).

Alif,

^5 are

weak or

infirm

consonants

or semi- vowels

and

correspond respectively with the "movers ", i.e. the short vowels a, u 9 i* In Arabic writing the long vowels are formed by a combination of two
?

of these affinities;
father,

(Ex,
i

t ba, j* bu

and

^
*v

61)

and pronounced

like

in

u in prude and
I.
,

in police or pique*
is
:

Remark
to the is

In C the alif

prolonged in
II.

sound

written to indicate that the fatha belonging 2 (a). vide

Remark
is

The ^ and
2, p.

of prolongation

and

tjy6&Jl t*M

(&

or

is^)

are before (vide

21) a wasla shortened in pronunciation, thus


(fil-faivr).

jjM

pronounced ft \r\awr
(e)

Diphthongs

By

middle of words). combining fatha with ^5 and with ^, the diphthongs ai or


(in the

at/,

and au

or aw, are formed, and pronounced like a* in aisle (rare in Persian) or " inclination 3 * 4 , ey in they, and on in stout ; Ex. U*^ mail* or mayl f>* saum
or

sawm

<(

fasting."

In modern Persian the a#is most often pronounced like ey in they; Ex. ^5%^ is pronounced both khaiR and kheyll (also khaile, etc., etc.) (i?i^e under
letter

^); ako
The

the

aw sound,

characteristic

of

the Arabic, Afghan, or

Indian accent, tends towards the sound of o in hose.


(/)

original Persian

vowel system was that of the Sanskrit, with the

semi- vowel

ft

peculiar to the latter excluded,

" weak
the
*

letters

* '

is

real consonants.*

- * as opposed the term applied to <^ ) in the school rhyme : These are included

to

Hence

o/t'/ is
;

called u%hi-i fat^a "sister of fatha";


is

vav

is

called ukhht-i

zamma

"

sister of
8

zamma " and ya


c$*
*',
-

called

&&*-

kaara

<c

sister of

fcaro."

When

form vowels th*y are

called

^j?;'^ buruf**l-madd

" letters of

prolongation

or huruf^l ishba* a'fil/t

o^^
like

"letters of filling

up

or impregnating

with a
*

sufficiency of colour."

In modern Persian pronounced more

meyl and 0om.

HAMZA.

23

When

and

^
l

follow a consonant

unmarked by a short vowel

oif

by jazm, they were said to have an open sound called Jj^* majhul,* * mar an ant, or "unknown" (i.e. unknown to the Arab invaders) Ex. *~ slier " a lion " but when a 9 was preceded by a consonant pointed with L or a (s with ~, then the sound was called cJj^t* ma'ruf or " known"
; ;

Ex. o*r w#s& " a mouse "

*3*

" milk." shir

The majhul sounds o and e are still preserved in the Persian spoken by Afghans and Indians, but they are now unknown in Persia: in modern Persian 9 (c an ant" is called mur, and there is nothing in pronunciation to
distinguish the

word

for

"

lion

"

from shir

ll

milk."

Remark

/.

There are thus, exclusive of the majhul sounds, at least nine


a, a,

vowel sounds in Persian,

The

last takes the place of the

u and diphthongs ai, ay, and aw. *, ?, u au sound characteristic of Indians.


t
t
f

Remark II. To sum up the remarks on the weak consonants, <^ - ^ ^JU J;^ when ^ and are initial or are movable in the middle of a word,
>

they are real consonants and are pronounced with their proper vowels

when

they follow a jazm they are consonsants, as in juzv *>\ and when they follow a consonant that has neither a vowel nor a jazm they were in classical, and are in Indian Persian majhul. When the consonant preceding ^ has a pish or zamma ( ^__) the sound is u when the consonant preceding has a zlr
;

or Icasra (-7) the sound

is ?.

When j and
may
4.

^ follow
(*)

a consonant that has a zabar or fatha

they

be called diphthongs.

Hamza 3

and the short vowels at the beginning of words,

(a)

distinct

In endeavouring to pronounce a vowel without a consonant, a though slight effort is made with the muscles of the throat; this
is

jerked sound or hiatus

by the Arabs
*,

impulse ", and

is

represented by

called hamzah, which signifies "prick, the form of which has arisen from the

*?In Persia lion isj*


sher

**a&tr" and a tiger jg babr.


:

In India the

tiger is called

and the lion babar

the

word

sher is also loosely applied to the leopard,

panther, etc.
* i.e. in Persia. Dr.Rosen justly remarks in his grammar: "The Persian of Tndiamay be looked upon as a petrifieation of the old classical language. It has also preserved the " majhul" vowels e and o for I and u, and many other differences of pronunciation. The Persian-spoaking Indians, whose studies are mostly confined to the classics and

poetic exercises, have followed none of the developments of the modern language." The Persian of India, therefore, though far purer both in idiom and pronunciation than the language of Persia, sounds pedantic, and is almost unintelligible to ordinary Persians.
8

of the alphabet is

Denotes " pressure" or " puncture." Among Arab grammarians the more generally called hamzah.

first letter

24
letter

SHORT VOWBLS AND HAMZA.


In other words hamza represents the cutting stream of breath preceding or following a vowel. In Arabic, hamza is placed over or under alif, or over j and ^c, but
follow
<c

of the

word j ^.
1

off of the

so

when final is written by itself, and may marked is called )*+** mahmuz or
word having hamza
Remark.
Alif

any

of the letters.

The

letter

hatnzated", a term also applied

to a

for one of its radicals.


it is

when

merely a letter of prolongation

is

not hamza.

In most cases alif occurs as the (b) Short vowels at the beginning of words. bearer of hamza and then performs a function essentially different from that
9

in the

Remark
is

to

13

(d)

Ex.

ab,
r,

w6.
.

When an
in the

sound follows, then

the sign *

placed under the bearer


of

as

For the pronunciation


under
silent,

silent
f*

hamza
'

middle of a word, vide

letter *

2.

In the word

and, as the first letter, viz c is with ^, the two in Persian pointed , together give the half -bleat ing sound mentioned in the remarks on the letter * 2. In the word <jf~) ra'%8 "a
; r
1

and, having no vowel to mentioned in the beginning of the paragraph

ma*zun "permitted**, the hamza is give it life, it represents the jerked sound

c^U

head

**,

"a

chief ", the

hamza

is

not silent, but is

marked with

"^

and

is

con,9

sequenfly pronounced like ^ at the beginning of a word.

In the words *?*-s!j*\

the final * has no vowel and also follows a letter without a vowel. The Arabs would pronounce the final * in these words .something like shay-a, su-a 4 umard-a, but the Persians ignore the * in such Arabic words they do how-

^j,

ever pronounce the


/

at the end of

*?,

probably to distinguish

it

from the

Persian

word^* $u

"direction, towards.'*

In the pronunciation of an Arab, the hamza is an articulation very perceptible, especially when it begins a syllable that is in the middle of a
9

word, as in c,!^

^1^ 8

which are not pronounced qur-an and jur-aL


*

Note that though the is marked with _^ the hamzaled* alif doe? not serve to thus as would be the case if hamza were abnent from the prolong the sound of the to all intents and purposes alif-harma (or hamza) anJ alii are two separate letters.
1
/

This

final * in
)

Arabic must not be confused with the Persian


'

following a silent

(or

as a sign of the genitive case. 9 ' 9


t

That th3 Persians do ignore the Arabic


v-fi-'
-;'*),

* in such

words as jtj*\ and

>l^.

(Arabic broken plurals of j*ri and

is

shown

by
%a

manner of writing thse words in a state of construction, thus: \s+*j lS*j*t r " ^?5 c^V" "the nobles of the time 8 When hamza is found at the end of syllable, it is in Urdu changed into the letter
their
**.

'

of prolongation corresponding to the short vowel that precedes ; thus^-fr*^1 and +


;*

*
failr

become

in

Urdu j*?$

and c/*y* mumin.

LONG VOWELS AND HAMZA.


(c)

26

The

latest

the alphabet, and

alif

Arabic Dictionaries treat alif-hamza as the first letter of alone as aj> or for example, if it be desired to look
s**

out the Arabic root J ~

scfal*

" he asked", the

must be looked

for at the

beginning of the alphabet; if however it be desired to look out JL> sal* "it flowed ", the alif must be treated as a ^c, and the searcher must look for a word
spelt sin, ya,

lam (instead

of

An,

alif,

lam), while for

;U

sar

<

he scaled a

wall ", he should look for sin, waw, ra. The reason is, that, in Arabic, alif is not considered an original letter, but is supposed to be the offspring of one of the

two weak consonants j or ^, and according to certain laws of euphony a weak consonant undergoes certain changes or permutations when it comes
l

together in a 'measure' or 'form' with a vowel that


it:

is

accordingly, in the last two examples, an original


alif.

or

^
"

tion been changed into an

and the

letter after

v must
jL
* ^
is

is from U^ k>, Similarly " the be treated as the first letter of alphabet."
-

"a prophet"

not analogous to has by permuta/-<" /-

The second

letter of

Jiamza, because

it is

mutaharrik or movable, while


it is

the second letter of

JU

is

called a/*/, because

letter of prolongation.

Hamza, however, may


(d)

f , be sakin, as in c*J>

Long vowels

at the beginning of words.

that

vowels are formed by a combination of is its affinity ; and the manner of writing the long vowels in the middle of words has been demonstrated in 3 (d). It follows by rule [vide short vowels at beginning of words (6)], that the long vowels at the beginning of a
^

As already stated, the long a short vowel and the weak consonant

word are introduced by a hamza , thus w>f ^ub; and

^t&.

Similarly

* i
1

should ^a6; but to avoid this awkward form the second alif is written over ** the mark of madd or the first, thus f this alif on the top is called madda
:

* J

prolongation.
(e)

By

the same rule the "diphthongs" at the beginning of words

are written w/f aib (or ayb), and 3 (e). vide

vy

aub for

aivb); for pronunciation,

It will

be noticed that the three weak letters or semi-vowels are

oli/ f

ray and ya.

The Jiamza is a strong letter, although in certain cases it is liable to modification or consonants, change lik > any of the weak letters. \\ hile vav and ya are sometimes real the alij is not regarded as such at all ; but only as a prop for hamza, or as a letter of
f

prolongation, as in the word Jt*


*
44

An

ali/

so marked
Alif-i

is

by some Grammarians

called

aliH mamduda, as

c^T Pr.

to

come."

Qvr-an.

In Arabic the term

mamduda can only occur at the beginning of a syllable: d\j* to a final ahf followed by alif mamduda is restricted
i

hamza, as in

*UW

*U*>,

contradistinction to ali/ maqsura, as in

and

^.

26

LONG VOWELS AND HAMZA.


As
in Arabic,
I

hamza following a long a is written on the line, 1 the alif that precedes such a hamza is generally marked with a madda, but this madda ' ' '*' for fl* " he came." thus in Arabic has no effect on the
pronunciation
;

*U>,

This

is

also the case

when^

or

^ act as bearers of hamza, e.g. J5U qcfil"*?


)

Final hamza in Arabic words (as t\*k\ 8 always disappears in writing before the

is

rarely written in Persian,


of the izafat; as,
:

and
(

^
:

f^**

c5 fbt

" medical

might
26

the Military Department" were the * retained, the vide also be mistaken for the vide Remark to (g) of unity
officers of

(/) (2).
t

* over at the beginning of words is omitted, (/) In Persian the sign even in words fully pointed with the vowels, etc.; and in the dictionaries, Persian and Urdu, no distinction is made between alif and hamza; i.e. both

are at the beginning of the alphabet.

Hamza' corresponds to an English hyphen in such words as re-open,4 and is then written over a y (^) without the dots: in other words, hamza is thus written, instead of over the prop alif in those cases when (according to
Englishmen) one syllable ends in a vowel and the next begins with one; Ex. *$J fa*ida benefit " instead of or *.j>. 5
( '

s.^U

When two ^ come


first

together, it
:

is

more correct to omit the dots in the

and place the sign * over it, as &<5^ pd*idan <( to stand firm." This word may also be written c>^*^ plyidan, bat in this case the first must be

treated as a consonant

and

transliterated y.

Similarly gunjcfish

<J^?^

or

gunjayish ^isof.
Strictly speaking

a hamza in Persian ought to be used whenever a

As a

rule

hamza has

in Arabic no bearer
it is final

when

it

is

movable by a fatha and


f*

follows a long vowel, or


i.e.

when

and preceded by aukun.


is 45",

In words like A^*->


the

in

words where the long vowel preceding the hamza

hamza
*

is

placed on
'
*

$ ^

**

or above the line, or is written over a


4
&

(without dots): thus *lxkS* or 4-*k&. s


.*

In Modern Persian usually pronounced qayiL In Persian, it is optional to write or omit the

final

* in such words.

In Urdu a hamza does duty for a h3phen,

e.g.

cJj*^

/5-tZA

"

may

I go T",

y*

ja-o

"go,"

be seen that the Persians and Indians have extended the use of the Arabic orthographical sign hamza.
It will
*

^(f gfov

In Persian pronounced fay ida. cow, though Indians do write

A hamza

is

not correct in such Persian words as

^j!f (g<**u).

In *^li qa'ida and such words no hamza can be written, as

is

a strong consonant

and cannot take

*.

THE LETTER *AYN.


syllable beginning with a

27

vowel

is

added to a root, thus:


is

^^

(for ^j. -<^

and
is

p*'>*>* (for

^[

*>*

),

but this rule

necessary for distinction [vide

Remark

only observed in certain cases when it For the Persian " hamza' 9 I (g)].

as a sign of the genitive case, etc., after an obscure h or after a final ^5, vide 41 (c) (d). of unity, vide 26 (/) as substitute for the
;

an Arabic word used in Persian, in and often omitted, both in pronunciation writing; as, pA* qayim for qcfim, but generally safil <-UU, rarely sayil JjU.
(g)

Hamza

in the middle or at the end of

is

Remark

The

practical uses of hamza,

and

its
:

omission in modern
;

Persian, are best illustrated *$ gadafi* " begging";

Kirman " the beggar


and

of

" beggar" by the following examples \*$ gada " a beggar"; &\* ^\< gada-yigada-i* <J* Kerman."
<

It will be noticed that the distinction

between the words for

t(

"a
:

beggar (with
*e

^
"
;

of unity)

"

begging"

lies

Main
m.c.]

4^*^*

fish

^o U

8 a fish [^ <^*k m^ihi-i (class ) c< one month more yak mah-i dlgar (m.c.)
* :

in the accent only, " 4 **

<-&
:

"

yak mah% in

^^ ^U

yak mahi-yi digar (m.c.) "one fish more"; also in m.c. ^^^ ^*&> mahl-yi " I show <Rgar-l and classically j&& ^i^U mahi-t digar: ^i*> nnmayam but j**^ nuwiyim (i we show."

Remark
of

77.

Note the division

of syllables

when

occurs in the middle


$*>(/

a word: O^>A. or
<xJUx>

of^

is

jwr-at

(not ju-rat).

In the same way

Qur-an:

or

ali-*u>

mas-ala.

The

letter

the beginning of words). ^ (at


at the beginning of a
<-*i* is

In Persian (but not in Arabic) the consonant

word
*

is

pronounced
*
l
f

like the

consonant hamza, thus

pronounced

like

v^

>

and WJA* u ub

(Ar.

spelt *~*x1 , vide

20.

broken plural of *?***) defects, vices," as though In the Roman character, * is transliterated by a
line.

"

reversed

comma above

the

If***

would in modern Persian be taken to be badl-l


the hamza
is

**

a badness,** but in

t^f^
line

jttda'i

is

necessary.
it.

When a
But
this

syllable begins with a vowel, the

mark hamza

used

to

introduce

prop"; and this requires without or *), and in the case (with
initial

"a

in

the case of a

hamza being written above the is in the case of u it is y


I

>

of i it is ^s (with or without *

),

form

this last is [often] distinguished


*'

from the ordinary y by losing

only that in the its dots : e.g.

J^j** tu-al
4
3

advantage." inquired of", **$l fa-ida Palmer's Concise Eng.-Per. Diot. Note the different position of the accents in the two words.
a question," JV"^ mas-ul

'*

"

For

28

JAZM OR SUKtfN.
6.
(a)

Jazm

or Sukun.

In Arabic and Persian, the first letter of a word is always accompanied by a vowel, hence in the mouth of an Arab or Persian a word like Smith becomes Ismith (or Ismit).
1

When

a consonant in the middle or at the end of a word

is

followed

by

no vowel sound, it is said to be sdkin c/*-s i.e. " quiescent, inert, or mute," and the symbol called or &j** fj** jazm "cutting off, or amputation," " 9ukun "rest __A *_o_ ] is placed over it. In the word joj* mardum [ " " the first letter is moved'' by fatha, but the second letter (;) men," ( f ) is "quiescent, inert, mute, or silent", having the sign jazm o) over it while the third letter (.>) is 'moved' by zamma or pish; and finally the
(
;

last letter

is

"quiescent."
is

A
first

letter so

marked

called sdkin

"

"
quiescent

or

majzum]

it

has none

of the *>&>

or more quiescent letters occur together, the *z&j** " is termed only sdkin, the others being termed mawquf oy>* dependent
or
te

When two

on"
jj

supported "; thus in


arc mawquf.

cu^ dust

" friend" the ^

is

sdkin and the

and

In Persian (bub not in classical Arabic), the last letter of all words is quiescent; this being a rule, the sign jazm is omitted in the case of
final

letters.

Jazm

therefore signifies that (in the

Roman

character)

two

eonsonaats in the middle or end of a word have no vowel between them.*


(6)

In such words a? Jik

J^>

&i>

great care must be taken in Persian

to avoid even the suspicion of a vowel between the two last letters ; many Persians pronounce these words almost like tifti, naqla, nagda, and in the two last words slightly dwell on the The Arabs? and Indians pronounce fatha.

these words less affectedly; the Indians as though they were


naqed.*

tijel,

naqel,

Remark.

The presence
"*

or absence of a jazm in a
e.g.

word

of three letters,
;

sometimes completely alters the meaning,

(j*i nafs
C"'

means " passion"


*

privities of

"the penis", but ^Jb nafas means "breath"; ^y " freedom from a woman,4 " but

"a

fissure

and the

faraj

grief or sorrow,"

illiterate Indians can pronounce two consonants at tho beginning. In Hindustani a few wo ds begin with two consonants with no vowel between them. In such a\sos a jazm is not written over the first letter as theoretically a
1

Fow

quiescent/

a vowel
8

is

consonant cannot occur at he beginning of a word. It is for this reason that often inserted; thus Brahman is often pronounced Birahman.
is

Barf *'snow"
unintelligible to

in India

pronounced 6ara/;

this pronunciation renders the

word
*

many

Persians

In Arabic the privities of either sex.


farj.

Uneducated Persians pronounce both

words

TASHDID AND IDOHAM.

29

7.

Tashdld

and Idgham.

the sign (*

doubled letter in the middle of a word is written only once, but *>*& tashdid " corroboration " or "strengthening", is ), called placed above it to indicate that it should be pronounced twice.
(a)

A letter so
rated."

marked
first of

The

mushaddad ^^"strengthened ", <f corrobothe doubled letters ends one syllable, and the second
is

called

begins the following syllable. (b) In practice, the Persians strongly emphasize the letter that

is

marked

with the sign of duplication; Ex. f,^ khurram "joyful"; &J\ albatta " certainly." The Arabs however pronounce the doubled btter twice, unless
it

ends the word, when it can only be emphasized. (c) Arabic words of only two letters are rare
"**
***

consequently words
jj

like k2>

and^i

omitted.

and daqj) are three lettered, even if the sign ( " For further remarks on ( * ) vide under " solar letters 10.
(shatt
,

be

word

Without the tashdid, there is nothing to show whether a " or " e{ quvvat strength." CL^ is gut food In Arabic words a euphonic tashdid occurs when the article al precedes a word beginning with a solar lettter vide 10.

Remark

I.

spelt like

Remark

II.

Tashdid

is

said not to be found over

any

of the four letters

that are purely Persian. The \vord &su bachclia is an exception ; if the { ^) be omitted there is nothing to distinguish it from &^ bi-chi, (t for what"; vide also '-'Peculiarities of Persian words." In compounds, the tashdid

over bachcha is dropped, as sag-bacha, bicha khzr, bacha-Turk,

etc.

and

also in
*A>

the expression Bacha/ mar-at bi-zanad dense." and * " hillock


:
' '

(a

curse).

Other exceptions are

thick,

(d)

Idg&am

+*tf signifies inserting one letter into another, coalescence, as

f*

As a letter so assimilated (mudg&am shappara (from shab-pira ^J -r^ ) is marked with tashdid, the two words are practically ) synonymous.
Eemark

Removing a
is

tashdtd
**

jadda
{<

lightened

"path", " is
II.

called takhfif
^
<-&****.

&** from a word, as ^A^J " lightening ",

jada $:U for

T^

and a word so

mukhaffaf

Remark

'Doubled* Arabic substantives in which the last two

radical letters are the

same/

in order to avoid

two quiescent

letters

coming

63 tashdid ^Ai-> L^A. (m.c.) " most emphatically an ass." In Arabic v-ft^ -a* muza'af " a reduplicate verb, i.e. one whose second and third
j&frar-i

radicals are the same.

equal syllables, as Jji)

The term muza'af " zalzal."

is also

applied to a quadrilateral verb of two

30
together, lose the tashdtd

TANWIN.

^*>

before the Persian plural termination ha


its

thus

finn er^

"a
' *

spirit,

a Jinn" has for

Persian plural jinha.

Similarly

from

saff

Ju* " a

line

" comes
'

the Persian

compound

saf-dar j*&*

" rank

breaking

(an epithet of All).

Such Arabic words frequently


"

lose the tashdid


,

in Persian, as

3$

kaff
pill

Ar.,

palm

of the

1 un hand," kaf^tf, P.; habb

&
-**>.

" a berry, grain,

"

becomes in Persian hab.

Sometimes the tashcRd


becomes habb-i

is

again restored before the


t(

of unity, thus hab, P. (m.c.)

Jx*

(m.c.)
kaf-i

"
pill
;

fan

" art ",

fann-%

but kaf

<*Jf

"

palm

of the

hand ",

(m.c.) (not kaff-t <jM).

Remark
word; arra
exceptions.

III.
(S.

mushaddad

letter

is

rarely found in a pure Persian


(or

dra " a

saw";
8.

farrukh

jarukh)

"

happy, etc." are

Tanwln

In

classical

Arabic the short vowels are used as terminations to express


:

the three cases of nouns *


_

is
is

the nominative

T
If the
,

n. is

the genitive Vide also the accusative J


is

(a).

noun

indefinite, these terminations are

doubled and written


This
is

"7,
t{

and pronounced with the nun or w-sound.


3>

called \*xj

tanwn

3 giving the nun. Arabic nouns in the accusative case are in Arabic used as adverbs;
* (

Ex.

&&

ittifaq-**

" the accusative by chance

of

<j&^.

Note that the final

alif is

not sounded.

If the

word ends in
* '

* or
,

there is

no

final alii;

Ex. &&& *& bina***similarly


if

"
'alay-hi

accordingly
in

&+&>*

hikmat* an

^skilfully";
is

the

word ends

^^

(in

such words the tanwin

written over the letter


**

preceding the

the 45 is unsounded), thus <^y*>* hawa* lovingly/* In modern Persian the tendency is to omit the n and prolong the final a
Such words are considered by Lexicographers to be Persian. There is practically only one declension in Arabic. In modern colloquial Arabic the final vowels and tanw'in are with 8 few exceptions

^, and

*
3

omitted: a noun in the accusative case, used as an Adverb, is given the tanwln. Colloquial Arabic has, therefore, no distinction of case as found in the classical language.
#
*
:

*
is

The

alif

over the (s

is

silent

J^sux>

now seldom
like

written, the word being spelt <5>A

the

c$-

Words

$**

*uqb<f are generally written

^A^J (without
a.

aKf).

In the

Roman

character, a final <^ pronounced like a is transliterated

WABLAH AND SOLAR AND LUNAR LETTERS.


',

31
hal- a *
<9

in the

pronunciation of these Arabic


is

adverbs;

Ex.

JIU-

"

now,

at present ",

reality"

is

modern Persian always pronounced hald Jft*, while X*; " in pronounced both with and without the n. In some words the
in
t a*

n
*

is

always retained; Ex. '&&


jabr
an

ffhaflaU

"suddenly"

or

"by

accident",

"

\j**>

by force."
9.

Waslah.

" and is This word signifies " a conjunction or joining only found over " the alif of the Arabic definite article J/ al " the : it signifies that the alif
is

suppressed in pronunciation and the


,/ v ~'

J joined

by the previous vowel


:

thus

amir ui l-mu*rnimn
II to
If

e^^* lj^f
5

" Commander of the Faithful"

vide

Remark

3 (d)*

a word before a
is

final

vowel
is

wctsla ends in a long vowel or in an alif-i maqsura, the shortened in pronunciation before the alif with wasla, thus pronounced fi'l-jumla and not fi'l-jurnla.

10.
(a)

Solar and Lunar Letters.


letters, fourteen in all, are

In Arabic the dental, liquid and sibilant


vJjj^Jf al-hurufvs'h-shamttyyat* or

called

&~+jf

no means obvious reason that the word shams


of

^j~+&

" solar letters " for the by " sun " with one
begins
i

them.

They

are

o-&-a-3-j-3-(j-c4-u-o^-'k--'J
J*

-e>.

If

an

Arabic word with the article

euphonic reasons, the J


loss,

begins with one of these letteis, then, for of the article is not sounded, but to compensate for its

the * ~ ?
~

first letter
*

of the

word

itself is

doubled and marked with ^, thus

lU Salah-d-dtn " the Peace

of Religion

"
(Saladin).

The dentals

3 sinniyya ^*W, those that are enunciated by the aid of the teeth, are

--&by the

&

- eL'.

The

lingual asaliyya

**l<\

)
j

are those that are pronounced


u*-*

aid of the tip of the tongue,


(6)

and are

)-3-o**u-u^-

The lunar

letters <*Jr*?

^^

huruf-i qamariyya are said to be so called

because j+* qamar the

moon

begins with one of them.

With them no such

change takes place in the J of the article. The lunar letters are subdivided into the labials shafahiyya or skafawiyya * * * or **f& ) j c5 vJ the palatals lahawiyya (>#} ) 45g; f

"

The hamza

is

pronounced.

*
S

Difficulty of pronunciation or

want

of

euphony

is

called istisqal (

JlSi

The
The

loss of the front teeth prevents the people


letters 3
-

pronunciation of the dentals.

u*

"

U*

are called

J^A^ ^Jj^

"

sibilant letters."

32

ABJAD.

and the
C
'

gutturals, halqlyya (&&**)

or hanjariyya

'

Remark.

Arab grammarians have themselves

fallen into confusion

over

these ill-defined divisions.


(c)
4

The Arabs further term


ut

'clacking letters"; huruf

certain letters &JS1J| cJjj^ huruf*l-laqlaqah or <ua^<W, J>ysJf al-huruf'^zz-zalq (j^f

o?^

zawlaqiyyah are the liquids


?
JfijJa*

letters articulated
;
*'
-

with the tip of the tongue and the

lips
I

they
-

& J
-

huruf'^l-lin
'

^M\
.

vJj^.
.
>

" soft letters"

is*

(J* ^e arched", mufbaqah nounced by the tongue and the fore part of the palate (viz. ^> - * - Jo ) " depresvsed (letters)" are those in which the tongue does muslafilah AJ&~*C
:

viz.

&

* niViyyah **&&

letters pro-

not

rise.

11.

Abjad.

(a)

The
:

following meaningless words give the letters in their numerical

order

The use

of letters as

numerals

is

confined

to mathematical works,

8 almanacs, and chronograms.

The sum

of the letters in the

name

of a

work, or of a brief sentence or

verse recording an historical event, gives the year of the Hijra in which the event took place. This practice of commemorating events by chronograms
is

common

in all

Muslim
is

countries.

This system

called abjad^ *?u)

and hisab-i-fammal JU^ w^^> *& e

Arabic word jummal J*^ signifying cable; addition." &}&> a as reckoned is with tashdid single letter.
(6)
:

"

letter

marked

When Nadir Shah proclaimed himself sovereign of Examples with the Arabic inscription as a chronogram coins struck he Persia, x^ ^ * v *O' a " the best is in what ** t*'-;**^ happened." Tfie alkhayr* ft ma waqa' t'J ^
t

sum
1

of these letters

1148 (A.H.)

A.D. 1735-6.

Letters formed in the uvula.

*
S

Also (j^*^

J5^.
Morocco in the above words substitute

Vulgarly abujad.

The Arabs

of

f or

<j*

o*
-

for

for {J

^
As
*->

u*

<j

for &.

regards the four Persian letters,


of -^,
i.e.

may have

the value of

of

of 3

they

may have

the same value as their corresponding Arabic

letters.

NUMERICAL FIGURES.

33

The date
Vida'-i

of

Shahryan

Taymurlang's death is in the dramatic words isj*x&*\&) " Farewell to Royalty," this = 807 (H.) = A.D. 1404-5.
to the

A
1882),
*

new gate

Mlrza, an uncle of Nasir^-'d-dm,

mosque at Kazimayn was constructed by Farhad Shah of Persia, in A.H. 1300 ( = A.D.
o

and an Afghan poet of Bagdad, who wrote under the takhattus (jol*ri or nom de plume of Shihab, immortalised (as his son says) the event in a poem, the chronogram of which, according to custom, occurs in the last, or the last two misra' ^ (a line of verse)
'
(ft/0
:

^ ^f
to
is

jf

cuAf^ u*J*j*

V^

^ ty

*^>

J& ^ **+& ftp

^ y L&M*

" Shihab in a " happy frame of mind fixes its date May your road Paradise be by this gate." The sum of the letters in the second misra'
1299, but the writer says at the end of the first line "ba dil-i-shdd Jj>b these words may also be translated " with the heart of shad" now
:

al" and

the heart of shad

is

alif

which

<

'

one,

so this

makes the

total 1300.

Persians love obscurities.

The
Kfor 21,
(c)

letters of abjad
etc.*

can also be used to represent

figures, thus

b for 12,

In a certain style of almanac called taqwm-i ruquml

<**>*; rt j&

the letters of the alphabet are used with special significations; thus the letter * denotes Thursday, the sign Virgo, the planet Venus and the inoon when bright. Few Persians nowadays know these signs, and the almanacs
,

never contain a key.

The taqwm-i Farsi

^^ ^>

is

preferred,

12.

Numerical Figures.
Hindus by the

(a)

The
:

usual signs for the numerals (borrowed from the


*

Arabs) are

0123456789
I

r*

<\

In combination these are written from

left to right as in

English thus,

M* !?

1901.

Called

by

the

Arabs
is

the

Bab*-*l-Farkadiyya

and

by the

Persians

Bab-i-

Fctrhadiyya.
*

The abjad system

also used

as a species of Morse alphabet for visual and

auditory signalling, in a manner that will readily be understood by Military Officers. Double raps or long sounds, such as sighing or sucking a pipe, indicate the number of the

word

in the abjad system,

while single

of the letter in that word.

Similarly, signs

raps or short sounds indicate the position made by the right eye or eyebrow, or by the

on the

tongue in the right cheek, or by the right hand or foot, indicate the word, while those Vide also 16. left, the letter.

34

SIYAQ AND LETTERS IN POETRY.


for 2, In MSS., variations in the signs for the numerals are > for 8. for 4, D, or a for 5, * for 6, < for 7, and , or
:

(1)
(*

g for 3,

or

Fractional numbers are usually written as in English as

L
r

!L
v

*
7

etc.

13.

To

find the year

A.D. corresponding to the year

of the Hijra:

M^the Muslim date in years and decimals. Let E = the required English date in years Then E = M x 0-970225 + 621-54. The answer is
Let
:

the date A.D. of the

end of the year A.H. The year A.D. 1900 (1st May)

1318 H.

14.

Siyaq

J>W

)"

Mustawfis (L*J*~~*>) or Revenue Accountants, and Munshis keep their accounts in a system of figures called o^~* siyaq or <.yf^ c&vam which Is India. nearly the same p*j raqam of
l

For a detailed account

of this system, vide

Appendix to Woolaston's

a complicated one. English-Persian Dictionary. Shop-keepers and merchants keep their accounts in a form of siyaq : fcne y ^ not understand the cRivam ( <^te ) or siyaq ( (3U* ) of the ( <3l*- )
is

The system

Mustawfi

a sum in a receipt the ) is applied to a system of writing written in siyaq ( (${* ) and then in words underneath it; under this again, Jialf the sum is written in siyaq.
:

^i>~* ) Ruquml ( ^^)


(

sum

is first

15.

Letters in Poetry,

Persian poets delight in discovering fanciful resemblances in the form of letters. As already stated, an upright stature is likened to the letter

but bent by grief or age it is a U: a bent neck is like a, while a drooping head is like > The Persian poet Jam! in his beautiful but
aft/,*

1 The revenue accounts being kept in aiyak none but a mustawfi u*j**** or revenue acoountant can interpret them. Persian officials are in the hands of their accountants. * I heard of one Governor who on removal from office had his accounts made up and was found to be a debtor to Government to the extent of 80,000 tumams (16,000).
*

He got another mustawfi ( ^f^A**^ ) to examine his accounts and the latter brought him out a creditor to the amount of 40,000 tumams.'* Yates Khorasan and Sistan.
9

Sighs are also

compared to

alif,

HANDWRITINGS.

35

somewhat lengthy poem "Yusuf and Zulaykha >SJ compares the heroine's teeth to sin (<*), her mouth to mim (*), and her eyes to sad (<*) or 'ayn (*) zuif is again compared to lam and jim.
;

16.

Handwritings.

The two most important varieties of Arabic writing are the Kufi and the Naskh? and all the other varieties, national or calligraphic, may be referred to one of these two styles. The Kufic took its name from the town Kufa on the Euphrates^ a town that at one time was a seat of Muslim learning, and famous for
a school of Arabic copyists. From authentic Kufic inscriptions,
it is

now no

longer doubtful that the

Arab employed the Kufic


foundation of Kufa.

style at the time of the conquest of Syria, before the It is now supposed that the naskh did not originate in

the second or third century after the Prophet but was used simultaneously with the Kufic in the time of the earliest Khalifas, and possibly in the time
of the Prophet
himself. 8
{

The
and

Ta'ltq

(p^**

} 9

hanging' hand,
in Persia.

is

an elegant court hand that was,

still is,

much admired

According to the Eastern romance Zulaykha saw and loved Yusuf in a dream suitors hearing of her beauty vainly sought her hand, At length she agreed to espouse the 'Aziz of Egypt, Qitflr (Potaphar of the Bible) believing him to be the Yusuf (or Joseph) of her vision. Her marriage was a rude awakening and
*

Many

her respect for her husband was doubtless lessened by the fact that, he was, for some reason or other, \\ eunuch. Joseph is recognized and bought in the slave market by Zulaykha and adopted by her husband, Zulaykha makes furious love to the unwilling youth. Th> ladies of Memphis discover her secret and talk scandal. ZulaykhS hears
tance.

the gossip, and faces the difficulty by giving a banquet to all the ladies of her acquainWhile sending for Yusuf she gives each lady an orange to peel, with directions

to observe Yusuf covertly the while, The ladies are so agitated at the sight of the slave-boy's unexpected beauty that they absently cut their fingers instead ot* the orange. They have to confess that Zulaykha has an excuse for her passion, the temptation being so great. The Qur* an says * * and she shut the doors and said * come
:

given me a good home and the him; and he had longed for her, had he not seen a token from his Lord.'* Qitfir dies and Zulaykha becomes a beggar, old, blind, decrepit, but Joseph retains his youth. Zulaykha builds a reed-hut on the way by which the man she so faithfully loves has to pass. Joseph fails to recognize in the blind beggar-woman his former mistress. She has however expiated her sin by Her youth is restored to her, and Yusuf is directed to make her his wife. suffering. Yusuf is a type of male beauty, the Adonis of the Muslims. " a Naslsh. of transcribers."
hither!*
*

He said God

keep

me

Verity

my lord hath
for

injurious shall not prosper.*

But she longed

jr**

writing

Qurans are written lithographed, or printed, in what is commonly styled


i.e.

M&M

k*> ), 'ardbi ( yfij*

nas&h with

all

the points.

36

HANDWRITINGS.

The nasta'Uq

(JAJUI^S

is

a combination of the naskh

~*

or ordinary

a beautiful hand, chiefly used by the hand and the ta'Uq ( JN^ Persians for well- written manuscripts but the modern Arabs call the Persian
): it is
;

writing generally Some old Arabic manuscripts written in Persia are in this style. ' hand is the term generally applied to The shikasta *x~& or broken
c '

ta'ttq.

'

1 In it the the cursive or running hand used by the Persians and Indians. dots are omitted and all the letters are joined together. It is very illegible

and puzzling even to natives. The ruq'ah ***> is used by Arabs and Turks in ordinary correspondence.
UA

The cRwam ^y.z,* tughra ^*J,


edicts, etc.,

sulsi

^^

{or

&&)

are

the

names

of

other ornamental hands used in the

titles of

books, headings of diplomas or

and correspond to flourished

letters

and monograms amongst

Europeans. These several scripts are little more than calligraphic styles. In Persia, even at the present day, calligraphy is one of the

fine

arts.

One

or

two

lines written

by
(

certain old CalJigraphists sell for

many pounds
of

sterling.

The

Khatt-i sJmjan*

^/?^ ^-

>

or " tree- writing", a species

enigmatical writing, is merely another application of abjad <^i; in it an upright stroke represents as it were the trunk of a fir-tree in which thenumber
of branches

on the right indicates the number


left

of the

word

in abjad <*su?,
*.4lt,

and the number on the


first letter

the letter in that word.

Thus

ia ^i*

the

it is

occurs in the fifth word of the abjad system, namely in o^****, and the second letter in that word. 'All would therefore be written:

J
Vide also
11
(6)

footnote

2.

'Remark. In writing and in printing, Persian and Arabic words should not be written half at the end of one line and half at the beginning of the

next ; also dual words connected by j should not be separated. Only inferior * copyists make mistakes in spacing and resort to the practice of dividing words.
'

The Arabs have a The


The
diwarii

vile shikasta

*&*&

of their
is

own.
the
official

!>:?,

a bold round hand,

character, in Turkish

passports, etc.
3

uls **** is

a fanciful character with calligraphic nourishes.


sarvl LSJJ*
it is

4 Called also &&aftt-t

secrecy in this form of writing as course written from right to left.

* "cypress writing." There is now little widely known. Like the Arabic character, it is of Vide Brownie's " A Year Amongst the Persians.* 9

PUNCTUATION.

37
if

A
is

greeting at the beginning of a letter

is

contained in one line

there

not sufficient room, instead of crowding in the last few words, they are written above the line in one or more lines decreasing in length.

Two words are often written in one, as: Two words separated by an izafat are sometimes
(kitdb-i
,

^f

dnmard "that man."

incorrectly joined in one as

mard) which ought to stand for kitdb-am-rd.


17.

Punctuation.

In Qurans or ornamental marks such as, .-.


;
.

stated,

neither

are

by various but as in : already etc., etc., manuscripts, the short vowels written nor the other symbols,
verses, punctuation is represented
:
l

Even

in printed works

assistance given to the reader.

an occasional tashdld <^<x& or short vowel is the only This is one of the reasons that the Persians

and Indians mispronounce so many common Arabic words.'2 The following punctuation marks ( *Alj &(*>&c ) are occasionally used:-

Comma
Colon
Full stop

'

aldmat-i ivaqfa
aldmat-i mutlaq
aldmat-i dyat
*

'

'

o^T o**&:

o (for*)
.

Mark

of interrogation

aldmat-i istifbdm,

^^AW

<z+*&c

**-M/)

exclamation 'aldtnat-i nidd, ww^uu b ifaj* $ tf&* c>*^


.

farydd,
.

yd ta'ajjub
.

c? (n)
*

Quotation, aldmat-i iqtibds ^^tw^f cu*3b


Parentheses
brackets
{

J
^*&* t by

), 'aldrtm-t-i
[
].

jumh-yi mu'tariza

Wyt**

&+?-

Poetry 'aldmat'i

maxzuma
;

In manuscripts, a dash ( ) called lakht o^iJ, is sometimes used to introduce the words of a speaker and consequently takes the place of inverted commas. The modern sign ~~^ over a word signifies either that
it
is

a proper noun or that

it

begins a sentence.

These signs,

if

used,

are frequently in red ink.

In classical Arabic the short vowels are the most valuable part of a word: the

final

of a and

short vowel distinguished the person in a tense, the case of a noun* or the gender pronoun ; a short vowel makes the difference between the active and passive voice, frequently between a transitive and intransitive verb, and the presence or

absence of tashdid
root

may

entirely alter the sense: in the absence of

'*

marks,

)f

triliteral

may be pronounced in twelve different ways. * The vowels of even Persian words^ are misplaced
is

imruZf and in most parts of Persia padishah

the Ispahanis say amruz for the pronunciation of pad-shah. A


;

common example
girya &jj>
is

is

awaz

of the Persians, instead of 'iwaz

(jj*

The Persian word

in m.c. gariya.

38

ABBREVIATIONS, CONTRACTIONS, AND IMALA.


Abbreviations, Contractions, and Imala.
is strictly

18.
(a)

An

abbreviation of a word

a part of

it,

as

A.D. for

Am

Domini;

diet., for dictionary.

contraction

word, made

the elision of letters or syllables from the body of in such a manner that the whole word is indicated, as rec'd pai
is
:

for " received

payment."
f

contractions.
(a)

The term olMi^o mukhaffafdt 1

is

applied to both abbreviations ai


:

Some
(1)

most common abbreviations are Jxis alay-hi-'s salam* " Peace be upon him. pc =, flUJf
of the

(2) j*L<*

U. j *U*

adJj

^L^

Sallq-llah

a 'alay-hi wa-sallam
' '

" G(

be gracious to him and give


only).

him prosperity
:

(of

the Proph

For Christ or other Prophets the Muslim says


3

(3)

&JLc

&\)\

j.
1

"

'

Sallq-llahu
* <

to him."
(4)

Also for

^*^

alay-hi" correct."

"God

be gracio

(^ " The Peace


A-*;

or)**

4UU*iff Salamv-llah? 'alay-hi or alayhw ^JL> (f4^* or)

of

God be on him
*^t

(or

them)."

(5)

or

^j

~ *^
<jdl?

^^j.

Raziya-llahu 'anhu.

"May God
**The mercy

pleased with him."


(6)
)

^JU

A^.
i)}

Hahamalv-llah* 'alay-M.

God be on him."
(7)

^*/

=
>*

^.Ju

*J,

La*nat*-'llah* 'alay-hi.

The curse

God be on him."
(8)

j.

^W aJJfa+L..

Sattama-h^ttafa'

ta'afa

(for

ordina

persons, in letter writing).

Nos. 2 and 3 are used for the Prophet only.

No.

1 is is

generally used for Saints, but not for the Prophet.

No. 4

used for the Prophet or for Saints.

Nos. 5 and 6 are used for anyone.

No. 7
for

for Satan; for Yazld,* the assassin of the Prophet's grandson;

anyone specially obnoxious to the writer. No. 8 for Mujtahids, etc., when alive.

The form
(9)

of writing the

y/, for

above Arabic abbreviations varies slightly. " and so on " (when ijtf ^l, etc., in the sense of
^
*

first

few words only of a quotation are quoted).

ABBREVIATIONS, CONTRACTIONS
(10)
5-

AND IMALA.

39
:

for
*

54^ plural
$

(also in the

Qur*an for j5Lx a lawful pause)

o*

**> for
<T

(11) a (12)

** 5*^ plural of plural. " for *k " name of town (in geographical works).
jf t

^
a

for

gjy
ee

" " name of a (geographical works). place

(13)
(14)

for **b

name

of a small

town

"

(geographical works).

j,

= <j^~^

" Christian era."


" Muslim era.'
1

* - <.$>*
(15)

o
e>

="*JU "note," and


9

J*l>

"subject"

(gram.).

(16)
(17)

(18)

- *i^~J ''note." Vide 17, line 13. = ^ ^*T " and so on." = ,*o* and yj* "first," and and
the order
'

"last,"
first

i.e.

'reverse

(read
.

the

word

with f over it
for

and with

over

it last)

f also stands for *f*I^c


also (23).
(10)

"subject," and

"predicate": vide

^c
tjj

.,

Jytic ^object" (gram.).


wALix:
4i

(20) u**>
(21)

author."

(^yo^ (a well-known dictionary), (a well-known dictionary). ^ - c^UlIf ^3ui* (23) f (a well-known dictionary) well-known (24) v (a ^bi^ dictionary).
(22)

^UU? ^U*

vide also (18).

o^

(6)

The
:

following

common

contractions occur in words purely Persian

in origin

(1) An initial alif followed by a quiescent consonant is frequently elided, and the jazm being removed the consonant is then pointed by the same short
,

vowel that occurs in the second syllable of the original word, as &jiS\ aknun, "now," &j& kunun; afmrdan ot*~^ "to freeze, be dejected," fusurdan; i! a paint used by women/' sifiddf isftdSf t**&**\ (obs.) (m.c.).
:

gi&>&~>

If the initial alif is pointed with kasra, the short

vowel of the

first letter

becomes kasra, as: istadan e^UUj or istandan e^&*f " to sitadan e.^iw or sHandan c>^li*. take/' If the initial alif is pointed with pish and the second vowel is fafha, the first vowel of the contraction can sometimes be either zlr or pish, as uftSdan,
of the contraction
:

e^Uif
is

<

to fall"

fttadan or futadan

&*& *

or &&&*.

[Another form by imala

uf&dan].
(2)

Ishkastan &*~&>l (m.c.) for shikastan ^i-X*. Long vowels are sometimes converted into short

vowels

as:~

nigah *&, shah A^, digarj*, shuktih *>^, budan <&, for nigah
(3)

K, shah *U,

not subject to rule are: mar, ;L* for btmar jUw "sick," for madar "mother", and for mayar ** "bring not " chi, L*** fvular. and m.c.) for chtz. *** " thincr " mi. ram. /*^

Examples

of other contractions

40

SUMMARY.
m.c.) for
9

and

mi-ravam fjj**
(old)

mi-May

^l**** (vulg. and m.c.) for mi-khwahi

^yxuvo sham
for Aiyf
;

ffor shavamf)**,
;

[shum, tor Ar. ahum];


for jt e^*>

nusha^^,
ti

c '

anusha
(f

tuhl (mod.)

aqa ^f

shandan, &*>(& for nisluindan o^^; a f (mod.) for mi-rod, mi-shad and mi-dad are vulgarisms for mi-ravad, mi-shavad

empty

"

chunuy^,
;

chun u

for tihi

happy"
(tahi or

a>ndmi-dihad; usta for ^^arf (vulg.); shazda for shahzada. rH wwz are contractions for $-yf sunduq, ru-yi miz.

Tu sanduq and

19.

Summary.
be seen that the learner must take

From
(1)

the preceding remarks


:

it will

special care

to discriminate
;

between

^ an English k and
(like

kh

(latter

pronounced
in the

like ch in foc&)
(2)

to
;

make

a guttural

ck in SMC&

when pronounced

throat)
(3)

to pronounce with the half-bleating sound when it occurs in the ^ middle of a word and when it begins a middle syllable to make a pause before pronouncing that syllable and when it ends a word to omit it or half omit it, and to pronounce the word with a peculiar drawling intonation.
:

In such words as
(4)

^toj,

the

must be

slightly

pronounced after the

alif\

to avoid the suspicion of a vowel between the


o

two

last letters of

words

like

uib

tifl

(5)

to aspirate the

(or ^), particularly in

words

like jy* rnihr,

wj^

Tihran, and ** mih

(final silent * of

course being exception).

Remark.
there

As a must be no
* *

rule every letter in a


*

word must be

distinctly enunciated

English
his words.

slurring of words.

An uneducated

Persian

learning English would have

little

inclination to fall into the objectionable

habit of

' '

clipping

A clear distinction must be made between the long and short vowels. English people seem to have a passion for making the short vowels long ; they also expend a good deal of energy in shouting and putting the accent on every syllable. For accent vide 21.
The
necessity for enunciating every letter will be discovered in distinSA mixed," *I&;^** sar-rishta guishing between such words as al^** sirishta " the "a sar-wishta AJUj^* a and or of good knowledge experience thing,"

end

of the thread."
(b)

ay (generally pronounced
1

The pure vowel sounds are a, ey) and aw


In India ai as in
aisle

i,
1

u,

and

a, i, u, besides

the diphthongs

(generally pronounced

like

owin

cow).

and au

as in the

German

haus.

EXEBOISE
There
is

-IN

TBANSL1TEKATION.

41

also the rarer majhul vowel-sound o. 1

26 (/)], hamza, in Persian, usually (c) Except as a sign of the izdfat [vide occurs between two vowels (i.e. vowels according to English ideas) and thus corresponds to a hyphen.
(d)

A peculiar
it.

stress

must be given on a double


all

letter,

i.e.

a letter with

a tashcKd on
(e)

In printing and writing,

short vowels and orthographical aids are

generally omitted.

20.
(a)

Exercise in Transliteration.
are merely an exercise in reading

The following meaningless words


:

to teach the vowels


'

'

Short

^t
tire

an
'an
(for
<al

-j

&[ in

e/f

un
(

&*
JM)
al
JLj[

'in

^
J^
ol

un

Longjj
JU
Diphthong

U
jj

J/f ul
<ul

cUc
*

Jb| ayl
(Jj^

J^f

awl or

ayl

Jj* 'awl

Remark.

All Arabs,

and many educated Indians and Afghans, make a


-

distinction in pronunciation between w?


(6)

*r^> etc., but not the Persians*

The

following

is

also an exercise in reading, but all the


is

words have

meanings. the same.

Special attention

directed to words that are apparently spelt

The

learner

is

recom mended

first

to cover
:

up the right-hand column and

then by the meanings test his pronunciation


<J

a rose

gul
gil

J$ clay wU. earth


ty* gain, interest
fj* tribe, family

khafc

sud

qawm
bid

# a willow
2

^o a hair
vine-stock

mn maw
bachcha
bi-chi

u young, or the young of anything


ij

for

what

As

in c.}t o-i, oh!

There are many words in Persian pronounced differently though to the eye spelt the same ; these have different significations.

42
blood
the anus

TRANSLITERATION.

khun

kun
,

a squire a gentleman a table with the meat on


'

khan
it

'

khwan
ru

face

go (imperative)
self
9
s*.

raw khud
khud
abru
-

a helmet

honor
fi

gutter (for water)

ab-raw

j*
f

become

or go (Imperative of the verb

shudan)
*
*
+
>j

shaw
of the verb shustan)
AJ)

wash (Imperative
for

shu

him, to him (fory

bi-du

run (Imperative of the verb dawdan)

bi-daw

^ barley
f
*

jaw
ju

[jcw-i

one grain].

j*. rivulet
9

*^ x
xO
c

seek (Impera. of the verb justan}

ju

jj~j a follower, attendant


*'

pas-raw
pisaru

a
J2/

little

son

P^ge
he (poetical contraction)

giraw

jj/ if
r

gam
'uynb

(for

agar

u$ jt\

^.xs
[

a defect, vice

w^ Ar. broken
Ar.
of
}

pL of above

^aday,
Ar. fbl
)

yawm
above

pL

ayyam
ruz

a day, P.

hope
table

nmtd or ummld
rmz

In modern Persian abaru.

Or bi-shaw

'*

become."
9*

In modern Persian the Imperative

)y*

bi-shur is

used

instead of the obsolete eh&j"


8

Also a " husband

"

(a

word much used by the


bi-ju *'seek

tent-folk).

instead of ju. ** 6 The Indians and the unknown*' sound of the vowel Afghans preserve these words.

In modern Persian

>W

"

(e) in

TB ANSLITBKATION
lion

43

milk

with

bd

^ V
flj

without
a blow or puff (with the mouth) a blowpipe (for killing birds)

K
puf

pufak

month; moon
a
/***t

mah
maht ism

fish

name
mean, low,
,
,

khwab*
r
pi. of.

pastan
pistan

the breast nipple


strangers (Ar.
sister
pi.)

khawdrij

(sing,
a

khwdhar
Ichwar*
jur^at

wretched, miserable boldness


(3^

& knocking at the door

Civil

Code

in

Muslim law

urf

an eye
)

(A. head) a

cape

chief

leaf

varaq

a slave

banda
ydvar

(pron, bande)

a Major

an Arab
time
pi. of

'Arab
vaqt

above

food
.

awqdt khurdk *

pleasant

khush*
<ddat

custom

The Indians and Afghans preserve The

the

"unknown" sound
2
).
(

of the vowel

(e)

in

these words.
2
8

} not pronounced in these Persian words, vide


is

)*

The ,5

pronounced

in this Arabic word, vide

it

not pronounced in Persian. The Afghans, however, generally pronounce in this particular word. 6 This Arabic phrase is common with professional story-tellers.

The^

is

Note the
This

half-bleating sound of hamza, vide


2 under
8.

under

>

7
8

Final h silent, vide


is

one of the few Persian words in which the


.

is

pronounced

like short u:

vide

2 under

44

TRANSLITERATION.
ftf

Adam

Adam
zarar

)j* loss, harm Ar. standing, erect, firm pft*


(c)

qa*im

The

following difficult examples of transliteration should be studied

khurd

khwastan
fi'l-Jumla

ma na n
l

atibbd-and

jama'a-dar na'uz* Wllah

o&*4

or O^UA

hay^at

Salah" 'd Din


handa-yi u
Mil&i-^f
tl

masJiJiad
azjiar

inmniyyal
(d)

As already stated in

1 (a),

the Arabic character

is

a species of short-

following Persian puzzles are exercises in inserting the diacritical points, the solutions being given below
:

hand.

The

(2)

Eemark.

The

solution to No.
>>

1 is

No. 2 begins mz- nary


(3)

and ends with man chi-kunam *&*


?

&*>.
7

What

is

the

word

fj*.

khurram, etc., tiO at last he says, Mar-am ( is anchi guffi Jwstl vail In mst ^~-& ^j

The guesser says haram, jazm, jurm, jirm Ci The reply then I am an ass "). ** Asuf what y<5u hare t^^ <J$>

said

you

are,

you are but


;

it is

not the answer to

this.'*

The key to the answer depends on the various significations of ja'far " 2 " donkey, yiAA. The first Ja'farj**^ is man's name, the second signifies " and the fourth " a >? z the third " parsley bridge.
'

Practically

equals a hyphen in this Arabic word, but in m.c. the


**

word

is

gener-

ally pronounced y, as qayim. * Ja'far is a local word in Kir man for a

donkey

*'

and

also for

a bridge: one of

the Arabic significations of ja'far

is

'*

river."

ACCENT.
(5)

45
or

A man named
and asked
for

Badri

^^ went to the $adr-i A'gam


He
said
:

fJ**\ ;***

Prime

Minister

money, but got nothing.

The

first is
is

Badn-yam
sad riyam.

the second bad riyam (for ri-dam a crude word)

the last word

21.
(a)

Accent.

The general
:

rule in Persian is that the primary accent falls

last syllable.

Ex. ^^>^ pisard boy " "a kdsh " a led horse (old) glove (m.c )." [In India this word means "an assistant to a falconer"]; l^^ *-^*>j> dast kashhd: u>^p
;

&j

" pasha a mosquito,"


;

t^

"a

"

on the

dost

darakhtdn

l '

trees

' *
:

)^

handz

"done"

" better " wij

(Past Part.); khub-tarin " the best, most beautiful," etc., etc.
;

^^/

to do &tj$ karddn " " has that to be done kardanl

' '

' '

' '

* '

yet

*t>j

v^

kardd l
bihtdr

Remark.

The accent does not


i(*

fall

on the

Ex.: darakhtan-i bagh

^^
4w

izafat

''the trees in the

nor on the affix !;. garden"; darakhtdn-ra

fli^ or
(6)

darakhthd-ra t;l^;i
:

to the trees."

Exceptions are

(1)

For the sake

of

emphasis the accent

falls

strongly on the

first

syllable of all imperatives, negative or otherwise, (frequently with special " bi-lmn "do thou Ex. y&j* Mr-dar "take away"; ; stress). " " " " do **&* md-kurild don't do bi-ravand m&kun, bi-kunld ye
:

&&

H^

il

let

them go (2) The accent


;

"

&*

bi

kunam "
on the

^^

let

me do."
syllable of the Aorist (or Present Sub-

falls

first

junctive), of the Present,

and

of the Imperfect tenses,

+& kunam, affirmative. " I am doing, JXxx> mi-kunam


Ex.
:

bi

kunam

(t

I
;

may

whether negative or do, shall I do," etc, :

I will do, etc."

" I was c^ft* ml-kardam

doing, etc." ^**> ndnn-kwiam; ?&&+* tidml-kardam. ^ ta na-gffi , the accent seems to fall on the 5 In the phrase the on than rather negative in i^*& % ta na-bim it seems to fall either on
;

^>

the negative or on the

first

syllable of the verb

(bi).

Afghans and Indians

say

$ go*e.
:

Should these tenses be preceded by a preposition that is part of the i.e. on the preposition. verb, the accent still falls on the first syllable,

Ex.

/*;iM'

^ bar mi-daram " I

will

take

it

away

"

^!H^y bar nami-daram


when

(*JJT*+*>>

ddr nami-ravam.

(3)

In the Preterite (except when

it is

negative), the accent is


it is

on the

penultimate of all persons except the third person singular,

on the

dmadan

is

obsolete

amada "prepared" has the accent on amada karddn is used instead.


;

the second syllable: the infinitive

46
last

ACCENT.
syllable.
:

" ordered

" " I asked": Ex.: f**j$ pursidam you *jj>^y' farmtidid " " we but etc. &*1* dddand "they gave": p*& gujtim said, " he " he asked " ordered," etc. a^i farmud H~^ pursid (4) In negative Prets. the accent falls on the negative unless preceded
;
:

by a preposition, as mentioned in (6) (2) in the latter case the accent falls on the preposition. Ex. aU*| uftdd " he fell," ^a^ ndyuftad " he did not fall," but ^UijjJ j* ddr na-yuftad.
;
:

(5)

The
"
; *

affixed

hd-yash

his trees
their

"

pronouns do not take the accent.


:

Ex.

c^t^ kitabhd-yitan
o**|
ejlxy**

((

your books"
"it

t^lt-i^ darakhti^likft** madd*


:

Ichil-ishan

income":
falls

bas-i-tdn ast

is

sufficient

for

you/'
(6)

The accent never

on the

^ ^

of unity

[but

it

may

fall

on the

demonstrative ^J.

Remark.
rule
<<

nouns, as also adjectives ending in

and formed from adjectives and Abstract nouns ending in that are formed from nouns, follow the

and take the accent on the


:

last syllable, i.e.

goodness"

^*>>
2

dustl

t(

"
friendship

on the ^.
*J*#
4<

(from

mk

^xJ nikl and dust good"


:

Ex.

friend"), etc. It therefore frequently happens that there is nothing but the accent to distinguish between two words which are spelt the J> * or dusii same; thus ^i-^ may stand for dust-% a friend friendship", " i( ** B mean a bride" or
cu*j^
< ' l

^a

ar&$-t)

may

nuptials

('amsf).

(7)

The following
:

indeclinable particles have the accent on the

first

syllable

Uj

dmma
/&<%?

" but "

(1

^J

llkin
is

"

but

"
:

or

" whether or <{ aV (an interrogative particle) not," etc," ^yf V? yes, very well" ^ijf inak ** here is, behold " *^Ju 6d^H <4 perhaps, moreover, on the w* " " here I am." 8 contrary Idbbay (in Persian generally a6g) " In the preposition ^[^ for the sake of" the accent is on the second Khud-a "for God's sake." Ex. syllable. bard-yi'
: :

^f,

or tinl " that

to say

"
:

^ vS

bale (or ball)


5 **

ll

"
yes
:

but yet, however

"

^uu
:

bf

^
:

This rule applies equally to a hamza that stands for this

<j?,

vide

(g).

*
3

Afghans and Indians say n&, dost, etc. In m.c. (^J^T* is a bride (not a bridegroom).

*
6

The Afghans and Indians say lekin, the Arabs Afghans and Indians wale, or wa-lekin.

lakin

"Here

am, yes"

for Arabic

^^
i

Idbbayka.

Labbay

is

common amongst

women.
7

Pronounce the

slightly as

a consonant.

The Afghans and Indians say 6or5,.

Bear

ay

^f^

Impera. of

ACCENT.

47

(8)

The following Infinitives have the accent on the first syllable: " " to drink: My&rdan to eat" c^^f dshamidan e;<>#LA khwdbtdan
:

"to sleep" (9) The


and
&<*-

e^f

dmadan "to come."

simple prepositions take no accent, neither do the particles tf or the conjunction ). As pronouns, * and **. may take the accent.
particle (&*> is accented, except
ki.

The

when

it

forms compounds, as in

chunauj chundn
(c)

A correct

accent, pronunciation, and intonation can only be acquired

by

The rules given above have, ear, i.e. they must be caught orally. however, few exceptions, and if carefully studied will prove a great aid to
the learner.
It

must, however, be remembered that there are dialectical differences in

accent, as well as in pronunciation: of

two well-educated Persians, one may

say pidar-i man and another piddr-i man. According to Dr. Rosen the only Persian noun with the accent on the "a first syllable is j&* sdnndr penny," a contraction of jlij3 6^ sad dinar. This remark probably refers to the more correct modern Persian spoken at
Teheran.
falls

In Shiraz, however, and some parts of southern Persia, the accent


first

on the
:

syllable

of

the following

common

Persian and Arabic

nouns

j&> pidar

" father "

j^U madar

'

mother" j*\j^ khwdhar "


:

sister

"
: :

about three rupees or about four shillings) *' and infinitessimal coin, 50 of which go to one dinar (an imaginary jli?d shahi, 200 to one *abba& and 1000 to one qirdn) ^*= 'abbasi (the fifth of a

e;ky twman

(a coin, in value

*>

qiran)

*J*&* qdssab
)&\j*

" a butcher/'
" a brother," the accent
is

In

baradar,

on the second

syllable.

There are probably other exceptions to the rules in (a] and {6}* (d) In the old-fashioned classical Persian of India and Afghanistan, the
accent does not follow the above rules.

In the Past Part, the accent


**

falls
i

according to rule, as, amadd t to be distinguished


to 21 (a),

from amada
4

"
prepared
j

vide note

In Arabic nouns of intensity of the form

J^

the accent

is

on the second

syllable,

as

"a 43^** V** f* Swtip-i mashshaq

drill-master Colonel.'*

CHAPTER
22.

II.

Persian and Arabic

Grammar

is

divided into
U>?l

t^j^ Sarf

Etyo^aJt

tology

and ^sO
is

Nahw

Syntax.

The Arabs say

^^l j f>M H
father."

accidence

the mother of knowledge and syntax

is its

23.

Etymology

^jy.
*

PARTS OF SPEECH

Aqsam-i kalima

j$ +U\

There are according to Arab and Persian Grammarians three parts of seech which includes substantives, adjectives, numerals, (1) p~*\ ism,*
:

ronouns, and participles

(2)

J*i

fifl,

the verb

(3)

o^

harj the particle,

inch includes the remaining parts of speech,


injunctions,

viz.

adverbs, prepositions,

and
is

interjections.
<

The
ound."

harf

divided into mufrad

"
single, simple

and muratkdb " com-

The former
and
j

consists of letters of the alphabet that are used singly as


for

articles, as j

the prepositions

jt

and *

these are said to be

24.
It is

The

Article.
is

customary to say that there

no

article in Persian.

There
:

is,

owever, a means of rendering a substantive both definite and indefinite

vide

40 and

41.
sJiarab signifies

In the absence of any article a substantive like wfy* " wine " or " the ther wine/' according to the context*

25.

The Substantive 8

oy*j
0506 <~*i
;

*-*!

Gender

,ju

},

(a)
tc.,
i

'Alam

a proper

name
and

includes not only names, as


'

Ahmad
*

but

titles (khitab yiiaa.,


4<

) ;

noms de plume

(takhailus),

*Sar/

accidence or etymology (gram.)**


**
:

ishtiqaq

^UWf

**

derivation of Arabic
**

ords; deriving words from an Arabic root


"derivation,**
^

vajh-i taamiya

(lit,)

cause of naming

"

Not

to be confused with kalam


*

leans the
j/g
p

Muslim
is

profession of faith.*
is

(f$f ) sentence; proposition, etc, KaUma also The distinction between { *+i^ ) kalima and
latter

M/ ) (

that the former

a word with meaning whereas the


* *

may be

ord (of two or more letters) without meaning. * The term noun * in English formerly included ad noun-adjective were the terms used.
'

adjective

noun-substantive

THE SUBSTANTIVE

GENDER.

49

surnames or nick-names or epithets (laqab) of famous people, as Ruym-tan " eP o&; brazen-body," i.e. "invulnerable" (name of Isfandyar); any
9

by which a person is commonly known, alias ('urf iJ^e ), as Kalian (Indian) for Kola KhZn, Ma'rafi (Persian) for Muhammad Raft, M%rzd; and the filionymics and patronymics (kunyat) of Arabs (which
contraction

common

precede the name) as Abu'l-Qasim


(1)

Muhammad
)

Definite nouns

**.**>
p~>i

bin Yusuf. include 'alam (mentioned above)

nouns

ordinarily indefinite that


AJ)

become

definite
;

the servant of Zayd


1

"

any

by construction, as g&ulam-i Zayd common noun given as a secret epithet

(ma'hud-i zilim J^XAJ tj^**), as dust o*jj!> "the (our) friend," dushman <r*$ "the (our) enemy" any common noun used as an epithet and commonly
;

known

(ma'hud-i khariji ^^) ~


y

^**>

),

as Gh ula m- i Misr ^a*

Egypt (Joseph), KhaKl* liah *Ui JUiA. the Friend of (Abraham) the a mu^af of pronoun and the personal and demonstrative pronouns vide 40
; ; :

^ God"

" the slave

of

(b)

Remark.
(2) Indefinite

nouns

*j&

} ;

ya'm

iam-i har chiz-i giayr-i

mu'ayyan

Remark.
indefinite
(6)

In kas-i ra shumdam (*& \j*r& the object the marked by though postposition ra.

is

considered

Persian.

Grammatically speaking it may be said that there is no gender in Males and females* are either expressed by different words, as:

dlv y_&
**a

and pan

^^

zan na-dlda

%***>

&j and dushiza

** a woman"; khwvja &*. man," c>j ^ ^lady": or else they have the words y nar

4<

%y*

^ mard
mada

lord, etc.," khatnn&y*\**


<

male " and

**

(t

female/'

etc.,

4<

a bull,"

& &>U or t* ^
;

added, as jj*

or _V<f 'ft&r-gav (Indian) or gav-i nar (m.c.) ** mzda-gav or gav-i mida a cow" ; j*^*shir-i nar
>>4
* ;
*

mard-i biva %& j* and zan-i biva means widow however generally **% cy [bwa %& only and zan-murda " " \<& t* beggar-man," (m.c.) is [* widower '] &j* beggar-woman,"
* f

a lion"

*&> j$**

shir-i

iwada " lioness

Remark.
gender
:

Tazfar j&** the masculine gender; ta fms


%**

&#&

the feminine

+*

muzakkar^$&* and mtf&nnas c^>^


**

(adjee.) masculine and feminine.

Tamyiz-i jins
I

t^r*^j>*+*

distinction of gender."
**

Asp

ra fani&htl v^^Jtr5

^**"\

did you

sell

the horse

**
;

aap ra

ia

26 (k) Bern. II. * Arabic nouns are either masculine or feminine, and wheu in Persian qualified by Arabic adjectives, distinction of gender is sometimes observed, as will be shown later. Vide
8

Pronounced vulgarly
*)tf.

gab*

The Afghans and Indians say ga t tt, writing the word

with a hamza,
* Nar-ahlr

j* j> and mada shir j**> i^ are not used by Persians. #ar-' a*& ia " a great fat narral&ar-i in m.c. means means " the yard of a house ; o"/^ *' and of a the nar-i means bub &&ar jack-ass." Nariyan yard blockhead," vulg. j& j " and *' mare *' in m.o. stallion
vulg. m.c.

'

60
(c)

THE SUBSTANTIVE

GENDER.

Arabic nouns form the feminine by adding ah (in Persian the " aJU> malika P. " a ] to the masculine, as <-&*> malik ) king imperceptible " l "a queen ; e>^<* sultan &lkL sultana P. (class.).

Many

Eemark.
(

In Arabic this feminine termination

is

called ta marbutah

5 It is, however, only in certain words ) and by Indians hata ( ). JDJ>J* pronounced and written t in Persian vide remarks on *. This termination ^*& c5^ ) Ex. *^> is also called ta*yi ta*ms
:

*G

is the feminine of ^t^ khan "a squire Kluinum **&> a lady (at 9 is the feminine and to almost title a officer), begum every given present pt# of beg uJ^j. Grammarians call this f, mtm-i taints, banu " a a word sometimes Persian

"

"

**

(d)

'

(e)

The

wordyb

lady,

princess," (a

also

added to female names)

is

not the feminine of


<v

compounds, as e>l? U ba$&-ban a neat house-wite >>s Cj^ L5^^ banu-yi haram "female guardian of the harem" (specially for the Shah), Vav j must not, however, be considered a
* {
;

a woid only used in a gardener," etc.: thus^U &$ kad-banu

^,

Persian feminine

termination:^

zalu **a leech

"

yj

z&nu

*'

the

knee";

jjteddru ^medicine, gunpowder, wine" and such words


culine nor feminine.

are neither mas-

In words

like jj~$ pisaru

words are distinctly

and j/^6 dukhtaru the j vulgar and should be avoided.*


is

is

diminutive
t

these

The wordy^. khalu


for its feminine

a maternal uncle

"

is

from the Arabic

J^

and has

Remark.

By

the uneducated, 3
(t

is

sometimes added in familiar

talk, as
*

maharu

bi-gir

f j^l yaru amad used in a half- joking sense). 8

take hold of the camel's mahdr (nose-string) *; va guft ** the fellow came and said" ; (yarn is here

In Arabic the

* is

not silent

f* ' **
*

In modern Persian haram-4 shah v*

"

wife of Shah."
*

mode n
8

Turks, also Afghans and Indians, give the e the broad majhul sound ; but in Persian the e is pronounced short as in the English verb ** to beg.** Also kad-banu shud *& j& &$ "the girl is -married, i.e. became a mistress

of a house."
* In Kir man a vav (j), and in Teheran a ya (i/), is often vulgarly added to proper for Ahmad *+*>\* names, as A^madu -jW^( and Ahmadl <^*>*^l 8 ghala **t^ is Ar. '* a maternal uncle "which properly the feminine of &&5Z is not used in Persian.

J^

In India yaru

is

often vulgarly used as the vocative of yar

jL?

DECLENSION.
(/)

61

Kam-tarln ^.jM>, the superlative of


for its feminine
&*+!>
l

modern Persian
is

little in quantity," has in kamina, which in modern Persian


5

"

used as a substantive by women instead of the pronoun "I" or "me/ when writing to a superior. Ex. ****^ kamfna 'arz or) >***
:

(f**V

u^

**& mi-kunam) "I (your slave) make petition"; " inform me kamina bi-ln oti&f javab iltijat bi-farmayid kindly ^jlojAt

mi-kunad

(or

^^

^U
(i.e.

your

slave-girl the

writer)."

Kamina

***+

is

apparently the feminine of

the contracted superlative kamtn. (g) Arabic past participles, used as substantives,
in the imperceptible

make

their feminines

man "my friend ^yo v^*^ [vide (c)]. (male)," (^ &jfw> mahbuba-yi man "my friend (female)": fy**j* marhum "the deceased (male)"; ax^yo marhuma (female): (j^**x> and &?>** ma'shuq* and ma'shuqa "beloved": &*&*> mutallaqa* "a divorcee" (set
Ex.
:

mahbub-i

free).
(h)

Vide also

43

(*).

Real feminines,

i.e.

are called &**&*


c

^V

or

nouns expressing living things that are feminine, c5^ **>^*, as opposed to j** *J^x O r

^^^

i^U** %J^x> "grammatical or irregular (Jit. 'heard') feminines," such as shams (_r+ * the sun,' * arz o^f * the earth/ * which are feminine in Arabic.
'

Semark.
jannat**
;

u&s) Co>* are Arabic words that are feminine by form, as

&jtf [fern, of j^f ].

26.

Declension, Tasrlf or Qardan

^1*3*3

or

4_jbyj

).*

There
(a)

is

When
:

only one declension. indefinite, the accusative case

nominative
(6)

when definite f; ra is The dative is formed by


\j

usually the affixed to the nominative.


is

same as the
6

prefixing the preposition

&?

bi to

the

nominative, or by affixing

raJ>

1
*

In

classical or

modern Persian kamina


it is

is

used as a positive adjective signifying

mean,

vile.*

la the Panjab
followers/*

used in the plural or qualifying a collective noun to

signify
guft

"camp

kamina an ki murad-i " he said the least {of their qualities)

is

that they put the desires of their friends before


:

their

own

comfort,

i.e.

they are unselfish


Vide

an
40

izajat after
(a) (2).

kamina

is

wrong.

Here S*adi
<3>**IL*
is

used *M*^ as a masc. superlative.


2

In classical Persian
3BVX
'

&\*

'aahiq is generally used for the

male lover, while

or

v^
3

^e beloved
(J^-k

therefore distinguished

In Arabic

is generally considered to be feminine of necessity, and by the feminine termination vide also 43 (t) (6). is more usual for divorcee,
:

not

*
6

" These, especially gar dan &\&f t also signify conjugating a verb.'* in its full form unless the word following Seldom written separately

it

begins with

6.

The

dative with *J

is

generally used in m.c. in preference to t>

52

DECLENSION.
Remark.

The

ra

I;

of

the dative case

is

sometimes considered the

&

in yak-l ra khar-i dar gil uftada bud )t </* equivalent of the izafat: ted*\ JS - (class.), the same meaning could be expressed by

^^

\>

Wwr4

yak-i.

formed by prefixing ^t ay or ya " oh" or one of the interjections calling attention. For the vocative in alif in poetical or 27 (e) and 118. rhetorical language vide
(c)

The vocative

is

(d)

The Ablative, Instrumental, and Locative


There
is

cases are formed

by

prepositions.

no proper Genitive in Persian. This case is expressed by coupling two nouns together by a short t (or kasra *r^) called by grammarians the kasra^yi izafat ju*X*| \j~ ("the i of annexation" or " the i of joining"), or more commonly *l*tff izafa or izafat. The thing possessed
(e)
1

is

placed

uL*

(< the son of the king j~$ pisar-i malik " the book of the son of the king." kitab-i pisar-i malik

first.

Ex.

J&

' ' ;

^*J wti^

Remark Grammarians enumerate many kinds of izafat the similitudinary izafat, (1) The izafat-i tashbthi ( tH*~> c*iU and izafat-i isti'ara tyl***i oJl*# the metaphorical izafat,' vide (12) and (2) (iv). f the izafat of qualification,* (2) The izafat-i tawsifi ( ^a*-^ oJUf ) as w>^ ^yo. Here mar^is termed the (noun) qualified/
:

<

The
(i)

qualifying izafat
***

is

subdivided into

The The

ft j***> t^ i-*y

o**Ur the simple qualifying izafat, as mard-i khub

(it)

^
f$ ty*

<.$&****

cuS-M where

privative adjective, as darkht-i

K barg

kam-'aql
(Hi)

J^
The

" a man

^ ^ ^^

the substantive
<4

is

qualified
;

by a
mard-i

a leafless tree"

deficient in sense."

compound
(iv)

is qualified by a <i as mard-i sukhan-chm a criticiz* agential adjective, &**$ cr*^* ^7*

^*y

t*%*P uuA^t where the substantive


(vii).

ing (fault-finding)

man." Vide

The ^affi cA-^P a**W where the substantive


vJi*
<f
<

is

qualified

by

a metaphorical iadjective, as marfci sang-dil J^

^x>

the stony-hearted

man."
(

v) L*$^J* o*k

tf*^^ ****^ where the substantive

is qualified
txi*

by a com-

pound privative agential


<

adjective, as pisar-i na-sa'adat-mand

o^

undutiful son."

In modern Persian this


is

is

often pronounced like the e in bed.

The second
two
malik " a

noun

in construction

and

is called **Jf

oUl*.

In

modern

colloquial Arabic the


as, ibn

nouns are placed in juxtaposition without any sign of the genitive case, son of a king "; tbnu'l-malik " the son of the king,*' etc.

DECLENSION.
(vi)

53
is qualified

The ertH&*<^%^ oJUf


^j*)J\ oU*
first
ig*

is

where the substantive


to a

by
ad-

two

adjectives.
(vii)

^^y cuiUt links a substantive


which
(

compound

jective the
jU*j jjj
(3)

part of

Y~\ (= asp-i t%z_s The izafat-i zarfi 1 ^*j&


(c

qualifies the second part, as a$p-i Vide (Hi). -~*i).

tiz-raftar

A>iUf

'

the adverbial izafat,' as sht#ha-yi


vJf

<la. bottle of rose water, or conversely ab-i shisha &&* gulab " bottle " 1 water," abi-i birka tfj* v f tank water.'
(4)

^^

"

The The

izafat-i fa'ili

shanda-yi kitab ^li^ x*>ijy'


(5)

"

^U

oJUl

"the
as

agential izafat,"

as fatu-

seller of

books."
),

izafat-i maf'uli

" burnt by the sun." (6) The izafat-i tamllkl


izafat" or the
izafat-i haqiqi

cJUt I^JA&Q
(

sulchta-yi aftab

^(^ &Ly

<j^+> *&*Mt
(

)
)

" the possessive or property

^^a^ o.-^ "the true izafat," as ganj-i "the hakim ^Cx *& sage's treasure (i.e. the 1st chapter of the Qur^an) " the Shah of Persia." Vide also No. (8). Shah-i Iran cil^l l&
(7) Izafat-i taJchslsi

"

(^^x^J cuU{)

<

izafat,

as dukan-i qassdb
(

^&

the particularizing or specificizing

eXi.
;(

t{

(8) Izafat-i tabyini

4/H^

the butcher's shop," or izafat-i bayanl


tr

descriptive izafat," as s&at-i tila The descriptive izafat includes the

&& o^^U

(^^
*

vsJUi)

i{

the

sion of the 1st person singular, as, kitab-i man &# wll? " my book"; the j^\ * ^Kixs ^t^j c^JUt which shows possession of the speaker and his friends U ^U' < O ur book "; the wJ^^^^ o,*l*f (i.e. 1st person plural) as kitab-i md
-

jJ* ^^

a watch of gold.' cu^'t^t which shows posses-

^#

shows possession of the person addressed; the &Ji jlx> ^(y cuil^i shows " his book." possession of the third person, as kifab-i u^\ *JX These might also all be included under "the possessive izafat"
(No.
6).
(9)

The izafat-i tawziM


(

^^H^y
'

wi*Uel

"the

izafat of manifestation,"

which

is

nearly identical with the


c*UL~Jl

izafat of specification (No. 7),' as, Jcitdb-i

thdistan

wUtf

"the

book

Gulistan";

ruz-i

shamba AM^

"Saturday."
Remark.

The

difference

between the two

is

that the members of the

second compound can be reversed, as SJiahr-i Mash,had *^x> Shdhr j^ ^** ; but in the first they cannot be reversed,
(10)

j^

or

Mash, had

bad-i saba

(11)

cr^
(12)

The iqafat bi-'l-jins ( u^sJt? o,^U| ) "the cognate izafat," as U* ^ ) t( the morning breeze." ( " the izafat of Izafat-i ibm J^\ cuiUt filiation," as 'Abbas-i *AK " Abbas son of AIL" The izafat-i tashbihi ( oJUt ) " the izafat of simile/' as nargis-i
" the narcissus of the eye
is

^^^

chasm*
i

^>- >j&j
"

(i.e.

the eye like a narcissus)/'


ohaam a metaphor.

garf <Jj&

Properly nargfo-chaahm

an implied

simile

and

nargia-i

54

DECLENSION.

" hand of wisdom and daftar-i shikayat c*>w yi>. The distinction between the two is that in the former there is an implied simile, in the latter there is
not.
(13)

Theizafat-i fetf'ara* *'jULi eJU; "the izafat of metaphor" or the ' ' c " the the figurative izafat ,' as dast-i 'aql cUc c**o izafat-i majazi ^jl**.* vs*U*j
,

For

fakk-i izafat cu^'U! ^>*


117.

and

izafat-i

maqlutt <?>&* cu'Uf "the

inverted izafat" vide


(/)

If the first
1

substantive terminates in a semi- vowel


is

siletot

A,

the izafat
:

pronounced yi and
it
is

is

j - ), or in a then no longer written * but


(
f

as follows
(1)

After silent h

written

or

*,

as,

y &LL

" the khana-yi mard*

house of the man."

For the pronunciation of hamza when


etc., vide

it

stands for the

^
j>Jy

of unity,

41

(c).

Remark.

After aspirated

* it is

written

~;

as, <jJyc!
*

o~#

blst

" nineteen- twentieths of his wealth." nuzdah-i amval-ash


After alif or vav it is in modern Persian written <^,* without *, as (C Jf ^tbu-yigul <( the scent of the the foot of the man *j* ts't pa-yi mard rose (or flower)." It used also to be written * or *, asjl rS-i/i %,u^ ^t^>
(2)
' ' ;

tada-yi butand
6

but modern Persians


LS
:

maintain that

* is incorrect in

such
is

cases as also after


correct.

in

the latter case they maintain that kasra

Should however the

final alif

stand for *f at the end of Arabic words the


w*
*

izafat is, or should be, written in the ordinary


Bafk-i dima*-i ziyada az

way,

as o^^j! Jbbj^Ui c_&L>


' *
;

hadd

<

shedding blood to excess

^^

&+* sama-i
for
:

Inland

<4

the lofty sky."

In these two examples

*kcj>

stands

*W

also

"streams of blood," pi. of 4 (e). As however the


Persian, such forms as

blood," and *U* for A*-* (pL of^*-*) vide final * of Arabic words is often disregarded in <^a*j commonly occur for ^y* &>

**

1
**

But not

after

an aspirated h as in mah,

f<

a moon ;
1

j& 2

U u$
*>

yak-iriah-i dtgar

another month," but yak mahl-l dlgar j*& 3^ -* <~& ** another fish," * The hamza-yi izafat is Persian and has nothing to do with the Arabic hamza.

Affcera final

*>

the izafat

is

also written in the ordinary

way, ,7 instead of

*,

as*^^^ yt*** I but *, though perhaps more ^S in modern Persian though so used in India.
*

correct,

is

not used for the izafat after

In order to distinguish

it

from the

^ of unity vide

41

(6).

This

^
is

IB

called yo~

yi izafat.
*

Persians never write jl^j


incorrect.

etc.

They

also state that

ly\ykU

correct

and

DECLENSION.
(3)

55

After final

it is

usually written in the ordinary

way T,

as,

t^^U
^

" the fish of the sea''; but according to some grammarians maht-yi darya it should be written * (or * ), as (%* ^U. As however final <^ with * is liable
to

be mistaken for the


(g),

i^
is

of unity

following a

weak consonant

(vide

the former method

preferable.
(i e. alif-i

maqsura) or by tanwn fathah is changed to alif and the f& t^^ " its izafat c^'Uf expressed by <jr, as, c/f ^i** ma'na-yi an meaning." The * Arabic ^Ux> is also pronounced in Persian ma'm and may therefore optionally in the genitive be written e>T J^^ (or, as above e/f c^^" ).
at the end of Arabic words, the final

After a silent

^ preceded by fathah

Similarly da'va-yi ishan may be written d^J c$t^, or eA^t <^^^> though the same meaning would be pronounced da'm-yiwhan.

it

has

Proper names, however, should not be, but often are, changed; thus
jA+.u j^yo

Muqs Payy&ambar
,

or incorrectly ^*+**2 C5^X*>

Musa-yi Pay;

" Moses the Prophet"; &*~* ghambar {-

c5^H^ for

^-^ C

v^-*^.

but

'Isi-yi

Maryam

Maryam. With the exception of case

or <Isq-yi

and printing, it modern Persian an absolute genitive is expressed by prefixing the In (4) ff word JU mal property/* 2 Ex. ^^j J^ mal~i zamm of or belonging to the " (( o^t b)d JU jj^ ^f Inchiz mal-i darya ast this is imported" (belongearth
in writing
' *

the sign of the izafaty&*i'$ being a short vowel.


(2),

is

omitted

ing to, or coming from the sea)

to the question,
v<

**

whose son

is this

"

the

answer might be
c<

&* J^ s

mal-l

man

*'

mine,

or (*;^y <J^ *

mal-t baradar-am

my

brother's.

5 '

In

mc.
(i.e.

this

word mml
Ex.
:

JU is

by
ast)

the vulgar.
fl

e>&-H^ J^*

frequently inserted unnecessarily, especially i *J*~4* qunsul m&l-i Slstan the Seistan
' '

Consul

not the

Kerman Consul)

c~*!
'

^^ JU mal-i qadwn ast (for qadim

it is

ancient, or of ancient days.'

The Indians and Afghans do not pronounce the i%afat like yi [vide (/) * or 45 they give it the classical pro(!) and (2)], but whether expressed by w5J&>e dar^. nunciation of jo-e majhul, as &y* &U* kh&na-e mard, is by them generally (h) After the semi- vowels and silent A, the izafat A kasra %j~ may in and as if at written (1) all, (/} (2). explained written, " the servant of God " khuda banda-e &<&> !** *or as however accompany B the place of the father "; or instead of a ^, hamza 1*e padar j*$
(g)
:

^ ^^

&^
^

<<;

is

the correct Arabic form.


plural J,j*l

The broken Arabic


In modern Persian

amwal

is

" possessions* only used in the sense of

property, wealth, etc."


3

56

EXAMPLES OF DECLENSION.
as,

and kasra may be written


in the Punjab.

J? *#

bu-e gul

*U.*

This form

is

common

In practice the 4i (d). tioned in

with <^ of the izafat

is

suppressed for the reason men-

In #s cKv tc a demon," j>&^ khadw " Khedive,' giariv ' * * and such words the 5 is treated as an ordinary clamour, lamentation consonant and not as a weak consonant or semi-vowel, i.e. it takes the

Remark

'

/.

'

kasra

~) for the izafat.


II.

Remark
ism-i-'dm
(

Nouns are
)
;

called proper
(

ism-i-lchas

u^

p*\
(

) ;

common
<*~f
)

^U ^t

collective ism-i jam'


is

5+^ p*'

generic

o^

something that has a concrete zat) existence as opposed to an abstract noun ism-i si fat or ma'na ( <^i**> or cJi>*f%{). The term abstract is specially applied to that class of nouns
the
of

concrete noun (ism-i

name

formed from adjectives and denotes character, as, " goodness'* t^j, and more generally to all nouns that do not name concrete things, as,
which
is
fj

"kingdom."
also "primitive
*

Nouns are A noun is


For

"
(
(

definite

'

ma'rija

p~\ **f* ) or

<**U

),
*

and "derived
'

' '

<5&x ^\

).

indefinite
40-2,

nakira

%* ).

definite

and

indefinite articles vide


is

When
is

common noun is

made

definite,

and, by an allusion that


it is called
J{

understood,

place of a proper noun,


<z**j^1

^*<i

AXJ

used to supply the ma^md-i zihm, thus an dust


we're talking."

meaning

So-and-so, our friend about

whom

When

a common noun
definite

is

noun, God)/' an epithet

it is called

used as an epithet or nickname, i.e. as a proper and ^**>; thus KhalU J*i^ "The Friend (of

^^

for

Abraham.
27.

Vide also

25

(a) (1).

Examples
or &ji or,

of Declension.

(a)

Singular

Number ^i*,

^'5

a<xc.

Halai

(cJ^) "case"
hand
of the

N. 2

^li eJU mard *j* man


f
dastri,

or the man.

mard

ty* cu**5 the


!

man,

G.

cu>Uf <iJU>

j khana*yiffiard ,yo
(
* pa-yi mard

^ ^ the house of the man.


man.

ty* <^U the foot of the

The

izafat

o'^t
that*

in India,

Note

is occasionally expressed in these manners in old MSS. written modern Persians would s&ybanda-yi Tchuda y f<^ f*V ; ja-yi pidar

Fa'il ( J^l*) ^subject." Maf'til ( J>*axi ) "object" is applied to any case governed by a preposition. 8 Of two words coupled by the izafat O^l^J the first is called the muzaf ( oUa* )

and the second the muzaf


*

ilayh

*J|

oUi*

).

In India and Afghanistan pronounced j* <Xil*x fehanfre mard and &j* 4.5^ pa-e mard. For another form of the genitive in m.c. vide 26 (/) (4).

EXAMPLES OF DECLENSION.
(

57

mardrra
bi-mard

JLs

<

(
A
9
t

^
\\

1j t>/>
l

to the

man.

to the

man.

Ace.*

,,

(mard-ra
(.

t5O**

X5

<&J(**

&** ^ the

man.

V.

*f*x>

iJU>
jj

mard ty ray ward


marda
az

*nan.

c$f

oh man.

or

-5

Ab.

^A. oJU

manZ jy*

jf

from the man.

T|he remaining cases are

formed by adding the prepositions.


f
9
^.'

Remark.

The accusative
>*c

case

is

also called
O
a

&

JJ*AX>

and the ablative

is

/o^u"

jf^ox
J>*AAJ.

sometimes called

<*i*
*

J>** and

the locative

&*
*

The dative in fjis considered the accusative. **. ) is declined in (b) The plural /am* ( precisely the same manner. In classical Persian and mar is in modern (c) poetry the particle sometimes added to some of the cases. It is generally redundant but

occasionally restricts the

u)f^

meaning to the case With the nominative it is emphatic, as mar an "that very/'

in point.

o^

mar jan* " the

life

itself"

(d) Vulgarly the accusative sign ro ?; is supplanted by one of the short vowels, thus marda, mardu or mardi for mard ra. This is said to be a survival of a Pahlavi termination.

In asbu ra biyar fa* bj***< the ^ is a vulgar diminutive. (e) A form of the vocative chiefly found in poetry is formed by
>

affixing

a to the nominative, as ^Ub bulbula fi O nightingale "; ^**?^ dusta <( O friend/* This form is found in the singular only. If the nominative ends in a or in 5! * and alas a long vowel the euphonic rule in 28 (c) is applied. Danghfi
,

^^

^ Khudjaya O God" are still used colloquially. The vocative in a cannot be followed by the izafat, thus, bulbula (or ay bitlbul*
M*5
<4

This preposition *?
Fa'tt

ia

seldom written separately except before a w.


Maj'ul (J^***) ^object
5 *

{JrU)

^subject.**

is

applied

to

any ease

by a preposition.

c *

Har ki daru dad mar jan-i mat a Burd 8\mu zarr u mar jan-i mara. Mawlavi. Whoever will heal my loved one He will get from me silver and gold and coral."
Zarr for zar by poetical
license.
is

The bulbul

of Persia (Sylvia luscinia)

confused with the bulbuls of India and Turkish Arabia :


is

a real nightingale and must not be its song in the writer's opinion

not inferior to that of the English nightingale.

58

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.

" oh " oh bulbul of our bulbul," but butiul-i bagfai ma U> ^U Jxb garden." For this vocative qualified by an adjective, vide 118. Nouns ending in silent * do not admit of this form of the vocative. 1
28.

Formation of the Plural

**>

Classical Persian.
s
\

There are two numbers, singular and plural. had a dual later Persian had none.
:

Old Persian

p?,*3 <j*j*

The following are the


Persian
(a)
:

rules for formation of the

plural

in classical

Ex.
pi.

*U^ J padsliah
(

Rational beings and animate nouns form the plural by adding eiU " "a king," pi. cMly^b padshah-an; asp a horse,"

aspdn

eAH
I.

Irani ^f^f " a Persian,"


If

^f

pi.

Iraniyan e^f^t.*
Jiaki
' c

Remark

the

noun end

in

?,

as

^^

a narrator

' '

it

follows

the general rule, the final


Similarly kay

^"

" has king kayan

becoming a consonant, as: eA^k* hakiyan.


&(*?, etc.

Remark
other words
(6)

II.

The

origin of this plural

termination
i.e.

is

stated to be a
in

repetition of the demonstrative

pronoun

e>f,

"that and that," or

"more than one."

Inanimate objects and sometimes irrational animals form the plural by adding t* lia. Ex.: *J& kitab "a book," pi, ty&? kitab*ha; Y*** ^P t( a horse," pi. ^J*f asp-ha (as well as asp-an &{$<*>).
f

Remark L There are exceptions to this rule. Sa'd! uses the plurals ^Ua^ and c)Uit^. This is perhaps done to confer dignity on these nouns, the plural in of being more noble than the plural in U. Still under this supposi'tion it is not easy to account for such plurals, as ^^^ - e^jjU e>W$> and and an in is The in used both e>f poetry for the prose plural frequently tM[).
sake of rhyme.
II. Rarely in classical Persian the plural in ha is used for living U as: ndmburdaha the (people) mentioned above ": creatures,

Remark

(Iqb.

^chiefs,"

Namaryi J,, p. f U ed. Bib. Ind. of Beng. As. Soc.). Remark III. In a few words a distinction is made, as saran " heads," but sar-lm
:

* s

^!j***(m.c.)

Rukh <) " cheek " has


;

U^

modern Persian either rukhan c)^) or rukh-hd fingers"; akhtaran similarly angushtdn e;ti&&. and angushtha ^s>\ " " and abruvdn stars abru-ha and akktar-ha
in
t

U^Lxt

U^Jt

^Ij^f

"eye-

brows."

If they did there

would be no distinction between the plural and

this

form

of the

vocative.
>

The word Yazdan


pi.

"God"

(also

Izad

*}>!

and Yazd

<&.

is

said

to be the

corruption of a Pehlevi

and to have been

originally used in a plural sense.

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.


In forming the plural in an, from which a is apocopated, a
(c)

59
alif
t,

if

the noun ends in


is

or else in

a^ u

Ex.:

lifa

dana

"a

"

inserted for the sake of euphony. i^bty^ sage," pi. dana-yan; (^J pari-ru (for <^$j) ^jj)

when "the arm, the upper part


eyebrow,"
pi. &\jy\

fairy-faced," pi. After a final j,

e^^j pari-ruyan.
radically final, the <^ is omitted.
of the

Ex.
jj*\

jjlj
1

arm,"

pi.

&\j)(>

bazuwan,

abru

bazu " the

abruvan*
plural of UJ

Remark
niyagan.

I.

The The

niya "grandfather, ancestor"

is

Remark

II.

plurals

(J*ft*>

with as plurals of sal

Jk*>

and mah

saliyan and c^ A ^ are occasional^ fa. These are exceptions and rare.

met The

regular plurals of these words are to be preferred.


(d) If

the word ends in an obscure

this is, before o!, generally

changed
this is

into

as *j>y

murda

c<

dead " (past


* is

partic.), pi.

^tj*

murdagan.
JJ*^
:

Sometimes, but rarely, the


incorrect.

retained in writing, as \J

In poetry the plural termination gan * * *

is

employed contrary to rule

Qa-ani says

inanimate and ends in silent A, this h usually and ** properly disappears in the plural, as : &*b nama a letter," pL %*& namaha.*
(e)

If

the noun

is

If

however by the

better to retain
plural

&

any ambiguity is likely to tirise, it is **a quarter of a town" has for its mahalla* it, thus, i n to the correct al^vc^ preference ^i^ which latter might easily be
elision of the *
*Jl^>c
}

**

mistaken for the


retained.

plural

of

JU**.

In modern Persian the

is

genera ly

Must be distinguished from the word j^ff The plural o>? dw and similar words
26 (h) Remark.

ab-tu
is

**

honour.**
c>l^*i,

divan

or (mod.) divha
cJ|j>3

vide

Modern Persians often pronounce these bazivan

and

abri*

it is

As l^l> may stand for either riamha usual in modern Persian to write the
e^la^cG
in
s

^^

**

names

'

'

or nama-ha

UA^U

<

'

letters/

latter

**>^.

For the same reason tha

plural namajat

preferred.

Similarly other words, ^t*^


for

"houses"

for

instance, might

modern Persian be mistaken


jazm be written
is

u>^> fyhan-ha khans.

If the

orthographical

sign

this

ambiguity

disappears.

To avoid such

mbiguifcy the spurious plural u>&*!^


*

used even in colloquial.

The

final

of Arabic words ought logically to be retained.

60

FOKMATION OF THE PLURAL.


Remark.

1 preceded by a long vowel follow the " a IA road," U^b; *j rah general rules in (a) and (6), thus U b plural to i.e. the word should the letters shouldbe Both rah-ha. pi. pronounced, afj

Nouns ending

in

be pronounced as written.
(/)

Arabic words take the Persian plural or the Arabic broken plurals
a book," Pers pi. ^ifc kitdb-ha, Arabic broken " JU>U 'amil a labourer," pi. o^* * 'amilan and *U* <amala. s
kitab
1

*
;

Ex.:
kutub

w^
;

t(

pi.

Remark.
are

The broken
in Arabic

(or irregular) plurals jam'-i

mukassar

than the regular masculine plurals, and are applicable to both rational and irrational beings. Some words in Arabic take the
regular as well as one or

commoner

more broken

plurals.

marians,

There are two kinds of broken plurals recognized by Arabic gramthe plural of paucity and the plural of multitude,' vide Arabic
* '
'

Grammar

but the distinction

is

not observed in Persian except by a few

pedants. In the rhetorical style, almost any Arabic word and its broken or inner plural can be used. Sometimes a word has several broken plurals if such a
:

word be used
tent,

in different

meanings

in the singular, it will generally take

one
or

plural in one sense and another in another.

Ex. from
:

<^-#.

bayt

" a house
<&?

a verse in poetry," we get c^#


Ct

buyvt.

"houses," and oUjf abyat

"verses"; J^t*
"agents."*
(g)

a labourer,"

pi.

<*JUc

"labourers" and JU* 'umvml


f

regular feminine plural in Arabic ends in e>?, which is an " kind." of the regular feminine affix * ; thus, masc. f?, karim,** expansion

The

fern.

*+*/ karimal

11

and

fern. pi.

oU.^

karimat"*

in Persian karlm y karima,

kanmaL

by
:

obscure,* but aspirate^. Called also inner plurals because they are formed, not by affixed terminations, but internal change. They are really collective forms, and in Arabic are trfeated
1

This h

is

of course not

silent

nor

grammatically as feminine singular, even when they apply specially to males. These broken plurals are a difficulty in Arabic and only a less difficulty in Persian they are so irregular and various that no rules really help the student. Arabic
:

grammars give long

tables of the various

measures

'

of these plurals

which however

only bewilder the beginner. The broken plurals of all words met with in reading should be written down and committed to memory. If this be done, the learner will be surprised to find that in a short time they ceaso to be a serious difficulty.
8

In m.c.

this

word

is

used as a singular and the plural


*
'

is

formed by the barbarous

form 'anwlajat
*
*
f

eU> &Uc.
plurals
*

Compare the English


so

pennies
*

pence

much

value

fishes

'and

fish

'

denoting a number of penny-pieces and * * cows ' and kine ; * brothers and ;
* '

brethren.'

FORMATION OP THE PLURAL.


This regular feminine plural
*

61

$**

sense, as fU*.

Jiammam
f

un

"a

frequently used for nouns with a neuter f bath," pi. oU>U*> hammamat"*; 1 J(*> hdl *
is
>

11

*~

"condition,"

pi.

oj/l*.

haldt un

*U*

samd un

"heaven,"

pi.

ofjU*.

samdwdt vn .

The

common
beings
is

" an enemy" (masc.) takes in Arabic the feminine terminations, singular and plural, but in Persian the word regular 3 is both masculine and feminine.
rare; thus, j*& 'aduv

regular feminine plural of Arabic nouns with a neuter sense is of occurrence in Persian, but the regular feminine plural of rational

Remark.

The Arabic noun

of relation or relative adjective is

formed
of the

by

affixing the syllable

<^T and

rejecting all such inflections as the

feminine, or the dual and plural signs. of Mecca." In Persian this final
relative adjective a collective plural

Ex.

&

x>

" Mecca"

has no tashdid.

" a ^^Co person In Arabic, from the


;

6
wj

may be formed by
un

simply adding the

feminine termination

one (in Persian ddhri ^s r *>) dahriyy who asserts the eternity of matter and denies the resurrection or the world (< the sect who hold this belief." to come, atheistic"; *y>^f ad-dahriyyat^
;

as

^y^

"

This collective plural 111 Persian (without the Arabic article) is *^d dahriyya* Only a few plurals of this description are used in Persian, principally those " the of various religious sects. Qajars" (the tribe of the Qajariyya &>;W^
reigning Shah)
(h)
is

used in m.c.

Plurals of plurals

(^W

*^-)-

An

additional broken plural

is

in

This plural

is

rare in

modern Persian

hammam-ha

^U^.

is

preferred both in

speaking and writing. 2 In classical Arabic the alif with ma>1da would be given the ordinary sound, then * 4 (e) Remark, the hamza would be pronounced and finally the tanwln : * vide The modern Arabs have simplified the word into sama, while the modern Persians say sama,
slightly prolonging the final alif.

In ofjU** the hamza

is

changed intoj

in Arabic also

f
written
s

oi^U*
*?***

In modern Persian the feminine


**

may

occur in writing.
of enemies)
:

****!

J**

'aduv-i

a da?
s

(lit, enemy deadly enemy {)+*> has a different signification, viz. the enemy of (my) enemies, i.e. my friend, *.?+*o is used in this sense of " the but dushmantarln-i dushmanan &{*+&

**

signifies

dutshman-i

duskmanan

<*;U*<&^

+ 9.
greatest enemy."
latter is

'

^3

In Arabic grammatically corract.

j& ^^r

is

the idiom and not

*fM J^,

though the

Words like oUJ&J naqliyyat and e?lA*A^ wahmiyyat meaning *' things narrated,*' and " things imagined,*' are the regular feminine pi. of the Arabic adjectives and t5**j (vide relative (.s) f**j wahm the substantive '* conjecture, imagination"
has for
its

^^

broken plural f^jf awham.

62

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.


as, *>

Arabic sometimes formed from the broken plural,


(for cf4>j), pi.

yad"

" a hand,"

u*t

"
aydl

hands,"

pi. of pi. <j^bf

ayddl

"

hands; benefits."

Sometimes the regular feminine plural is added to the broken plural, as " ahouse," pi. ct^j buyut "houses"; pi. of pi. oi^j buyutdt ju# fayt lt a cluster of houses ";^A^ jawhar "a gem, jewel," broken pi. j**j= " jewels of various kinds ": jawahir "jewels," pi. of pi. otyKyx jawahirat 1 of Arabic form the is the Persian jawhar j^^ gawkar^^.

meaning between a plural and a plural of a plural is not always observed, thus there is apparently no difference in " meaning between ($j> turuq (mod.) the broken plural of <3o* tartq "a road
of difference in

The shade

and the double plural e*U^l> turuqat (class, and rare), though the latter ought " 2 to signify many roads and ways." barbarous plural is sometimes made by affixing to an Arabic (*) A
broken plural the Persian plural termination U, thus ^*>j& zurufhd from " vessels " the broken 8 plural of zarf; zuruf ^^1 "many kindnesses " from alfaf otW{, broken plural of lutf.

These double Persian- Arabic plurals occur only in nouns with a neuter
sense.

few words purely Persian have been adopted by the Arabs and given an Arabic broken plural, and the Persians have in tore borrowed the broken plural of their own Persian word.; thus the Persian word ejty farmdn
(j)

becomes fardmmu ( *j^^* ) in the plural, and in Persian without the final vowel of the classical Arabic, faramtn.* " is The word andgur )J&\ 5 " grapes vulgarly used by Persians as the word Persian the There are probably one or two other of angur )y&\. plural
Persian words, vulgarly arabicized in this manner by the Persians. Dastur ;^i a Zardushtl priest, pL dasdtir j*s^& ; Kkdn e>^% Persian, a title like squire, Arabic pi. &&j** khavdmn (m.c.), used only in Persian.

In imitation of the regular feminine plural in Arabic, the termination of at is sometimes added to Persian words, thus e&jy navdzisMt " favours" and cuU^Uji farmdyishdt ** orders, commands,"
(k)

>^ are used in m.o. Persian, but


high-flown Persian.
*

c^l

anc*

c^^f only occur

in

In Urdu the same broken plural


**

may

be a plural in one part of India but a


9
*

singular in another.
8

Zarlf

witty, ingenious

" has

w-

for its 9

common

plural zurafa

this

Such a word is said to be term is applied to any foreign word adopted into Arabic.
*
***

y^

" made Arabic " mu'arrab

or

<4

Arabicized

}>
:

Similarly a

word

is

said

to be <j;&'
*

mufarraa
is

**

made FSrsi,"

Anagur

of course

i.e. adopted into Farsi or Persian. an imitation broken plural the correct form would be
:

anaglr.

For the Arabic dual with a purely Persian word vide

29

(i).

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.

63

When the word ends in a silent h, the affix of this bastard Arabic plural becomes oU. and the h ( * ) disappears, 1 thus *&y navishta " a written com" Persian verb navishtan " to of the munication
(past participle

pure

write")

becomes e>t*JLy navishtajat, and the Arabic word <**!* qaVa* "a fort" becomes ci>U\*ljf qal'ajdt. This plural occurs only in nouns with a neuter
sense.

An

exception e>U?uUc

vide p. 60, note

3.

These imitations were considered vulgar and were rarely used in


sical Persian.

clas-

Remark.

have different
pi. *JjM

Sometimes the broken Arabic plural and the imitation plural " significations, thus from fja dawa Ar. medicine," the broken

(t medicines," but in modern Persian adviya signifies in Arabic Persian the while plural davajat signifies in modern "spices,"

Persian

" medicines."

eU^

(/)

Regular masculine plural Arabic jam'-i sahth or jam' 4 sdlim


,

^^^
two

+=*

or

jJU
is

+>*> ).

The

regular plural masculine in classical Arabic has


s

cases

and

formed by affixing to the singular


the remaining cases

e>j

un* for the nominative, and

ma for

terminations.
is tijjUt*

Thus
**

: these are an expansion of the singular Arabic in classical Arabic, the regular nominative pi. of JUU

*amilun*

workers,"

In modern colloquial Arabic the second affix only is used with the " workers." omission of the final vowel, thus 4^1U 'amilln (for all cases)
In Persian, Arabic plurals in
classical
un<*

Arabic.

The modern

plural

&) occur only in quotations from the however is occasionally used. Ex.:

^^Uo mu'astrin (in writing and speaking)


(m) Arabic Dual iasniyah
( *i^ ).
1

"contemporaries,"
classical

The dual in

Arabic
1

is

formed

by
the

adding to the singular &l "

an in the nominative, and

^ ayn
*

in the other

cases.

&

In construction, or when followed by the affixed Arabic pronouns drops out.


classical

The

dual occurs only in quotations from the Arabic.


is

In modern Arabic the dual

very rarely used

it

is

formed by adding

^ ayn for

all cases.

The Persian tendency would be


is

to transform * into <-,

but the

suffix

being Arabic,

the Arabic-Persian letter


2

substituted for the pure Persian.


*9

Qal'a

A*JJ>

the final h has no sound whatever.

The Indians and Afghans say

qila*.

The Arabic broken

&S plurals are f ^

and f V.

^.

64

PLURALSMODERN
In Persian
this termination

PERSIAN.

ayn only is used.

Ex.
;

^jti\
j

zu-'l-qarnayn

' '

bi-cornous

"

(an epithet of Alexander the Great)


of the

e^*u

^y ^'tLo

SuMn-i

barrayn o bahrayn
Vide

two continents and the two seas"; "Sovereign e^*/* haramayn "the two harams," i.e. the shrines of Mecca and Medina.
29
(n)

().
f

Akh

Ar.

" brother"

aTch-1

^\

Ar. "
:

instead of akh^l generally say akhavii* c5>^' as brother Husayn says ." Hence akhavi has

my brother." The Persians ^Maw Husayn mi-guyad " my

word, as:
(polite,

akhavi-yi

in letters).

come to be regarded as one brother" and akhavi-yi mukarram The broken plural ikhwan <^!>=M is used in the sense of

man

vulg.

"my

brethren (religious), as: ikhvan-i safa, i.e. ham-dinan. The plural of ukht o^f sister is akhavat o!>3wl
is

akhavat-i

mukarrama

an address

in preaching.

29.

Plurals

Modern Persian.

In the modern language, spoken or written, the plural in U is by far the most used it is applied to nearly every substantive, animate or inanimate,
:

official documents or in rhetorical writing, the plurals as well as the Arabic broken plurals and the Arabic used, regular feminine plurals of inanimate substantives: Mullas, and travelled or educated Persians, frequently use these plurals in speaking, when ordinary

Arabic or Persian. 8
still

In

in &) are

A people use the plural in


*

Remark.

In the vulgar form of the spoken plural the


Wt*

of

^* is

dropped*
_

Thus instead
khudhd-man
(a)

of bachcJia-Jia

l*xu

the vulgar say bachcha.

Khuddman

for

&l#b*tjA. is

a double vulgarism.
4

The

plurals ^Ut!

"

horses," e>bj^

"arms,"

u>?^~^

glsuvan

**

curls

of helmet depicted

Various reasons are assigned for this epithet : one is that it arose from the pattern on Alexander's coins ; another that it signified that he ruled lor two

a saying of the Prophet ten qarn &j* make a century, but garn &j*. According to according to others the word means a space of ten years or any multiple thereof up to In m.c. it frequently signifies 30 years or 50 years. At this time the life is in !20.

danger

d)*d

e^*

Afvj e#t In bachcha qarn darad (soothsayer's idiom)


*

**

the

life

of this

child is in danger.*
* In
*

modern Arabic

C5^

akhuya

'*

my

brother."

Zanan u^J, kharan cJt^, aspan cjU-f, gavan


du&htaran eity^.i f
etc., are ail

&^

marduman e>^^/, shlran


in m.c. as well as their

&1j**> 9 pisaran ttJ(.j*^f plurals in ha.


*
ft

common

In m.c. generally pronounced aaban*


Ola

u*$ or g\au ?~4 is also applied to a are called cAI) zulf and the fore locks *j*> chafar.

woman's long

hair.

The

side locks

PLURALS

MODERN PERSIAN.

65

or long back hair," cj!f*xu "slaves or servants," &\&)& " trees" and others are still used by the professional story-tellers. 1 " Muzhj* eyelash" is in m.c. muzha fyo and the common plural is

muzhaM

\&
tfy*.

The old

plurals

muzhagan ^(f)^, mizhagdn


;

ejfcVj*:

muzhgdn

&ty> and mizhgdn &tfj* came to be regarded as singulars form muzhqdn-hd l-^lfyo or mizhgdn-kd t^(fy.
(b)

hence the modern

The
28

rule for writing the plural in

IA

of substantives

ending in

silent

(e) and Remark) is often neglected be written for l^U> and for ^JJ;.^ may

(vide

in

(c)

A few Arabic
' l

^
jj

modern Persian, thus

AiUt

broken plurals are used in speaking even by the vulgar

" thus *Uf ashyd* things shay* and fbf ayydm "days" (plurals of are never used in the Persian plural: the word ^^A** kazarai yawm) fj* "sirs, gentlemen" (a word common in speeches) has no Persian plural.
Fuqard* t\J*
saldjln
(pi.
(pi.

of faqir

"poor"), <^U}

ahdli

(pi.

" of ahl people"), <jjJ>JU

of sultan),
**

mosque by the uneducated.


Remark.

(pL of masjid

zavvdr s (pL of zcfir ** pilgrim"), &*>l~* masdjid "), and a good many others are in common use even

^\

In the m.c. a few broken plurals are incorrectly used as Ex. <*JU* <-& yak 'amala one workman/* o~-! &Ui ^f in fa'ala as^ singulars. * * ** under Zu. this is a labourer/* * For idu (= zawu pL of zu) vide
* f
:

Nd*ib v^^>

ft

a lieutenant," has for

its plural

nuvvdb
**?

v ^>
!

^ u^ ^ n Persian
title), is

by a change

of the first vowel the

word navvdb v^> nawab 5 (the


^

used as a singular.
for its Persian
**

Arbdb ^k)

(pi-

ra&b vj)
t^U>f

mmc
*

if

master" and has

Lord "
(d)

pL arbdbdn c^^)t and arbdbhd

the singular rabb w) means

(of

the Deity only).


regular feminine plurals are also used in speaking (as ^UJt* "tracts of country"; <^!>Us *un5ra (&&<*)

Some Arabic

well as in writing), as
44

buildings." Persian words with the imitation feminine Arabic plural {vide also used in speaking (as well as in writing), as ctUb bdg&dt (rare)
:

28
**

(k)]

are

gardens",
desires**,

ci*U^

dihdt ^villages**,

ci.UU^ khwdhishdt
qissar^h^an or qisaa-gu
collects
:

(m.o.)

"wishes,

or j

*A*
i.e.

also

&$ CWA.
^

hikayat-kun
.

aad

ma'rakagir ,
rectly
%
3

" one who

a crowd."

(In m.c.

*^*

is

often incor-

The

pronounced qassa and correct plural ^* *b

is

preferred in

modern

Persian.

In Persian generally (but incorrectly) zuvvar.


pi.

In Arabic zdfir has also the

regular masculine
* *JU*
6

e^U*
cU^, t^e
is

broken

pi. of

28

(/):

*l** plural of

In India the tashdtd

usually omitted.

66

PLUBALS

MODERN PERSIAN.

When however the termination is cuU 1 the farmayisMt eulfyU^' "orders. a silent h of the singular is often retained in writing, thus ei>U *jy (instead
of

cW^* mivajat
(e)

"fruits."
of plurals with the feminine termination [vide

A few plurals

28
-

(&)]

-^
are also used in speaking (as well as in writing), as: CL^AI^
(

e>Uj#

ofjyo?

jyf umur broken


The double

pi. of^*f

amr).

plurals,

one Arabic, one Persian, mentioned in

28

(i)

are

also used in speaking.

Remark.

In
is

m.c.
*

the
'

double

plural

oUaJU*
:

"workers"
28
(k).

occurs,

though cXU
(/)

not a

noun

with a neuter sense

vide

The

plural of the Turkish

word

JL^I tl

" a wandering or

nomad

tribe

' *

is

oUL>
(g)

lliyat

(and incorrectly sometimes

e&r Hat)*

biscuits ", and the Turkish word " oUj5^ suyursat or oL*;^. sursat rations, requisitions ", are either singular or plural. The termination c,-l is not the plural termination.
(h)

The substantive e>Uj~& biqsumat* "

The

regular
'*

Arabic

plural,

masculine,

is

occasionally

used by
6

educated Persians in speaking

(as well as in writing).


;

Ex.
lit.

t^?*^

^^y^la*.

M%irin-i majlis gentlemen" (addressing an assembly the meeting) &*&j* *-* eH^***^ 5^*^- fami'-i mnltazimm-i " all our retinue were present." Diary)
;

those present in
(Shah's

ma budand

(i)

The dual
tiHi*^

is

also occasionally used in speaking (as well as in writing).

Ex,

*ij

both sides of the road;


is

^~^ Hasanayn
its

" the two Hasans/'


pL termina**

Sometimes an Arabic word


'*

used in Persian with

correct Arabic

tion

and sometimes with the Persian imitation


is in

O^

thus

wf**

liavala
is

a transfer

consignment

the plural

c*>Jf*_^x

in

Persian ojli^a- (rare)

used as well as

Hal "state, condition**;


but only used in Pers,
unity) Ar. pi.
*
;

J^t
**

aftval
;

and e.^S^f
tablet
**

ahvalat,

an Ar. double

pl M

raqlm

^)
8 is

letter

(in

Persian raqlma with the> of

^^J
).

raqcfim, and Pers. raqlmajaL

In modern Persian the

generally retained in this word as well as in

(also

oUd** 8 cUU has


(3

thus several plurals used in Persian


4)

(1)
'

*JU*

"

workmen,*'
doubl<-

(2)

agents,"
*'

and

oU.aU* and U*kc

workmen'

(bastard

(6) the regular

(m.c.)
^jjlxlc
j

Arabic masculine plural eH^ x ^ '5wu7?n ( a>\^ vd*\* 'amiRn-i divan Collectors of revenue '*), which is occasionally used as well as the classical form
the latter however
is

plurals):

only used in classical Arabic or in a quotation from the


*'a

classical Arabic.

t^^M

lliyatl, adj., signifies

man

of the

ifoyat

euUbf

amj

nag a

l^jJUL)
6

Hiyatl-ha.

The word
Hazir

bitkut

e>^C^

ig also

used in Persian as singular and plural.


**

j*^

has also a broken plural

jiuzzSr j\'**>.

PLURALS
i.e.

MODERN

PERSIAN.
'All
:

67
daulatayn ^jj^a
*'

Hasan and Husayn, the two martyred sons of two kingdoms," etc. vide 28 (m).
:

the

In imitation of the Arabic, the dual


Persian words, 1 as
:

is

even occasionally added to

Bisyar

lab-i

chu

la'l

zulfayn-i

chu mushk ;
(O.

" and many a ruby


(j)

lip

and musky tress."

K* 137 Whin).
lar,

few words are found with the Turkish plural

^
(?).

or

jlf*

as,

i.e.,

For an imitation broken plural of a purely Persian word one curl on each side of the head behind the ear

vide

28

CHAPTER
30.

HI.

PRONOUNS.
Personal Pronouns

Ism -i Zamir

y^

***\ ).

is no distinction between the personal and possessive pronouns : two kinds, separate and affixed. are of they The separate personal pronouns are less used in Persian than the

There

personal pronouns in English, as, except when emphasis terminations sufficiently indicate the persons.
(a)

is

required, the verb

The following
:

are the separate


I

zamlr-i munfa&il

<J*A&# ^-k+*

pronouns N.
Dat.
Ace.

fc/

man *
. *nara*

k ma, or

UU

maha we

(also

mayan

) V fr*>
>

me, to

me

I
!

Afg.).

N.

tu*
*
S

thou
j

UA shwnS,
y u ( aho

or

W*A skumaha

(m.c.),

Dat

Ace.

fy Item

thee to thee

*5y*
or^^
6

***** Pers. and

A
fg.)._

( j|
?

uB
^^t

or <jj t?a^ he (also w*l


classical

e)^^ Ish&n,
i

ushan, they (also

and

poetical),

is used instead of Vulgarly, ' * Give us the vulgarism, English Compare The vocatives of the 2nd personal pronoun are ay tu ki 3* ^\ and ay shuma ki tt U- <^f such forms however are unchaste (g&ayr-i fasth). In
*
,

ma U

^^'1 isT&nan Afg.). man 4^ as, Ma raffim ^i*^ U. a penny for give me a penny.'

classical Persian

however ay anki &f ^\ occurs as o.*x> \s*+* * o^jJ ^-Jb ^A U fj& pp


^1^ an^i
bi-iqbal-i tu dar *alam nlst

)&

y J^-^

&f

c5"^

Oiram

ki gham-at

mst gham-i

ma ham nt$t ?
(Gul. chap. I, st. 13).

PI.

>$U*.
^*f
ithe

It

must be

recollected

that

all

pronouns come under the head

of

" iem "


*
8
*>

For

vocative of

man c^

as a possessive
\)

Sometimes vulgarly in m.c. man-ra


is

(j^

',

pronoun vide 32 (6). but with the L$ ^ unity manri-ra

correct: vide

41

(y).
.

*
5

Note that the j is pronounced short like pish. The Afghans often say o. The Afghans say eshan, oshan and eahanan majhul sounds.
;

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

-ISM-I

ZAMIR*

69

The preposition

&

with

J and

also, especially in poetry, bi-du

&

is

generally written

& and (#

but
very

and

^^

bi-duy.
if

In m.c.

&

is

occasionally used: ejU^V

is classical,

and

rarely,

1 ever, used in m.c.

The

preposition bi
<j-j is

when used

for the dative case is called ba-yi maf'ul Jy***


,

^.

used for u j\ for the sake of euphony in the following sentence : Vay oAJ^jf U bi-vay guft (m.c, and classical). To avoid the repetition of the " he said to second pronoun u ji, the vulgar also say u bi-an guft cui? ^b y him." It may be said that vay is not used in m.c.
,

Remark

I.

The

first

personal

"

speaker";

the

second

v^*

"

"present
(b)

and the third

v^ gtfiyik

pronoun is called fi&< mutakallim mukhatab "addressed" or _,<*(*> hazir " absent."

" " For the third persons, the demonstrative pronouns ^t In this and and anha (m.c.) [or man i^f an "that" with their plurals InhS (m.c.) 34 (b)] are sometimes used. Also jt is class, and anan class., vide

^1

sometimes substituted for the demonstrative pronoun ^f

Ex.

Andarun az

to*

am
No.
in

khafi dar
(Sa'di)
;

Ta
here jf
is

dar-u nur-i ma'rifat bm%

used for of': vide also

34

(n)

10.

Remark.
not u ki &? jt.
(c)

*&1

an-fa (classical

and

modern

" he writing) is

who";
'

Instead of the

first

and third persons singular, s*u banda

u^^x> mukhlw "the


most devoted;"

&

(your) devoted"; kamtarm "the


s
* 4

J^r
least

"

^^\ ttW5j-iwft
;

" the slave 4 " the

?
;

(your)

and for the feminine

&&f

the (your) handmaiden or female slave," etc,, 25 (/} ] ; J*& kanlz {vide are often used when addressing superiors, and sometimes to equals out of
respect*

In classical Persian (and in India and Afghanistan) these words are in speaking and always followed by the third person of the verb, both i*v banda 'arz ml-kimad "I beg leave to represent" as ***
writing,
(lit.
:

\ji*j&

the slave makes petition), but in modern Persian (except in official u^* **M documents) the first person is more usual even in writing, as
:

" " I the slave make ***. ** ^f In banda chi taqsirdaram ? ; petition pte jJ^o> " u what fault has this slave ? (I) committed (m.c.)
bar *on," j* dar "in,",Jf az
il

^%

from,"

etc.,

and ishan
jjj

Ot

are

generally
**

contracted into one word, as: j>p daru,

o^!^
" "

6arwfeSn,

azu.

Chunu

is poetical.

cW klsh

(classically kesh)
:

is

a subs, signifying
gwlw* kith

faith, religion
'

': in compounds

practising,
3

addicted to. " Ex.

J^ ^>

oppressive.'

Also 4>*tf kanizak, properly the diminutive of kanlz

j&

70
(m.c.)

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
"the mean"; j$

ISM-I ZAMIR.

writing);

Uj> du'a-gft (in

writing);

^U da't

(in

aqatt (in writing)

"the least" are

also used as substitutes for

do with poor me ? " Remark. In Persia, a friend writing to an equal would use banda ****, to use the third person would be too abasing. etc., with the first person In addressing the Shah U, banda Jv and haqir j&*> do not express suffihaqfr darad (m.c.)

person. third person singular of the verb p&' "I this humble individual make petition
:

the

first

With the exception of s&*.


' '
;

haqir, these are all followed


*arz

by the

0^^*.
*jl&

nfi-kunam (m.e.) haqw &* chi dakhl-% bi~ j**u <^Uo

"what has

this got to

cient humility; such phrases as fidaw <^*j, jan-nisar


atj

jlii

&(*>,

khana-zad

&iU>

"house-born (slave)", khak-sar ^UTla.,


^
is

etc.,

are used.

A common
jj

signature

(oJU) aUJ|
t(

Jjff

" the least of the slaves agatt* 'l-'ibad (fuldn) (so-andj^

"
so)
c * :

Sayyids sign

aqall's- Sadat"

cufdM

cfcf

and Rawza-khwans

&^M\ J|

aqall*' z~zakirin"
(d)

'alam "Qibla of the world," and similar respectful terms, the third person plural is used when (even addressing people present), both in classical and modern Persian.

After

o^

Hajis

may

sign

*Jl d&f aqall^l-Hajj.

hazrat

"Highness,"

^&
ali
**

Qibla-yi

In m.c., however, after

J^ VW janab-i

Your Excellency " the second

person plural is preferred (but not in formal letters). (e) As the plural is used instead of the singular in addressing people of standing, its place is frequently taken in m.c. by the double plural. The double plural in of all three persons is used by the Afghans. In the m.c, of Persian UI+& and e&*+-* are common; UU is less common, while the

plural of ii>^f
(/)

is

unknown,
is

The
:

following
<>-&

an example of the use


3
(
C

of

these

polite

forms

<JM c*^^ or ^tS- or ) <^lc a>t-*jto^i farmayisMt-i Janab-i AEhali-yi banda na-shud *I have failed to grasp Your Honour's meaning." Remark /. Man &* is the only one of the personal separate pronouns that can properly be coupled to an adjective by an izafaL Ex.
&>!?
(
:

of speech

^^

v^

Chand gu*%
**

ki bad-andtsh

u hasud

How

*Ayb-juyan-i man-i misldn-and? (Sa*dl). long wilt thou say that the malignant envious seek to find fault

with poor helpless


1

me ?

' *

aJLu qlblah, the direction of the face in prayer, especially

the direction of the Ka'bah

signifies Mecca and Jerusalem. " and hence "a place of mar gin," etc.; " threshold Janab v^5" signifies Even a Governorrefuge," and hence "Your honour, etc.": yH signifies "high." General in attracting attention would say to a Consul, Janab-i Qunsal d~*j5 '* * Hazrat presence ", and c^*aa^ is from the same Arabic root as^^^ fyuz&r " s " of

*&,

the sanctuary of Mecca; the Arabic dual qiblatayn

v^

ajatt is

the Arabic comparative or superlative


ojal **the

d^

jalU

glorious, illustrious

must not be confused with <-M

appointed hour of death or doom.'*

THE AFFIXED PBONOUNS.


(*s>

71

^c man-i bar-bad
(m.c.)

shuda (m.c.) " I the ruined one "

man-i maz.lum

"

I the

The Afghans say

oppressed." *v &*> man-i banda, but classically and generally in ^


;

am

Persia the izafat is omitted man banda ^J i#*. fto>yf A*O| *jJj (Sa'dl).

^
"

Man banda, ummtd awarda

is also incorrectly joined to the pronouns of the second and the first and second person plural person singular, as, *x>;la ;i *o. ^ ^ai ^y ra chi kar ddrand (m.c. only) "what have they to do with tu-yi* facfir
;

In m.c., the izafat

you, poor creature

;
e

xii&<o cxii

i^^aaj

^ ^U U maha-yi

bl taqsir ra aziyyat

mi-kunand
fault"
:

(m.c. only)

*if

^ u^
of
is

they are punishing us though

we have committed no

5"

l^-

^^^

mja here?"
*/?Hrf

hobs karda and

(m.c.

*>Nw c^^U-i shumaha-yi bl chara ra chird only) "why are you poor creatures imprisoned
I)

Instead
cfr^T

ishan-i

bichdra

tylfvAJ &(&.))

(not

used),

anha-yi, bichara

used in m.c.,

and an mardum-i bichdra

*&&

f&j*

o>f

in

writing.

Remark

II.

Man u iu y ^ ^<

"

and thou

5>
,

" both
:

of us ", is

an ex-

pression of frequent occurrence, especially in poetry

Bar-kfnz

birawm az

m vilayat imm u
u man daman-i
^^ix^SU^
zama'ir-i mutt&sila).
(

Tu
31.
(a)
(I)

dasi-i niard biglr

The

affixed

Pronouns
:

The

affixed

pronouns are
Singular.

PlwaL
;

First Pers.

^ am my me
;

to
;

me
to tliee

cA*

10

~^

* n#in>

Second

pers.

e>! ijt\

Third Pers.

thy ash his


it;

at

thee

&$
it
**

v i tan

hers, its; him, her,

to him, to her, to

islmn

was in all probability formed the termination ^f an to the singular, thus ft by adding regularly, plural " am mine, me, etc." would result in the plural <^Uf am-an. However fatha
plural of the affixed pronouns
i.e.

Remark.

The

has

now given way


(2)

to kaora.

In classical Persian ash <Ji and shan c?^ ,were used for animate things only. In modern Persian they are applied to inanimate things also.
" on" and bad
d)*\* *btf tr.

Barj* bar bad dadan


*

the

wind"

bar bad raftan

{^)

d*j> to be destroyed;

to destroy."

local.)
3

ra.c. t>^>> tuv fchudaiB for \*&* ly tura bi>&buda: tuv 1shud<?l (vulg. and without pay, impressed " ; perhaps a corruption of muft-i In prose this would be tura.

In
*

72
(3)

THE AFFIXED PRONOUNS.


In pronunciation these affixes should be, but seldom are, preceded slight pause in other words they do not affect the syllabic accent of their
;
:

by a

words, thus

uAsw> )& (sj& *Ju5T 3 etfjj** -*irV ^**f 6t>^ darigk amad-am "I felt a disinbi-tarbiyat-i suturdn va a*ind-ddri dar mahfil-i &#nm (Sa'dl) clination to teach beasts and to hold up a looking-glass in this quarter
e>tj>^
9

of

the

blind";
to

dmadam

"

it

came

me "
:

"I f^Wf would be

came", but amad-am ffWf

as in the example.

final letter becomes (4) In words terminating in the vowel i, the a consonant, as bint <^i# " nose " J^^ biniyash " his nose " or poetically Knish. Sometimes the affix is written separately, as but it is <J\
;
:

^^

not so written by modern Persians.


(5)

Words terminating
;

in alif-i
t

maqsura
as:

JJ)^AAX> vJJi

change the

&

to alif

and then

insert the euphonical y

&y^

da'va, {J^i\j^> da'vd-yash

"his

claim or quarrel, etc." in m.c. often o^fya: ma'nd-yash (J*^*** and ma'niyash cA^*-* are both correct.

Remark.
as pidar-sh cAj
4

By

poetical license the vowel of the affix can be omitted,

" his father."


,

(6) After Arabic words ending in *f as kibriya*, the alif of the affix should be retained, thus (J\ A*ji is poetical or modern colloquial. (b) In classical Persian the full forms of the singular are written in full,
:

^^

A^
:

only after a word terminating in. silent h. Ex, pt *kL &hana*am cases the alif is omitted, as f}&^ mddaram " my mother.",

in other

Remark.

Shaykh Sa'd! writes


but for the license of poetry.
t(
* *
' '

Here
(c)

at could not be joined to &> ,


!

After
' *

or ^* a

^
*

is
;

inserted for euphony, as

-yat

thy hair

bdzu-yat **4j$>

^b pa-yam my foot arm thy oU^U^ dast-ha yi-mdn


;
;

"

" our hands." In m.c. and


dastha-man
c>

in poetry, however, this euphonic <^ is often omitted, as


;

u V**>

ja-ah <j!^

"his place": bazu-sh


;

dj$>

diram-ha-ah

<J&f)t> (better U.
(d)

cr^V -^

diramha-yash)

o^vil^ jadu-sh "his magic," ^ also

jadu-yash.

Examples
(1) (2)
(3)

of the affixed pronouns are

fJU

nan-am

bidih

"give
I told

(to)

me bread."
him forward."

(jUitf guftam-ash

"

him."
"

j^ cA^J

ptsh-ask biydr (m.c.)

bring

So written (probably) to indicate that the h


In the m.c.

is

not sounded.
\)

^#

|^

(^|jj>yk Aa/ du-ash ra biyar, ot )\*>

o^j* j*

har duycuh
:

ra-biyar

"

bring both of them," the


**$)*

is

omitted or inserted indifferently

har duyishan or &&tf

j* har

du-yi ls\an.

THE AFFIXED PRONOUNS.

73

(5)
(6)

"she will not digar bi-zaban-asli nayavarad. again mention him" (lit. bring him on her tongue) ash here " him is the object (and is not her ', possessive). " I did not hear o(<x<? (m.c.) sadd-'t na-shamdam you.*' f^LSJ
;
' ' *

fb^

OL>|

!<x*>

(m.c.) sada-at

kardam "

I called you.'!

(7)
(8)

oU^^J

padar-i

man

" our father."

(jlkjUj**

ishan).
(e)

sarha-yishan "their heads" (but e>^t Also colloquially sarha-shan.

^U^*

sarha-yi

In classical Persian the plural affixed pronouns are not

much used

the separate pronouns are used instead. In classical Persian the affixed pronouns

may

be joined to almost

any word

in the sentence except to the simple prepositions


(h)]
:

and
of

A&Gf 31 ^ anan ki ghadr kardand ba man-ash dusti bud (Sa'dl) " one mutinied had a friendship with me."
*j*

the conjunctions 3 [vide

^^ J^k

*>&jf )*i

to

some

of

yak-i ra az

those

who

be noticed that the plural affixed pronouns are preceded by If, however, the noun end in (c) by a ^f). silent A, 4 the izdfat is in modern colloquial often omitted, as d* &{** khana <&*. JeKana-yi shan. sJmn b <v their house," or & In classical Persian this
(/)

It will

a kasra (or in the case of

would be
Persian
it

ejU^i <UrL khana-yi-tshan or

^l^^U. khana-yi sJian; also in modern would be better to say cMi* ^^ kb&na~yi ishan than jchana-yi
is

or khana-slxin,

The kasra

omitted in the following:

Examples of both

^5^f

c^>-*l 3^^->f vjfjj; ^i?H^ A* Zi-andarz-i man ka$ na-ptcMd ruy

c;U 3^1 3

Ki and&rz afzun kunad abruy (Shah-Nama, Book I, sending message from Salm and Tur to Faridun, p. 21), " None turned his face from our advice. " Because advice
1

m.c. for sadayat.

*
S

In m.c. generally pidar.

*\$ (j^^ )J 5

* >-r!^

o^^ 3 &))

Gar-at zi-dast bar-ayad chu nakh.1 bash karlm Var-at zi-dast na-yayad chu sarv bash azad (Sa*di)
**

If

thou const

be

free like the cypress

bo generous like the date palm. But if them canst not, then * the epithets karlm and azad ^f **e frequently applied
*
:

f>.j

by poets to these two trees. Note the affixed pronoun " " gar^f and vagar J*j "if and and if."
* Final silent * is considered

at is joined to the conjunctions

a vowel by some Grammarians.

There

is

no

final

silent % in Arabic.
fi

In modern Persian sometimes written

c>^^

(without the &)

74

THE AFFIXED PRONOUNS.

Z< pand-i

man

ar mayhz-i tan shud tuhl

Chird az khirad-(i)-tdn na-mand dgahi?

(Shdh-Ndma, same page as above).

Bi-farmud-i shdn td nawdzand garm

Na-khwdnand-i shdn juz bi-dwdz-i narm (Shdh-Ndma, Book I. Pddishdhi-yi Tahmuras-i Dwband si sal bud, p. 8).

Bi-ayvdn-i Zdhhdk burdand-i shdn

Bi-ddn azkdahd-fash sipurdand-i shdn


(ShdfirNdma, Book I. Bar takht nishastan-i va bunyddri bi-ddd niMdan, p. 11).

Buvad khdnahd-shan sardsar palds Na-ddrand dar dil zi- Yazddn hirds (Shdh-Nama, same page as above).

Remark

L
**

In modern Persian the plural

affixed pronouns,

to verbs, retain their kasra, as


guftam-irsJidn
I told

&\!&

gujtri-shan

"he told

when affixed them >J &(+&


;

them."
be noticed that the affixed pronouns, when the
:

Remark

II.

It will

direct or indirect

object of the verb, i.e. when personal pronouns in 32 (a) the Accusative or Dative case, are not followed by f; rd vide
t>

for

in ni.c.
(g)

Sometimes there is ambiguity which even the context does not make " Ex. ^i clear, bad-am guftl in m.e. would mean you spoke ill to me", but it might also mean "you said that I was bad" in >& ^*%a darbdn-am rahd na-kard " the porter did not let me go (or let me in)", darbdnam might mean " my porter ?> ^j*& <-& <^Ht-^ )f
:

'

oJUjjx &M

oJiu

\j

t& %f

^^ J&^

a^jJ

^y

khwdhar-i tu az khas%s% misl-i

karda nan-ash rd l pusht-i shlsha mi-mdlad (m.c.) Isfahan* panir-rd **your sister who in miserliness is the equal of the Isfahan merchants, * (or its ? ) bread on putting her cheese into a bottle and rubbing her
tu-yi shlslta

the outside of the glass"; here nan-ash " might mean the bread of it."

^U

instead of " her

bread"

l In classical Persian a noun in the accusative to which a possessive affixed pronoun attached often omits fj. * Here the ash would probably not refer to cheese as the cheese is inside the bottle and therefore does not belong to the bread. Otherwise the ash could easily mean either 'her 'or 'its.'

is

'

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
(h)

75

In m.c.

[vide also (e)l the singular affixed

pronouns can be, and


:

fre-

quently are, affixed to some of the simple prepositions, as e&ty barayash "for him, her, it"; <j*)f "from him, etc." <Jjt "in him, etc."; <Jtl> for " to o*t *J, colloquially <_rJ him, etc." <jtf3 z * r" as h "under it" tft.fi bi-am
:
:

dad
to

(m.c.)

"he gave
f)\
;

it

to

me "
f<

ab

olj bi-at

dad or

c*j (m.c.)

"he gave

it

thee"; az-am
still

az-a

ojt

from me; from thee

"
;

in kdr az-%shan?

i^t^jf jf j(

are

7^2 except yj za&ar "above ", and some others. the affixed pronouns are possessive, the pronoun of the first person is called mim-i izafat oJl*| ^yo, the second ta-yi izafat vsJl^i ^U, and the third sJvin-i izafat ovl*| ^^.
tf
,
,

^ " up to " J^
When

^| (m.c.) (Such expressions considered vulgar, but will probably soon be recognized as correct), " " b " ba with bi " without ", They are never affixed to y bar on
they are not capable of doing this."
' *
,

"

"

' '

used for the dative or accusative of a personal pronoun, the first mim-i maf'ul Jj*i* f**, the second ta-yi maf'ul J>*i* c?^> and the third shm-i maf'ul J**&* &$ or shin-i zamir-i maf'ul J^h^^^a
is

When

called

^.

(i) The following are modern vulgarisms that are creeping into writing Ma g&risnorman ast ws^t |U ^L^? U we are hungry" sliutna tishnatan AxiJ UJi ast cu^f IsMn garm-i sMn ast c-^f ^Ux^ ^Iwui you are thirsty " man sarma-m ** ast o*i they feel warm ^l^* ^> I feel cold." y) In modern Persian the affixed pronouns can take the place of the reflexive pronouns when the latter are used aspossessivepronouas, vide%%(h).
:

<

4 f

* '

(k) In kitab-ha, hama-yi shan " whole of these books are good -

khiih ast

^*s ^^ && l^l^Ur^r "the m ktiabhH Jiama khUb ast v^ *** ^^ &**

JU^K The singular ask <J could be substituted for sJmn &L& in the previous case; In kitabJt&hama-yagh khub ast (m.c.) cu-^f^^ fj^ &+& "these books, the lot taken as whole, are good ? % bat in the sentence

ha az zamm

chaha<r v&jab

buland bud va

sar-i

shan (or sarha-yi-sJuin)

tlz (m.c,)

y3 ( ~^j ;l^ (j-i^j $ ^t^H^ the singular ash c/& could not be substituted as the various pegs give a scattered idea,
tflZjiAty* or) e>U j** j
*>iJu

Remark.

>*/*

J*c* j*+*> " attached pronoun, nom.

case

"
;

JUtlo j-*^*

v>^ve

<(

attached pronoun, ace. case, etc/*


32.
It will

Possessive Pronouns.
31
(a),

(a]

be seen from
are

and

(/),

Examples

5, 7,

and

8, that

the

affixed affixed
is

pronouns

pronouns when

possessive as well as personal. possessive are properly followed by

In the m.c., the


t;

in the accusative case.*

Ex.

or dast-am
1

when

their

noun
"

\>

" take pl~* dast-am ra blgir

my hand

Afghans and Indians say


In
classical Persian
I; is

be.

only used after the affixed possessive pronoun, third person.


f

Ex.

Yak-l az frukama 9 pisar-aah-ra nahi hard az bisyar feburdan ki- I; U"*r*^ *^*- 3 "a philosopher warned his son against over-eating saying that

^
"

76

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

classical and

The dative and other cases are usually formed by prepositions, both in modern Persian (and seldom by f;). Ex. cu*o| ***<*) oJ^i bi-gush:

at rasida ast

"have you heard?

"

pisar-ash ra guft cui?

fj

ur^

(Sa'dl).

Remark.
stantive,
it is

If the possessive affixed

pronoun
Ex.
:

refers to

affixed to the last only.


If the
last.
(b).

am " my
dear
life

(\>jr*>

more than one sub^*b$ pushak u khurakfollowed by qualifying


'umr-i
l

clothing and feeding."

substantive

is

adjectives, the

pronoun comes

Ex.:

e^js

"
!
:

j+*

aziz-at

"thy

vide also

Remark

to

possessive pronouns can also be expressed by the personal separate pronouns coupled by the izafat, to the thing possessed. Ex. er*;<^ father (lit. the father of me)"; oU*l &U* khana-yi ishan 1 pidar-i man
(b)
:

The

"my

"their house/'
(Pidar-i shan

&l

;*J

and khana-shan

&(

<kU>

(m.o.)

would

have the

same meaning).
In the accusative, the separate pronoun is put in its accusative form " he * with f> Ex. oi/ \j* dast-i mara girift caught me by the hand."
:

ca

The dative can be formed with u-ra dadam **Igave it f*\* pidar-i *j. bi pidar-i u dadam f\z j\ j^
Remark.
last [vide

!;,

but preferably with &.

Ex.

|^|

;^

to his father (m.c.)";

more commonly

In a continuous sentence,
Ex.
:

etc. , the separate


j

come pronouns also *


+>

Remark to (a)].

tabl'at'i pur sharr u shur va sBmt-i zisht-i bad-far az dlv-i u bar ^U^ixx? {^ kas ra ml tarsanid "hiB evil nature and ugly appearance worse than that

y*

y J>*>

*^*3 &}j<*

)r> s j"j}

^*^

of

a demon

used to terrify
of

all.**

The vocative
exist, as pidar-i
(c)

man
Ux>

mand

^"
^u

as a possessive (not as

a personal pronoun), does

oh

my

father!

"

In m.c, the affixed pronouns are preferred, but in writing and correct

speech the separate.


(d)

The separate pronouns can


Ex.
:

also be used in the ablative to express


jt

possession.

xU*o $\

AJ )\

U
"

A)

o;U* ^f In 'imarat na az shumd va

na az u mi-bashad (m.c. or class.) him " In mal az man ast B cu~f


:

^ y JU ^f
etc.,

this building belongs neither to

"
(m.c.)

this

you nor to belongs to me."


possession,
vide

(e)

In certain cases the reflexive

pronouns

denote

33

(a).
(/)

"Mine",

<c

thine",

"

his",

are expressed by the demonstrative

Afghans and Indians say fehana-e eshan. In ra.o. dast-am ra (^-^ (affixed pronoun) would be more commonly used.
Also in m.c. in
irial-i

man

oat

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.


pronoun
4
c

77
az an-i

e/f,

as:
it

ctf j!
**

az an-i

man "mine "


'

&

e/f jt
'

to

whom

did

belong (whose was

'

it) ?

tcfifa-i,

Man

zan-i

bi-man guman-i ddrand khud-am chunan ki hastam hastam.


l

(K. Rub. 334 Whin.)

" Each sect miscalls me, but


I

heed them not,


I

am my
jl

own, and, what


C
^*

am,

am."

Sometimes

is

omitted as:
p

; j>

Otj-^

^~Vy

e;f

^J ^A

(^oj

(^j;

;J>

AT ^f

-4^

^ ^a

ru-yi zamin-i,

hama waqt

an-i tu

mst

here an-i tu
(g)

Dlgaran dar shikam-i madar u pusht-i pidar-and mst cu-xJ y ^f means *' does not belong to you."
:

In m.c. "mine, thine, etc." are generally expressed by JU>, lit. 'JU mal-i man "mine" ; ^>t<^ l^j ^^ JU a "property." Ex.

^y

maZ-i

man u shuma
s *

classical e/f is also

"whatever is mine is yours." as an-i az Barahman birun avardand &$ jf used, gav-l they had out a bull belonging to some Brahmin."
taw fir na-ddrad
:

The

Remark.

Possession, in classical

and

in

sometimes be expressed by the dative case, " the king had a slave." g&ulam-i bud
33.

modern written Persian, can as <^3U \^ $U^b padishShrfa


:

Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns,

(Ism-i mushtarik u^x^c ^-4; also tXxTU^x*^ Zamtr-i


(a)

There are three reflexive pronouns in the

classical language,

khud*

o^^

khiplsh* and
rule

^^^

khiplshtan,

meaning "self": they are


:

indeclinable

and as a

can refer only to the subject of the sentence

they

take the place of the personal and possessive pronouns when they
the subject. of the three
use:
(I) c*i>

refer to

Khud is
is

applicable to either animate or inanimate nouns, and the most common. The following examples will explain their

&l*u

jf

b\

" he went to his khana-yi IthuA raft


raft

own house"

ojl^l

&Uu ^t u

bi-khana-yi

"he went

to his

(somebody

else's)

house";

Note plural verb after har. " Note that Jl* need not be repeated before l* increasing, j*&> taw/ir, A. '* to come difference." has etc." in modern Persian signify 8 Broken pi. *^(j? Barahima. * Note that the u is short, vide remarks on on ^ 2: &hud signifies "a helmet." " From Wiud " self " is derived the Persian word g&uda " God (the self -existing).
1

2. In modern Persian Note that the j is not pronounced, vide Remarks on j means also " a plough." The Afghans and Indians say Jehyeah for " self.'*

78

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.

U ma bi-khana-yi khud raftim


kk >>
f;

"

we went

to our

own house "

Zayd
(**?,>

in his

is

I saw Zayd in my own house." used in classical as well as in modern Persian, as:
;4>
<f

wem Za^c? ra dar khana-yi khud-ash dldam " I saw own house ", but man Zayd ra dar tehana-yi khud didam Ij xjj <jx
^3
t^

&l&>

would mean "

Khud-ash

A
In

stag that enters the haunt of lions,


its

home

will

make a

death- vacancy

(Anv. Suh., Chap. IV, St. 7): in


possessive pronoun.
(2) pi*)
c<

the preceding examples

is

for

the

myself, I

went "

forcibly *xif;

himself";
instances
(3)

^ ^ **X
is

khud raftam " I went myself", or more y* forcibly khud raftartd " they went themselves", or more iXxi^ ba khud burd l> c) l ^> he took it away with
;

^
((

^^
in

M^

l;^

M^

^
j

ra

tes^

<4

he killed himself":

these

reflexive.

In the sentence **Ui

bi-kamal

numayad (S^dl)

J^r ; &+* jlama kas-rd <aql4 khud one thinks his own brains perfect," and every
is

Jl^

similar sentences, the reflexive pronoun

necessary:

hania

kas

A+*

though grammatically in the dative must be considered the


the sentence.
(4)

logical subject of

With immaterial

things,

u*^
my,

in their possessive sense are used,

(5)

The phrase ^su

etc., khud *<* or khwish and not khmshtati ^^Ll^. khud bi-khud signifies "spontaneously", "of

" fame ",

f(

love

"

thy, his, etc,,


(6)

own

accord."

In the language of mysticism

^&}^ bi-kh<udi or <^c>wjtf


in the following
**

oJta* halat-i

bi-khud% signifies * a state of religious abstraction or ecstacy in temporarily leaves the body.'

which the soul


from *U?mr-i

Note the meanings

of

khud

Khayyam

*
:

two

lines

f^

&*.

^^

*3 &$

\^

*^J^\*^ <^tj*^j-*
tit

&

c?>-i^

Aknun
Fardd

ki tu ba khud-i nordanistx

eh

ki zi

Mud ram ehi

khwahl danist ?

whilst in possession of thyself knowest naught To-morrow (i.e. the day of Judgment) when thou leavest thyself (by death), what more wilt thou know ?

Thou who

"But,

if you know naught here, while still yourself, To-morrow, stripped of self, what can you know? " (0. K. Rub. 52 Whin.).

kbudlcushi " suicide."

"tent-sewer," the
;

taj^hallus (poetical

nom de plume

')

or possibly

the profession of ' Umar in either case the iza/at. 8 Past tense with present meaning.
*

For jf

poetical license.

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.

79

jU&

jjj)

/ft ahl-i

AaevVlf &f jli*' vUJU^ t khdk u qubUr gashtand g&ubar Bi-khud shuda va bl-khabar-and az hama kdr

A? o-*! ud^.

Har

zarrd zi har

zarra giriftand kindr


ruz-i

Ah ! in chi sardb ast ki td "The tenants of the tombs


Nescient of
self,

shumdr

and

to dust decay, all beside are they

Their sundered atoms float about the world, Like mirage clouds, until the judgment day."
(0.

K. Rub. 242 Whin.).

Remark

I.Khud **&>

colloquially, as:

largely used in compounds, both classically and " " khud-bm khudr aj^ proud, self -concei ted
is
;

'* ray "self-opinionated <J-)|AJ^ khud-ddrl (m.c.) self-possession, com" khudl (rare) egotism." posure"; <^&j*> Remark 21. In the speech of the vulgar, khud c^ has a plural khud-hd
;

:J

^^
:

U^ before the
(6)

affixed pronouns,

which

is

contracted as follows

Khudhdyimldn ^U^Ui^^ khudhd and so on for the other persons.

man c)^*^^^ and khuddmdn


</v

(vulg.)

For emphasis, the Arabic phrase *~&u

bi-nafsi-hi signifying in pr&pria


etc., for all persons,
(

personnd (or

^AUb

bi-nrnafsi)*

can follow c^-,


(

both in
bi-

speaking and writing.

Ex.

f*^

u^^t

or) &~ix

fj

^^
;

khud-ash rd

(t &~iu tj&> (Jty I saw him in his own person" nafsih (or bi-n-nafs) dldam ** 4^*) tshdn khud bi-nafs-ih raftand they themselves, personally, went."

(c)

Khiolsh cA?

^ cau be substituted
J^^
pronoun

for

in places

where the

latter

signifies

rarely like &j*> stands alone possession, but substantive. It is also classically used in compounds, as : <*,>#
bin.

without a
khwi$h~

^.^

As a

reflexive

4^!^

is

not used in m>e., vide


:

(/).

Example

of khiplsh

<J*^ standing alone

Chu B

dil bi-dusfi-yash

Ohird bi-dusJmiam-yi
**

man

khwish rd *alam rnzad *alam bar afrdzad?

(Anvdr-i Suh., Chap. I, St. 15.) affection's him displays heart for flag My " he a should then hostile banner raise? Why
(East. Trans.)

^\)

<^

subs.

The Persians usually follow the modern Arabic pronunciation and say bi-nafsih &V in the first instance and bin-nafs <j*ixJb in the second. As already stated, the For the doubling of the n in the final short vowels are omitted in modern Arabic.
second instance, vide
'*

10.

In *^A^J the

final hi is

pronoun would be changed to agree with the pronoun subject or object, in number and gender, etc., but the Persians often neglect this point In writing they, however, also do use the Arabic dual and plural of Arabic syntax.
he,
it
:

"

the third person masc.

affixed

in Arabic this final

forms bi-nafsihuma and bi-nafaihum.


8

Chu j^

is in

speaking always

chi.

80

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.

but cannot be employed to Jte?*> is applied to persons only, khwJsh a man or noun a w* could not raftam pronoun emphasize p**j

Khwish

o^^

be

said.
(d)

Khwishtan

"

body

"
;

^/A^

is

compounded

of

it is

both possessive and reflexive,

tan erJ>^ khwish and and unlike J^y*- it can stand


/
:

alone and can emphasize a noun or pronoun. Ex. o*o I; &&* j* khwishtan ra " kusht " he killed himself ojt*** o-*^ |^ ^lij^L ^^\ ^j&> har kas awlad-i ** khwishtan ra dust mi-darad (m.c.) every one loves his own offspring*':
;

0**)

eH^
"

(^>j*-

(^

l>

t>[frtf
life

(class.)

man

holds his

own

dear

adamt-zad rd jan-i khwishtan shirln ast " or " his own life is dear to man."
1

Tark-i dunya bi-mardum dmuzand Khwishtan slm u ghfllla andftzand (Sa^I). " To others they teach retirement from the world

While they themselves are engrossed in collecting


grain,"

silver

and

Khwishtan ^J^xj^L also occurs in a few compounds, as


^xi
^jLl-uah. (class).

khwishtan-bfn

Khwishtan ^&*JA> is applicable to rational beings only. (e) In modern colloquial, although &j*> is occasionally used alone, it is more usual for it to be coupled with the affixed or separate pronouns singular

and

plural.

Ex.

pti

25^

Jchud-i

man
;

guftam* (m.c. only), or


ojJua?

*is

f&j&>

Ichud-am guftam (m.c.)


(m.c,

**I myself

said"

U-i

o^

khud-i
l '

shumd

guffid

only), or **$

&$ c^

Khud-itan gufttd (m.c. only}


^*^ &j*
e/T

said";
( IB. c.

^^ <Jk^
in the city

khudash

raft (vulg.),

khud-i

you yourselves an mard raft

only)
* *

"that man went himself ";^' *

c^

\sdar khud-i shahr (m.c,

only)

itself.

The forms khud-am f^., khud-at ^^^,

etc., are also classical, as

Dada

( falak inan-i irddat bi-dast-i tu Ya'm ki man kit/am bi-murad-i khvd~am rasan

Khasm-at kuja-st

zir-i.

qudum-i khud-at figan


(Hafiz, Letter

Ydr-i tu klst bar sar

u chashm-i man-ash nishdn


Nun.)

Note that <^<s adami *'man*' has three syllables and not two as in Hindu" a man" also that stani, but adam-i Jslwplahtan (ytt?.j*> does not here refer to the grammatical subject of the sentence. However in sentences of this kind where no ambiguity can arise, **his own, etc.*' must be rendered by a reflexive and not by a separate personal pronoun. * Note the m.c. position of J&hud j>y^ and the iz&fat c^*U| ; classically
I
:

man k&ud

guftam.

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.

81

^f^iux mi-khhwdham dastam rd bi-shuram <( I wish to wash my hands," f*>^j t^+i*iA instead of (*))&> fy<i>^ o*,> mi-khwdham dast-i khudam-rd bi-shuram ^Afj.iu/o khudam bi-chashm-i khud-am didam (m.c. and (m.c.) ^Ajja fdj&* f**3*-? f*^" vide last two emphatic) "/, / myself, with my very own eyes saw (it)
:

In ordiftary conversation the rule that the reflexive pronoun should be used when the pronoun refers to the subject, is frequently broken if no ambiguity can arise from the violation of the rule, thus
/.
:

Remark

examples

in (a) (1).

Remark
ta>

II.

Though khud

is

indeclinable, such (incorrect) expressions as

5**

&UEU

^liuf are occasionally

met

with.
&j&*

is

The advantage of using the affixed pronouns with khud shown in the last two examples of (a) (1).

as possessives

Remark

III.

In m.c., the phrase


bt-khud

f*<^*u

bi-khudam means
useless;

"I am

myself

again," while
vide lines in (a)
(/)

j>>uj
(6).

means "foolish,

also in

a faint":

In the m.c.
;

" a relation"

o^y^ is usually used as a substantive only, signifying khmshan u dUstan e>UL*^ ^ ^IS^i, ** relations and friends"; khmsh u qawmi na darad 4t he has no kith or kin."

Imkarna*' gufta and baradar ki dar band-i khwlsh asi n& baradar ast va nx khmsh ast (Sa'dl) " and the sages have said that a brother who is wrapped " in this extract from the Gulistan up in self is neither brother nor kinsman there is a play on the two meanings of khwlsh [another reading is baradar-* ki
t;a
:
:

*&)$j* without the second

asf\.

Khunshdwand a^UL?^
modern.
(d)

subs.

**a relation,

kinsman,"

is

classical

and
the

Khmshtan <Jk~y^
(d).

is

used in m.c, for the reflexive pronoun

(in

ace.)

for its use, vide

In modem Persian, spoken or written, the affixed pronouns can take (It) the place of the reflexives when the latter are used as possessives, as : ** 1 want to wash my mt-khwdham dast-am rd bi-shuram f)?^ fj

hands"

o~o or dast-i khudam-rd ty khud rd \$ *^*z) dyd shitmd dya-idn rd khwdnda id* ***w)j*> yUlf U^ Uf "have you read
(for dast-i
(

-^

^U^

^h^^

f^

your verse
[j+Juo

'

'

The separate pronouns cannot be

so used.
dast-i

It should be noticed that


lyo

may

stand either for dast-am rd or

mard, but

vi*o represents

only

dast-i
(i)

mard.
><>&<>

and ham-digar j&*+* "one another; each other" are reciprocal pronouns: yak-digar rd mi-zanand *uyv* j&*&> "they are Hama tawdt'-i yak-digar bi-kumd striking each other; fighting together." " do 4.A you all bid farewell to each (GuL, St. IX, Chap. I)
Yak-digar
\)
l

Plural ayat-i tan ra.

82
other."

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

For
of

mislri

ham p* cU* "

alike (like each^ther), etc.", vide

under

Adverbs

Comparison.
j^Lii p~*\ ).

34.
(a)

(ism-i ishara-yi qartb pronouns an " that " (ism-i ishara-yi ba'id **** ^Uf p\) they When refer either to persons or things,* and precede the noun they qualify. " this man In mard Ex. are indeclinable. a noun qualifying they OJ etff in zan "this woman"; l^U* &?.\ in kitab-ha "these books"; " these men." in marduman

Simple Demonstrative Pronouns (Ism-i Mara " this" in are The demonstrative

V*^ ^^t

/**!

and

e>f

^
,?

' '

e*>!

Remark.
(b)

The noun demonstrated


of

is

called &d\ j(&*.

was fl im, which perhaps remains in Jjj " imruz "to-day"; Jl~xf imsal this (current) year"; *-*2\ imshab "to"this night"; and in y**f imbar "this time" (old). Imsubh f\
morning

more ancient form

"

also occurs, but

is

not chaste.

In classical Persian the plurals Inan eJ^jf and anan e>^f "these" and "those " are used for rational beings (zi-ruh ^jj.* ) sometimes as a separate
substitute for and in the sense of
for things giayr-i zt-ruh

cJ^

**

they

"

and tyl Inha and ^f anha


:

^i j* These plurals are used only when the pronouns stand alone as a separate substitute for a substantive. Ex. &$> Uf * those who existed before *^**H'* ^ 31 cM andmki qabl az ma mi-budand us/* Note the relative In modern Persian anan. 42 after c>^f [vide (g)]
* '

these plurals in an

by

are rarely used even in writing and then only if followed " the relative ki **. ki ** i^f, or anlw*i ki **&\ =" they who

of

AnM

(iskan ki ^xSU^f cannot be used).

Anha

(ki) is

however

classically

used for " they

"
:

-j jahan zir-i qadam farmdand V'andar talab-ash har du jahan paymud&nd

"The

sages who have compassed sea and land, Their secret to search out and understand, " (O. K. Rub. 151 Whin.)

In conjunction with the preposition &} frequently in classical and in m.c. but not bi-dan mardbi-dan eabab, bi-dm sabab or jihat are used in m.c. must not be confounded with the bi-dan zan. The demonstrative pronoun for ** that
l

and

(^!<V

* *

Arabic word of " time." The O of these pronouns must not be pronounced nasally a common fault amongst English that are accustomed to speak Hindustani. In m.c. Sr
is

frequently pronounced un.


*

<^J &l~**
and
34 (n)

*f of y^.
its (of

except this that

thou art
(10).

tl f&t guftam ba-juz an ki tu hamsaya-yi u*i (Sa*di), I sak the house) neighbour " ; here }\ is used for e/f : vide als<

30

(6)
3

In modern Persian budand &*&# would be used.

Har du jahan

O^^^T^.

i.e.^this

world and the next.

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

83

Ariha ki dar amadand dar-jush shudand


tc

Many have come and run

their eager race."

ixif

and those black " bi-dnhd iriam dad va ba-inJia dushnam (m.c.) t\t> fUi| l^U " h g ave rewards to those (or to the former) and abuse to these l*tt<i V^->
;

(Whin. Trans. Rub. 237.) * U lia in In the modern Persian (c) plural only, is used. Ex. j &*&> l^xM &U* Ipf mha so,fid va anha siyah and these (things or persons) are white
: ' '

(or to the latter)."


(d)
<>iif

For phrases

"

e/T j{

mine,"

etc., vide

32
'

(/).

Ba'zl bar an-and


as

ji {.#6*1

"some

are

of opinion"

is classical
'

as well
p. 19,

modern;

this

idiom occurs in the Iqbal-Nama-yi Jahangm, Beng. As. Soc.


(e)

vide

Ed. Bib, Ind. of

former
(/)

"

In ^1
:

also

means " the

latter

"

(i.e.

the nearer of two), and

e/f

" the
Ex.:
f

vide
jf

of
e/f Jf

*S

pti

>

Example second in (e), and Syntax. means <( for that reason, for that purpose," classical, U ^/<=w j va in hikayat ba tu az an guftam ki (class.)

reason for relating this story was


H

"

my

so also

Shaykb Sa'dl says

is

bar hanna mwrgh&n az an sharaf Mrad Ki nstukhimn khurad va jan-war nayazarad The Huma * is exalted above all birds because It lives on bones and injures no living thing."

Humay

Apparently
*

c*f

Jf

stands
fy

in
&tt

such
*n

sentences
r&

for

ft3^

*+*">

of

jfete*-*
<4

*t^
you
l^jf
3',

ml-guyam

ki (m.c.)

1 tell
*

all this,

an bi-slmma h&rfh& that only (merely that} you ."


bi-khatir-i

Bemark.
((/)

Compare

vide

Compound

Conjunctions.

Note the employment classical and modem


^\$j
gardanl
fj

of e>f in the following

examples which are both

^ "

J^ {/ my need

** *-^*f c^f is this,

(^ o^U.

Imjat-i

that thou shouldst

man an ast ki mam dil-shSd make me happy" &* of f#


;
* 4

the

^&& f&*jy *$ bim-i 5 an bud ki az zakhm halak skavam wound (lit. there was a fear of that, that I might die of
1

1 nearly died of

the wound),"

In modern Persian *&

o^
*

'

is
-

After the prepositions^

jt>

used in writing, but seldom or never man and 3t, the alif of these demonstrative pronouns
to their preposition in one word.

may be omitted, and they may be joined Ltff )* &*$ vide page 69, note 1. (itijl
9

Ex. (&.J& for

No

izafat after

*+*

m.c. requires the iza/at.

^U* is the bearded vulture or lammergeir and is not a fabulous bird as translators have supposed: vide Jl. As. Soo. Beng., Dec. 1906. There are however fables attached to it; one is that the person on whom its shadow falls will rise to sovereignty ; another that if any one kills it, his death will occur within forty
*

The huma U* or humay

days

from

this

word

is

derived the adjective

e^UA humayun

"

auspicious," etc.

The

izafat cannot be omitted after bvm.

84

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

\*y

Oar kushi var jurm bakhshi ruy u sar bar astan-am Banda ra farman na-bashad har-chi farma** bar em-am

(S'adl).

"Whether thou

slayest or pardonest,

my head is laid on thy threshold,


St.
2.)

Thy

slave

(I)

has no will ; whatever thou decreest he accepts with


(Gul, Chap. II,

resignation."

In classical and modern Persian the phrase

*x>f

j i^***

ba'zi par

an-and

"some

are of opinion." etc., is of

common

occurrence.

is often a substantive and (h) In mystic poetry e/T signifies something that can be felt rather than defined, grace, individuality. The following two examples, which the writer does not attempt to translate, exemplify this

obscure meaning

JU) ^-J jj**>

b>

&)\&

*^ o**jj

^f*

J$ )

*$*

itftf

** ^**l of
lab-i la'l

Shahid In nist ki ddrad khat-i sabz u Shahid an ast ki tn ddrad u


dn-t\

ddrad

Shdhid an mst ki mufiyyu* miydn-l ddrad s Banda-yi lal'at-i-dn bash ki dn-l ddrad
(t)

In m.c.
**

In

u an shud

m u an signifies various things, as *> &1 } &$ &**** suhbat-i we talked of this and that (different topics)."
:

Na %n vanadn
the other":

&$

& j &1 &

neither this nor that, neither the one nor

Sufi shuda-% In na-khwuri an na-khwuri? Dar*khwurd-i tu sang-ast; bi-raw sang bi-]ch>wnr (O.K,) ** Sufis, you say, must not take this nor that,
9

Then go and eat the pebble s 4


k

off

the plain/'

(Whin. Trans. Rub. 261.)

In man-am
is

M mt-ravam
"
;

to start, or I will go

(m.c.) fjj** In u'st ^~*j\

"

6
;

In u'st ki mi-ravad
is

" he
:

I am just going or about f*> &% " here he (or tnak u'st vi^jl vJ^ul )
ts

is

just going."

Var

poetical for

f\ j

am

at the

end of the

lines stands for

"I am " and

is

not the affixed pronoun. & Tashdld on the


8

by poetical license "one hair." " face." or TaVat aspect '* to be stoned " Sang ftbwurdan eJ>j>^ <& also means
:

there

is

a double

meaning.
5

Inak man-am p**

<*^?t, or

Inja-yam

{l-ijf m.c.

"here

am."

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


(/)

85

you,"

In the following m.c. sentence f <H**; e/ ** &*?\ wit ill j j(f " work or else I shall be down on kar bi-kun va ilia ast ki man rasidam " here I i.e. I'll In oat is used in a dramatic sense and

signifies

am,"

be with you but not in In

cXut

could be substituted for In ast ki

o~^

&>\ in this sensethis is

ast ki bd

shuma guftam f$> U

^ *$

o^t

which means "

the reason that I spoke to you."

The modern colloquial and classical phrase (^ of j \**f &a "in kuja vaankuja "where is this and where is that," signifies 'you can't even
(k)

compare the two


(1)

one

is

so

much
is

The following idiom


)ti
c 6

**j

&\j

\j# fj

&f pi)\ )&

^\ y

the superior to the other.' old, but still in use amongst the Afghans &j*. chun az in ki dar inam jarigh shawam
:

mara yad
remind

bidih
(of

when

am

at leisure

from

this (work) that I

am engaged in,

me

that)."

was stated that the demonstrative pronouns precede their nouns, but this rule is violated when emphasis is necessary. Ex. )\j* *$ <^A*f c u| jojj &> asp-i ki savar shuda budam In ast "the horse I rode this
(m) In (a) it
:

is it."
(n)

The following added instances

of demonstrative

pronouns perhaps
'

exhaust their meanings in the m.c.


(1)

f*fj&*

^y^ jf

(^U *tjj ^{ )*

Ji

jW

ilia

dar

m panjah-salagl

bd

u kushti ml-giriftam ** otherwise in spite of these fifty years of mine, I would have wrestled with him, even with these fifty years of mine ." Vide also No. (8).
(2)

oj&S

*>U p*

j*>f

^^ j&t&
near, he too

rasidRd;

waqti-ki tmzdik-tar

*&** slmM an ham

^^*) ^^ ^^1
* f

ittifSq**

shuma

cJidra na-did

arrived

when you drew


it

(the other party over there)

by chance you saw no

help for

."

Note the slovenly change from plural to singular in the verbs. NaztRktarj&ty means "nearer than you were when you rasiiRd Note the use of c>T for $ " he" better u,
Remark.
;

(3) ailSX*

bjrt& *& *&*>

o^ j ^^x

ci^xp^xC^

bar yak digar gkayrat

mi-burdand va bi-dan rasld ki kamz ra bi-kusktowd


of one another

"

(class.)

they got jealous

and matters reached to such a pitch that they

killed

the girl."
"behold, lo"; used in writing and in m.c. adj. from *l*aJ "year'*: subs. fifty" and " the state of S ^ old." panjah-salagl &&{* being fifty years F^ 3 Qhayrat O^XP here jealousy this word has generally a good sense and means <4 a nice sense of honour; jealousy for the honour of one's womankind." Bl-ghayrat
;

now "

also

Panjdh-sala

^U

^^j

JU

Oj^&fcJ (m.c.) is

or raahk

-^)

used as an abusive term by Muslims. In modern Persian hasad W^. would be substituted for yhayrat c^fei in the sense of *' envy " in the

above example.

86

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

chand-i 1 ba'd a&%n (classical and m.o.) = ts***- jt **J " " ba'd-az chand-l a little after this **f e*y *** cs)j> r5-t cftand 6ar in bar amad (class.) " a few days passed after this." xi& ^jjj^. ^xj AJ owl&j A^ ejf <J& tj** oj ^1^3 j>U 'adaihJa-yi bad nor (5) has khud-ash bi-kunad " she little ddrad misl-i an-ki
;

angusht birbinwji

(a

girl)

no bad habits such as picking her nose."


Remark.
after
it.
9

Angusht

is

used in a general sense and does not require

J;

(6)

o~*

life* aifa
' ?

gbuj

^ijf

m-ham panjah ddna


no

tila

st

" and here are

fifty

pieces of gold.

Remark.
Ji^

Note that there


tila

is

izafat after

dana ;

also o~slU> for CL

dana-yi

could also be said.


fl

(7)

A&f ^{^j baray-i an-ki

because

."

^5?)^ (j|^ ^AA,^^ &f ^iJU e>[jf.-^ hayrdn iriandam ki dirakht-l bi-dan buzurgl chl taur uftad (m.c.) "I remained lost in astonishment as to
(8) dUij )jlo A*.

how a
No.

tree of such size (or in spite of its size) could

have

fallen

' '
:

vide also

(1).

Remark.
(9)

The clause
jb (jX-o
jj>

after *

is

in the direct narration.

%&j

o*2Bu

{^

(jj^i V^)^

&\

^JJ

p*^ ^3

Zt^ba

khanum zud an

darb-i utaq ra sakht du-dastl baz karda" Ziba Khanum suddenly and violently " with both hands bursts open the other door of the room s (10) &&/ fa* ty Ay^ c^>^" 4^* cA^ pisJi-i -man cMz-i mpiya bud ; u ra
.

girifta

(Afghan)

*'

had a few rupees by me; taking


\^\

it

."
This

jRetnark.

Note

u-ra for

!j

the latter would be more correct.

idiom

is

common amongst

the Afghans.*
\&\ &*> **+*)

kar d&r In vaqt nmn ml'kardam va dar an vaqt an kar (Af^an) "at one (special) time I did one thing and at another fixed time another."
(11)

j of oJj of )&

j f*j**> ft

&$ ^

(12)

A^U^^cu^f
'

^jf <J&e misl-i


of,

ast ki nabasfiad

<4

it is

as

if it

were

not /

'

i.e.

not worth speaking


**

contemptible."

a little while.*' indefinite quantity some Pawjah ashrafl (now a two-ttlman piece) or panjah lira or some such phrase would ordinarily be used instead of panjah ddna tila.
I

Classically chande,

an

Chlz-l

4,53^

m.c. and classical for LSJ** qadr-%

t(

a little."

In m.c. nazd-i

man

chand rupiya-l or chand dana rupiya bud.


*

U jl

and ishan

i^lA-lf

are strictly applicable to rational beings only


is

except in
2 to

the case of personification.

For
34
(a).

classical

however frequently neglected. 30 (6) and footnote examples of substitution of ^t for of vide
This rule

EMPHATIC DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


ta Inki ta in-ki

87
f<H~;

and

*Cif

13

ta

dnki

((

until, before

"
:

jl

h^f *&!

13

anja rasidam u murda bud (m.c.) "before I arrived there he

had died"

*j^iu

anki sharab asar nami-bakhsKid (m,c.) " every day I increased the quantity (a little) till (at length) wine lost its exhilarating

^y'f
ta

u^ a^f $ p*jj*l u*j*&*jt

)>j?J

ruz bi-ruz bar

miqddr ml-ajzudam
effect."
(13)

In bud'

ki

(classically
(0)

and

in

modern

In

mak
:

**&>\

was the reason that": an ki *&f " not u ki. writing) "he who " behold " behold here, here is," and anak J^T yonder,
*f
''this
;

w &J

is

there is," the affix appears to be the diminutive affix, but the signification " tnak " here intensive *J&| ^U ufljj behold, here I am mi-ayad *tf
;

he

coming ": 'U$man Ag&a (Inak nam-iu) j /*l> wJU-ji ) Lef oUJc " Usman Agha (for such was his name)" mak-am f\ ^*u\ <k behold here am I." " (p) Ant cuSf is bravo!"; and ant ojf or anat cujf, for an tura ty of
is
e

l<

that for thee

"

also

ml

' c

bravo

"

and

Int c^vf

or in-at

ctf

^f "this

for thee," occur only in poetry.

Ha mm
one"

Emphatic Demonstrative Pronouns. c^** "this same one, this very one" and e^+* ia-man
35.
!

<4

that

more emphatic forms of the demonstrative pronoun and are very of more frequent use in the modern language than in the classical. They are simply the demonstratives strengthened by the particle ham +*> dar haman ruz )j) O>UA >N = 1mm dar an ruz etc. etc. In m.c. the plurals e>T j^ ^>,
are
:

^H+A and
(a)
<(

^U^

are also used.

These words have other significations


*
5

illus-

trated below.

as

Ham&n&te haman d^ signifies when -- then (that same time)/* soon as" o *^ f)$j* &?j*j e>U.* c^ cJ^*f c^/j^ blrun amadan-i khun
;

Examples

murdan-i haradar-atu haman bud " as soon as he was bled iny ** no sooner was he bled than ." * This idiom is classical brother died,"
hajftfin

as well as m.c.
(1)

eide also
aij

(c).

Hamln ^^^
In
3*

d hamati ^U*
' *

also

mean

4i

the same,"

Ex.:

^U*

&*\
* *

haman
az

ast ki dldld

thivS is
'**

the very

same one you saw

Immm rah amadim

we came by

this

very road, this

is

we came by." <j.*+* &* ^^\^ khivaliisJi-i man hamm bud the this was same; my very thing was what I too wished" man " " I am that ham an-am f! <jU* *-$+* U> (m.c.) very person, I am he
the same road

"

desire

f*ty

**

^UA ma
ni.c.

hamlsha haman-im ki budlm (m.c.)


are always the same."

'*

we

are always just as

we have been, we
1

hi

often pronounced

hamun

for

^f

p* and

c)T

(**>

)\

f* are the emphatic


oJ>>^

of jl etc.
2

Or

birtin

amadan-i tehun va murdan-i baradar-am yak-l bud (m.c.)

88
(0)

COMPOUND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


v**)jf j**f

" came, he went [vide (a)]. (d) *ta cj e>**A hamm yak
(e)

& i^xufc

hamln

ki

amadam u
"

raft (m.c.)

" as soon as

dana,
ja

&&>

e>fcfr&

hamm

spot"; l^ji cHt-^ hamln farda (m.c.) " to-morrow as ever English vulgarism
(/)

(classical and m.c.). " he was killed in this very kushta shud, " not later than to-morrow " = the

only this one

"

is."

^
bud

hamm

urt+A u-Mt*3***^ (^UA iJ^'Mjs*. harakat-ash " such was his conduct and such (m.c.)

haman va sukhanha-yash were his words."

36.
(a)

Compound Demonstrative Pronouns.

Compounds with the adverb <^. chun

(1)

^i^
this

chunin

(for <^l

a one as
(2)

"
:

e^
c^^

=
'

like this)

also

adverb " in this


e/f

are like, manner, etc." and ert^** lw>m chunin " such manner."
l

((

^UA. chunan (for

like that

*)

a one as that

"
;

and ^li^A ham-chunan

cc

such

" in that also adverb manner


**
:

"
:

" ^> ejlia. j you did so and so chunm va chunan bud the matter was so-and-so
va chunaw kardl
( '

^5"^*^^^
:

cr-Jt^

chunin

(^ia.

Jl^ ci^*> surat-i

Ml

' '

^U aTy * ^^ ^(j * $j* ^b here chuiidn va chunm <^**-j J^ is contemptuous, Oh So-and-so.'


^jJu^ j
^ijux

^f

'

Remark.

&&*

*n chunin 3

and &&*.

e>T

an chunan are

ratlier

more

emphatic forms.
b * bd chunin shakhs-l suhbat na-briyad kard j xjUi OA^V** ^^aa^ ^AXa. not converse with should such a one *s~*\ c/tumn a$i? person" (m.c.) " here chunm 5 ** is an adverb. is the case so ( is it so ? &****
(b)
4<
;

^^

as, ^cj*^ u^^ t^f U^o ma^i ?^ chunin chlz-l na-bud ki 'iwaz bi-diham (m.c.) ^AiX? " 13 " I had no such thing with me that I could give in exchange ^f
(c)

Chumn

^^

can be combined with

^t 6*;

^^ A^ ^u ^A-i
~

f*)f*j*^
1

in ch un * n

&

^^

travelled a farsakh

"
;

yah

fars<*M*> raftlm

<4

here In chunin

^^ ^
^^
:

(m.c.)
is

in

this

manner we

an adverb. 7

Chun

e>>^" also

means " how?, because and when.**


&*?*$

3 *
6

Tu kaun liai ay aise taise ? (Urdu). chunin ja-i budam fty, Dor talash-i

{Jl%*)*
unity).

Or ba chunin ashbhas ^je^ml c^i^ ^ (without <^ of Chunin (^^- and chunan c>^^- are aama-yi Icinayat.

6 va faivr-i-ki an murgh-ha avaz ml-kardand Similarly chunan cJ&^ with an. Ex. an chunan gah-l na-shunlda budam fty e^^f^t ^^j^o Jyf l^o ^f AL'^Js ^ " I had never heard birds sing as those did.' (class.) 7 The of unity can be added to chunan c>^- and ham-chunan o^^-^ (but

^^^^
:

'

rarely

if

ever to chunin or ham-chunm)

vide

page 89, note

2,

&l^b

e;lfA.

(Shah-Nama,

Jild-i

x> *&ot i^. j| Lojb j^l Chunan-i ki az madar-i parsa Bi-zayad, shavad bar jahan padishah Avval, Ra^y zadan-i Kaymis dar kar-i Sudaba va Siy*aush).

.j

.i^w jj]^

COMPOUND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOtTNS.


Remark.
(d)

89

In the second example )^o


(^Hjia.

^\

In tawr would be
(or

more

usual.

e^y

cA^

chundn u chunin kardan

guftan)

"to

pro-

crastinate, evade,
(e)
(/)

have recourse to subterfuge." Chunmhd It-H^- and chundnhd l^^*- "such


1

like things

"

are not used.

er^f **

ham-chunln

is

merely a more emphatic form of

Ex.

***>f

l^ijf ^Aaiug*

^Laci+A ham-chunln shakhs-l


e/-?

^-^ chunln. mjd dmad (m.c.) "a person


1

exactly like this

came here":

"act

like

this"

in the latter example ham-chunln

;^ er*^1 ** JwM-ehuntn kdr bi-kun (m.c.) is an adverb: ** c^f

>ti p& I^Q <jyte>j>}>J ham-churiin Jci tu zur ddrl as you are strong, so am I too strong."

man ham-ddram

'*

(m.c.)

just

him "
"

merely a more emphatic form of &(**.. Ex. hamUJf \j ^*^f ^liasv.^ 4< I saw a man there dldam dnjd ^xja just like him "; ham- chundn sJiakhs-l man dar 'umr-i khud na-didam (m.c.) ll I have never in my life seen a man like (**& j^k j+& )& ^/o ^^aiv^ ^Usv^A
(g)

Similarly e>U*<i

is

chundn ddam-l

f^

vj* ty

A^SUap-^

I related it exactly as it

Jiam-chundn ki bud 'arz kardam (m.c.) happened (or as was the case)."

&* man

Remark.

It will
^jli^x^-A

be noticed that ham-chumn

^^S^A

&

is

for near,

and

ham- chundn
(h)

for

remote things.
,

There are three other words that

may

be considered as demonstrative

pronouns and deserve notice, viz. }&& hamchu "so (in m.c. pronounced ** so much." hamchi), such," and ^r'*^ and c^loJ^ chandin* and chandan
Their use
is

best illustrated by examples.


:

hamcJm or cir^** hamchun. Ex. &jS jjb^,.^* \j^ kar-ra hamchu " * s the work must be done like this bayad kard (m,c) o^w^J^ ^^f >SX*A
(1) ysx+A
' *
:

**-**;

man

li he is such a brave ^pjlc Jiamchu ddani-i diKr-\st ki misl-ash nlst (m.c.) i( clear as that there's none like him"; jj^^f *^ 6 hamchu ruz (class.)
1

daylight."
Benutrk*

t^F^ hamchm is
is

also occasionally used in m.c.


:

The

follow-

ing vulgar saying

an illustration of these two words

(^** j c#+a
it

a^a>

^.u^
and

like that

like this,

hamchu ti va hamchin, hamchln-ash khusha (vulgar) "he does but this is the way that pleases him."

*
3

For *uto*- chunanchi and *&&*> chunanki, vide under Conjunctions. '* 'Arza daahtam I made a petition in writing." p**\& &*y* (m.c.)

The (s
by

of unity

occasionally
\$3J

Persians

" exactly as he was


*
6

p*>

added to ham chunan or chunan ki by the Afghans and is perhaps incorrect. Ex.: tawf >>jf (or

<x
:

j^J

(Afghans)

" I was entangled

(or

imprisoned)

there

vide Adverbs and Conjunctions. " a few, etc.'* vide 39 *&*For chand (g).

Instead of hamchu

;&+*

the words hamchunan

O^f ^
1

or hamchunln

could be used here.


8

In (m.c.)

mil

C*Uo would be used instead of 'hamchu

90

COMPOUND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


is

vulgar for khush, ast

c*w c^A-

Instead of ham-chftn

and hamchin &*&+*>, the words chundn e)^ and chumn


be better.
(2)

(^^

would
that

Chanddn

t^f^i*.

<c

so

much
:

as that; so

many;

that

amount;

all

time," and chandin

e^^^

"

all this;

without a substantive.

Ex.

this long time," etc., are used *$ *h &+! chandan l vu^***


:

with or

f&>lj&

vLr** <$***'
(t

he gave f3xj chandan sharab bi-man dad ki na-tavanistam bi-khuram (m.c.) me so much wine that I couldn't drink it (all)"; chandan misl-i u naml-

danam +>l<^

jf

JUx>

^1^

(m.c.)

"I

don't

know such
<j**)\*

a lot as he does ";


(class.)

chandan dakhl-i* bi-zaban-i Farsi na-daram fj*i " I have not a great knowledge of Persian."

dty 4^^^ ^t^^


:

Chandan-l az ta'un To chandan ejf^^. the indefinite ^ can be fixed as murdand lei - &* ^^c u>y>Lk jt ^3}^ia. Ci such a number died of plague that ."
Chandan-i az in malikhulya firu yujt
U. AT
8

ki

buh

taqat-i guftan-ash

na-mand

(Gul., Chap. Ill, St. 21) ^tfjj* l^xuJU ^31 so much did he rave like this that he ceased from mere exhaustion."

^t^

'Umr

cliandan-l

ki

kam bashad pansltnm kam


life
(i

ast

<xU

the shorter one's

the less one's worry."

Chandan
iX

also

means

fold

cU>Ux

c^^t^^fy j^Uj
an.

-(^fjf

e>l^^ &* f& (^it* J cJtandfin ki man dar In muqam


:

"

mazlum shudam

sad chandan az

ziyada~1ar istirahat hasil

the oppression I underwent there,


J

my

shud (m,c.) f{ in comparison with ease was a hundredfold (lit. as much as

was oppressed
(3)

there, a hundredfold
(.#***
:

more than that was ease obtained)."


na dida

Chandin
!j

chandm
(t

sal ast ki sliuma ra

am

(m.c.) <^<>^

35*X|^

l*-i

&$ c^**f

you

"
:

JU

it is

so

many

(i.e.
(<

many)

years since I have seen

cx^x

^H^A^

hi-chandtn jihat (m.c.)


&]&*>*>

ior several reasons."

Remark,

Xote that chandan

and chandm

^^^

precede their

nouns which are in the singular.


(i)

For chandanchi atsuf^


4t

chandanki *^t^^.
etc., ride
(;')

as oft as,

"howniuchsoever, notwithstanding" and as many as, insomuch, although, as soon as,

Adverbs and Conjunctions.


(*)***&* (class.)

For bi-chandm martaba afzun e^jif ^-^

"how much

the more," vide Adverbs and

CWj unctions.

With the c5

of

unity

chandan-i

j*\&*^-

"of any amount, however much";

vide

(3).
2

firu

In modern Persian rabt-i fk*j would be used instead of (**> daWri. CJwndan-i <^>l<^- means " such a quantity" and not *'such a long time." jj* may be redundant, but I think it is meant to emphasize the fact that he raved one
in delirium.

in a low voice like

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
37.

91

Interrogative Pronouns

Ism-i latifhdm
:

faK*>\
pia^

*!
;

strongly accented in speakthe verb or come close to it. and for immediately precede emphasis ing, " which ? " both forms are used in kudam or kudamin* ; &**>)*<> (a)
**$.

There are four interrogative pronouns or adjectives ' ? are and <**> chi. chand " how

kudam

ki

many

'

They

pl*f

m.c. as well as in the classical language; they are applied to substantives, animate or inanimate, singular or plural. Ex. t^aacwi ^ fo^ kudam shakhs " " which kudam rah (m.c.) " which road ? " xJU^fij (m.c.) person ? f^ |*fo^
:

bi-farma*id bi-bmam man bd kudam l^cysvxsG ptitf fuj fjta na-mahram-ha dmad u raft ddram be pleased to say let me see with what

oi;

j cWf

<*j

c *

*& *~JfJ> ^^ unwarrantable people have I coinings and goings ? f\* c>T an nami-danistam ki wA/o kudam mulk u kudam nahr ast (m.c.) cu^f^j f\* $ " I did not know I it was." was what river or what (whilst country gazing)
:

"

Remark.

It will be noticed that

p\*f

is

used both for direct and indirect


is
;

questions. [In the last example the Imperfect " I was not " knowing (all the time I was gazing)
ftdf g-y* Inch kudam, "none, not ; but hlch kas meaning, as hldi yak <-*!
(b)

used in a continuous sense,

ast ^~*\ is

dramatic present.]

one of them/* has the same


-**&

means "nobody

(at all)."

(c)

In the modern language ^<*


yak-l-st

?/#&-?* is
:

kudam

khub ast

" wliieh one is it " which of them is good ?

"

generally added, as: *z~~*<* *\<& o-f v ^UjX* ^t^" kudam yak-*-shan

**

The answer might be

^-o

Remark.
of **

Kudam
?

" who

"
:

^^

can also be used instead of the accusative plural


to (A).

vide

Remark

"have you seen anybody? " 5 ^t^ j^^ $J\ uy &&*tf j^ $ kuddme* insan rd fty fc^oJ ^j^. ^t )$ \j ^UJj az roz-i dmadan-l man Ha imroz <( dar m jazira na-dida budam, from the day of my arrival till to-day I had
kcuse-ra

For fl*j* ^ each " or "every," vide 39 (j) and (k). (e) The Afghans wrongly use kudam f\? in the sense of the Hindustan i " kudam Ex. ^& some woman told me &#,?. ^s*** h ^J~? f o) ftf
(d)
:

* *

dull

For

chigiina

&JJA.

&*

a substitute

for ^*- T vide

38

(a).

In the accusative
'*

\j is

of course added, as:


?

kudam kar

ra kardl

(m.c.)

what work have you done


it
*'
?

"
:

kudam

one did you give


3

dadl e?^tO ordinary prepositions can of course be used for other cases.

U-U

*^

<^^ti \J or bi kudam kas <j^

ra dadl

f^

(class.)

" to which
m.c.

ft*&

in

The

Na-mahram

j*juolj
<4

"unlawful man,"
'*

i.e.

one not within the degree of relation-

ship (brother, etc.) permitted to enter the


*
6

haram."

Yak

v^j numeral

one" and

^5-

of unity.
is

Kudaml

tyof**' for

kudamin <&*{*\^

used in

class.,

and modern Persian

in

writing, for kudam.

In correct Persian

hwh

instead of insan ra l/>^t ^^>

kudam

or

kudaml insan ra

92

INTEEBOGATIVE PEONOUNS.

" call never seen any man in the island": l^t** kudame-ra bi-talab " some one kas-i rd bi-talab). (for L> LS~? " dat. kira or bi-ki " acc !) *^ r !/ K^ 5 " whom ? (/) *L" wil

v^

v^
"

JB

\jf

or J&. 1

Ex.:

" whom didst thou


didst thou give
it
?

^ JU maW
strike
:

it
:

"

"whose (property)?":
:

L$*J

[f

za <

" who did it ? " ^*l to ***?! *>" istada <>y &f ki kard " " " a ast vXA^ ? is standing ? :i iJj^J budand who were they I; " " 8 *>J^-A> 5^ ki hastand Jb* vai/? &ard who loosed the dog? d/ ct^ ^agr
1

^ato( *&

or)!/ ^*ra (or fo'-H) dKdK

" to

whom

H
^

" who

1 (

who

are they

"

(or klstand *&~*t )

hikmat az ki amukhti

(Gul.) '*from

whom

didst thou learn

wisdom?
('

"
or

Remark
islifham
(

(*lfi&*f

This interrogative pronoun ol< ) or kaf-i kudamiyya


to

noun

'

^[
it

is

called kaf-i

When

used (interrogatively)
(

imply a negative
:

is

called

kaf-i

istifham-i naft

^sb f\^&\

<J(^ ).

Ex.

^iiU ^Uo|

^^j
(

o^^Jf AT
)

^i^ A^$ li^^^f


:

(Sa dl).

The

particle

J^

A^

is

also a conjunction

for its various significa-

tions, etc., vide Conjunctions.

Remark
but
vide
(g)

//.

In the accusative, &$


to
(A).

is

generally used in the singular only,

Remark
Before
^1

am

'*!

aoi" and

all its
Jt

persons, the

of ki is

changed into
fa U-l is
**

4^ for euphony. Ex.: found: **z~~j6 fast " who


are they
' '

^^
is it,

tu ki-l

who

is

he

who " ?

are
:

thou?" but

also

*&*? &&*$ ishan kiyand

who

A
and

similar change

may

take place before

all its persons. Ex.: *&*<*? Kstand (or In the third person singular c^-* &? is not used.

tr lam, I exist" f*~*Jiatam " who are they? " ki Jiastand)

[The contraction ^+*~*f


still

stands for o*^ A^, vide foot-note.]


(h)

The

plural

^i^ kiyan

is

rare in classical Persian, but is

in

The remaining cases are


is

of course

dative and accusative


distinguish
it

also written

formed as usual by the simple prepositions. The &* but in this caso care must be taken, to 1)
,

from the dative or accusative


be noticed that **
plural ki-ha
is

of

*^ kih

**

small

" or

of

huh

&>

poetical for

kuh

"a hill."
is

* It will

applicable to persons only, and to both singular and

plural.
3

The

also used in

m c.
' 35

Also pronounced vel to rhyme with the English bell.* * is vulgar for ast. Vulgarly, tyf kiya is also used final be the contraction of vS**f *& rather than of o*~fc A^.
:

Kwt o**J^

appears to

Ordinarily written

&>\

*& or <^l ^/.

In modern Persian
(

=Shahin-8hah),

.the

e)^ is used as the plural of the old Persian word term applied to the ancient kings of Persia before Islam.

kay

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
l?^ jt eA'l ** colloquial use amongst the Afghans. Ex. jJJUf j \ij^cf e>^ e>w ^ dar In fikr u khiyal bud ki Ishan az kuja bicKn
:

93

makan

dmadand va klyan and (class. Persian, and whence they came and who they were."
In the m.c. of Persia the plural
:

m.c.

Afghan) "he was wondering


(*>**

(4*?

kihd or

ki-ha

is

of frequent use.

Ex. tA&a.^ *>**$ U*r ki-ha amadand va " people came and what things did they say ?
Remark.
did you strike
it

**&

chi-ha guftand? (m.c.)

" what

The accusative
?

though correct is by some avoided in talking, as in quick Instead like j kir " the penis." sound might speech ^j Ij aUS' &A. chi kudam adamha-ra be or ra zadl kasan used, (m.c.) might y^T f\^
.

"

plural <^aj

tj

(&? kiha ra zadi

" what people

In classical Persian the construction would probably be


ashkhas-% ki zadl ki budand ?
(i)

In m.c. the phrase CA~.X& tf ki

bi-kist

<(

who

is

with

whom ? "

signifies

disorder (amongst people).

c:^

Anja ki *& &f j2^

raftid
ai ^

shuma ra namzish kardandl Na khayr ki bi-last (m.c.) UJi ii*i>; *$ Uuf 4< when you went there did they >&j> <J*ity r>
?

treat

" you well ? No they were all in a bustle. " ^ v^-jf u sag-i klst whose dog is he (j)
of

"

in rn.c. signifies

**

he

is

The idea is that a dog has no respect on its own nobody, account, but has merely some respect on account of its master, and c: *f ^~ sag last consequently means 'he is the dog of no one of any account/
no account."
Similarly ^*-^
(k)

**

chi

Jmstmn? which? what! "what,


sag-i ki
;

**

<** U ma ^^ how

sag-i kistlm?

great! in

what manner

or

kind? why?, etc."


Chi
Ex.:

is

^j^**

used for the singular or plural, generally for inanimate objects. ** cu-juUT &*. chi kitab4*st kiim-khwa&l "what book do
better,

want? ", or
u^-s
i^jtif

&$u\X kitab-t ki tm-MwaM chtst? : " " what books are these ? a oJ^>j &*. (^fj^H^ %n chi kitabha-st

o*~^ ^r^>^

you

^\
?
:

kiiabM-t ki mZ-khieastl chi budand? (m.c.)


cu^x

"what books
J>
:

what
here
?

f
"

^
:

31

az dii jihat
chi

4i

for

what reason ?
(m.c.)

nishlni

chi niskasfafi

^^ ^-^J
ki
is

did you want


-f^

^5^^ "
sitting

barayi-chi "for

&*

"why

wonder are you

fe. ditto.

Note that

this first &


t

really a conjunction

and not the interrogative pronoun.

For

this connecting
*
'

vide Relative Pronouns.


?

Or kudam
I

kitabha-ra mi-Wiwastl

^^ ^^

t;

^^
1

f\** vide

(ra).

things were in the boxes" danistam ki chi chlzha dar sanduqha ** this sentence is correct, a Persian bud &# (f*)&L* j& l*}**- *$(&~*\* (m.c.). Though

knew what

would naturally
sanduqha chi bud

in speaking
tj*

omit the word chizha &* lfljl*^ (&f) chiha p*~3\& (or

^^ and
'{*

say daniatam

(ki)

dar

less

common)

an Afghan

would say kudam chizha

{*)*$- f\*f instead of '*_'*^- *$> chi chizha.

94

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

Remark

/.

Chi ** like ki
it
?

often combines with the


?

" what is as, chlst ^~~**" how ? " chiguna &j**


It
' c

how

"
:

word following
?

it,

chisan

e>^

" in what manner


for

"
:

Remark II. In m.c. az chi <**. Jt sometimes means " of what substance or material ? usually means
' '

what reason

"

(/)

"
gative,

The dative [^ chira "for what?" is only used why ? wherefore?" or as a causal conjunction

as
(*Z

an

interrochira-ki)

f^

" because that." The dative formed by the preposition can however be used. U bi-chi jihat " for what reason ? "
Remark.
of.

Ex.

In m.c., chira

[^

is

commonly used

in the sense of

"
certainly,

course"
(m)

(i.e.

why not

?).

An

accusative with ra after chi


:

is

ft***'

kudam, as

ScXxiU^

^^^

\>

tell me yourself what work you have combi-anjam rasanlda-l (m.c.) chi or kar ra bi-anjam rasamda-i looiU; ^Uuf ^ ^ jg Aa. (rare). pleted," ** which book do you want ? " Chi kitab mi-khwaht ^L?^^ (m.c.)

"

^ ^
f\

rarely used: its place

is

taken by
ra
l

j& ouj^

khud-at bigu

kudam kar

v^ ^

also

"what
*

kitab ra

book do you want?", but " mi-khwahi? ** which book do you want ?
sort
of

^^^

tj

^X ftj

kudam

\&^ j ** chi kar karda-% could also be used, but might what fault have you committed ? ' taken to mean
Remark.
4

also

be

'

s<

vt is generally followed by ^f^ chlz In m.c,, thing", j% kar ** word, matter." Ex. *^~*t jj^ work", or vJ^*. karf $ u chi chlz oat " " what is he then ?" j *<* chi cMz-%m " what are we ?" (i.e. nothing"); f

(n)

^
((

>^

(Le. vf ***> h%ch-lm


(o)

we

are nothing").

The following are common colloquialisms: s &. ^^J bi-man chi *' what " business * is it of mine ? what have I to do with it ? &*-jt etc. also "is it possible?": "what do chi mean?", you ya'ni " what chi cJiara remedy?" ^b o^ ** chi jan darad "what is he able do? 6 (nothing)" xi^vo cxli^ chi hdlat mi-kashad can he to do? what
:

suffering," " he said what ? ": chi ki guft


1

"what

a state he

is

i.e.

how

miserable
*<

is

^^

he 6 !:
**. jf

&*.

tS u-if
chi sag-i

fi^ j~

^^\

^>

The ra necessary
Plural ace.

after

kudam
\)
* 4

^
3

kudam

kitabha
:

Vulgarly ^5$- chi

^^-

&*> chi chi

what

" or

4 *

what thing

"

is

common

vulgarism.
4

*j
?

jL^j^ ^hji

**

bi-kushad
6
fl

(Sa'di, verse)

" what

utf

Lr*

care I that the

mara az an chi H parvana moth kills itself ? "

Also u chi jism

u jan darad ?

Also chi baruy-a*h mi-guyarad

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
ast ki
sar-i

95
(lit.

bald-yam

bi-nishinad

he

?) to sit (at table, etc.) above


(p)
:

* shash nan ra har ruz chi ** What? Ex. I) " " mi-kuni what do you do with the six loaves every day? mi-khwahi chi-kuni (vulgarism) "what do you want to do"?: " what do I jjlj olo -*y iS *ijU chi mlrdanam shayad ki u ham najat ydbad
[
:

^>

"who is he me " *<* & <J jjy^


?

then

what a dog

is

know but

that he too
(m.c.)

may

am

chi
L)

shud*

<x escape ? a^ p*\ ^*$+> nami danam asp" I don't know what became of my hcrse": fj *U~
:

"

chi f& *$* *4j&* fttfcvjj** siyah ra bi-tu bakhshidam; kanlzak ra " " the I is but what can do with the (Sa'di) negro yours girl?

kunam

Remark.
"

It will be noticed that A*, is used in indirect as well as in

direct questions.
(q)
'

**.

How
!

" " what "


!

Ex.
:

how

fearful, terrifying

it

unfortunate
(r)

**.

<(

am I ": v>^ Jj^ ^ c ^ manzil-i khub How? In what manner? why?": xx


man chi me ? "
'

was " ^ (o*iu^ a*.


!

&# ^xl^A

^^ ^ man "
said,
4i

chi-qadr* hawlnak
chi

bud

kambakht am
fine

' c

how

what a
'

mansion !"

zan guft bar in love with

'(ishiq
:

shuda-i

" the woman

^U

<^

^ j ^M ^
Rum*
ra

" it

&

guftand ki diyar-i mashriq


'

u maghrib bi^chi girifti ki (Sa^l) " Alexander the ** he had Great was asked how conquered the East and West, because (lit. " lt oJ,^o what manner didst thou conquer ?) they asked, In ^b
9
:

J^ &*- ^Ij* dar In chiharf ? ** ***^ u*ijj*&^ tJfyS *^> w^ ^ <4r"" J^


i>

have you fallen there is no doubt about


Iskandar-i

Why

^^ &^j>*tsj&*jf iuki bi~mmihnat giriftar-l shukr bi-chi gu^l?


what
tion
?

(Sa'dl)

" for
afflic-

^y

(or

how) can you return thanks since you are entangled in


*>*! ttJ^f

this

"
:

v^^^
:

wand-i 'dlim

oJjt^a-

^
**

*tit

&(&+ Subhana'llahf Chi Khuda-

whib*-* 8k>shan ast!


J

Praise be to

God

What

a wise and

mighty God is he
(Sa^i)
-

&$* **
5

" some one said to him,


c hi

^^ ^ <J&& ^-^ kaM


*

guft-ash chi nishmi ki fuidn

Why do you remain seated here because


' '

budi

(classical)

would to God

5 '
! :

a?

chi budl agar (or ki)

Governor had come here (or This idiom is still in use amongst the Afghans.
!

hakim Inja ml-dmdd " would to God the were to come here) 5)

^U. (^ or) j!\ ^djj

&<*>

For bala-yi sar-am

fj*

<^$*

better balatar az

man

But nami-danam has come to it."


*
8

chish shud (vulg.)

(J^

4<

^f>**>

I don't know what (sickness)

Also qadarjfr*

*'

quantity";

etc.

Cr

(without hamza)

" a

ball."

* But C5^ p*jp* j*!& JM jr^ **^t *^ chi ba&hadagar bar-i dlgar mutarannim shavi* " chi baahad or chi mlshud what " how nice it would be if you were to sing again if ." would it matter " would that he would 6 Ohi budl come Inja bi-ya yad *&> l^ijl (^&j> *%- (class.)
' !

'

'

in m.o. chi

khub bud &j*

w^ **- or chi

fehftth

bud

&j* (jSj^-

fy

is

used instead of chi budl

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
5**
j\

rtzHtf kardl chi shudR?

(Sa'dl)

course with her, what then &* (t ) The plural of

"
?

&*j& )&jf* agar dar mufdvazayi u " had he delayed but, one night in his
chi-hd
:

inter-

is

it is
I*

rare in classical Persian.


:

In

&*.. Ex. ***&*> modern Persian the plural is also written " what do or what are saying?": they they say, miguyand

** chi-hd

&$(&&*

&j& chihd ki na-kard va chihd ki na-guft (m.c.) he didn't do or say/' nothing &*.-&*. (u) Chi-chi signifies "what does it matter one
l^o. y

oA&

A^

"there was
or

way

the

" whether other"; also


bar takht

whether

."

Ex.

v^Uv^^^
it

murdan

chi bar ru-yi


?
;

khdk " what matters

&ty# cuiu^j a^. chi to die on a throne or on


*<*.

the bare ground

it

is

simple

ground": j&* **> j&>\ " shah chi


=chi

the same thing to die on a throne as on the bare &$ chi amir chi faqir (m.c.) "whether gentle or

a pearl or an oyster high as low."

" shell

gadd (m.c.)
:

dur ^^ ^ ^ j -A^ ^ chisharif u


;

^t'

*J<x*o

*a. chi

chi sadaf
chi

**

whether
as well

wan' "

Remark.
examples.

f^

khivdh repeated could be substituted for a^

in these

This chi

is

called chi-i (not chi-yi)

musdvat (otf^l~x>

&*.

"the -

of

com-

parison or equality," (v) It was stated above, in (&), that &* is generally used for inanimate
things.

<xlb

however also occasionally used for animate beings, as chi ddamhd mi-bdshand (( ^xj^f &*. ^1 * SMJi pursld ki
It is

<H*vi

*^
the

(ni.c.)

Shah asked
<*&*>-*

who

are these

men?*";

{instead of

in

ddam-hd
*

klstand'*

In the former case, however, &*> has rather the sense " " of what sort of whereas * merely asks who are they? &>\

^jf

^0
&*>

o^
[in
?

In

mard

chi kas ast (rn.c.)


*j
?

**

what

sort of

man
what
8

is this ?

"

^^ ^

ast o~s'

"
:

j*> ^3\

fm.c.)

"what
c/

sort of
*'

man

is this,

mard chi fcdra or what is his


", also ~bi-tu

profession
chi
?

tu chi kdra-l
{

**>

&

^^j* & ~***\

^ ^

**$** (m.c.)

)nan In ihsdn farmudl (class.)

**- chi kas-ttu ki dar &* )* ** y haqq-i "who art thou who hast acted so kindly to-

is

your work

wards

me ?

' '

(w)

Chand***-

"how many"

is

applicable to things animate or inani-

mate, with or without a substantive.


in the singular.

The substantive,

if

used, must be

be pronounced with a stress on


**

is doubled durr J$ and must therefore in prose Here by poetical license the word is dur. " Hindustani The distinction that exists between and (vide SteppingStones ") in Urdu does not exist in Persian between *l^ and *^.
1

Note that

the

final

letter
it.

t^

In m.c. this chi kaa-l tu

^^

&<$>

would be too familiar an address to be followed

by

iJisan

farmudl

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

97

Chand ***-

is

also

an interrogative signifying
Ex.:

how

long? to

what length? etc."

danad lei chand az shah guzashta " he " passed (i.e. how near morning it is)

how much ? how many ? axA^w^jt cxia. * **(**+* namiknows not how much of the night has
* '

(Sa'di).

1 '

" For the camel has no more endurance left in it ? s ^^\ ^a. ajAU^o y Turd mushahara chand ast? Guft " hich."
(Sa'di)

Pa-yi misktn piyada chand ravad K-az tahammul sutuh shud bukhfi-' (Sa'di) How far can the weary foot- man go

" how
1

much
:

bi-chand
* '

girijti'
?

how

often

"

is your pay?" He said "nothing": <^&^ *^^" how much did (m.c.) you pay for (this) ? "; jL> ^c^aric? bar
<>ia*
13

ta-chand
<*i^ is

i(

for

how

' '

long

Like chi *., chand

occasionally used in exclamation.


<*JL

years

Remark " or "

1.

In composition:

JA. chand-sala,

of

how many
Chand

Remark

II.

years according to the intonation of the voice. *** is only used of things that can be counted.
?

"

adj., signifies

"of few

For quantity that can be measured t^j** and ^^^ are used. In m.c., chand taab w/f &**. means, ** how many parterres of ground each measuring five oj3 by five eji will this stream water in twelve hours?" A
plot of the size mentioned is called
(#}
(1)

by villagers *-*&$ Grammarians distinguish the particle (*J^) chi &*> by various names
.

Chi

as a simple interrogative, as ^tj-^-vc


(

*^ chi-mi-khwah*?,

is

called

cMm:

istifham

^fftx*f^a.
(

).
!

(2)

Ghim-i

istifhani*i nufl

^jto |*^^*

f^* c

iniplies negative interroga*'


?

tion, as

aw

^ra^ r^?'

ml danad
(

*>ifax

^^j^'f

what does he know

nothing

also (6),
(3)

Chim-inahi

^e

^*^
(

implies prohibition, as: in sada chi ml-faml


?

(m.c.)
(4)

"why

do you make such a noise


the
*** of
:

=don't do

it."

Ghlm-i mvbalagM

&*)\*#

adjective and

intensifies it, as

amplification precedes an px ) &* chiziba mi-khwanad (m.c.) *' how ^tr^^^i)

nicely he reads."
(5)

Ch%m-i ta'zim

what a man (brave) he is " o~o^* the of disdain" implies negative (6) Chim-i tahqtr (^*a3 p**> as combined with o*f Jbll *^. ^( %n chi qabil ast contempt, interrogation " This chi ** " how can he do is he how fit for this business ? this; (m.c.)
In chi mard-i st
&&.
'
!

^jJa*5^^

the ** of honouring precedes a noun, as

is

practically identical with chim-i istifham-i nafi (2) q.v.


(7)

Ch%m*i tahayyur

(m.c.)

^3 ^ "
i'j

<*
)

the

**.

expressing astonishment," as:

what is this you're saying! what do you mean !"


chand ginfti

A strong
7

breed of camel with two humps.


**^> )* or elliptically

Also in m.c. dar chand girifta

98
(8)

INDEFINITE PEONOUNS.
Ch%m-i tahassur
(j~*^* p**>
* '

Fatak ba

man chi karcK ^^/ *^ &* how has thou dealt with me
!

" as in " the ** of regret dar\g> " Alas O wheel of the ^ **&* c^f U$p
)
!

(9)

(10)

For chtm-i musavat vide (M). For cMm-i tasgj&r j**>*> p**> or "the
*

'

**. of

diminutiveness

"
,

Diminutives.
38.

Substitutes for Interrogative Pronouns.

" Connected with &*> are the inter rogatives A*^. chiguna how ? in " from &* chi and and colour manner state ? A3^? guna appar derived from &*> and the demonstrative pronoun of. o~>i <^^f a *^^ chiguna adam-% *st (classical and m.< (a) Chiguna.
*
'

'

'

e^

*' what sort of a man is he ? OM^yoaf *J>^ ) For the m.c. phrase vi*w *; fe &^ *^*i.J| ?w

"

mard

chi-kara ast

mWe

exa

at end of

(v)

37.

Remark.

In the above example, chiguna **j&^


"
,

qualifies the

noun adav

In the phrase &*&* chiguna-i" ho ware you ? chiguna &>*. is an ad^ ({ chun-% tu bt-ma Ex, Chun.* U^ away from us, how d< ^^^ (6) " 4t ? ") thou art ? what how art thou find yourself? jo> 'j JU^ju (lit.
:

^JL

_*^

<j*rt*

J^ t5^^ J
?

c5^^ darvish-i za

?/

M2

ra

<iar tongft

khust

sal ina-purs ki chun-i

magar

(Sa dl)
is,

**

during a famine year


39.
(a)

how

he

unless

don't enquire from the poor da ."


/
6
)^

Indefinite Pronouns

+4** +*A

is

There are very few indefinite pronouns properly so called. ThS d of unity or by substitutes, as will be seen fron supplied by the

following

list

of examples
also

Guna *}y

gun &)*

be careful to pronounce the j long and the


'*

final

e-t &*j* **&- chand-guna &>j>*$- chigvne " of different colours or sorts." guna-gun

of different kinds,

various'*; also e

is

Chiguna &>j&*- here equals )j> ** chifawr or p~$ **> chiqism. Note thafct adaml " man "), as in chiguna zan-i 'at that of unity ' (and is not that of
^
'

o^^>)
8

what sort of a woman is she? " Note the difference of meaning of ****. n the following two sentences
*'
i

^^

ra dar Basra didam-,


(Sa*di)

"

*
5

Quftarn-ash chiguna-i dar fyafat ? ^ j^- "-(Sa'dl) I asked him how he was feeling.*' Chun e?j^ is also in some districts vulgarly used for kun &j& the anus/' cki. which is certainly a commoner wo Another reading is Wmshk-sall Chwnln 9 chunan c^^> fulan >^, etc., chand <>i^, chandan and \&
is
?
'

saw him what sort of a pilgrim


I
'*

hajl chiguna bashad ; <**? tej^f f*^^ *T^ )* ^ in Basra; how ran he then be a pilgrim from Mecca ? : ch
'

u*^

he

"

^^

^^

are called kinayat

ouUT.

INDEFINITE PBONOUNS.
(1)

99

"Other, another," dlgar ^.^^ precedes or follows its noun, as: digar ruz)jjj&* OT ruz*i dlgar jt*t> jjj "the next day" also "another day"; " another road " dlgar bar or rah or rah-i
9

dlgar

bar-i digar

fy

.*,

dlgar

fy

jb

"another time; a second time, again


altered";
;

"
;

jyt*

digar-gun &jf j&*


'

"in another

state,
' '

jt** jUi

afternoon prayer 1 dlgar kas

" % the of unity ** ^~$ kas-l dlgar " another person, some one els ^s.* " another " the other 'azvha (remaining) person, another"; c&gar limbs"; digar baradaran-ash ij*\)tij* jZt* "his other brothers" (Gul.,

>.*

dlgaran &\j&s or dUgar-ha (class.), or kas-i, digar

namaz-i dlgar (Afghan idiom) "the 9 ^Xj^ "others, other people

^^

(class.),

or better with
:

U^^y^

Book I, St. 3). The expression ^* <^$j>& oJ>; ^. yak-i raft " is classical as 8 other remained well as
m.c.

digar-%

mand " one went,


*

the

Yak
*

digar

^^ and

hatn dlgar

jl**.***

are

reciprocal pronouns

each

other,'

one another.'
I.

Remark

In classical and m.c., dlgar j&$

is

frequently

used as

an adverb signifying "otherwise, again, any more, why then," etc., as: j^Liu^JliJ j fi o*^^r^-* lia dlgar kas nam Da mshan-a,$h na-sMnavad (GuL, Book 3, St. of the Boxer, No. 68) "and no one ever hears of him again" here cRgarj^t* is an adverb " again," and does not qualify kas : digar payin" further down," tar
;

yi;

^J^a

{ni c.)

Remark
tl

II.

In compounds and

in

poetry^Sa digar, as:

ct^^i

dt gar-gun

changed, altered, otherwise."


*

Bazarcha-yi qasab-faru$han digar ast store of Cairene cloth or silk have we."
(O.

vj>f jl

K. Rub. 58 Whin.)
another place."

lit,

"the mart

of the muslia-sellers is

Remark

III.

For the

^ of unity with dlgar ji#>,

vide

41

(p).

For " the one


j{j&

the other

* '

vide yak-l (c)

1).
;

^j
;

" one other, another" yak-l dlgar


:

note position of
*'

^ of unity

in these

two words

also in^A-!^ cSVf*' chiz-i digar

^5^.^ means

another person/' so iSJ^*-J&5"

chlz-i digar-l

should

mean

rectly

means " another

" the thing of some one else ; in m.e. however it often incorare These exceptions to rule. Instead of expressions thing."
**

chu-l dlgar j&* c^i^-* y<*k chlz-l dlgar ^.^


to
(b).
d

C^34^

could be used; vide also

Remark

j^
)

^>*^ J oAjdJf JU

a^if

^C A^y **3ti^
.

c5X*u
4

JLc a^}f >j& JUtf j oJLycf Baxarcha *^> ^tj'j dimin. Qasab Persian).

j AJ^J 6^xj J> Here isj&z could have been used.


-*

u^ ji
in

v*

fine linen of

Egypt (word not used

modern

100

INDEFINITE PBONOtJNS.
(2)

j*

JU
To

" is properly a substantive (pi. ag&yar Ex. strangers "). j*# ghayr 1 mal-i gbfiyr "some one else's property": cJi? ^j& o* 2*** #hakh$-i
:

gh&yr-i guft*

some one else said this." " the answer " are the question might be you a relation of theirs ? " I am an outsider.' *ri* ay* man gh&yra hastam (m.c.),
stranger,
'

"a

Dar

umftr-i zatl va karha-yi gjb&yr bd


C$- A>{< (Tr.
I

man kunkash namudl


;

-5 ^f i

j>*t

p
his

^Ki/ fc/ob^i

H. B. Chap. V) "he used to consult

me on

own

affairs

and those

of the

community

"

ghayr-i

^j*

" another person, a

stranger."
prefixed to substantives and adjectives, and Arabic " un- im- " etc., to form adjectives. 9 participles, with the privative sense " or uninhabited " Ex. gh&yr-i abad * *f j** < uncultivated gh&yr-i insaf

Remark.

Qhayr j+*
{

is

* c

o^l j**
manqula

<v

unjust" (but
ghayr insafl

if

the

omitted, as
**

^^\

A^y^ix)^ ghayr-i mankuha "unmarried, i.e. illegitimate (wife)"; **& jJ> g&ayr-i nafiz "inoperative, of no effect"; " maivrusi " not inherited (also ghayr-i mawrus ^5 ^))y*j** gkayr-i mod. Per.).*

immovable (property)

^ "

compound
(class.)
;

ivS

a substantive the

izdfat is

"injustice"); &Jj&*>j+e gb&yr-i

?**>. /

P. (for wa-gj&yr* "-hu


),

^^,

Ar.),

zalik (for Ar.


f

= " with jf ji
The

^3^^

izafat

an eif the exception of him." o^Ui in modern Persian


and
gAaa/r-s*

^=

and uJJi^p^ va
;

"

et cetera"

but ghayr <& &

after ghayr j** in

compounds
^

is

perhaps a

corruption

of

the

final

vowel of the Ar. noun, thus c*5

^^,

gh&yr" khalis^, Ar.,


(6)

and cfayr-i "One another"


:

kfwlis,

Mod, Pers M

**

impure/*
of

(l)^JUs^ yakdtgar (one word) classical (t another." Ex.: (numeral) and digarj&.z
dust mi-darim

compound

yak

**&

"one"

^*^f^** *z>**}*

"we

are fond of each

other":

" we went to each other's houses.*' bi-kkana-yi yakdigar YakcRgar j&.*& is used in colloquial only by educated people

^^

\jj**& yak&gar ra &iiu raftlm

^1^

ham-dlgar

ji+*>

is

used only by the vulgar.


I.

Remark

This

reciprocal

pronoun must not be confounded

with

j&* 4J&

yakl-dlgar "another individual," vide footnote 2, page 99.

4^*r?i

J^

malri digar-i

**

the property of some one elne."

The expression
;

o"ut p

ghayr ehakhfi, though correct,

is

not used in modern

Persian
B

fihakk* i yhayr-l is

used instead.
v**l*|
jg

In modern Persian the izafat

uded after

ghayr j*P

in

compound

adjectives.

In old classical Persian, however, the Izafat


after ghayr

**'*4t

appears to have been omitted

j**

It is

omitted in India and Afghanistan.

INDEFINITE PEONOUNS.

101
is

Remark IL Note that in the second example <w^ would also be correct, but less usual, to use the plural
(2)

used collectively.

j&&

.c.)

oJ>x)f ^*j?,& p* v^* j' az *aqab-i ham-c&gar they are seated together amadand (Shah's Diary) they (the ships) followed one behind the other." " One " " some one " and <c a person.' (c) any one
:

"

p*>

ham

digar (m.c.)
f '

ba ham-digar nishasta and


"

<

' *

'

(1)

t5^ yak-i (the numeral yak

"one"

with the

of unity).

Ex.:

sukhun bar In muqarrar ixiLU?^j ^ULjj ^^^aaJo tj ^j &$ j^^ax> ^j> ^^R id ki yak-i ra bi-tajassus-i ishan bar gumashtand va (Sa'dl) "it was
1

sided to appoint
e
.

"
dl)

one of the kings

some one "


:

to spy on

o) j:>

^
:

jyix> j| ^X* yak-i az muluk " some one loiocked dar zad yak-i (m.c.)
:

them

' '

the door."

anyak-i ^i (m.c.) "that one," " this one." Ex. 1 in yak-i <^>. pusht-i (m.c.) f* ^*U> jd ^^J of 6J I hid behind that there door." yak-i dar qcfim shudam (m.c.) "The one the other" is yak-i <^& dlgar-l v5>^^, or yak-l

The following are colloquialisms

'

^$

^^
c<

digar-i ^5^:^ of.


dlgar-i

In

classical Persian digar


2.

cc

j>*

the other" also occurs

<^ji.
'

Vide foot note

Remark.
ir

Yak-i
*

is

also

a numeral
*j

thus, to the question,


yak-i dar dak
( *

what

is

average

tlie

answer might be

^ ^i

one in ten

rtridges, etc.)."

Note the following idiomn *>ty. ^H /**^ &+* hama bd-ham yak-i budand were all of one unanimous J^ -^} mind, key (yak-dil budand i{ in az 1 am one, alone," but yak-i man-am miyan n-yak-i~am ^ ^* ^^ ^ I am the one who ," * it^t ) f^o ^O (Saklf) is FaM For yak-i ^, adv.. ** in the tirst place," w/e Adverbs,
:

^^

^
^

>

a subs, {note accent)

For yak
e

41

(a)

unity, oneness, concord." the numeral, as a substitute for the indefinite article, vide also under Numerals. JLfa yaka u tanha ^p j ^i &*> (m.c.
<-?,

44

y)

"

alone."

of ox=*( ahad* (the Arabic numeral "one" with the Persian the in with m.c. is used as ty), though practically the same only yak-i <^, b in the negative, vide <l No one " (d) (6).
(2)
l Note the Preterite tense is used to signify that not only was the decision arrived but that ifr was carried out.

lasht

Haklm-l guft khilaf-i In *a/o6 budl ki an yak-i bisyar-bhwar bud halak shud va an dlgar tehwlsktanrdar bud "

ffiqat-i

b*-nava*-i

jt

** a philosopher replied> 'the contrary would have been strange because (Sa*di) former was a great oater and could not stand the fasting, so he died ; but the second

latter)
3

was accustomed

to abstinence.

'

'

Or

yak- bar dah

102

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
Remark.

The broken
:

plural of

ahad **M

is

ahad

^f

"units,
alaJf

indivi-

duals.'*

Ex.

f^

j$

*$ i)\* if**

\)>

k&

^ of*^ cx^
:

&)j~$ j>

&&

guft bar pi$aran-i ahad-i ra'iyyat


pisar-i

mam

(Sa'dl)

chandan jafd u iawbikh rava nami-darl ki " he said you do not treat the sons of any one of my

jl c^ *^ fV<^ fj *& C5J^ ahad-t az ahad ra na-didam ki chunm kar-l bi-kunad (m.o.) " I never saw any one else do such a (disgraceful) thing as you have done."

subjects with the severity

you use

to

my

son

"

&V^

**

^T

or t^~$\ kas or kas -t. body said that ." Sa'di says
(3) ^v-^
:

Ex.

^0^^^

kas-% guft ki

"some

Kas na-<Rdam

Rastl mujib-i raza-yi Khuda-st ki gum shud az rah-i rast

Rectitude (or truth) is the means of pleasing God. Never have I seen an upright man forsaken."

**

Gar

bi-ja-yi nan-ash

Ta qiyamat
e

ruz-i rushan kas

andar sufra budl a/tab na-duR dar jahan


bi-i'timad*i

(Sa'di).

an

ki

danad ki bi-kas^

he replied because he relies on what he knows, viz. that na-guyam I won't repeat things to any one vide also example in Remark to (a) (1) ** ki sukfaan j'jf v^xyo ^ ^i& ^)^ (^> J^ t^*-"* t5*y c^k juz
(Sa dl)
' %
'..*

**

bi-hukm-i zarurat na-guftl va mulib-i azar-i kas bi-zaban-ash na ra//? (Sa'df) * 4 who never spoke unless it was necessary, nor unbridled his tongue to " hurt anyone's feelings Mif *Ua> ^ ; (in m.c, ka$-i instead of kas)
:

/^ ^

^>r?

i^^?M

u^ ^W
*'

u^

7X?

Jtukama* gujta and ckahar kas az diahar kas

^ j"^ ^
body ')
1

bl-jan bi-ranjand*

c^

four people live in dread of four other people '* : jj !>^ qaza-ra az kasan-i u yak-l hazir bud" by chance one of his

followers (people of the house)

was present."
used in the sense of "noble"
<*

Remark.

Kas

<jr* is also

(i.e.

some-

as opposed to na-kas

^&

ignoble,

mean"

thus Sa*d! says:

Jn

rn.c.

lcas-1

**
<B5~*$'

taken to pronounce this


*

this person." Care must some one," but ^^^1 n kaa word kas ijr* and not kus ^* (whence the Arabic kus}.
4*

Kaa
4 4

"a person, a body"; chunin koaqn eJ^ is properly a substantive, {jf such persons. ' 4 In m.c. and in prose kas-i ra \j ^j~ would be used for has ^jr^ in the example. " thafe 8 Ex.: person.* ^f J^>4J U vi^Xj (J3^^ da*t^f an kas

e^^

^f ^
' * 1

aah

bi-girift ta bi-manzil-i

an kaa dar avard

he took him by the hand and led him to


'

that person's house."


*

Bi-ranj J*j* "in affliction

" and

"are,
:

or else

bwanjand **ajjj the 3rd

person

pi. of the Aorist of ranjidan ()**&*)

both correct.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

103

Shamshir-i n%k az dhan-i bad chUn kunad kas-i

Nd-kas
"

bi-tarbiyat na-shavad,

ay hakim, kas

(Sa'dl).

How
An

can a

ignoble

man make a good sword from bad iron ? man becomes not oh philosopher, noble by education."
;

Imruzhd u ham kas shuda

ast

exi

*&~-

^^

$ Uj^cf (m.c.)

" he has

become a big person, a somebody, these days."

Bar khud "


I close the

dar-i

kdm u

drzu dar-bastam

V'az minnat-i har na-kas u kas vd rastam.

Nor sue

for favours

door of hope in my own face, from good men, or base.'

'

Kas u nd-kas
Kam-tar
kas-%

^^
^^
f at

^
(C

(O.K., 315, Whin.)

"

high and low, all."

Bi-ka$ <j-*^ signifies

scarcely a person." These significations of kas \ na-kas ^*^^, and K-kas

^ ^
"
adarn,
:

friendless, destitute,

an orphan,"

^j^^,

are rn.c.

as well as classical.
(4)

"One":
<c

^tf

adami,

&{~*i\

insdn

* c

man"; oaJi
:

shakhs*
(lit,

a person." Ex. oi**o c^*^ ^T adam hayrat mikunad ki "one a man) wonders that " insdn could be substituted in such sentences
;

*&jj*>

vi

ij

4ja^
iX?Ui

JJ ^c^ bu-yi gul shakhs rd


' 5
;

" mast m\-kunad

the scent

of the

roses
<S*A

intoxicates one

^U

^J^t

^f

shakhs na-bdyad In harna subuk bdshad 4i a person, (a man) ought not to be so (jaii^ (m.c.)

impatient."

Remark!.

s**j

oa=R-

shajchs-i

vahid, <x

jj

&jf

fard~i bashar, sigmfiea

Ex.: **a person, some one." single individual," and shakh$*i ^*&** t o^ij ^?** &xsu wf^+i j& shakhs-i vdhid bd dah nafar nami-tavdnad

"a

<4

bi-jangad

single individual
(to

cannot

" some one came

me)

"

fight

with ten
:

men":

^f

^^^
means

but^^

shakhsi adj

(note accent)

^personal."

Adam f^ and

insan c>^l both


'

mean *'man"

as opposed to

**

beast," but the

latter is also

used in the sense of,

possessing politeness, good manners


bi-dast-i

not a savage.'

The following classical sentence, Mi-tarsa'nmabada va in hamrchunan ast ki bi-panja-yi shir giriftar shudan

adam-i jangalibi-yuftam
^'

(^^

S^"

*^*><V f>4*

^^^

j&j! j% rendered Va
,j)Ji

*$ <?"J^ *^

*^^*l

vy^*u^

^| j |^AXJ

(class.),

would

in

modern Persian be
shavad

In chunan ast ki guya, inaan bi-panja-yi shir

girifffir

*
8

The

plural of

In m.c.

g$

or

*f glj or glch

would be more used

in this sense.

104

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Remark

II.

The

indefinite

pronoun

"one"
*

in English, or
' '
:

may

often be rendered in Persian by *5yb har-ki

whoever

*z+**\

cu*,|y

^U^j
is

har-ki nazdik-tdr ast


in anxiety,"
lit.
]

parishan-tar ast
is

" the nearer one

"a man," j*&& **j*


is,

the

more one
(v)
;

whoever

nearer
4

is

in great anxiety, vide

45

^^xslj ^4J t;jA. AJ^iu ^iti c/ *!) )* j* harki dar zindagl na-khurand chun bi-mwad nam-ash na-barand (Sa'dl) "when a man's bread is not eaten in his lifetime, his name is not mentioned after
oijAJ

nan-ash

death."

The following

is

often quoted

by dervishes and Sufis

" one" can only be expressed by putting the second the Aorist or into Past verb, person singular, as, gu*i Habitual, " '* you would say <^^y ^**j &* ^-^t^t ^j^*> j~/\ ^lia. $j*) &j fkojf izdiham-i zan u mard chundn-ki agar sar-i suzan-l-andakhll bi-zamln na-ras%di
(6)

The

indefinite

pronoun

(H. B. Chap. XI) "such a crowd of men and women that were one to throw (or had you thrown) a needle's point amongst them it wouldn't have reached the ground."
(d)

"No
&

2 one, none, nobody, nothing/ no, some."

(1) <_r'

$**

Jilch

kas

Sa'dl says

&>

&itiJ\

^ ^ ^ #&
y

or

kas

with the verb in the negative.


iltifat

Ex.

Mch kas bi-man


(m.c.)
:

na-kard

ta
<tf

*'no
'

one paid any attention to


h%ch ki az shuma-ha
lai*q-i

me

"
;

^^>ojU^
**

^ ^ ^Jf

UUJ^

}t

kar nlstld (m.c.) Af*~*j &*> t^^+^j* (^-^ ui*^ 3 business";


f

^ &&

none of you are

fit

for this

y&k az shuma-ha

layiq-imarhatmt-Iid'yimanmstid (m,c.) "none of you is deserving of my kick yak ma jam kindness" qalam-band ^ f^xU J^ &*/ xu
;

fl~-*ju

^15

^
"

I was unable to commit to writing any (Afghan) " &*> %*> d* 3 u j )j* rH* chaskm-i mur n one of the adventures ; " none has na-did kas ever seen ant's mulla nan-i (modern saw) pd-yi mar u * bread." eye, snake's foot, or Mulla's

kardan na-tatvanistam

<S

oJifc
*

*?**>

Mch
:

tl

na-guft
vide also

he said nothing
(/) (2)

hlch kas

nayamad

no one came"

and

110 (m).

Note
'

this

method
'

of forming the passive.

*
8

Nothing

is

in English a noun.

Or hlch yak <~& ***.


Grammatically,
of course, this

should be

riist

*^**J

this

2nd person plural

is

an

example
6

of the slovenly thought

so noticeable in

modern

Persian.

In m.c. this sentence would be hich yak az majaraha ra naml~tavanitam qayd

bi-kunam f&* * ^L-ofyu^j fj UyxU Jf cJo gA. * Mullas In m.c., rtMla-zada bleed people and are not bled.
*
'

fofj

H*

is

almost the

equivalent of

stingy/ etc.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

105

Hich *$*, which is used adjectively and substantively is applicable to substantives, animate or inanimate. As an adjective, it preRemark.
,

cedes

its

substantive.

(2)

"Some, any."
"
:

times implies

In composition, some," and with a negative

&**>
*'

without a negative someetc.

none,"

Example

Gar Faridun shavad bi-ni'mat u mal


Bl-hunar-ra bi-hlch kas ma-shumar
(Sa'di).

" Even should he become a Faridun in wealth and possessions, Do not consider the ignorant (mean) person anybody."

So^jAa. grAfr ($)*** ($* tu-yi sanduq Inch chtz hast "is there anything <l in the box?"; ^f l*vvi <^x> ^f g* hich adam-l inja amad did any man come here?": **&**> yf^r" g& hich mard-l nayamad "no man came": Mch kas is there hast one there ? z "

^A

hich
gtt*

ixiqt

hich

oJ^ g*A any mara yad mi-kuni " do you ever remember me?"; <c have you ever gone there " yah anja rafta-l (class.)
anja
;
'?

l '

j
hidihl (m.c.)
(3)
t4

^.'f vajh ^t^ can you by any means complete this work

^^V

A ^=?-^

hi-liich

mi-tavarii in kar-ra
?

anjam

"

In answer to a question, hich


Ex.
:

<*& and

its

negative.
tf

Q.

^$* &*. chi mi-fcunl

kt

what are you doing


i;

compounds signify a " A. ? kick


^**
??

nothing," be ir*A

To the
no one."

question. e*-*r taut

who

is

there

the answer might

* 4

Similarly

m kama hich ast cu^i


or)

^e*

A-

"*
f,

siguilies

this is all nothing

"
;

htch chlz nist cu-xi (chiz-i ^Jjj^

JJ^

^>

"

it is

nothing

"
:

In hama Jiicli ast chun mi-bugzarad Bakht u takht u amr u nahy u glr u dar.
passes away, (viz.) fortune and sovereignty, ordering and counter-ordering, empire and dominion." (Sa'di.)
is all

" This

naught, since

it

Hich vaqt

*^**>

ever

"
;

hich vaqt-na **
^.)*

^5 g*A

'

never."

Ex.

ghulam

hlchwaqt darya na-dlda bud

W *&*>

-^

*r-y*

(*^* (v^a'di)

" the slave had never

seen (or experienced )i the sea."


*

The m.c. phrase


),

(not mard-i ity*>


also

A hich ka#-l nist c^-oji or hich mar d nist^** &j* gt LT^gf*** ' * " he is of no sometimes the latter account, a poor creature signifies
;

signifies hich mardi na-darad

>;t^

4^^

translated " he has ffi* (politely

no

manhood

").

106

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Dunya

didi va har chi didi hick ast

Van

niz hi gufti va shunidi hich

ast.

" You see the world, but all you see is naught, And all you say, and all you hear is naught."
(0. K.,

Rub. 50, Whin.)


1

"He
(m.c.), or

is

3 az hich chiz kamtar ast* ^<~\ jr^+O*^ g** az hich hich-tar ast ss^f j**** 31 y
less

than nothing

"

^A

Remark. It must, however, be borne in mind that Ac/i g**> properly " <f <c eating nothing is means " anything/' and WcA-na ^ thus, nothing " better than eating bad food would be rendered by hich na-lchwnrdan bihta,r

az to'am-i bad khwurdan ast cu^i &*)?^ **

khurak khurdan
at
all,

^^ ^\>y^ g*
ever?"
Example:

^^

jW

^^sfej Q**
if it

while hich

(Indian)

would mean,
better

meant anything

"eating anything (or something)

is

than/'

(4)

"At

all,

In interrogative phrases

implies "ever, at

all;

in the least."

Ay
44

ki hargiz faramush-at

na-kunam
(Sa'di).

Hicli-at az

Oh

banda yad mi-ayad ? Thou whom I never forget,


all

Dost thou at

remember thy servant

"
'(

(Sa'dl).
:

^
**
it)

g& d>^*> g&


/>
~#> >

" " do r *f-2af (m.e.) h* c& you play the guitar at all 1 ** would it be (or is hich mi-slwvad u-ra bi-blnlm (m.c.)

&

at

all possible for

us to see

him ?

' '

Remark.
futile."

hich u puch signifies

**

contemptible, anything

silly

or

Hick g^A {l^-rt* "either


(5)

(like
(of

har j&) can be joined with kudam f\<*$, as, hich kudam the negatwo); anyone (of three or more)." With

tive, it signifies

" neither

and " none."


(/)]

Remark.
Isfari

Hich
(

*&

and har j* [vide


)

are called

p*& o/^

or

mubham
' '

p**> f~\

is

Indefinite Pronoun.
,

(6)

No one
:

"
vide
(c)

(m.c.)

in the negative)

*j^-^^t ahad-ina (m.c.) aj^ <*V (2). Example


:

(i.e.

ahad-i with the verb


1

e^

barham na-khurd.

(Shah's Diary)

"no one was

upset (sea-sick).

For

Vaan

c/f

>
v^f>A *J^

2
9

Also u juzri hava oat

(m.c.).

Poetical for faramush-at c^i-*!^

Could also be written p&&>

(rare).

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(7)

107

Ghlz j#$-

or

"

cMz-i L$)**> followed

by a negative verb

signifies

nothing," vide (p).


(e)

Persian also falan)

"So-and-So, such and such, Snooks, what' s his name ": &* fulan (in is a designation of an undefined person or thing, present or

&%* absent; as an adjective it precedes its substantive, as: fulan-kas " such a *$ <**U ^JU person." Ex.: p*.*(& ^aiy*^ cJ^^j t; yjf o)l^ va " basharat avard fulan qal'a ra bi-dawlat-i khudavandl kushadim (Sa'df)
1

and brought the good news that such and such a


2

fortress

had been taken


certain great

' '
:

j^U

^jlk'

j^ j
cfii

^^
gu-*i

&A~ s$ ci-si?

f^

t5^; i
l

^)
f

j*.

3 C5^ yak-i az buzurgdn pdrsa'i


f

ra guft ki

dar

liaqq-i

fulan

abid

(Sa d!)

"a

man

asked a pious ascetic what his opinion was concerning a certain religious " <vf (^iu* or ^^) ^j &%*, or *<1 &&* fulan amad, or fulan kas person
;

(kas-l or

shakhs)
fl

amad **So-and-So came"


<c

&&*

&>*

&.* eA>

dar

fulan iarikh
L

sana-yi fulan

on such a date
is

in such a year."

Ya

fulan

"ho! you there." e>3b* male or female. *


The feminine
is <*>&*,

Fulan

also used to indicate the private parts of

but more often

e>j

e^i fulan zan,

etc., is used.

Remark
e>&, as: in

I.

The demonstrative pronouns are sometimes used with fulan s< that **this So-and-So*' and an fulan eJ^i c^T fulan &&*

So-and-So."
is used for men or women and Remark II. In vulg. ni.c., yaru sometimes for things, as: yaru aniad **$ jfa ** So-and-so (man or woman)

came"

yam
^^i*

ra hiyawr *j*

s<

fjj^t-

bring the

wine"

(or the goblet or

gaming

things: for anything forbidden).


(2)

futanl
is

refers
I)

to persons

only,

whether present or absent.


**

An

exception

fa

^&*

fulam-ra biyar (Tehran)


of his

bring

it

A caller,

to avoid the mention

own name, might say


,

(wine)." to the servant

at the door, Ingu^d

Man * amadshuma tashnf na-dashSd, etc. U


^Mi
sometimes
'

**$

In poetry fulani

signifies

a mistress.'

Fulan u Bahman

J^* and vulgarly Fulan u PasJimadan &]*+* ) &&* are also used for persons or things when there are more than one, as: Fulan u Bahman am" So-and-So with So-and-So came " adand ai*vf fulan u pashma-

cA^ ^W
^iii?

dan guftand

&1*+^j &&*

(m.c.)

"they

said such

and such things."

Tn m.c. gushadan c^^*$ (not kushadan

The two words parsa


is

^*)^j

and
;

*8bid

^^

have much the same signification

the

former

Persian, the latter Arabic


es*

*56d

*jl* signifies

properly ^worshipping (God)."

Note the
*

of unity.

The

m.c. abuse fulan-am bi~fulan-at cuiJli p>&* (or fulamash ^^JiU) h as

an inde-

cent signification.

108

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Fulan
the former
that
is, if

e;lU
is

can be used as an adjective, but fuldm ^llt cannot. indefinite (nakira *j&) and the latter definite (ma'rifa *
his listener,

referring to a person known to the speaker and would be used, otherwise fulan &&*. ^jiU

Fulan u

blstar (or blsar)

yjUx

&&?

is

also used in

modern

P<

generally for things, rarely for persons.


(3)

" What's
-

his

name " j*^ **;

chi chiz, or chi chiz-l (m.c. ).

Ex.

Uf ^Uu JAA. A^U foYaw; bigu bi-chi ch/iz, bi-Haji Agha (m.o.) whaVs his name, I mean Haji Agha " ^-^ f^, ^f e/ t>#->^ *^ c <( what's his name came to me (jj pisA-t maw amad-cfiulam Hasan Hasan." In,^>f ^J ^Hi ^$< )\ ^j^^ b^ ^5-f ay saba nakJiat-1 az kii-yi
:

"

go ar

'

bi-man ar, fulanl


(4)

ma'sJiuq.

Bastar u b%8tarj*~#j j&m'* "So-and-So," are obsolete.

Remark.
dard ra dava-i
e

In the following sentences


ntst

this disease there is no cure, but the gall of a human bein| (Sa dl) has such and such qualities," the word fulan could be substitut<

" for

magar zahra-yi adam-i

ki bi-chandin si fat inaivsuf bu\

chandtn &!**^ without materially altering the sense.


(/)
2

Both," and

neither of two."
4

**^^^> ^ >>^* har-du "both." Examples: ^j&> ra girift {m.c.} shutur oJ/ har du linga ra bar-i shut-ur karda mahar-i loaded the camel with both its loads and took hold of the nose-stri
J

(1)

A^

^^f^1 is*f J4^*^? M^^ J^j-tf bi-liar du dast dar dumbal-i kishti avikkl. (J he seized and clung with both hands to the stem (or perhaps the m of the ship " ***O^ ^^ j/ ^ tjj*j* of j** ^*^ guff biglr an har du tura sad dinar bidiMm 4C he said save both of those two and I will give
**
;

hundred dinars"
c *

5
;

+**j

^
* '

^ ma

har dn rajtim (or simply

liar

du

j*

we both went.

Note the demonstrative or relative (^5For har j* " every ", vide (?). " one out of a Linga ^*J is pair; the load

of

one side of a beast of burden,

Mdhar jV*

is

the camel leading-string attached to a


for instance) the

certain districts

(Khurasan

being merely attached to a rope halter.


"bl

mahar (camel without a nose-string) signifies refractory dering aimlessly ": commonly used in India. 6 Formerly a coin of value. At the present day a dinar is an imaginary infinitesimal value fifty go to one shahl or to a half penny of English money. tf for "and " j would be unidiomatic.
;
:

wooden key in the nose mahar )\%* is not used, the loading^ The classical expression jf* (jttj*** *' " and sometimes "
l

co

N<

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
In m.c.

109

j*y*
:

is

also placed before the separate


:

and

affixed pronouns as
l

ma dmad%m we following examples or or har or v^^ j^j** e^All tsj* j* har du-yishdn, cJ&^ y*, " l du-shdn, or har-du-yi uhdn "both of them t><jl>*y> har du-ash rd biydr (m.c.), or^Uj I; <jL>)*j*> har du-yash rd biydr (m.c.), (or har du shdn rd
shown in the " both came
har du-yi
:

^^T ^ ij*j*

"

biydr

^ lyU ^

e<

yfc)

bring both of them

"

the last however

is

for living

things only.

Remark.

In m.c., liama
all

si

shahr

shahr jfi **^a> "


(2)
8

three

cities.

"

<w

<u*, etc.,

might be usedfor har

si

"Neither

(of

j& ^f " wanting in you, (you have neither of these two)


5*

o^

ty )

two) va turd

"

'

is

m har du nist
4t

expressed by j& with a negative. Ex. " arid both these (qualities) are
:

va sarv rd hich az
qualities
(3)

m har du nisi
"
(Sa'di).

mentioned
''Both."
is

A g- U J^r**J and the cypress has nothing of these two Fufealso (d) (1).
:

*^~**>

)&j*> e^3

Persian i#nayn,
(4)

e>*x>! ithnayn "both", pronounced used by Mullas, or in legal documents. occasionally

The Arabic dual

in

Indirect
:

ways

of expressing

"both"

are given in the following

examples

pjjjj ji j

^j^j

md
:

go him, let 5 ou and him both go*"; ** f^f rd biydr, or more commonly In u an rd-bii/dr j$*
?

"

^y

us both (you and me) go t^f ) n dnlia, (or md bd dnhd) Mravim (m.c.) "let us both (us and them) " y b {+> shumd bd u (or shumd va u) bi-ravid (m.c.) you go with
^yc Mian
it

tu bi-rdvim

"

let

"

^t f& ham m va ham an <f ^f ^ ^f bring both this and


^
,

that

(i.e.

both)."

s<

(5)

Both sides"

<J^b ji

y* Imr du
tf

dual fcjH*V jdnibayn or &**j& famjayn tending parties, both parties."

faiaf: also expressed by the Arabic the two sides, both sides; the con-

Remark.
etc.

Similiar to >}>* har


\j

du

<*

both," are

^uyfc Jiar $i

<c

all

three/*
<(

Ex.

*&*>jj*

&j^

V^ 7~*vJ*

^iar

P^^j^db-i

Ichud-ra farukhtam

I sold

all five of

my
<c

books."
<c

Some, several, sundry, few." Qhand ***., or chand-i ^^- a few," signifies an indefinite quantity it precedes or follows its substantive, which should be in the singular, and may or may not have the ^ of unity.
(g) (1)
;

Or har
(m.c.).
* '

<1u

t&

man arnadlm
* '

^^
^

e>^

)& j* (m.c.): or har du ta shan

<jlt

U
*
8

Neither
<c

nor

Lit.

You have not

are expressed by these both."

na

&* na.

say

"

Note that the order of the persona is the reverse to that and thou (or you) *' and the English " you and I,"

in English

the Persians

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS,
M^rrf (Sa'df) "in short he sunl " s 6ar amad (Sa'dl) **f e*oOJ!> *** cAaweZ y5 6ar a few times" " few days after this"; *ia.*&if kalima-i chand (Sa'di) "a few words " " I went a few *ia. steps qadam-i-chand biraftamt (Sadi)
l
:

^Ly

<y<>**

^U

<\W sail chand

(Sa'di)

" a few years."


If it follows its

Chand
indefinite

***- is

an adjective.
'

noun, the noun requires the

<jr.

Remark.
ten.

Chand
.

1***-

a few

'

properly indicates a number less than

....

Khurush-i bar avard Elzhan chu shir

Zi Turkan bi-raftand chand-i

dilir.

Shah-Nama Book

4, Giriftar

shudan-i Mahuy-i

Sun

va kushta shudan-i u

Turk. bi-farman-i Bizhan-i its substantive, which is in (2) In modern Persian, chand^s*- precedes of unity, and the verb is generally in the the singular with or without the
***> chand sarbdz rafland* "a few soldiers went ": j*> murdand* chand-i (Afghan) "a few died"; j&**xL *&*. chand *^<y t5*^ <v some men," serving but^jK^<x^3f ^coia. chand-i az khidmatgar khidmatgar

plural.

Ex.: *&j jfe

ha

**

a few from amongst the serving men."


(3)

frequently put in the singular, 4uUJ (^4^ J&* chand nafar Isfahan* nishasta bud there were Ex. : some Isfahanis seated (there) "; the verb should be in the plural (budand
Colloquially
is

and vulgarly the verb

4 *

^^ c^)j> dar miyan-i darya in the midst of the sea there were chand kuha-yi digar ham budand, the singular should be used with the verb some other rocks," kuh kasan Chand &L~f <*&*. though sometimes used in m.c., in the singular.
il

In the m.c. sentence

*^^ p* j^.~ 4,5^^

***

&

is incorrect.

(4)

The Afghans
u

substantive after chand ***..


tajiran
1

(not the Persians) in speaking frequently use a plural Ex. *>^ <*JU& ? oUxl<* ) * chand
:

^3y

e^U <i%

sahiban-i kothi nishasta

budand (Afghan) " a few mercliants and


v^JV
*xia.
(

Or **$ j> e^?

*^
**

o^cd^sxj rnasldfyat an ast ki chand riiz-lbi-shahr dar-ayi J*jr*t L5JJ) '* it is proper for you to come and stay in the city for a while." (m.c.)
2
6

*^
is

iJj) ^^

(class.); also

m .c.)

" a few days."

Ex.

The hamza
Chand Or bud

for the

^ of unity.

Colloquially, raft
nafar-l
l^?.

*
^

c*j the singular is used; but incorrectly. murdand *^>*y ^$j&> **%- a vulgarism and incorrect.
tajir j*>^ jto

Also k&h lj& should be in singular after chand <>J^.


o^a- O r

In m.c. chand nafar


is

chand nafar tajiran

but the singular


7

the commoner.

This

is

the Hindi word

Vjf

kothi.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

HI

owners of warehouses were sitting (there)"; &> ^Uy&Cf &*. ckand a 1 angushtarha-yi tila "a few finger- rings of gold*'; *# ($j* fUjf >ia. chand " there were several kinds of bud
aqsam-i 'araq
(6)

(m.c.)

spirits."

In m.c., <j?^ chand-i,OT yak-chand-1 ^v^ cJo, means (f alittle while," 3 Uuf several times. Ex. *& **>* ^aia* a*' <JUUJ( ^A. Haklm-^-lMamamlik ki chand-% bud mja buddida shud (Shah's Diary) " the Hakim^-l
:

" 4 Mamalik, who had been here for some time, was interviewed by us < s-^ " I have been here for some ^i*A UsJuf O*~A chand-i hast mja hastam (m c.)
;

time

"

e^^jt
1

^*?

&a'^ az chand-i (m.c.)

tc

after a little while

"

^^t^ CIA^I^ chub-i ki dar dast dasht chand-i bar sar-i u zad $ j\ j> j* o " he struck him several times with the stick he held in his hand." Af. )
(

)*

J*-

Remark
chand-gah
*

I.

It will be noticed that in m.c.


(classical),

chand-l

^5-^

is

used for

**

chand waqt

o^ jia. (classical and


^i^. (m.c.).

m.c.),

chand bar

*ia. (classical

and

m.c.),

and chand daf'a **^


in speaking.
is

The Afghans use chand gah


Remark IL
*****

Yak chand ais^


najar-%

used in the sense of


fi

c<

a few

"
;

*xx^

c^^ ya ^ dwnd
(6) txio.

budand

(m.c.)

a few persons were present."


xia. sundry persons" ^u " budand (Sa'di) certain indivi; *
* *

tan-l
tan-i

chand

(class.) signifies

w^
sJjJ

i2*>

C^A.^

chand dar mhbat-i


' *

man

duals were friends of mine

^it^ jj> *xj^x**jjb c>VV L azmuda ra bi-firistadand ta. dar shi'b-i jabal pinhan shudand (Sa*d!) " certain experienced veterans were senfc to hide in a ravine in the mountains."

W
,

**?*$ *-&* 3 *>^^ ***f^ c>l^ 3t ^. (^J to?^i chand az mardan-i vaqi'a $ida va jang
fj

In
is

in.c.

instead of the classical

<xxa.

tan-t chand,

J&

*^ chand nafar

used.
(7)

(8)

For chand &*. as an interrogative, vide 37 (w). Yak-chand **& and chand ta U ooia. "a few, a
:

little,

somewhat."

vide (5) Remark II. Yale chand takes a singular noun, but a plural verb $ the verb is in If ta is added, however, the singular, as yak chand ta
:

mard

bud.

Yak-chand-%, adv.,

is

" a short while"

vide

(5).

Compounded "so much as this," etc., and chandan


(9)

with

the

demonstrative
&\***>

pronouns, ^^xia.

chandln

"so much

as that," etc.: vide

36(6).

For chandan
vide

ki

&|jJLa-

" however much, as soon

as, as

long as,"

etc.,

92

(d) (13).
I.

Remark
1

Chand

***. is

connected with and

a-if,

and andak

Or

singular.
qisni (*>~*

ally

In the m.c. of Persia, aqsam f\~$\ the broken plural of be used under the impression that it was a singular word.
8

might occasion-

Title of the Shah*s physician.

4 i.e. days,

weeks, or months (not portion of one day).


13

Similarly for things

chand

ta (m.c.) is used.

112

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Remark II. Ghand *** is only used for things that can be counted. For quantity that can be measured <^)* and;*fc* are used vide (h).
l
:

For para tyk some, a few," etc., vide (p) " a little quantity/' Somewhat, (h). (1)

"

(2).

^^

qadr-i.

Ex.:

qadr-% ab bi-dih "give (me) a little water"; jV *>^ ^AJ qadr-t jaw biyar " a little. " Vide barkh-i etc., "bring a little barley."
{(

(2) (3)

is j*$ ^f 'in qadr. So much, this quantity " " That c>f an qadr. much, that quantity is

"

^^

"
(4)

How
vide

" much, what quantity


Remark

j** &* chi qadr

Remark.

csrj*, et c. ? is

only used for quantity, for things that can be


(g) (10).
:

measured

II

"
(i)

All, every, the

whole"
etc,

(1) **a>

hama the whole,


(class.), or ***

also
its

Persian,

<UA

precedes or follows

every (^ar). substantive. Ex.


:

means

' 4

"

In classical
8

marduman
jjkiij

^^

marduman-i hama (Indian) "


4

c^y
all

*+*

Aama
;

the

men "

<UA

<

the

men went "

v^^yc

or)

^.^c

mardum

(or

marduman hama

raftand "all

(class,

and modern).

In the Gulistan, hama *** generally precedes its substantive (without an izafat), and the substantive and the verb are in the singular 6 or plural

" the whole according to the idea conveyed. Ex. _*& <*+* hama shab (Sa'di) " " the whole *** hama 'umr of one's life." night j+*
:

Naml-blm
4<

ki gav-t dar 'alaf-zar

Biyalayad hama gavan-i dih-ra? (Sa*dl). Dost thou not see that one ox in a meadow

Can contaminate

all

the oxen of a village

"
?

l^e
is
;

A**

hama
is

the plural
1

aybha (class.) "all the vices" (i.e. every vice there here used in an intensive sense 7 to signify numbers).
l

Qadr-l; qadr, A.

and

P., signifies

4 *

quantity, value

' '

and qadar, P.
' 4

(in

Arabic qadr}
*'a person

"
signifies

fate,

preordained destiny."
* '

Hence
as

c^)** qadart (note accent)

who maintains
*

the doctrine of free will

opposed

to

cr*^

jdbri

one who believes in

predestination, a fatalist/'

To be

distinguished from

>^ ju

or

c$^
'
'

or juy (also
;

jtib)
*'

" and "a running brook

the Imperative of justan of juyldan " to seek


3

c51?^ jav-l

a single grain of barley.'*

No izafat. Mardum (*^/*

is

a collective noun always treated as a plural, though


in

it

has also a

plural
6 9

marduman e>^^*. A singular noun is often used


M.C. hama-yi 'aybJia
"

a collective sense and with a plural verb.

Similarly

y^ muddafr-hd " ages,


I

long times"

is

stronger than
]

&*** muddat-i

^a long

tirne

>f
:

X>U

^J^G ^^o

<

<he was iU for a

ong time," but o*

he was

ill

for ages."

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

113
gar
if

U
(Sa'dl)
'
' '

&+*

^
'

pe

&*.

&ug guyand

chi

gham

hama

'alarn

murdand.

"they say 'what concern of ours is it, here dlam is a collective noun perish ?
;

the rest of the world


'

signifying

all

the people

of the world

'
:

Garchi slm u zar

Dar hama

sang ayad haml nabdshad* zarr u aim sang-l


zi

(Sa'dl).

and gold come from stone "Though Not in every stone is found gold and silver
silver
.jj-

Chu
'*

dast az

hama

hilat-l

dar gusist
(Sa'di).

Haldl ast burdan bi-shamshir dast

When

every

^single)

stratagem has failed

Then only
<xJL.JL

is it

lawful to resort to force."

oJbo

^ ^1^

A^

JA.

(^+*3

hllatrl

dar

mdnad

silsila-yi dustl bi-jumbanad

dushman chu az hama " when (Sa*dl) (your) enemy

has failed by every single stratagem (to injure you), he then tries to make friends with you." In the last three examples hama, with the

^ of unity added to the substantive, signifies


separately, It is difficult to say whether *UA
i.e.

( *

each

' '

or

6 '

' '

every

considered

har sang-i IJ&+* j&.

hama

In classical Persian
follows
it

it either precedes its without an izafat, as apposition (of corroboration **?$ WA In modern Persian, e;!^* though the same con3 -^*^ ,^ ^(*;l^. structions are used, it is usual for hama A** to precede its substantive and be

a substantive or an adjective. substantive without an izafat or


is
)
:

in

coupled to it by an izafat: in this case it is obviously a noun. In Indian Persian, hama <U<* is treated like an ordinary adjective, it precedes its substantive without an izafat or follows it with one

i.e.
:

it

can also follow in apposition. 4 (2) In modern Persian, hama <u* generally precedes the substantive with 5 Ex. oo j/of 1^3 ** tiama-yi zanhd dmadand 'or zanhd hama amadand) the izafat. " all the women came." However, hama zanhd dmadand is correct (though
:

Poetical for agar-chi

^^f-

For zar )}

,'

tashdld poetical license.

Or wand

^^

(Past tense) and jumband


sufe&t

OiL^^i
Tamarn
8

<W& hawa-yi shahr

" the whole of the city

(sing.)

was burnt," but


(Sufflita

<iAJj/x* j^>

^*A hama-y> shahr mt-guyand "all the people of the city say."

shud

could be said instead of su&ht).


5

f\+*

and jami'

***> are

always followed by the

izafat.

114

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

rare)

even in m.c. ;

*-**

&* hama-yi

" the whole of the day hama-yi ruz

" and jjj $+* shab " the whole of the night " but hama shdb *+* v* (or hama-yi
;

l^ fa) and hama ruz jj; *+* " o~>! " and " " every day every night & qassab ast (modern vulgar and incorrect)
shabha
;

(or

hama-yi ruzha

Ujjjj

*A

*)

mean

V UJ
e(

^^ *+* ^

dar hama* shahr-%

in every city there are butchers

"

(collective noun).

In modern Pe&ian, hama **A with a singular noun is equivalent to harj*, and should be followed by a singular verb, but vide end of (4).

Remark.

(3)

*f

Before the affixed pronoun U& there is no izafat. Ex. Jtt M> k julga hama-ash ba safa u zabz u abad ast (m.c.) "the >Vf ) jb J
]

**U

valley, the

whole of

it, is

pleasant, green, and fertile.''

Before the affixed plural pronouns, the izafat is either omitted or inserted $+&> hama-yi shan or &+* or &( hama *+A in speaking. Ex. <M*? " 6 are bad." them of all bad-and hama-shan (or hama*yi anha l^f ^** )
after
:

&&

Remark.
fiama *+*
:

Even

in m.c. it is considered better to


is,

omit

this izafat after

the omission

Hama-yi

\n

mardum fty

e^i *** (m.c.) is


is

however, rarely made even by the educated. " but In hama lt all these people
:

** may mean either all these ambiguous, f$j* *+&' (in.e.) budand ki people' or "so many people." In hama mardum jam' shuda

mardum

as

it

dlgar ja na-bud

*& ^ji>*
there

*$

^>?

*<^ fi*^ f*j*


for

**$

ft

(m.c.
is

so

many

people

had

collected that

was no room

However,
(4)

hama-yi mardum fty &+$ it would be better to say hama-yi m.

ambiguous; but in "all these people'* there is no ambiguity.

more"

"everything," hama-ja U- <w* "everywhere," " andAa/na tf *+* hama-kas always*' are vagi cJ> A*A 'every body, " all this In hama classical as well as rn.c. malcKarij ^;i=^ **t^f expense"
chiz

Hama

J^

&+*

appears to be modern. A*A Hama kas

is

followed

either
;

according to the idea in the writer's

mind

by a singular or hama Jcmdmad a*f

plural

verb

a+* (in.c.)

Also

*j)j

^*A hama-ruza

every day.'*

a
3

No izafat :

or dar hama-yi shahrha

^ji"

*+*>

J^

Sa'di, however, uses dar

hama

$ang-i

<^&* *^A j^>


hill.

*
6

Julga AMA, a valley, or plain, as opposed to

Abad means "cultivated" and hence '* populous "; *~*** ^A^T ^^xijl mjaabadi nlst means "there is no cultivation here," or "there is no human habitation here."
For neuter things hama-yi anha bad
1

ast

c^|^

l^if

JUA.

Perhaps the only instance in the Oulistan where


is in

nominative to a verb, kas muthtari buwad.

the verse

** <^* ^ M ^
fj

hama

kas

<U* occurs as a

& durr-i yatlm-ra

hama

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

116
*+* (m.c.) " all the people

"

everybody came
vide

"
;

hama kas amadand *^<f

(i) (2) Remark. The (5) Afghans in speaking also say hama Icasan ^^> 4Ua. " all (6) The m.c. expression p* csP *** hama tu-yi ham means together, *+* *+A hama dar-ham ^\ ^ bar-ham); indiscriminately" (= ^<y f*)t> ba in hama (classical and modern) "with all this, nevertheless, in spite " o*u*3 A+A " of all this ^f In hama nisi this is not all, something remains."

came,"

Remark.

It

will

be noticed that in classical Persian,


it is

&+*>

hama

is

considered an adjective, while in modern Persian


substantive.
(7)

generally treated as a

m.c.

The regular plural of UA hama, c>&*-* hamagdn is old and not used in Hamginan &{&+& is generally used as the plural of hama <*+*, and
whole collection regarded as individuals. is omitted in Persian, there diacritical bar of

signifies the

As the
' '

is

nothing in

writing to distinguish the plural of

ham-kun $^** "fellow-worker, com-

panion
(8)

from hamginan ^iO>.


is

^^O) hamagi

a substantive, signifying "all, the whole, entirety,"

derived from *+& hama, as


1

^^fi

az hamagi-yi zanan
JJt>i**i

jumlagi is from aJU^ jumla (vide 9). Ex, " out of all the women (m.c.) ; <^>J* j!
1

^-^ } Jiamagl az buzurg n kudiak naml-favdnand


^ali, great or small, lose their self-control;

dan bi'kiimmd

(m.c.)

^+* &*

n^ n hamagl-yi chlzha-yi khud- ra avardam {S I brought all f-jyf l> -^ ^^>^ my things." Hamctgl ^t+A also, like hama *+&, can follow the substantive
in apposition.

Hamagi
refer to the

collection.

went,

" but

by a plural verb, unlike hamginan e>&+* does not whole regarded as individuals, but to the whole regarded as a It is generally followed by a plural verb, as o*l>% (J +& fi all
:

^^, followed
vi*of

V^L
c<

J^tt+A

(t

all

of

it is

good,"

Hamagl
is

is

rarely used.

(9)

Jumfa

*W

sum, whole,

total,
:

usually followed
{ '

by the

the whole of his body

"

izafat.
;

Ex.

^ ^Wt~*

khayr* ast turn u jumfa-yi

Miwalmamti

welfare for you and the whole of the " the whole of the lashkar army (Sa'dl)

fy vi^f ^^ ^b^ &s guft du'a-yi m (a dl) " he said, a prayer of Muslim people* " j& ^Ua. jumla-yi "
f

y ^U^ j

a substantive, and is aggregate" &j*>) ^U^ fanifa-yi uwj&dri u (Sa*di)


*

it is

oUJjf

^U^
az

whole of the things that be,


JU>
j\

all

creation
*

"
;

jumla-yi kafinvt

ft

the

u***~j* eHH^

ejtlaJU

agar

man
Arabic.

t5'^3 &*j* ghuday ta'alq chumn


is of

^^

Hama

*+*

is

Persian, but jumla &***

is

Jumlagi
1

course a Persian

noun.
*> is

here an adjective: du'a-yi Jchayr j&*

CS"

***

opposed to du'a-yi bad

There should be no

izafat after

gbuday though

colloquially

it is visually

inserted.

116

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

" had I fear< tarstdami ki tu az Sultan az jumla-yi siddlqan budaml (S'adi) God as you do the King, I would have been one of the Faithful * Testifi
A^ <&** jt ^ va az jumla-% ki dar firaq-i u guftam (*& J <3y j* and the following is an extract from all that I composed c (Sa'dl) separation (his separation from me) "; <xi^ ll^L aJU.^ jumla khata ka (S'adl) "the whole missed the mark"; jumla talaf shud *& cAtf <*JU*. whole was destroyed." Jumla <*JU*a> occasionally follows its substantive in apposition.

cx*t e^t

*'

Remark.

*JU^ e>Tjf az an jumla signifies


<*JUJ(j bi-l-jumla
;

"out

of the whole,
' '

example";
jumla
* c ' *

" on the whole

*JUaaJ

"in substance, in short"; <*JUJf * "in short aJU^ ^-c /?- I- jumla
'
;

out of the whole."


<f

Jumlagi ^&+=*- (also ^t^*"^ jumlaht, rare) universality, total TJiere is properly a shade of difference in meaning between jumla Ai* Ex.: jumla-yi zanan amadand oJ<^of ^Uj ^JU^. "the jumlagi ^U^ or nearly of the whole of the women came," but jumlagi-yi zanan anu
(10;
li

the totality of the

Ra'iyyat-i

an

taraf hi-jumlagi mntl'-i

women came none was left." farman gashtand ^^^^u o^Jb^f


?
:
,

" the people (peasantry, etc,) of that district be 51 subject to him in a body (at once and without exception) jiJ t: the whole of the army"; i>- u&+*> jumlagl-yi jwmlagi-yi lashkar
(Sa'di)
(m.c.)
(i

the whole body of the horses."


f
*

Remark.

All

kama,

or

jumla

came," can be expressed by hamagi (or jumlagt, la Hamagi, (etc.) yi-khnrak sarf <*U^) aniadatid.
if

all

the food was eaten/

'

Some
are

Persians maintain that these uses of hamagi ^U& and jumlagi vulgar, and that tbe two \vords should be considered adverbs
4

zanan jumlagi amadand* <xi>^f ^^U^ &k\ the women came in a body.' (11) Jam!' *+^- *all, the whole, universal," is always followed by a Ex.: pj* *+*>jami'-imardum <4 all men, or all the men " i^)^^^^ fat. " zanhd " all or all the
;

women,

women"

^CSJ

of the

army
is

"
;

^^^

jami*-i lashkar

the

but in ^a*>f
^

^*it*^ (*jy '


is

mardum jaml (Qn amadand


:

*'

the

of the people

came," U**^

an adverb in the Arabic Accusative.

Mi

+%, as occasionally used for ^j+^x. tc of all the sons Adam, mankind."

majmu

-i

banl

Adam

ftf

^u

Siddlq

&&**

*'

a faithful witness," an epithet of Joseph,

Abu Bakr and Abr

" sincere,
Note the

true.'*

^ of ^

is

Or

zariun birjumlagi

pronounced short /i. amadand ^t^of ^^XUmj ejU)

(m.c.).

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(12) Sa*ir

117

is

properly signifies ''the remainder, the rest," but ' it is always the whole frequently employed in Persian to express l U <xU> an Ex. followed by LS\A*- A-UsJf j *j& jf izafat. ^J*** j ^*(**>
' '

yU

'

(jp**o fi-l-jumla chlz-i na-mand az sa*ir-i ma'asl vamunkar-l ki na-kard va muskir-l ki na-khurd (Sa'df) " in short there was no sin nor forbidden thing

^*u *

that he had not committed, nor intoxicant that he had not tasted."
(13)
flj|

*&

*f

kaffa

"all, universal";

and

<uiU> qatiba
;

''altogether,
(

all."

&

kaffa-yi

anam "the whole human race"


jo

^Jb

&H kaffa-yi

iilum "all

the sciences": ft^.5


c<

u^^

3'

^'

^^
'

kaffa-yi

anam

az khawass

u 'awamm.

(Sa'di)

everybody high and low.' These two words are not in common use.
,

Remark.
totality."
(14)

**^ kaffata

nn

and

&*>\3 qatibat an are adverbs,

*..

<:

all

of

them, in

Tamam

2 complete,' entire, the whole,

all

"

is

both a substan

live
it is
tv

and an

adjective,

and has the same

/?5/a#-constructions as

kama

also used, like Iiama, in apposition.

the whole day/* and Ujj +'*3 tamam-i shakr (m.c.) "all the city

the people"; x^ j*&=*


v *

^j^
**
;

every thing was ready


;

^jJUx* fl+itamam-i makhlitq (m.e.) i chizJta (or fa mamchiz) hazir shud (ni.c.) fU3
;

3 ^Ui tamam-i ruz (m.c.) " ^ tanmm-i ntzJm (m.e; every day " " all

Ex.:

^^

)U>

j^.

+\+Z

tamdm-i chh Uiyyar skud (Afghan)


tnaJi-i

the samo

^U> j+* qamnr-l

tamnm

(rare), (in m.c.

tammn}

'*'the full

moon.'*
&*)\z 4i>^U5

^W

UM
(0.

**

tamam na-t<tmamau darand And clumsiest workmen own the finest tools/'
A#bab-i

K. 141 Whin.).

In classical {and in Indian; Persian

tamam

-U3 does not take an izafat

when

it

precedes
/.

its

substantive.
kar-chi lamam-tar

Remark
as possible."

The phrase
:

y>cW ^.^A means "as much

as possible," as

6? zudl-yi

bar ehl tatnam-tar

^U3

*xy* s?^*^

as qoickly

Remark

II.

Tamam
;

ended, finished"
(15)

shwlan &*> fU* "to be completed" or tamam kardan &>>/ ^Ui ** to complete, finish off/'

fc

to

be

Instead of

tamam

j*U5,

the adjective

fti

tamm

(class.) is

sometimes

The demonstrative C5 .
1

*' rast ra zinat-i rastl taniam aat to the right (Sa*di) ^U5 u$^\) ^^i) \) *&\) * and in itself.* sufficient hand is ornament its the the fact of complete right (hand), being

o**>t

In India

tamam

ruzj)) (*UJ (without izafat).

118

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

used in writing.
(16)

Tamm u tamam

plete"; f$ ^J&Uf istisnayi tamm

perfect and (emphatic) " a (emphatic) complete exception."


^1*3

'*

fti

Tamami <yU3 (m.c.), substantive, is also sometimes used f*j* " all the men." tamami-yi mardum is a substantive, old, but is still (17) Tamamat e^U3 (class and Indians in Ex. vi>&^ c^U> tamamat-i p by Afghans writing.
:

{Indian) "all the elephants."

Remark.
(18)

UoW tamam*"
**

is

an adverb, " wholly,'* " in toto."


"all,
:

Kull J^ substantive
in

common
i^f kull u

Arabic phrases. Ex. ahad in Ar. "every one."


is also

universal, the whole, each": ** u- y n-nas lt all the people, ^liJf <Jf kull

Kull JS
the

used in m.c. and in writing, as


*+>

kull-i

zandn
kull-i

women"

j%*>

J^ kuU-i shahr "ail the

"
city
;

^
ptte

d^

*alam

the world."

KM

Jf, like

hama
^

*+&,

can be used in apposition.

Classically (ai

J^ precedes its substantive without the izafat. Pos the izdfat after kull in modern Persian is a corruption of the final vow the Arabic nominative case kvtt
Indian Persian) kull
tt

(19)

From

the Arabic kull J^, the Persian abstract noun and the Ai

adjective ^tf kutti are formed.

Ex.

"the whole
* '

of the

men went";

ability

Arabic adjective.
*

^5^ fty mardum J *^! ihtimal-i


1

bi-kulU raftand
kulll
ct

every

Remark
and
"

I.
#

^^^
**

bi-kulU,

adv.,

**

altogether,

generally."

Kulli
:

kull**

& are also


t

two adverbs with ^


****

different meanings, as
**

J/#3

(not kulliyat*"

&&) amadand &>**$ %t


nl8t^~& ^i>
kulluhum
^Jl>

^^ (mc.)
" he
is

all

the

men can

but

?7

kMiyat*

razl

jf

(m.c.)

quite dissatisfied.*
is

Remark

II.

^^i^

(Ar.)

"the whole of them'*

use<

the Afghans in speaking;


(20)

it is also

occasionally used in m.c,

*lc 'amma

(class.), f>*c 'urn/Urn (m.c.),

"the whole,

etc."

Fron

'amma **to be general, comprehensive" is derived adjective fU <amm (m.c.) "common, universal" (as opposed to ooU. k m.c., "special"); AU^ al-'amma (class, and rare) "the common pe
Arabic root p*
1

Emphatic,

like the English saying

'

most complete.*

In m.c. tamamiryi pllctn

d^

&**+*

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

119

or the people in general"


(m.c.)

^*

am(m)i

(m.c.) adj.

"vulgar"
and

|V+*

'wnum
(class.)

"universal"; ****)
in Persian +*j*
^plj

"universality"; <.$*>* 'umuml> adj. (m.c.) ^**s rf jl (*** u^** "his universal liberality."

'amim

Hence

$#b 'amma-yi mardum


(class.),

(m.c.)
<toU

"the whole

of the

people";

" these fnmakhluq 'am(m)i aftd (class, and m.c.) 2 mard ara(w)i-stf people are ignorant, uneducated"; o^t ^o ^jf <c this man is common, uneducated." " noble and plebeian"; (22) @a98 u amm j*U ^ ^ia. also means
(21)
*Jf

'amma-yi nas (class.) " the whole of the of the people" peaoa*j IcU 'amma-yi ra'iyyat (m.c.) " the whole of the women." santry "; c>^3 ^^ amma-yi zanan (m.c.)
pj+6

'umum-i nas
;

and ^-U

"the whole

'

^U <3jJ^A> c^t
(

'

^U

the plural
(23)

is f!>* j

ul^
f

-d^ ^>4^
' '

the people
adjective
;

(but " but In umum3> darad this

u 'awdmm. {( the people generally, very nearly all mardum 'umum-i " in ^*j+* &**+* a common matter," umum* ^^^ is an
Ichawass
'

is

common **).
i

Bemark.
general,
i.e

From
as a

the

same root comes the adverb U^P


<

nmuman

in

rule": o^yU/c Uj+c

umum* n mi-guyand

tf

it is

commonly

said."
(24)
**

^^

v<

yak-sctr (m.c,;

all

together, in one body;

suddenly"; also

without a break, and direct."


(j)

"Each," "every," "all,"

"

8 whatever, "^A Aor ,

^j*har

yak

(or

6ar "every time"; Ex.: jb^* / j* har ja "everywhere" Jiar mz j&j*, har sal J^*, ter waqt oJ| yk, fer ^Aagf <^**^* e ^J> " " every thing, every year," "every time or continually," every day,'

(l)j*kar.
;
*

etc.:

** let me na-bas/wd bi*har 'uqiibat ki farma** saz&var-am* (Sa*dl) yam, agar I fit not am does for if it and word more any (or every) prove true, say one

^l^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^


5
1

sujchun-idtgarbi-gu-

rasl

* Inma&hlfiq *awxrnm-and educated."

<iJf

f\j*

jk&* ^f
**
-f

{m.c. only)

<4

these

people are un-

Not

to be confused with the


**

word

umml

(Ar.)

*'

illiterate

" derived from

,,.
<s^o|

utnrnah
3

people, nation, sect, etc."

&A>]

j&

har ahad

is

not used in modern Persian, and

is

rarely if ever used in

classical Persian.
*
6

For htch'kudam (*t^

gA w ith or without negative,

vide (d)

(5).

Note the absence

of the

of unity (?),

which could,

of course,

be inserted.

JdiU) jU*o ^

cJ^ ^^
(slave girls)

and

**

(Sa'di)

ij&j**? who are one and

ki har yak-l badi'-i jahan va mumfaz-i


all

zamanin

such as are rarely found

this

world and are unequalled at the present time."

120

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

punishment you may command"; j* j^j* c^ie e o-J+ bi-har zarf-i-ki sar-irtdn bi-gunjad klla-yi an
'*

zarf barabar-i sar-i shumd-st

(m.c.)

any

vessel that contains


;

" equal to your head

your head will be the measure of a quantity


< <

az har taraf

o^ty* jf

from every side."

Harj*
by the

^
is

properly a distributive and precedes its noun. It is emphasized A of unity, as har mulk-i zabdn-i darad ajf^ <J*^) <J& ^ "each
is
1

separate country has

its

own language."

sometimes used for har arisen from the fact that "every
all

"

Har ^A

is

"

sometimes used instead of ha ma <u& "all," just as hama *+& " every." [This confusion has probably

man

says

" = <l

all

men

'

say

'].

Remark.

Har an

itfj&,

and har an

ki *$ ^j*>, the

more emphatic forms

of har, are used in relative sentences, vide (k)


<->

and
'

(I),

(2)
f!<>>>*

" har kudam " everybody

J*

(or

^j j&)

l har yak (or har yak-l) every one j* har ka$ ^ij*> har yakl (or har yak) and (!*$' y> har
;

'

'

kudam take the

singular or plural verb according to the idea in the speaker's but the mind, j* or ) <*&j& singular is the more correct. Ex. ^? J**^jXxx or ^y^* har yak (or liar kas) ehlz-l mi-yuyad or ml-yuyand (m.c ) )? " ^ c!^ &*t& j &*t <^? j* d-&*j& every one says something different *&& ^+& &[* har yak-lbazla-l wa latlja-lchunanki rasm-1 zrtrifan bashad ham-i
:
(

guftand (Sa*df) "every one told some good story or pleasant jest after the manner of wittv people"; (here the plural is used as the writer had in
his

mind, a number of people


>*<

in

writing); ^t; tjs*. tj^lt \J*5j*. ray mi-zad (Sa'di} ",and each one, according to his knowledge, gave tf Jb his opinion" (here the verb could not be in the plural), U^ii^/^ff
;

the assembly concerning which lie was t^O*-* va & ar */<*&-* ^Jar vtf<l~i damsh-i khrud

JL? ^\&* j& ^jb ^b^ agar yusfandhd dah ta hudand bay ad fi if the sheep were ten har kudam-l yak yusfand ddshta bdshand (m.e.) then everybody should have one sheep apiece"; (here the plural is also

AlU &&i &SL4

used, for the


(3)

same

reason).

Harj*

also

har tmhv-i ki gujia way we have been directed;

means '* whatever." Ex. i/ J+** o-^b^i aisJ AC^yfc ** we must act in whatever and bdyist Carnal kard (m.c.)
:

(lit.

in every

way they have

directed, in that

way

it

must be done).

51

It is

perhaps this

<j?

and not the demonstrative


is

^ that

is

found in the antecedent


42.

to a relative clause
*
8
*

when

the antecedent

preceded by har, vide

Or

<JN

A*A, vide

(i) (4).

Or grammatically dashta baahad *x^


Bayiat ^^-sU, past, for future action.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(k)
fc

121
*'

"Whoever, whosoever"

tf

pftfy* har

kudamki,

of y>

haranki,

har-ki,
(1)

&~t j&

/^;-

&&$-

&&, &'

^^^

<*+a>

hama

kas-i ki.

Examples:-

//ar aw-&i tukhm-i badl kisht

u chashm-i niki dasht

Dimatjh-i bihtida pukht

khayal-i batil bast


(to

(Sa'di).

Whosoevr er sowed vain and foolish thing.'


(2)
tXJ^jj^A/o
<w

'

evil seed

and expected
;x

reap) good,

imagined a
in' am-l

'

^/oUif 6Jj\& ^*>\

/*l^yfc

harkudamkiaxp-ldarand

wl*

glrand (m.c.)

whoever has a horse,


In.
*'

will get a prize."

Remark.
bl-glrld *>-!^?

take whichever
*'
!;

you

please

" har kudam


is

ra ki

ml khwahld

A^fj-* ^
1

X^^/* (m.c.), the

fj

necessary otherwise ff^ J-A

would be taken

to be the subject.

(3) liar kas-l ki &&"*<>

j* harki
9

s$ j*>

&ndhama

ka#-i kl *$
j*>)

in the

same way.

Har
J

kas-i ki (or har kas-ki tf


'

^
I

^s

+* are used

Iriyayad in'am-l ml(or

<^U *A~ " will a reward comes) get


glrad

*j**

^^^

J A (m.c.)

c<

whoever comes

every one

who

Mar-itu, ki har

Mra

bi-binl bi-zani

Ya bum
'*

ki har kuja nishml bikanl /

(Sa'dl).
strike.st
'"
?

Art thou a snake that whomsoever thou seest thou

Or
Remark

an owl that wherever thou sittest thou dest coyest?


In the following har j*
is

understood

Remark

//.

Har an
(I) (3).

ki

^T y*

is

in

classical

language applicable to

tilings, also vide

Remark IIL^-*k
f

& j&

har-ki bashad

;t

whoever he may be/*


* *

(I)

liar

ckiz,

Whatsoever, whichsoever, whatsoever thing ^f j*> liar an ld^ ft* j*> har kitdam
y

a^yfc

Mr-chi,
chi ,

*<*>

&^ j* har an

an
(1)
j

chi.

A^A
J5

har
;j>

cM

(classical

and

m.c.).

Ex.

<^
U-guyad

j>jU

darad 7^ar ii rfa^ az jan bi-shuyad har-chi dar dil

Note *$

jf

j& har u

ki is not used; it does not exist in Persian.

Har an

ki

har ki ** j** though old is not obsolete. It is more emphatic than Persian. modern in * Har kaa-i ki is better and more common
3

Har

kas-l ki

would be preferred

in m.c.

122
' *

INDEFINITE PBONOUNS.

(Sa'di)

whoever abandons hope

of life, says

whatever

is

in his

mind (without

fear)."

Har-chi a^y> can also be used for living beings (in classical and modern
Persian) as
,
:

syfej

^j^ eA^I j! * **J\j&ty a^ j *** ^\<>

\)

ejl&ji

*i>&^,>

k^* ^S

guft har-chi darvishan~and ishan ra vam-i bi-dih va har-chi tavangaran-and such of them as are poor, give az ishan ch%z-l bi-khwah (Sa'dl) "he said, them a loan and such of them as are rich, ask a loan from them* (lend to
;

whatever method or time he pipes)" or " the more he " " " ^) &&*> har-chi zud-tar as quick as possible ; plays the more he dances " " as complete as possible ji*U3 &xj* har-chi tamam-tar A^A ^y ^*^
one dances
(i.e.

such of them as are poor, and borrow from such as are rich)/' The following uses of har chi *^*> should also be noticed **>** e^t &*?& *MjVo vi/f har-chi In mi-zanad an mt-raqsad (m.c,) "as this one pipes, that
:

in

^^

&j

har-chi tamam-tar sa

har-chi gasht 'aqab-i jaw, glr na-yamad &*>j*> &*huj$ -j*- V-&* he for much however sought (m.c.) barley, he couldn't find any (in spite of all his seeking he failed to find any)." z $ **! (2) Har-chlz JJ^^A (classical and m.c.) c^r^ y ^ i^J^j*
;

be made
(i

"

karda shavad (Sa'dl)

ft

let the

utmost endeavours

^^

ijj ^i^tol ^IKj ai^f ^ girifta bi-kinara guzdshtam (Afghan)

&+*>

ba'daz

m har chiz-l ki mara zaruratbud hama ra


* *

after this I took


of)

whatever I had need

of (or every single thing that I


(3) *

had need

and put

it

on

shore.'

'

e/fr*

kar an ki;

c*^*J!&

*v**

^**1

t-T^

fl*5

)&& &1 j*> har

qadlm lei pish dmacR bi-quwwat-i bazu bi-yafgandt (Sa*d!) ^whatever old ruined wall he came across, he cast down by the mere strength of

an

divar-i

his

arm.

' *

Ex.: *Cf f*~> bi-hukm-i an-ki har an t^U^i ^^ b tty Cir4^i ^f j& dushman ki bd-vay ihsdn kunl mukhdlafat ziydd Icunad (Sa*dl) ** because whatever enemy you treat kindly, he increases his enmity towards you
ki

Har an

A&fj*

is

&S

o^iJiatvo

also applicable to living beings,


*

&

(whenever you treat an enemy


also (k) (1).
(4)

kindly he increases

his

enmity
5

vide

Har kudam

ft

fl**j*

whatever, whichever."

Ex.:

c5>

1 Note the plural of the adjective : the plural here makes the adjective definite harchl darvuh aat would mean " all the poor of the world."

Instead of har chlz-l ki

&& ^rt$j*>

the following

har chi mara zarurat bud or


f

har chi ki mt-l&wastam ff**^*****

&

**fj* or

^ ^)J? *

l/

***J* (m.c.)

(kinar ml-

gutaahtam
B

^t^A^j^).
&+<& jb might be

In modern Persian, har divar-i qadim-i ki *& t5^^*^tj^ j*> * Or har dushman ki or har dushman-l ki fci+^ ^A O r &$
used.
6

Or har kudam

lcar-l

ki

*ij

f\**j* (m.c.), or bi-har kar-l ki *&tffj** 9 or har kar-t

ki

*&iftj* (m.c.), or bi-har chi

INDEFINITE PKONOUNS.
ti bi~har

123
dast rm-zarii khardb mi-

kuddm

kar-i-ki

kunl (Afghan) " whatever you put your hand to you spoil": ^fj| f\*fj* har kudam az o*f CJ^L <JTJ*& kitabha bi-gm khub ast (m.c.) <6 whichever one of these books you select, it will be a good business for you,"

W&

Har an chi **uf^ (classical or used in writing only) of*Jj ***j* f^j **uf y> (class.) "we have attacked the rinds let happen what will." An-chi *$uf (classical and m.c.). Ex.: ^3 JjA3 afofyb Aar ^lif an-cAt (or har-chi) guftam qabul na-kard " in no matter all I of said, spite how much I said, he did not agree (lit. whatever I said)." * v Ui-o *^>T j
(5)
;

aU

fjj

'

*>^ ^a awc^^ dastyab shud tamam ra avurdam (Afghan) "and fU3 whatever I could lay hands on I brought (the whole of it)" OAI^V* tf A^f 3 *i>* anchi rm-khwahad mi-kunad (m.c.) <c he does whatever he wishes"

f*jtf

t>

f&j; ^1^ ^^|


c<
l

y j*lU dsxif ancAi ghulam u asp ddshtam farukhtam (m.c.) whatever slaves and horses I had, I sold " <*# **** f; 1*&* <{ I got *# *^ %? a^c/ii ^a/ar torda mulkha* ra dida budam bj-fa*ida bttd (m.c.) no benefit from all the travelling and visiting of countries I had done =
;

^^ *^
I got

in spite of the fact that I

had travelled and seen many countries

no

advantage."
'

(m)

(1)

great number,

many, enough

"
;

bas u+*+

Ex.

namvar

bi~zlr-i

zamm dafn

karda and
(Sa*dl).

Kaz
' *

hasti-yash bi-ru-yi

zatmn yak nislian na-mdnd

a famed one have they buried beneath the ground, Of whose existence not a trace has remained on this earth."

Many

Bas gursna 6
4<

kjhuft

va kas na-damsi ki
na~girlst*-~ (Sa*di),

Bm jan bi-lab amad ki bar-u kas


Many Many
45)
:

man a man

has slept hungry and none knew who he was, has been in death's agony over whom none wept."

Ba$-l tjr*
(vide

"a many,"
7

and bam

Uo with

the

"ali! of

excess";

**&

lfk

<^-t j va bas-l diXha az

hearts (were) fascinated


I

by him"

* and a number of u shayda (Sa*dl) ba&t mardum mi-guyand f*f*


4

^^

Or better harchi

**-;*

or har qadr guftam

*
3

In m.c. dast-gir j*&**. Note ki *$ after anchi Af^f

also

the ** could be omitted

or harchi

substituted for anchi


*
5
6

^^T.
is

Note the plural


Poetical for jl

necessary here.
ki az.
:

**

Also gursina^ gurma, etc., etc.


This
is

but nigariat o-**J^>


plural as in

"he

looked."

perhaps the only instance in the Qulistan where 6fl-5 ^r*J occurs in the
;

prose portion

and

it is

followed

by the

modern

Persian.

124

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

" bas-i zanan " many women," people say &(>j ^^ (m.c.) or zanan zan bas not bas-i az (bos farsang (Sa'dl verse) used) ^&*>y c*~* J " from many a farsang"
(m.c.)

"

many

wJJJy* tf
-i

<^>Uj

&'

j>;

J*>

c-**o

>z

U> ^|

tiz-raw ki

bi-mand

"

Ki khar-i long jan bi-manzil burd (Sa'dl). Oh how many a swift courser has flagged and failed,

When
(m.c. ? but

the wretched ass has reached the stage's end."


c$~^ bas-i zanha-yi jahisha

dar

Kirman hastand
;

fc 8 uncommon) there are many loose women in Kirmaii" oU^| U*> " **^*j basa ihmn farmudand (Afghan colloquial, and rare m.c.) he (respectful " ^as zirak pi.) treated me with great kindness jy3 (cT- ^ or cT- ^
;

^
:

bud (Afghan and Indian, written and


(2)

tfc

colloquial)

ki
ki

Bas-i ur^ is also an adverb. Ex. & ^^ " a time did not before long ^^^ ^^' bas-i bi-gardid (Sa'cll) elapse he wandered about backwards and forwards a great deal (or a great while) "

^^

he was very intelligent." bas-i bar na-yamad f,

'

'

(3)

Basa U~
li

is

old and rarely used even in writing

^)^

bam

buzury

(classical old)

very big," ride

88

(1) (3).

(n)
(1)

Many of them, a large number/' ^*i guruli-i ^jU-j hixyari. From the adjective and adverb ^^bisyar ''much, many" comes
^^^blsyari (modern
Ex.
:

"

the substantive
(with

Persian), and bisyar-l ^b***


bisyar-l

**

of unity).

^^^

^s)^!r**

mi-guyand

(m.c.)
;

" many many


'*

say," or
bisyan-yl
of the

**jf
^

but az f*j*y oj^-^ bi8ijar-i az mardum mi-guyand (m,c.) ** from the excess tnardnm rah na~bud JA* fy &j* ^j*?~* $ (m.c.)
' J

crowd there was no room to Guruh


of
*)

pass.

(2)

f^j*

$ ^*tj>

Ex.: fy^ <j*Jjt (class.), or troop, band, class/' a body, a guruh-l mardum, or gumh-i az-mardum (m.c.)
*

"a

number
certain

men";

^j^

(j*j$ guruh-i mt-guyand*

4<

(class.)

cla.ss,

number

(of people)

say/'
%j
%*j>

Remark,

(ruruh gunth

signifies

mi-ayand
1

^T

fyj*

^ in troops";

guruh yttruh

v<

they are coming in crowds/'


va bas
i

In the clause

j* ^^ j

shukr gujtam

(Sa'di),

it

is

not dear

whether
fjujtan

bcts-l qualifies

(J& j**,
This
is

the substantive shukr j*"', or whether and moans " a great deal, a good while."
alif of

it qualifies

the verb shnler

not the

the vocative: basa bashad ki *$

*&*

(m.r.)

(t

prob-

ably."
5

In m.c. baa-l ilisan cJ^^t ^"^'


Ki-az bisyarl-yi du*a
JJ^AJ
,

*)!&

^^A {^w
6

of ray servant

wa zari-yi banda sharm haml daram (^)\j j [*3 c$^*H )\ *$ " because from the excess of the (Sa'di) beseeching and lamentation feel ashamed. Note accents.
'

'

*1*

\)

e>^^

" he saw a collection of tj*9r guruh-i, marduman ra did (Sa'di)

people

"
:

note absence of izafat after C5*^r

on account of C5

of unity.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(o)

125
' '

" Mostof

them"

()(&

yf

c/^&i aksar-ash

most of

it

"
;

v_J^t

(1) &\>*J&\ aksar-i-shan (oraksar-i ishdn) "most of them"; (Jyi'\ aksar' ' most of it." Aksar-i mat (or better amval) , Jf^l or) J'^J'f " most (m.c.)
l
(

the
ir-i

"most of the women" ^jj*'\ property kasdn (m.c.) " most persons " (aksar kas ^\ not used).
;

"

aksar-i zanha

Remark.
(2) *-A*\

-j*\

aksar also means


:

c<

for the

most part."

aghlab

used like aksar.

(3) ^li^j blshtar

or

e^r^^
little,

bishtarin, used as aksar

"
(p)

Something, a

nothing

"

^^
:

(1) Chlz-i

c<

$y**>
e

(lit.

a thing ").
as

Ex.
ki

^j.Aa. dar

ilm-i

muhasaba chmian
is
*'

know a
-I

little of

accounts

known

to

ma'lum " you


>

ast
;

chiz-l

danam
:

(Sa^dl)

%iu c>fc^ &* y


"

az

man

bi'khwah (Sa'df)
dur-tar
(rn.c.

ask

me

for

1
?

'

(Afghan) i( has anything in the armed force been sent there ?)."
onlj^)

little

something (for further"; ^^

a boon)

^^ (^y^^1
sarbaz
?

c>^

chiz-t

way

of soldiers started

(i.e.

has

" not a Ghlz-i ^51*^ with the negative signifies Ex. thing." 4< I have read nothing, A^a=u <^>a- ^ va chlz-1 na-khwanda am (Sa'di)
Remark.
:

ti

unlettered
v "

\)

(*^^ ;t c>b^ ^r^i^ u^'jf ^<^ *^ sabab 4 for this reason I did no work." <x^" <^>^ t?*
;

"

chiz-i

kar na-kardam

^^

ch%z-%kam shud

Chan)
(2)
al.
g-t

^ the wind abated somewhat/'


S;U nubs.
it
**

Pam4

a piece, bit,
Ji

patch"

is

usually followed

by the
5

In m.c. only,

signifies

little."

Ex.:

u&+^

^^*^

^^ l^b

harfha dasJitam bi-gnyam-ash (Shah's Diary) "Iliad a few words to U para-i sarbdzM raftand, or para-i sarbaz raft to him" **&*) UjU^* s;
; ;

b (Ti\ H B. Chap. XIV) " ^J l)b mcerning some small arrangements of the harem &*.tj<~ ^ ** (H. B. Chap. KXIII) **I used to see some women in the court of the
'j^j~* x;U

para-i tajsll-i andarunl

^^1 {!*<*&

l;

^^

dm, but
(3)

."

Khurda-i

s^;^

(m.c.)

(lit.

"a

crumb, a speck ")

also

*^Xj

yak-

wed by a
* 3

Aksar j^l and ^-J^' aghlab acoorcling to the regular rulo of the superlative are The*za/aJis, however, sometimes incorrectly omitted after these genitive. words in m.c.
1

In m.o., here qadr-l

<*)***
-***)

Or

sarbaz-i chlz-l raft?

In m.c.
'*

J^^
,

v^J^r** (m.c.).
\)& signifying

hawci for
6

bad would be used hava wind " as well as ** air.'*

"

air.'*

Indians and Afghans

Or

better

Uy*- ^***>

ba'zi harfha,

and

ba'zi az sarbaz-ha

126

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(m.c.)

khwurda

"a
give
}

little"

(m.c.).

Ex.

*AJ

(or ab) bidih


(4)

"

VT

t|

j*

l^y*. khwurda-i

jaw

Kam-i

little."

Kam-%

^ ^

me
"a
*

little

little

"

barley (or water)."


(classical

could be substituted foi khwurda-i

and m.c.), from kam, adjeoiive "few, in the above

L^

example. (5) Andak-i* </*f


f

(classical)

"a

little,"

or

"a

little

time."

Ex.:
' '
;

titaandak-i quvvat yaft (Sa'di)

"

till

he gained a
*

little

strength

AJ

JUa> ^oo| andak-l jamdl


"little,

Wi

az bisyari-yi

mdl

(Sadi).

and andak-l ^/^t " a little." ^4ttda& J*Jf is an adjective, pure and simple: it is according to some Grammarians the diminutive of and **\ but according to others and <M is a " contraction of andak c^Jof vide also Approximate Numerals."

Andak ^^1

few"

Remark

/.

Andak

also

means
Ar.,

4<

(classically)
4 *

a few," vide
;

first

example
" a few "

Remark IL

Qalll cU^,

little,

few"

and

qallli

^^

are equivalents of the Persian andak


(6)

*^\ and

andak-l
:

^^\.

Ex. <jj&M (old classical). )\ uV^5 ^ *-^^ ** u az zama^im-i m&lum shud a portamf-i akhlaq-i (Sa'd!) j-^ tion of his crimes became known to the king''; <_>? al<Ux> } ^^Jb
Taraf-l

^^3

a portion

^^

o*

rwa^'A; r jt

^
31

^ &xwj
(7)

;<

(Sa*dT)

something of the matter had reached


5

Ins ears."
&>***)<

Barkh-l ^*yf (classical and rare modern).


J

Ex.:

^ ^^

j
;

va barkhri az

2>?/a^

az qabza-yi tam-rruf-i u hadar raft (Sa*di)


**

barkh-l

amadand (mod.)
few

a few came

"

^)

Jt

^5^;-?

barkh-1 az

zanha (modern)
a^ar
r/ar

"a

women";

*^>u

ada-yi an
little

barkh-i tahavun

\jj J-*^ ^ e^V c5^-? ^f c^f^ ^^_^l takasul rava darand (Sa*di) " if they
' '

show even a
>jj^*>

^a,

}j>

namudtm

^W^ "

slackness or neglect in performing (the duty) ; ^jj j j+e y va barkh-l az *wnar-i giran-maya bar~u kharch
r

(Sa'df)

we expended a portion

of our precious
It is

life

on

it."

Barkh-%

^^

is lit.

"a portion, a share."

as an izafat cannot follow the

not followed by an izafat, of indefiniteness or the of unity. This is

perhaps the reason that

it

is

more often followed by

az.

Compare ba

z~i

IS of unity

also

kaml

subs. " deficiency."

s
&

(^^
aJf

qadr-i could also be substituted.


adj.

Andak,

Ex.: atashri andak ra


'

Ij

u^X>l

(J^^ (Sa*di)

bi-andak

muddat

&> (Sa'di)

in a little time."
logically

Not

bieyar-l

c^J^rt as might

be expected.

As jamal JU^- has two

syllables and mal one, euphony requires bisyarl-yi mal J^ Lfjfer^ to balance andak-l

jamal
6

JU>
This

^/^t.
first

az }\ omitted in

some

copies

the two prepositions az dose together are

uneuphonious.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(8)

127
*>

Juzv-l

isjj>*> (Persian)
:

juzvjfr**

Ar.

"
juz*,
(t

on of a book"
izvi,

and cj>*

is

either juzv-i for ij*y

little,"

part, portion, or else


juzv-i

Pers. adj. for Ar. adj.,

^[^
little

"

partial."

Ex.

p*)& JjJ c^jj^


*^4>5j

dashtom (m.c.)
.)

"1 had a
cost";
;

money"; c>^
j>j>

bi-qtmat-i

juzvi
(m.c.)

"at

trifling
little

f>*j>

<*&*

juz-*%

birinj

giriftam
least

Dook a
partial
rtial

rice"
' '
;

word
' '

^^ c*^^
i

^j*> ^J-^V

bi-juz*i harf-i (m.e.)


I

"at the

word,

bi-jut.}

naslm-% (m.c.) " at the least wind, at

wind.

Remark.

Kull u juz* *y j

ctf,

or kulli

juz*-i

L$l&j

^
^j

^ij^j u&, "


[There

or az kulli
is

c<

3'

n whole and in part, " a short time


' '

entirely."

also the

ctive c$2>^ juzvl


(9)
5

ic

petty, trivial," qimat-i juzm

^y*- ^^].

Lakht-i z
piece,

^^

(old classical,

"a
In

a portion,"

etc., etc.

Ex.:

osi>

and rare modern) from


a-So-xjlj

idlshd faru raft (Sa'dl) **he considered a little";


tr

laJcht-i

andisfiid
%.+

(Sa*dl)

" he considered a

*j^ ^^
particle, a
c<

^^

lakht-i
t^?t )**\

little

about this." pinch


(of

(10)
),

Sliamma-i
:

(rarely used, Ar.)


&+S*

"an atom,

etc/'

^j->

V)

^^
;

vaztr

shamma-i rah burd (Bast.)

the vazlr got

ikling of the matter


'

"

cui&xj i*Ji

^Lc &f&*)$jt <j&^ j ^U^jt^J^ ^jb


ki

vazlr az shama^il va akhlaq-i


4 *

ii)

well (or so) the wazir

u da> rat-i inalik sJiamma-i mi-guft was mentioning a few of the good qualities
."

of

boy

in the presence of the

King, saying
4i

Remark. Nabza $*& Ar. but is rarely used.


(11)

small portion/' has

much

the same significa-

X
.)

From $)i zarra *' an atom, a mote in a sunbeam/' comes yak zarra " one atom, the least part." Ex. %> $j& *J<* yak zarra ab bi-dih " give me just a drop of water."
:

(12) Bi-qadr-i
:

yak par-i kah-i

cx^i^ o^Jf <^^j^ was not worth a straw "


(q)
:

a very little/ j*&> bi-qadr-t yak par-i kah~% qimat na-d&$ht (m.c.)

^K^^

j&*

* 4

'

(m.c.)

(lit,

^Some";

^^

ba'zi,

a chip of straw). Per. and 4> ba*z> Ar.


<i:

(lit.

"a

portion"),

some say"; ^j3f<^*u ba'z-lazzanM oJujxA ^Mi ba*z-l ml-guyand >me of the women"; *>*^ <^*J ba ( z-t chlzha (m.c.) f< some things";
I
l

^^? ba'spi az rakhtha-yi khud ra

dadam

<s

(m.c.)

gave some

Juzv-l C5J|3^ (m.o.) 4^ of unity

But

p**jr

t)

if*j?

-0^

'^

in writing also " I took a a k birinj ra giriftam (m.c.) juz'-i y portion of


:

ice."

" a corner of one's liver Lakht-i jigar jf^- iju^bj (or dil J<3) (or heart) "; meta" a beloved child." ioally
8

Par-i gul

(J>

j*

is

"

petal of a flower

'

'

^^

has the

of unity.

128
of

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
txijj&x) (jcUvJif

ba'z-l ashkhas ml-guyand (m.c.) "some khavamn "some Khans "; ba'zi az khava* persons say"; ^-^ ^***? n%n ^\^ )\ t5^ "some of the Khans." " is not used in m.c. it is Ba'z Ar. substantive

my clothes ";

^***

ba'zi

by the
is

followed "portion and by a plural noun or by a collective noun, vide barkh-l i^s>. Ba'zi 4^** is an adjective and therefore does not take the izafat, but ba'z a substantive and is correctly followed by the izafat, as: ba'z-i awqat u*
;

o^V

izafat,

c^Ujjt

'sometimes.'

The

plural of ^>**t

is

^.^^
<

-^** " Ba'zi murg&ha didam saw some birds (indefinite)." f**i (fy& Ba'zi az rakht-ha ra dadam ^of.* Ij U^j jf ^<A+* = ba zi rakht ra dadam
(

"

gave some of
*

the clothes."

The

plural

is

better with ba'zi


:

and adv. Ex. (^+3 *Uv* *$ ^fj W. )^* avarda and ki sipah-i dushman bisyar bud va Indn andak <{ it is related that the soldiery of the enemy was much while the (Sa'dl) " o &{ yjf cJC^uj j^>L^o G ool<^ latter (were) few j *-' J i*j (*;^
(r)

"Much, many,"

^***> bisyar adj.

^^

^^

shikayat'i ruzgar-i na-musa'id bi-nazdik-i man avard ki kafaf-i andak ddram va " complained to me of his wretched state (saying) that 'iyal-i bisyar (Sa^di)
v
'

have small means and a


:t

'

' J ;

large family

^^^ cu^o

used to repent much and then " ^^f )* &j^~*j*"* aar asn&-yi r^h shutitr bisyar' bud (or shuturha bisyar bndand) <c on the way there were many camels'*; o.x^^o ^U~j ^^j zanha-yi (m.c.)
kardl (Sa*di)

(Sa'df)

"with much trouble";


a certain

^^

^-

^^y

b*-ma*haqqat-i bisyar
tawbat-i bisyar
;

yak-i

man

bisyar (or bisyar zanha) mi-guyand (m.c.)

Ow^C j

&)JvJ J^*}-^

\J^* J^'~~t

^- ^

"many women
O-^J j
,,_-.

"

say

^i^O ji

&

{J***

Ma-kitn

Ki
*'

takija bar mulk-i dunya va pusM (Sa*dl). bisyar kas chun-tu parvard u kusht

Place no reliance on this world,

For many

like

you

it

has nourished and slain."


:

Note the meanings of bisyar ^U~- in the following sentences az shab <% a great part of the night had bisyar guzasht c^J>? t^j ._~ )t (m.c.)
passed"
;

bisyar shab (or shabhd) guzasht *^*t$(

or)w^^>^--o (m.c.)
;

" maiw

nights passed," or o-Jio^ jt-j

o t^
l

shabhd^yi bisyar (juzasht (m.c.)

jj

(Ayj

(m.c.) bisyar

kinds of birds

"

qism paranda-ha giriftam (m.c.)


r

"

^~5 y\~j caught various

=
<

^J ^^j
jl ;

Uj"f (ni.c.).

Bisyar-t (az)

dance" "
say
:

bisyar-l az

bisyari-yi

a much," and bisyan <^f)^~~> (subs.) "abun** mardum mi-guy and *^jS f*^ jl o;^ many men " wrath mal
c^'t-^

<{

Jl*

^^

^
of

"abundance

vide also (p)

(5)

and footnote.*
J

In Urdu ba'ze

is

an adjective.

^
&

The
Or

plural budand **&* could have been used.

shutur-i bieyar j^-*> j^, or shuturha-yi bisyar

In prose kasan

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

129

"
(s)

the izafat as though


(1)

Remaining, remainder"; ^0, Ar. it were a substantive


:

adj., is incorrectly followed

by

t^k bdqi
' '

(adj.).

Ex.

"the remainder
remaining days

c^a?**^ ^b

bdqi-yi ruz

ham

guzasht (m.c.)

of
;

the clay passed", but

l*jjy

^(*
A

bdql-yi ruzhd

"the

Jib

*
dil

<.-> *U3

<

Imshab-am dard-i

tamam na-shud

Baqi-yi dastan bi-farda shab (Salim). c< I could not relate all rny suffering, To-night The remainder of the story stands over till to-morrow night." Baqi put ra chi kardi or baqi-yi put rd chi kardi are both m.c.

The Indians and Afghans


occasions.

correctly omit the izafat after baqi <^b, on all

v
(2)
4<

sipdh
of the

baqiyya, subs, (classical the remainder of the soldiers "

<ui>

and
;

m.c.).
ixaj

Ex.

U~

^
j.<+>
' '

baqiyya-yi

jjj

baqiyya-yi rUz

the remainder

day."

(3)

^ U md
This

baqiy
is
:

a
,

Ar.,

in Persian md-baql ^u\*>,

lit.

* f

that which

remained."
substantive.

Ex.

used in modern (and perhaps in classical) Persian as a ** the remainder of the jj) ina-baqt-yi ritz (m.c.)

^^

day."
" &+&1atimma, Ar. subs, completion, appendix, etc." is used the remainder or balance of an account, as V U^. <u tatimma*yi hisdb.

Remark!.

tor

The

Ar, word &\ys

mizdn

lias

the same signification.

Remark
of food bag*
;

//.

Pas-manda
5 (

*<x>U
4<

^j

is

what v^ aqab rnanda mdnda "to what remains over" (of an account,
*^U>
to

generally applied only to remnants remains or is left behind ; *>&*


etc.,

^^

or of people,

things, etc., after counting).

CHAPTER
40.
1

IV.

THE ARTICLE AND THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.


The
Definite Article.

(a)

Harf-ita'rif

Ju_j*S

oj^

).

There

is

no

article properly so called.


:

If

the noun

is definite

and

in

the accusative case,

\) wt <C I saw the water"; du asp-ra dtdam p^ te du asp didam I saw two horses," and 2 f*j*> w*-t 3L0? ^13^ j* jjj*\ imruz dar ki bazar asld* asp na-didam (m.c.) to-day^ I saw no horses in the bazar."

t>

ab-ra bidih

"

give (me) the

water

"

Ex. it requires ra. but &V vt ab bidik " give me two horses"; but *-***! j$
;

Remark.

In the nominative case


the two armies.
5 '

" armies
(6)

j&J

j& du laslikar can

mean

* *

two

or

"

Proper names,
^JU.=k

titles etc.,

the separate, the demonstrative, and the


{t

reflexive

*& kl y o&i and <^j&, 3 ^*^, pronouns, the interrogative


y

+A , etc.,
4
;

^S A*A

^^U^
(

g*A.,jjL
),

^*>.

and
fj,

<*^$

j*9 j* j* ,

etc.,

are considered
so

definite or ma'rifa

&>j**

and require
.

especially in

modern Persian

also does the


(c)

pronoun tjak-i <^ In modern Persian, the affixed possessive pronouns when affixed to a

noun

in the accusative case, are also usually followed


classical Persian, this construction
is

by

f>
tj

In

rare.

In the Gulistan. the

is

both omitted and inserted.

The
Syntax.

fj

of the dative, however, cannot be omitted.


\j

For further

rules

on

the insertion or omission of the

of the accusative

and dative,

vide

under

Remark,
(1) All

The following are


Powerful."

also definite

nouns that have the Arabic

definite article Jt
j>

as

)^'ti\

"The

(2)

Nouns preceded
tive pronouns.

(or

demonstrated aJt^liuo

by the demonstra-

Ta'rif

( *-*>j*> )

also

means "

definition."

2
3

For asZ*.

t> of the accusative is often omitted, contrary to the rules of syntax. As a rule the reason of the omission can be traced to tho exigencies of the rhythm. Imitators of the style of Sa'di, especially Indians, raak e

Fulan&%* (adj.) and fidani j*&* (subs.). In the Gulistan and in classical Persian the

syntactical mistakes of this description, but no ordinary

modern Persian

does.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(3)

131
(affixed or separate),
c\*

The vJl**
:

(4)

a proper name or of a pronoun Uf etc. as or of a ^Ui ^x>, as f3Uy v Some nouns in the vocative, as
of
;
: :

*^*y*.

(5)

Proper names, noms de plume

L^aJiJ

) 9

personal pronouns, and

and
(d)

>

sarbazka)

as, ***rt^*> j* U^l^w or) olj^** sarbamn (or m.c. du hazar budand "the soldiers were two thousand", the plural makes the noun definite; but du hazar sarbaz jbj** )^ j* signifies "two " or " the thousand men two thousand men" vide also example in Remark
( :

In sentences such

to

(a).

Remark.
(e)

The

cardinal

numbers are not followed by a plural noun.


4^, often

In relative sentences, a demonstrative or relative

confused

with the

of unity (sometimes accented for emphasis), with the connective * makes the noun definite vide 42
:

in conjunction
(6)

and

(g)

to

(r).

If

the noun

is

to remain indefinite, the

^ (or

*)

must not be accented:


**

vide

42

(p).
(/)

p*& ^U^U padishah-ira slianidam (SaMl) I have heard of a certain king," ani *& ^<^ ^^^ <# ^^ yak-i ra az muluik
In the sentences
\\

\$

ajam hikayat kunand


'

the kings of

Ajam^'

(Sa'di) "it is related (they relate) of a certain one of the objects are to be considered definite though accom-

affix

of unity or so-called indefinite article : for the rule of the panied by in such cases, vide under Syntax. fj

the

(g)

The demonstrative pronouns,


:

especially in m,c. ? frequently take the

place of the definite article, as

Atimaxrdki

amad <Wf
;

^^of

(for mard-Z-ki

amad&tf ^?^y)
learning

4i

the

man who came"

hence the reason vhat Persians


instead of

English generally say, **that

man who"

"the man

who."
41.
(a)

The

Indefinite Article.
(

Harf-i tanKr or 7a-yi wahdat

The numeral
article.

^ yak
e

ct

one

ftfy* " " one guzashta ml-kardam (Sa di) night I was pondering on olden times here shab-i could be substituted ivvyakshab *-*& *Ji, without altering the meaning. Vide also examples in (m). In m.c. this yak^&> is more often used
:

Ex.:

***

" sometimes cUU ^Ji j*U|

ox^3

<^b or takes the place of the indefinite yak sJiab ta*mmul-i ayyam-i

^^

for the indefinite article

than

is

the

^ of unity.
^ of
<xUa.

Remark.
certain person

Yak "
:

<-X

can also be joined to the


V5C|

unity, as

"

one, a

o*f ^f

v^I

^U^ ^\tf

j\Qva az jumla-yi adab-i

Poetical nom-de-plume.

132

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


this is

" and nudama-yi muluk yak-i In ast (Sa'dl)


of the

one of the (good) manners

companions
is

of the kings."

There

nothing to distinguish from each other the ya-yi vahdat &&s*j

or the ya-yi tanldr

^., and the yayi mawsul Jj*j*

^k

42), except the

When the signifies unity in this case its place difference in signification. can be taken by the numeral yak it is known by the first name. When the <^ is used before a relative clause and is equivalent to t lie demonstrative pronoun,
it is

known by
Remark.

the last name.

The

c5"

that follows

j*> is

probably not the demonstrative ^,

but the
(6)

of unity.

The

ya-yi tankir j>

^.

or

of

mdefimteness acts as an indefinite


is

article.

This

^, which has several uses, and


was
1

more or

less

emphatic,

either in magnifying or in minimising,

in classical Persian pronounced


it

with the majhul sound.

In modern Persian
is

is

pronounced

i,

and with
it

40 (e) the exception mentioned in abstract nouns. of from the suffix ^s

unaccented, in order to distinguish

Thus

in classical Persian mard-e <L-*J*


:

" a certain man", but mardl ^Sj* ** manliness" in modern t( " manliness." a man", etc-; but mardl colloquial mard-l o^y This s is supposed to be derived from the numeral yak <-& (or yog <-& )

"a man"

or

^^

of

which the
water

last letter has disappeared.

Yi, for yak

_G, exists

still
* *

in

some

songs in the dialect of

Mazenderan.

Yi-qadr

aw

bi-dih

t* tf

)<&.

give

me
it

' J

little

is

common

in S. Persia.
it

In modern Persian, however,


collective
(c)

can be added to a plural, making


$,

noun

vide (k) (2),

If the

noun terminates
is

in silent

then, instead of the affixed 4^, the


is still

symbol hamza

superscribed, but in modern Persian


<*^u backcha-e (classical)
2

pronounced

J,

[Me

26

{/)],

as

and bachcka-*

(m.e.)

"a

child
}

"

or

**a certain child.'*

If

the noun

is

concrete and terminates in


before the

the

^ of

the noun

is

"fish", but (^A^>


(d)

generally represented by* t( a fish." (or 4^1*) mahl-i


S

^ of unity,
*

as: ^5*^ mahl

(1) If silent

precedes
:

o^f

ast

"is", the

may be

omitted and the

written o*wt.

Ex.

Var shakar-khanda-isl
'*

shirin-lab

Astln-ash bi-gir u sham* bi-kush (Sa*dl). But if she be attractive and sweet-lipped Take her by the sleeve 3 and put out the light."
4,

Vide foot-note

page HI.

With thewo/a*, bachcha-yi kuchak


Attln
(.^jjujf

*^'

*&? (mod.):

difference in transliteration

and pronunciation.
8

probably the old hanging sleeve, in Persia

still

worn by some

darvisheg.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


Banda-i
written
*^~*>\
}

133
maht-ist

st

may
,

be written

^^\

*L>

or

o~t !^x, and

may

be

cs^fc^

etc., or v^~j|

Remark.

to the sense in which it

Grammarians, however, give is used. Thus in


:

this

^ different names according

' '

One and all need each other, Even a small spider can hide a great prophet

' '

the

first

is

called i/a-/i tasg&r j***&

^ "the
^

diminutive ya" or

tatiqir j*&**J

^.

"the

i/a

of

contempt",

while the second

of respect." contrary meaning is called ya-yi ta*zim f*&** ^Ij relative the For the names of the relative definite article in (expressing

" the ya

having the

sentences)
(2)

vide

42.

is preceded by a *, to disAfter final alif *-&!, ?/a U, or udv *\j, this " a scent J ' but <J> of the f?a/a^ o^Ut as ^5> 6?I4 ^>i tinguish it from the

<f

6i-?/e

gul
<c

the scent of the flower"

such a very great empire." should be inserted as bearer for this hamza. Some Arabic words end in a hamza, which may or may not be written in Persian, but before a suffixed ^, the Arabic *must fall away, thus: ** " a desert " and desert, or jungle as opposed to cultivation ", ^t^**
(m.c.)

^Ja* A ^

^^ a*^

chunin dawlat-i uzma-i


s

cs

^*

*"

^at

'

desert.'
*

(3) If

the Arabic word ends in


is

a?if-i

maqsura \& or

with or without the


:

tanwin, the final letter


for
*

changed to a&/ before the

^ of unity, as

^^f a'ama
?

** a blind man." The word <j>** is in blind"; ^U^l &ama~l Persian pronounced ma*m j^^ or mafnq i t^**; its final letter may therefore in Persian be considered to be either ya I* or alif-i maqsura %)}>&* ^t, thus:
^tj4*i
>

or yii** ma'm-i (m.c.)

4i

a meaning,"
:

Remark

I.

The
9.

^
c<

is

andak-% jamal (Sa'di)

sometimes added to adjectives, as JU^ ^/^f " a few." For sal-t du little beauty": chand-%

^ JU,

vide

(/)

In old Persian, the is added to the noun when it is qualified by an adjective, and not to the adjective, as: mard-lkhub ^ty* "a and man" dat andalc zaman-l (class, (class, and mod.) c^^t^^ ^l*} good " for a little while." In to added is the modern mod.) generally Persian,

Remark IL

^^

the adjective, vide(k).

combines with o^i in pronunciation, but may be Khub mardi-st written separately in full, or combined with the ast. Ex. " is written o-*| " he is a or man (m.c.) good ^tj* v^,
(e)

The

of unity

134

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(/)

Examples
t\*
>z

of the various significations of this


I

are:

(1)

^.^

L$J~!

cs*^^

padishdh-l

pisar-i

bi-adib-i

dad (Sa'dl)
pas-l az shab

king handed over a son of his to a tutor cJj v^ jf t^^ " one watch of the night passed." guzasht " I have no special business (2) fjf^ <^;( lcar-1 na-daram
certain
;
'

"a

"

U^J ^ly*^^
<c

mi-khwaJiam bi-shuma khidmat-i ruju' kunam (m.c.) pit a^j ^5^*^to entrust you with a (special, or a certain) commission."
(3)
j^jj

want
' '
;

{}#<

*A hlch tadbir-1 no-bud

' c

there was not a single plan

o**,| <M^*XJ ijLc&L ij>\j=*- j tylfaJu^JL. jt ^fy* jj bar liar yak-i az sa^ir-i bandagan u hawashi khidmat-i mu'ayyan ast (Sa'di) "for every single one of his slaves and attendants a special (or a separate) duty is appointed," (4) ij&$ )\X Uuuf c^^ J^*Jt *$ ^^\ ^t c^i^ bihtar-ash In ast ki al-hal
\\

bi-taivr-i

az inja kinar kashl

'*

(m.c.)

the best thing

is

that somehow or other


4<

you

at once get
(5)

away from here."


csV^JJl)

^T^e^J

ruzgar-i* bar-in bar-cimad


sa'at-i
* 4

(Sa'clT)

a short time

elapsed after this";

^^^

c<

a short time " a


little

or " one

hour";
!<

^JUj dar andak zaman-% (Sa'd!)


va

in

time "

;ti^
"also

** *

ham

shakk-i
lest

pay da shud
(but

ki

mabadd

(m.c.)

a bit of a

doubt
"there
*l&f

arose

"
lest

va

ham shakk paidd shud


ov*,f

^
j|

t<^j

cZ^

^j

was doubt

"); Ji^o^

&^j)t

*z++*

a/ UvJf

^i? j

^ ^s ^^

A^ ^iT ^yo ff^A c5>^^ (^^jf

^JU{*x>

angah ruy ba-man kard

va,

guft az anjd ki

himmat-i darvishan ast va xidq-i mwamala-yi tshan khatir-l luannrak-i man kunid ki~^- (Sadi) "he then turned tome and said, 'on account of the gracious

magnanimity
attention to
to his

of dervishes
for
'

and
<xu

their

me

"
;

^-^

burut-i-1abld (m.c.)

uprightness in dealings pay a little he gave a alight twirl

moustache."
*>$
j*

(6)

<yW^ ^f * ^ Bi-ham ma-kun


bar

^*
ta

v<Jiy

tf

e^v' pv
(Sa'dl
).

tavam

dil-i

Ki
'*

ah-i jahan-i
if

bi-ham bar kunad.

Distress not,

it, a single soul, For one sigh to God (from a broken heart) can destroy even a whole world." 6

thou canst avoid

tjin this sentence, there is yet no con fusion as to sense. (^ has the adjectival sense of "a certain" and is followed by an explanatory clause, its noun may be considered definite, and if in the accusative case 40 (/). requires the affix ra, vide
1

Note that though there isno


this

When

More common in m.c. Jcinara kunl %y*S In m.c. ruzagar )^)j)' 6 It is this sentiment, the fear of the distressed sigh, that so often prevents the a of convinced malefactor in Persia. Some irresponsible person intercedes, punishment
8
(t

and the Governor, to hide his superstitious fears, professes The idiomi s biham kardan (and not kandan)

to be

overcome by

pity.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(7)

135

into
leii

usw ^UaL ***jj)j Vazir chi khiySLt-st uftdda ast? (m.c.) what a way of thinking (into what kind of a fancy) has the Wazir
wonder
vs**f
' '

o~ ^W|
?

(8)

^Jf

(J^js

i$hq dfat-1-st

((

love

is

a great calamity.

f '

In despair

is

many

a hope

For
(9)

bas'l

''

The close of a dark night " many a vide 39 (m).


bar

is fair.

<M^ ^oy j^ ^JU sdl-i du bar In


"
;

dmad

(Sa'di)

" a couple of years

so passed after this

^ JL^*

fasl-i

du

(Sa'dl)

"a

couple of chapters.
]

"

For
(10)

^ with

the plural in

modern Persian,

vide (k) (2).


>?
)
;

itim-l*

" <^*y Fir'aun-i a Phararoh (i.e. cruel and overbearing " a Hatim", a man generous as Hatim (but Jiatimi

^^ "genero-

(11)
* 8

L5'J^3j>

<>~^ c^^ 4-A^^A

Aij

na

giriftdr

dmddl

bi-dast-i javdn-l

ki liar dam havd-l pazad wa liar lahza ray-l zanad va har shab ja-l Jchuspad har ruz yar-l girad (Sa'dl) " you fell not into the bondage (of marriage) bh a youth vain * * *, who at every breath starts a fresh fancy, and each
?,

>ment states a new opinion, and every night sleeps d every day takes a new love."
(12) SiX^UJ U jjoA^f^k G vi.^1 ^5-i^i
j^iJJLf

in

a different place,

qalandar darvlsh-l-st na-kharashtda

-tarashida (m.c.)
(13) (./Ui~A>

4<

a Calendar

is

a kindoi darvish, rough and uncivilized."


bar misl-i

Muslim
umd.

like

you

Ui c&o^j oi*j la'nat " or U JLtc


;

shuma Musalman-l " curses


la'nat bar

011

^UL-xs^j oW

mnsalmdn-i misl-i

ft jj*> u>jl (^ di e)ly^ javdn misl-i man jur kdr nami-kunad a simple statement; but javdn-t inisl-i man-l ^^ di (^1^ ex " esses a considerable amount of conceit and "brag" and" lays a stress on van vi>!>^ and man javan liamchu man-1 ^ix^si^A ^t^. expresses the
(14)

*>XA+J

i.e.)

is

me

idea, but in speaking there

would be no

stress

on the word javdn

(>[}*>.

(g)

The noun with

its

cc of unity is often in m.c.

preceded by the

JP/r'awn

er ones.

ne to
2

5 e^^j a title common to the ancient kings of Egypt, as Ptolemy to the The Pharaoh of Hoses' time is known to Muslims as Valid. Fir'aun has mean a cruel tyrant, insolent and unbelieving.'
*

In Persian sometimes Hatam +&*> an illustrious Arab of the tribe of tfayy who ed before the Prophet, but his son, who died at the age of 120 in the 68th year of the ght, is said to have been a companion of the Prophet.
:

&

Dust

*-"**}^, in Persia,

is

only used for men, but yar

is

a man-friend, or a

stress.

136
indefinite

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


yak

*,

for additional emphasis, as: *oj

^-^
"
;

Jo

(*\

agha yak

cJiiz-t

bi-dih (beggar's cry)

"gentleman, give me a trifle muddat-l bimari dasht " so that he was yak than muddat-l (more emphatic alone).
ki
1

*^\*
from

^Uw <y<c ^ tf
it

ill

quite

an age"
*-*J?

(h)

The

<^ of unity does not admit of the izafat after it, thus

wf

^f****

qadah-ii* barf-ab (Sa'dl)


** *>.* 8 fj

"a cup

of

iced water

(i.e.

knot of

ejky i>s*jj> guruh-i marduman ra did ki men who " vide also (/) (1) *xuf^<S? ^yf
:

water and ice mixed)] " he saw a certain (Sa'di)


^jjj &+\) Raja yuz-i

**&*

safid dvarda guzaramd (Jehangir's Memoirs) Cheeta and presented it to me.


' '

"the Raja brought a white


95

For a
(b) (5).
(i)

classical

example vide quotation from 'Umar-i Khhayyam in


its

In classical and in modern Persian, a noun before

qualifying adjec-

(Sa'dl) khuranda-yi bisyar man had a large family " 5 ^y AA-^O ^1^^ padishah-i c^^* f^* ^ ^ A ba gJiulam-i 'Ajamt dar kishtl nishasta bud (Sa'dl) "a. certain king was <( " b ^* a seated with a Persian slave in a boat pddishah-t ba vaztrjtjj
;

meaning, sometimes discards the ^s of unity, as o^u^i &Afc ta'ifa-yi dustan (Sa'dX) " a party of friends"; but ejUL-j,* J* ^Ifc L ba td'ifa-t az dustan s^;y^ fUic }f " a certain learned 4 az 'ulama dasht
:

tive or before another

noun

in construction, even

if

indefinite in

ow|^l^ yak-i

^^

*^

king with his vazir ", but padisliJah-i ba-vazir-i a vazir (perhaps the vazir of another king).

^)) ^
f

^^^
it

"a

king with

Remark.

Note that

"one of"

requires j
(/).

after

in all cases:

it

cannot be followed by the


(;)

izafat.

Vide also
I

Concrete nouns ending in (^)

may take the ^


:

of unity

but the

first

U in writing
cases.

is usually represented by a *, as Sufi-% bi-man yuft c^i? In m.c., however, the indefinite *J^> usually takes the place of the

^j J**r*
in

such

Singular abstract nouns in ^5 do not admit of the the indefinite c& is substituted.

Remark.

^ of

unity

(k)

(1)

In modern Persian the

of unity

is

generally added to

tfce

qualifying adjective [unless the adjective end in ^c, vide (m)] following the noun and not to the noun. Ex. v^i ^^3 qushun-i khub-l budand
:

^^

(Shah's Diary)

"

they were a pretty soldiery

"
;

^/ s?^ ^^
a sick

nutq-i ziyad-i

kardand (Shah's Diary) "they delivered long speeches."


^

Bimtir-i

tS)^
is
\) is

(note accent) would

mean ho kept
*

man

in his

house/

2
3

In m.c. qadah

a basin.
is

Here ra

necessary though the object

indefinite, because of the *$ following.

*
6

In modern Persian

^^^ )J^ && nan l&hwur-i bisyar-l (or bisyar


(jjiulamrl

In modern Persian this would be

*** and

kishti-i

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(2)

137

The

can

also

refer

to

a plural and

seems

to

give

it

Ex.: o*-f ^jk^ ^(^J&A. chakushha-yi ykarib-l 'st (Shah's " zanha-l darad Kirmdn " are (were) a strange lot of hammers Diary) they *$ ki zarda-yi tukhm ra az miyana-yi safida ml-duzdand cjjl/y j>jf^ (J*^j p>**l **)) " frxxil* <xHx*> Kerman has a class of women so
collective sense.
]

4JjJ<X

\j

(m.c.)

tricky

that they can steal the yolk of an egg from the midst of the white." Jn English, the indefinite article is still common before a general

noun

denoting a

sum

of

money

or a space of time.

The answer

your pay?" might be: liich, du tuman-i ^^y "From his birth * * * * to "nothing; a paltry two tumans" stroke on the field of Jena, what a seventy-one years"
is

" what

to a question, *r A (me.) j*
his death-

(Carlyle),

o^xl U*

_AJ

.vliiA

&*.

ixx^ jjj^K

^
is

ijtfj*

13

j*i

a)y

jf

az tavallud ta dam-i

marg-ash dar kar-zar-i Jena chi ha f tad u pan)


i-^^y^x^jj ^aa^^j j (m.c.) "it the has a diminutive force."

sal-ist.

In,

du farsM^l

bishtar

mst

not more than a couple of farsalchs^


of the simple

(3) If,

however, the adjective

is

noun,

the
'

^
he

is is

naturally

affixed

to

the

kind that can precede the khub noun. Ex. o^yo v

mard-l-st

a good

man"

(m.c.);

$ty* j#
f

plr-i

mard-l (m.c.)

"an

old

man."
(I)

man didam "I saw


PJZ
j

In modern Persian the constructions murduf*>& 0^^* ^5*-*^ jam'-t a body of men" or jam" -I az marduman dldam and jam' -I zanha didam f&>* ty) (jr**^, or jam' -I az &l>c-j*> y
;

didam f*n V3 (h) and (i).


(m)

3>

u*4^ "^ 8aw a body


1-

of

women ",
(&),

are

used.

Vide

also

In modern Persian, as stated in


;

the

is

generally added

to the qualifying adjective

numeral

is

however, the adjective itself end in ^, the " an Abyssinian slave girl >j^ preferably substituted, as:
if,
' c

^j^^ yak

kanlz-i habashi (rn.c.) or

^i*^ ^sJ^^
1

kantz-i habashi (m.c.).

Note the following m.c.:


(b) qashuqsJnr, " "a of water glass
*-jf

"a

or

spoonful of
shir, or

milk"
(c) ^sj**

(a)

j*

(3-*^

*-&,

yak

^#>(

qashuq-l'

(5^
(jtlas-i

qashuq-i
ab, or

shir-i:

^f ^r^

gtlas-i ab-l, or

^ ^^^

u*^

J^

yak
(n)

gil<i$-i

ab or in apposition yak gllas ab. Note the absence of in the following:

c=~b

v^JJb

% palang dasht* (Sa*dl) "he had a (the) wound from a leopard zakhm-i shamshir khwurda (m.c.) " he got a sword wound ";
;

"

^)

zakJi-m-i

1 i.e. the women of Kerraan generally are of such tense with the idea of " can (and consequently do) steal."

a class.

Note the present

For qfahiq <3^', T. Here zaJshm ^j is used as the description of wound and it therefore becomes (lefinite. It would be also right to say zaWun-i palang-l cr^J or better zalch.m-1 az (**3>
3

palang

138

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


va u-ra dar chunin martaba
l

did

(Sa'df)

"and saw him

possessed of

such great rank."


In these examples the noun is considered generic, and, therefore, does not take the ^. It does not mean the wound of one leopard; it might be the wound of ten. Similarly ow-t Jib j^U hanuz tifl ast " he is still a boy.' n kitab-i khub-i is occasionally met with (o) The construction <y^
it

aeems to mean
(m.c.)

dddam
(p)

"I

"a book, a good one " paid a thumping sum."


lt

^^

^fo ^AA&A

^^

pul-i hanguft-3,

As dlgar-l ^c^^ means


riot classically

another person",

dlqar meaning

"anor

other" does
yak

take the

chiz-i digar jj>_j*<*-

J^ " another thing, one thing more"; and in m.c.


asp-i dtgar-i o*/&* f*) "another person's horse": but as already

of unity

3
:

chiz-i digar ^&j>

^ y^

4 (vulgarly) cMz-i digar-l <^j&> J^-. As in m.c. the distinction is

may mean

' *

another horse
is

"

not observed,

or

stated the former

a vulgarism.
f

vide

For an example of dagh-i diqar-l ^j*s 94 (i) example from 'Umar-i Khayyam.

"another misfortune",

The following
boy
is

are m.c.:
*-^~t
5

cu~

<uUax
( *

j~*> &>.\

a devil

' '
,

but

e^-^ ^j~$
?tf

he

is

a devilish boy
;

in pisara shaytan ast "this ' ^*


'

pisar-i shaytan-i-st '*he is the son of

or in
4>Ji

adam

Jchar ast

o*t

^
'

a devil" adam-i khar-i-st *+** " he is an ass " marduman-i khar~*


;

^cj=^

cJ^^^j or
It

in
is,

inardum khayli

khctr

and &\ **

(^^ C

^ &^

Remark.

^c, kitab'i digar-l ki


(q)

however, correct in modern Persian to add the relative ^ ^e other book which (or that) ." ^j^-* V

&

'

The

*^ltx

\\

following construction dar mashra^i nz mashari'

is

borrowed from the Arabic:

^y^*^
a place
AT

(class.)

"in a road

(lit.

in
4

a road of

the roads)

"
;

&\j+*

jt

(^*^

;^ dar

mamarr-i az mamarrat
;

(class.)

*m

of passage, in
j
cX)li&

one of the places of passage"


^cj^ ^cU; ^
jt

vJWi

Icy

4^;^^ ^'40 ^ikf

^^
dar-%

jf ^1*3 ^t*^ bdshod ki Khuda'(yi) ta'alq

lfl>

o^b

nagah az

altaf-i

khwish

lutf-i

numayad va

az darha-yi ruzi

bar

ma

bi-kushayad (mod.) "it may be that God on High out of his gracious good. " ness may suddenly open a way of livelihood (out of his many ways) for us
(j*?^ bi-taraf-i* az atraf ravam (m.c.) or other, somewhere or other."
fj; vJf^tf j!
i

"I may go

in

some direction

In modern Persian incorrectly martdba-l ***?*. This is the incorrect reading by modern Persians, even when th e is omitted in the copies of the Gulistan. * The added to t.ifl* (.5 could not be " is a common S In "another shabha-i
m.c.

L^r^ U**^
c>^^
is

cKgar-i

person

vulgarism.

*
5

Also yak chlzlrl dlgar j*j.&


Shayfian
really

Lji^

<^J.

an adjective here.
In Arabic
tarf c*ji> is the

Erroneously

f.arf

J>fe.

"eye", but

iJj-k toraf

is

"a

side, extremity,

margin,

etc.'*

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(r)

139
:

The

is

occasionally added to Arabic phrases, thus


' '

hazar-i az ta'am iartlb kardand (Sa'dl) "they set out a was ready in the way of food what here ma is the relative something Arabic "that is the 3rd person singular, which", andAa^r^a^ pronoun
>3jf
*-*#j>

ma

of

raasc., Fret, of ''to


($)
:

be ready."

When

substantives are coupled together, the

is

added to the
f

last

j d&* **?*** J^J^f ks[y*)*j* \j l Wj >J*>j~> only J^&jp&j <2+&\$ Sarhang-zada ra bar dar-i sara-yi Ug&lamish" didam ki aql u* kiyasat-i va* fahm u firasat-i za^id'^l-wasf dasht (Sa'dl) "I saw the son of a certain (?)

cA-^f

*5\)

J>^

officer

at

the door of the palace of Uglilamish

understanding and sagacity, and an description";

intelligence

that was possessed of an and ingenuity beyond all

^t^U ^ UxJU^ oi.y a^/f o**0u ^^y fa jf ***> ^i&o A&f ^^u ai^U bi-hukm-i an ki malaz-l mani az qulla-yi kuh-l bi-dast avarda budand wa malja u ma*va-i sakfita (Sa'dl) " because they have taken possession of an impregnable asylum on the summit of a mountain and made it a place of
c

safe refuge."

In

ni.c.

the

first

yak kard u
.

chancjal-i bi-dih

substantive may, however, be preceded by yak uj, as: <X' ^ dj('v^, or kard u changal-l bi-dih j

^&a

"give me
[.

a knife and fork."

Remark
only of

-Similarly, in

modern Persian, the


:

^c

is

added to the second


dur u daraz-l
$

two adjectives qualifying one noun, as Si a long long journey." <syj* ini.c.)
of

safar-i

)^J^

Remark II. For an example in classical Persian of the ^_c added to both two adjectives qualifying one noun, vide last example of (c), 125.
(t)

When

the

^_-

of unity supplies the place of rule take the


fj

its

noun does not as a

a simple indefinite article of the accusative. Ex. mf~$ c4)^


:
^

^^

aUu*ji pish-i

pidar-ash kas-l ftristad (Sa'di)

**

he sent some one to his father."

In the sentence AX^JS^J ^^> >x^ f; ^i^j zamin-i ra kanda sang barddshta " having dug up a (certain) (Afgfian) the sense requires the definite sign t;,
special plot of

ground and removed the stones." Note the distinction in meaning between the two following " khana-i atash zadand (m.c.) Ck they set fire to a house but *5Jj>J
:

(J^>T

\>

khana-i ra atash zadand

<c

they set
<^)J>
I

fire
I;

to one of the houses."

In the following
buzurg-i

^Uj
lf

rihamd
,"

(Sa*dl)
is

^teA**^ (**& shumdam gusfand-i ra heard that a certain elder released a have

sheep

the ra

necessary to distinguish the object and

make

the sense

If

sarhang-zada
2
&

"an officer." Probably a copyist's omission; sarhang-zada-l ra \) 3\) v&A^ " W) ^j!iA^. be the correct reading, it means ** the son of the Colonel
of Chinglz

referring to a local celebrity.

The son

Shan

he reigned in Turkistan about 656 Hijra.


j.

Note these two pronunciations of

140
clear
:

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


first

omit it and buzurg-\ <^> at qualifying the nominative, gusfand-i

sight appears to be an adjective

Remark.
unity.
1

It will be noticed that the

t;

immediately follows the

of

(u)
4J

The

^5-

can be added to some

of the personal pronouns.

Ex.

(^frojji ij**>

adam-i chun man-i bar


' '

zamm nami-khwabad
;

(m.c.)

"a man

like

me

does not sleep on the ground

amad
act

(m.c.)

"a man

like

you came"
cU*>

^j* dl* jof adam-i misl-i tu-i **& ej*A^ <M^ <^U* L& adam-i J*M
"a

^T

misl-i shuma-i na-bayad chuntn bi-kunad (m.c.)

man

like

thus"; *
like

^^

jl<

<^f

f^T adam-i misl-i


1 '

u-i kar

you ought not to nami-kunad (m.c.)


be added

"a man
The
(v)

him won't work.


it

In these examples the

^ could

to f^f, but in this case


^c *^
is

must be omitted

after the pronoun.

not added to
p**>

U ma "we"
man-am
yak-%

&^ ^ )*

nor to &&>\ ishan "they."


dar in miyan ki
*f

one of these here who


single."
(w) In

"

<^j yak-l

"
(Sa'dl)

am

but

man

am

^6 ^c

"
(m.c.)

am

alone,

a negative proposition
:

the

none."
^A>

Ex.

&j*
laajf
)

^~

l^T anja

kas-i

must be translated " not a na bud (or anja hich kas na-bud

chanddn " much, so much ", as: ^'ta. ^***- o>^ ^ ^A*O^ ^^ ** I was in search dar just u ju-yi chunin ja-l budam ki (m.c.) man pty " <xij of just such a place as this \&y jyio ^>\ V^ ^^A^^ &&$- chunan
or to
cjf'**^

" there was not an animal there." hayvdn-i na-bud (m.c.) (#) The indefinite ^o can be added to the substantive qualified by chunm "such an one as this", or by eA^ chunan " such an one as that",

^^ ^A

(m.c.)

" there was no one there"

^f)

^^^ ^f

*'

shakhs-l na-bayad In taivr karha bi-kunad (m.c.)


:

"such a person
chanddn

like that

rabt-i biought not to act in this way" ^>'^ <j~*)** ^3 ^ <J**-> c>I^J^ " I do not know a great amount of Persian." zaban-% Farsi na-daram (m.c.)
111 This ^c can also be added to the substantive qualified by e>*^ A but not ham-chunan, chunm, &\**> \*$ an chunan ^^iacu*,* Jmm-chunin, &&*,

to these words themselves.

For the
chandan, vide
(y)

definite or demonstrative

(relative witli *$

with chunan and

42

(s).

The personal pronoun 1st pers. sing, man "I" makes its accusative o*o^M fj ^f**j&+& hamchu man-% regularly when the ^ is affixed, as ra as%r-i dast-i tu kard "he made a person like me a prisoner in your
:

^y

Similarly in the dative case

magar marduman-l ra

ki halat-i mutawassip. darand

gahrl In nawbat namirraead


(class.) (in

**
vagt instead of gahl)

modern Persian hlch

"but

to

men

possessed of a modest

competence only, such a thing never happens."

BELATIVB PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OB RELATIVE ^.

141

hand "
will

l :

>**"

^v

luJI

not select a fool


}j

crHH# like me as a

I)

<^* d**

O+^

by
:

^/o

J&o

^ft+A.) grjA \c&>.

Prophet." In neither case could mard


'

'**> Haji Baba "God ff& be expressed also This could


)j*>

be substituted.

^5 can sometimes be added to the infinitive used as a noun, (z) a telling of a secret * but raz-i guftani as ^ftf jt; raz-guftan-t a secret " one visit " Yak-didan-i to be told." one killing" (of one ; yak-kushtan-i
' *

The

' '

fic

person or of many). (ad) For the demonstrative


*

as a definite article with the connective

in relative clauses, vide

42.

42.

The Relative Pronouns and the Demonstrative or


Relative
.

HARF-l
(a)

MAWSUL OR HARF-I
3
(
) .

8ILA*

*1^
.

J^*. or J>*>^

).

There are no relative pronouns.


t:

ki is

the English sentence,


,

J^>- <Jr^ The man that came yesterday, came to-day ", would From this it will be be " The man that (ki) he came yesterday came to-day.'
'

used as a connective,

Instead the indeclinable particle &t Thus the Persian construction of

seen that in every relative clause there is a pronoun expressed or understood. If this pronoun is the subject of the verb in the relative clause, it is usual
to omit
it,

oblique cases it is often inserted. than in the classical language, as


:

except for the sake of special emphasis or for clearness. In In m.c., however, ifc is oftener omitted

mi-sham
in in.c.
(b)

;t>~ e>fy *^vo! asp-i ki bar an savar " the horse that you ride on it (the horse which you ride) the e/[^ would be omitted. The noun that precedes a Persian relative clause may often be
Ci

^^ ^

(class.)

regarded as definite, even if in English I 11 Persian this noun cs^ )-*


{

it

be preceded by the indefinite article

J^^

is
:

made
this

specially definite
it

by

affixing

a demonstrative ^5 even to the plural

^ connects

with the particle

Manl (j^>
is
**

P.,

is

also

sufficiency that

peculiar to

God

a subs, "presumption; egoism; also the quality of mam, AT., * the seminal fluid also man-i, as in,
' '

' '

65 man-t

thou art with me."

Persian

poets frequently

play on these

various

meanings.
2

Sifa

&be
:

conjunction

note that this


130

&
**

is

considered a particle

-^/

a*
)

and

not a pronoun Aa chi


.-.

for fuller explanation vide

Relative Clauses.'*
as

is

also considered
it is

by some grammarians

a connective in

relative

sentences.

As, however,

only in this use found joined to

j*

or of, as

^j*

and

A^vJl, and does not moreover admit of the "relative C5", the author has preferred to omit it and to treat the words **-j* harchi and *^cuT anchi as single words, indefinite pronouns. Anchi, harchi etc., are applicable only to manimate objects in the singular:
,

if

the antecedent
4

is

a plural noun, rational or

irrational,

*&

is

the only connective.

Thus "a fool who lights, or the fool who lights, a wax candle by day" have much the same meaning. If the noun before the relative is to be kept indefinite the sentence must be arranged differently vide (p) and Remark to (r).
:

142
ki.

BBLATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE ^.

As however this ^, unlike the of unity, 1 admits of the accent in modern Persian for the sake of emphasis, it is perhaps an extension of the Ex. *^** shakhsl-ki (nom.) izafat that connects an adjective to its noun. " a man who " or " the man etc." *$ shakhs-i the man
:

who,

that,

\)

^A^^

rd ki (ace.)
strative

"a

(or the)

person

whom."

It will

be noticed that the demon-

#> corresponds to the restrictive relative pronoun in with (r). English compare is called the ya-yi si/at or of qualification and implies the (c) This force of the demonstrative pronoun that.'

followed by

^
:

' '

'

This ^5, however, in such sentences as cux ^> A p*^^^c A^U^ kitab-l ki m\-khwaham ham-in ast " this is the book that I require ", is distinguislied by some grammarians as ya-yi mawsul 4r^> x> ^^ or y<*-yi muzmar j+*^*> ^Ij " the ya of the pronoun (the noun that is kept in mind}, or ^f ^b yu-yi ^nl " the ya equal to the demonstrative pronoun an ": while in such sentences
(
)

3 '

as

Os9i-~x> d*j>_

jf*&

&

.*>

<*r

~ AJ

el*

jUu

*o

(jJ^j*>
' '

~~*^ytj>
'

and call it such to be the equivalent of chunan " the ya-yi tawsijl <J***j* ^> ya b of description." For further remarks 011 relative sentences vide 130.
they consider the

a'

In writing, this
thus ACx*A3^ or &

can either be joined to the ^s^i.

*>

or written separately,

Remark.
^5, but the
*

The

after j&
J

and c/T^

is

^ of unity

as in *#

w^ ^^

probably not the demonstrative ^r^ j* ^We under tor

in Pronouns.
{(f)

The pronoun

in the relative clause

may

seldom expressed) or understood.

It is better to

be either expressed (but is omit it unless necessary to

the sense [vide {/)]. In the following examples, words in parenthesis do not belong to the examples, but may be inserted to show the complete construction
:

L$^ abla-l ku ruz-i rus/ian *y LS)>& Ct~ eA*) j " who fool the sham'-i kafun^ nihad (Sa'di) lights a wax candle in broad
Nominative
>Ai>aA>
:

day"-

j*
' '

that gives milk

mi-kunand (m.c.)
Genitive
1
:

t j ^ j\ gav-i-ki (u) shir mi-dihad *uvo &** &(,>\ ) A&JUjbj*. sarbazha-t " the soldiers who drill."
(

<fc

(m.c.)

the

cow

ki (Isfian) masJiq

e/

viJiu

^^ >JA*. ^
e
:

*$

^ & ^ an na man basham


^
of

ki

However
i.e.

in classical Persian both this

and the
41
(6).

unity had

the sarno

sound,
*
3

the

J^?^
'*

majhid sound of

vide

For kiu.

camphor." The adjective is frequently applied to anything white. Falconers even apply the term to a variety of hawk that happens to be unusually light

From

kafur

coloured.
4
t*/

*>

and not na-man \&

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE ^.


ruz-i jang

143

Him

puaht-i

man
of

(Sadi)
;

"I am
t>j*

not that kind of


J^*** *

man
"
;

whose back

you'll see in the

day

" battle

^U^

bimar-am kard
OM*|

cc

(m.c.)

the doctor whose

pills

^^b made me ill


(u$

tabib-% ki habb-ash

^j

a&JUjtiu.

^jj

" the stars whose &\> sitarahd-i ki partav-i shdn rawshan ast (m.c.)

rays are bright."

Dative

&j+>jj&a*

cJ^ (j&^>
<:

(Sa'dl) (shakhs-i
p*\s J)$ u*)*#

man

turd)

tf ^] ay ki shakhs-i man-at haqir namud oh thou to whom my form appeared mean "
;

L$r*t

pisar-l ki bi-pidar-ash put

dddam
f;

(m.c.)

"the boy

to whose father I gave

money

"
:

^^>\

*&/ v^

*^

^ii;

l^ijf^j

*xJU^w
t(

shahrha-i ki bi-danja (for bi-arifia] raftam liama-ra ab girifta ast (m.c.) cities to which I went, have all been washed away."

the

Accusative

^J>

tj^l

**

^^^^

shakhs-i ki (u rd)

dldam

*'

(m.c.)

the

&?*- *^f person whom I saw" (lit. that J saw him);^*^ A^A (J"<m c( he whom I beheld all kernel dnki rhun pista didam-ash hama maghz -(Sa'di)

^^

like the pistachio-nut

&tf )jj& *<jJUjLo marhd-i ki diruz (dnhd rd) " o^A^ " the snakes which we killed yesterday kushta budam (m.c.) A^U*t <c 5 A asbab-i ki dasht fiama rd farukht (m.c.) ** he sold all the things he h ^*JL?
' '
]
;

^^

had,

all his

property."
:

Ablative
khatar ast

" AT^U. " the proceeding in which there is a suspicion of danger khd-na-i ki (dor an or dar u) dakhil shitdi (m.c.) <4 the ^** i^L^ ( ^f house which you entered" c?Tj^ )*> jay-l ki(dar an) mi-nishinl
;

o~f^.k:L

AjJax?

^j

^ *f fe ^f

an kdr

ki da/r vay* mazinna-yi

(m.c. I

<^u*** "the place where you always


;
!

^^
+&

sit

';

w^
."
'

c>^t^*f c?^**t
ik

Jt

*^^^

****j%* lliyat-l ki az ishdn a$pka-yi

khub bifiam 'im-rasand {m.c.}

the black-

tent tribes from

whom good

horses are obtained

Locative

o^ioJt aja *;

^J^

^ **^ ^
)y
&

**
3*.

<^+$

gilim-i ki bar

an

he cast the rug on which khufta bud, dar rah-i guzar-i duzd anddkht (Sa'dl) he was (or had been) sleeping on the way the thief would pass e>&*^? of 3f
' ' ;

c<

^jyf

cux>fy

*A:CU **.

fjUo

^*j>

( vj/f

j*

az an bustdn

ki tu (dar an) budl

md-ra chi tuhfd karamat avardl (Sa'di) **what rare present hast thou in " generosity brought us back from that garden in which thou wert ?
:

had

turned out to be skin on skin like an onion," sterling qualities proved a fraud.
1
'

'*

i.e.

the

man whom

thought

Also mazanna *iA*

or az vay.
pile
.

3 *
5

fiP gillm

is

a cheap carpet without any


*'

But )**&\} Rah-guzar


Another reading
is

traveller, passer-by.*'
&*

4,^^

()&}*

e>T )

dar an bustdn ki budl.

144

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE

Tardam

na-rasi,

bi-Ka'ba ay A'rabi
ast (Sa'di).

K-m rah
I fear

ki tu

mi-raw* bi-Turkistdn

thou wilt never reach the K'aba, oh Arab, For this road thou goest leads to Turkistan."

i.e.

kas-i ra ki iqbal gh/ulam-i

u bdshad, or

iqbal

urd gkulam bdshad.

[This

construction has led to the following erroneous but now common construetion: a}- xi5) ^^. \^\ *S lj?.*s* mard-i ra ki imruz chub zadand duzd bud,

where t^y mard-i ra is the object of the verb in the relative clause vide(e)]. (e) There is another means of declining the relative (if in the dative or
:

accusative case)
consists in

commoner perhaps in modern than in classical Persran. It putting the noun first in an oblique cavse and then the connective
pronoun cannot be inserted in the relative clause, as
taken by the substantive in the oblique case at the beginning. kishtt-i ra ki Nuh riakhuday ^Jt> a. ^*| tj^b -^S * \^ J
(

<^
its

in this sentence the

place

is
:

Examples
'st

^^

bak az tufan "what fear from the flood to the boat whose Captain is in the dative Noah ? " In this example, instead of placing kishti-%
chi

^^

case at the

commencement,

it

could be put
tf

in

the nominative;

and the
ast

pronoun
\J*j

in the relative clause, expressed or understood, in the dative, as:

v^t <*^

o~f

fjtfk tj

fjjf

i^&S
\^^

kishti-i ki
X>
\)

an-ra

Nuh nakhudd

chi bak az tufan ; &j* '^^\

jJ^j

v_^.

zadand imruz murd (m.c.) 5 vide end of (d). to-day


'

" the

^zj*> mard-i-ra

ki dlruz chub

man who was

beaten yesterday, died

'

(/)

An
I

whom
sense,
(g)

expression like j*^o \)j\ *S ^af ddam-l-ki u-ra didam "the man saw ", though correct, is heavy: as u-ra \jj is not necessary to the
better omitted.
relative cannot

it is

The

be joined to the singular demonstrative pronouns

a cube." The cube-like building in the centre of the Masjid^&t Mecca it contains the black stone (hajar&l-aawad), white as milk when it first descended from Paradise, but now black from the defiling touch of sinful man.
1

Ka'ba,

lit.

'

^
3

The broken
Poetical for

pi.
l;

is

y^l
*

the pi. of

f*j

is v-j^c.

ctff

ki In rah.

tu ( dar n ) ml-ravl. <*Jj* ( df )* ) J>* ** This sentence, though grammatically incorrect, the noun at the beginning being the object of the verb in the relative clause, is not uncommon in modern Persian. The
4
6

construction in *>jfjUj f* c^# &>\& ^jf *-&^f/ <>sj+** \) bi 'wmr-i fara chang arand na shayad ki bi-yak dam bi-yazarand (Sa*di)
it

&

&

c5^J A
**

dust-l

ra ki

to a friend
is

whom

has taken a lifetime to make, offence should not be given in a


is

moment "

different,

as the accusative at the beginning

the object of the verb *i)fjl# biyazarand.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE

-.

145

an

and In ^t, nor to har j*> " every. " It is best to consider an-ki an-chi *^T, tw-W <*&*!, har-ki ^_.t*, har-chi &*-;*> as single words.
c/f
,

However the
and
*f

man

&ty,
]

mha
etc.

plurals of the demonstrative pronouns l^ij(, may take or omit the ^, thus

anan
:

a&J^T anha%-ki, or
definite, the

As the demonstrative pronouns are already anha-ki, definite ^c is a pleonism and may be omitted.
l$jf

The personal pronouns too


of the

are definite in themselves

and do not admit

relative
(m.c.)

^;

vide

41

(u).

A sentence
"
is

like *&*) *T

^1^1

tshan-t-ki

raftand

"they who went*


'

incorrect;

the

should

be

avoided.
(h)

As the

'

relative

'

^
is

before &t

is

be omitted when the uoun

already

made

used to make nouns definite, it can definite by the demonstrative pro-

nouns

[vide (g)] or

by j*

pustha ki dar khana-yi

cu-Jf yt *>Jixjj +ty &&> p X 1*1*^ j va an " and those skins blnand asr-i an-ast gazh-dum (Sa'dl)
har.

Ex.

that are found in scorpion- holes are the sign (remains) of that

"

^) w* j~> J
*

f^;^

&&* )*

& ^^^ ^^ ^-^ *-&8


'

^^*

cr*

^+&

e^l ^ guft

man

fulan-am va In

sang haman sang


I

man zadl (Sa*d!) "he said, am So- and- So, and this stone is that very same stone with which you struck me on the head on such and such a date " jt <^>& ^^-^ P ^s*** <s* ^
ast ki dar fuldn tarikh

bar sar-i

bi-guy a*, anha ki dlda-l va Ifjf shunida-i (Sa'di) 'he said, 'oh Sa dl, do you too relate some of the things " * you have seen and heard ^5^ ^^ Ai^fj, c>^; j} ^j* <&* &t>
guft a?/ S'a^i
4 c :

|j^ ^

lj&

^ niz sukhan-1

o^f ^

bidan band-i

** he vay nihan dashta bud ba vay dar avlkht (Sa'dl) closed with him by means of that tricky artifice (or throw) which he had kept " 6 jJuUi * \^ to himself har jd ki ravad bi-khidmat-ash p\&5\ jjSJ^iu ^^ y*>

ytharib ki az

iqdam numayand
*z+*+\ ^f^oh.

( *

(Sa*dl)

wherever he goes, he

is

well served

"
;

)t>

it k?uf ^

khwar

cu^t )\j^ va anja ki durr-i shahvar ast nihang-i mardumfOj* vJo^ l< ast (Sa'dl) and where the costly pearl lies, there too is the man-

devouring shark."

j ya k-l Sa'dl generally omits the <j? ; v^rp cA<J **&/ y* ** & y az anan-ki ghadr kardand ba man-ash diistl bud (Sa'di) 4 one of those who had mutinied
i

'

had a friendship with me.


4

' *

In

-tf x>l ***>)

*io>j c^-ty j^ a^l^jf


(Sa*di)

tar ast

va mardana va zurmand bay ad ki

yak-l az

shuma
is

ki dilavar-

"any
make

one of you

who

braver than
the connec,

the rest, and

manly and strong


&
(Sj** J*

of

arm

"
,

yak-l though it has a

before

tive *S is in itself indefinite.

If it .be required to

the pronoun definite

some such
",

phrase as

Jt

hw nafar-l
*s*~-fc&*o

ki az

shuma "

the

one of you who


c.

is

would

be

used.
3

If

the <^ were inserted

c>UA haman sangl-st (m.

).

*
^

Or dar

tarlbb-i fulan d)&*

&.$* )* could have been said.

yajt (Sa*dl)

But compare o^5 ^? Owo ($* j. '* to-day by that one single
10

&&

tt>f^?3j>y*t

imruz bidan daqlqa-l bar mandast

artifice

he overcame me."

146

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE


could be inserted. In the above examples the the In the examples following (i) ^ is inserted
1

^^

**

<J^*& of _

oif ^
cx**i

*\i*i

JLj

)*

ham-chu an na-bina-i

ki shab-l dar vahal uftad va guft (Sa'dl)


fell

"like that blind-man who one night


^Jli,

<>*;j^ ^U**!

Khurshid

Khurshid

Khdnum ast Rhanum "


:

"; ^AJ ^< tf ^sj&*s urf M dukhtar-i-ki rni-bim ismrash (Mod. Pers.) "the name of this girl that you see is
in the mire
H>$i
jl
<X5

and exclaimed

sjft^U

^^

jufcfyiuu* A>,

^-^^

ftar kas-i-ki nit-

khwahad bi-pushad bi-andaza-yi qadd-i u bi-burand (m.c.) "let it be cut according to the size and figure of whoever is going to wear it ": t har kas ki or &>j& har ki, or u*^* har ka$ could be used instead of har kas-i-ki.
y

In the above examples the

^ could be omitted.
^
unless

(;) As proper names are definite, they do not require the v^J# i>f tf z?*^* Mahmud special distinction be required 3^7! * "; but ^f guft (m.c.) "Mahmud, who came yesterday, said
:

some

ki dlruz arnad

)^ ** ^^f**^
bi-i'timad-i

Mahmud-i
sentence
vus'at-i

ki diruz

amad
is

"the

Mahmud who came


of

understood that there


OJ**>AJ

more than one


**

this

yesterday" (it being name). Similarly in the

vi/^-^j

v^L^
ki

o^V <j^'

o,-?j ^UxcU Ut

amma

akhlaq-i buzuryan

'avayib-i

zlr-dastan bi-pusJiand

(Sa'dl)

trusting to the breadth of nature

and magnanimity

of the great,

"but who hide


the

the defects of their inferiors


**^)j>. buzurgan-i-ki would
(k)

'

' ,

d$)\> buzurgdn does not require


(that section of the) great

mean "those

who

."

cede

its

qualified by a simple adjective that can prenoun (vide under Adjective) it is better for the adjective to precede,
If
is
**> tf

the noun with this

^i-^^^i-su nafchustln dushmati-i ki bar sar-i ishan takht khwdb bud (Sa dl) " the first enemy to attack them was asleep " ' " *x?^ t$ )j$z &<f Jj awal kaS'l'ki (m.c.) the first person who f\ " dilavar-tarin zan-i lei dida am (m.c.) "the bravest woman I have seen
v

as: ty

v^
!

d>^,\j** j> *$

'

^ ^}

tf *J\j

regret will be that

^ ^j^j* ^jj> buzurgtarhasrat'idnbdshadki " ^jU ^ ^^ &f ^ ^^f


:

(S^dl)

"

the greatest

_L?

{J

^^b

^^

na-blm-ki

bi-andak ranj-l-ki burdam chi maya-i ganj avardam (Sa'd!)

" dost thou not see

what an amount
"

of gain I

bi-aabiqa-yi m&rifat-l ki daxhiim p*&te ig**j** the former ." by friendship that we had (I) If the adjective cannot precede the noun (vide under Adjective) it follows it taking the relative ^, as: c^f j) yt* *&$ o^>^ y^^ dukhtar-i
?
;

trouble I underwent

"

have brought
&f

in

return for the small stock of

^^

diruz

amad

(m.c.)

" the pretty

girl

who came yesterday."

(m) Sa'df says: A


1

Similarly
' '
,

the nouns after


(for

^p->T

do not require the


*

4.5

anchi asp u mal-i ki


1

dashtam (m.c.)

had
2

anchi asp u mat ki daehtam) whatever horses arid property to a confusion of two constructions. be appears
this

In modern Persian
ki.

would be

&> OM*|

^f

o^**^. (&.j^)j* bmurg-tarin hasrat

in (Mi

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE


-

^5.

147

Ichwlsh ast
is

hukamd* gufta and baradar ki dar band-i khwlsh ast na baradar ast na " the wise have said that a brother who is wrapped up in himself
brother

neither

nor kin."

In modern Persian this would be ^;ity

Possibly Sa'di considered j^fy baradar in the above sentence aa a generic noun, or the copyist has omitted the ^. The reading in many Gulistans is barddar-i-ki.
barddar-i-ki.

*^^
^

can accompany a substantive preceded by a numeral when *& ^* }**+ ** it definite, as \j c/T *y &\> r* j\ fi~ " I broke si sanduq-1 ki az sarbdzdn bud dn-rd shikastam (Afghan colloquial) the three boxes belonging to the soldiers," but *$ o^^> *~* si sanduqki
(n)

The

it is

required to

make

'

*'I

broke three boxes belonging to


(o)

."

The phrase
If

^^
:

az qardr-l ki pj*** *&Jj* $

ma'lum mi-*havad means

41

as it appears/'
(p)

a noun
ki,

is indefinite

before a relative clause, the verb occurs before

<j?^j^ &^ of ;^ ^^^ ittifaq*" &x*)y cA^^ &lj&* l&* & dar an miyan javan-i l hud ki mwa-yi 'unfavdn-i sJiabdb-ash naw-raslda (Sa'dl) there was in that assembly, by chance, a youth, the flower of whose youth

the connective

as

fc<

had but newly bloomed''; *r tunity came which ."

tvcf

^jys mawqa'-i dmad

ki (rn.c.)

"an

oppor-

Sahmfjin

rib -I

ki muryjidbi, dar

u Iman na-bud

Kamtann mawj dsyd


'*

sang az kindr-ash dar rabud (Sa'di).


(a)

Such a terrible expanse of water that even the


safe in
it.

water- fowl was not

Its smallest

wave would have swept away a


is

mill-stone off its banks


is indefinite.

"
;

in this

example ^

understood after

db-i,

hence db-i

Vide

(r)

Remark.
(r)

Note the absence

of

^ in the following

11011- restrictive

relative clauses

aju^

eJfJ k.y*^ ,>d &> (j**^^ **b* } c~*t %z&*\ p\y* *t^>{ j^ &Z ^s&*~* J^-*^ j^b zikr-i jamil'i Sa'di ki dar afvdh-i 'avamm u/tdda ast va sit-i sukhan-ash ki dar
basit-i

zamln

v<

rajta (Sa^di;

the good repute of Sa*dl, which (and


of his words,

it) is

in the

mouths

of all,

and the fame

which (and
^fej$i

wide world

-."

^(a o*)^
ki

<vcT
liar

^ j* U *$
b

^^

it) has gone out into the O^A^ c*)U^ dar 'imdrat-i

^
<

hazrat-i sadr-i
of

a*gam

ma

du dmad u
AflxJU

raft

ddrim

(m.c.)
:

inthe palace

H. H. the Grand Wazir where we both have free access"


^5ji)3l

^U^aJ J& ^j&


VJ^

*^j

J ^jJt c$V**J^J

khub va kushkhd-yi buzurg u kuchik az ru-yi saliqa bd kamdl-i qashangi dar kindr-i rud-lchdna va
tak tak

qasrhd-yi

Should be

\j

^T

anha
'

ra.
;

% i.e.

"a

certain youth

'

the

noun

is

hardly indefinite.

148
bdld-yi

BELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE ^.

kuhhd ki mushrif bi-rudkhdna ast sdkhta and (Shah's Diary) "here and there on the banks of the river and on the sides of the hills, which
residences (and they) overlook the river, are erected fine palaces and summer both large and small, all in good taste and of exquisite beauty." In the is not added to kuh-hd, as the hills are not last example the restrictive
particularized;

^
The

would signify " those


indefinite article
>>

hills

that."

Remark.
as
:

J**t ^\j t^W**! ****';>}

yak <** yak naw'


is

will also

make

the noun indefinite,

zird'at-% ki

ism-ash rap ast (Shah's

" a kind of crop, which Diary)

called rape

."
indefinite article, as
:

However, a <^ before *t may represent an English

^ILol aJU^U &j2* )*$ )j*a* )& *^ir~j JJ*^I )y***> ja dar huzur-i u misl-i pisar-iki f{ he stood in his presence as a dar huzur-i pidar-i khud bi-istad istdd (m.c.)

son stands in the presence of his father


cxJdx&O *A}I

"
:

toxif

cj!jj>

^>

*4 &>

Ji

^^ fUj

xb

tamdm-i lashkar misl-i galla-i ki gurg dar


1

an uftdda bdshad

az

ham pashidand
($)

"the whole army scattered


."

like

a (that) flock of sheep

attacked by a wolf

Chundn
"
;

eA<*-

"like that, resembling that, to such a degree, in that


as,

manner, so
in India
*T, or

and chandan ^^^ " as many


Ex.
)
:

how much soever,

etc.",

may,

and Afghanistan but not


it.

in Persia, take the

omit
vyf

y'K *^/t J>xko


l

o'^a ^*

>

demonstrative ^c with "=! v laxL^o ^U^JLfeup ^U^

^ry*yc

^^

^(xa. yiuib

d/idagan maqbul

agarcM

kafir

du a-yi mazluman mustajab ast va nala-yi sitambdshand chunan-ki dar haqq-i an mahbus (m.c.)

oppressed is accepted and the cry of the distressed heard, even though they be infidels, as was the case of that prisoner (previously mentioned)" here instead of <*U^ chundn ki, **>&* or <*J^ could
*'the prayer of the
;

be used
nazd-i
just

xUyo

*-^tj^

shuma zira'at the same amount and


i^U J^

J^ U ^AJ c^t vi^tj>3 *+*> )$ *^^ chunan-l ki dar 1 " we have ast plsh-i ma niz zira'at ml-basJuid (Afghan)
quality of cultivation that you have tufan-i dmad chunan-l-ki dil-i md-rd

&

"
:

o*of

zf

as struck terror to our hearts (Afghan)": " chanddn ki howevermuch guftam qabul na-kard (m.c.) ^C I said, he did not agree; in spite of all I said, no matter what I said, he."

A^UA. (Afghan) "a storm came such


J^J^Iftf ^JIAAA.

J.

^^fc

khmhk kard 3

An Afghan might
For
with the
olia.

here say chanddn-t ki


is,

Hamchundn-i-ki

however, correct Persian.


ci
f

chundn and
vide

^
;

chanddn qualifying an indefinite substantive

^ of unity,

41

(#).

A Note that a plural verb after a collective scattered individuals.

noun

is

necessary here

to indicate

2 S

Chunan-l-ki

*^^

class.

rarely used in

modern

Persian.

In modern and

classical Persian *$

**f ^j^ 9

isfa*-

chunan bufan-i amad ki

would

be better.

THE ADJECTIVE.
(t)

149
40.

For remarks on the

definite article, vide

(u)

For the use

of the demonstrative pronouns

of ay, as a

definite

article before a relative clause, vide


(v)

40

(g).

As with the

of unity [vide

41

(j)

the singular do not admit of the relative <^.


ki dar sar

Remark], abstract nouns in Ex. Javdn bi-g&urur-i dilavari


:

o'>^ (Gul. Chap. Ill, St. 27). The relative 45 may, however, be used with plural abstract nouns,
az

darad ^*s)t>*

^tf*)^

as: cu-f **jj~* Uji A&jJlfjjUji (j ndfarmdmhd-i ki *& *c>y U^ a&xSlfAJjflb, khubiha-l ki shuma karda td.

ma

sar zada ast (m.c.);

Concrete nouns however in


*S *)\*j~ ;a
(w)
last only, as

may

take the relative c5> as

'

t$3kX*U

e^V 1* y
:

**

^f^i <^**

aS (Gul.).

When

substantives are coupled together, the

^
1

is

added to the

Khan Mid bi-u ddda ast kifayat-ash ikhtiyar nami-kunad? *&+* j^&lir cu**! a^yj JfU. &(. &*&* j ; ^! j&* (m.c.) *' but the authority and importance that the Khan has already given him are they
magar

izzat-i-ki

not sufficient for him

"

CHAPTER
43.
(a)

V.

The Adjective.
is

Ism-isifat (osi^^i).
)

The
(

adjective
).

called sifat

oA*

and the substantive

qualified

mawsuf

OJMJ^O

Persian adjectives qualifying nouns are as a rule indeclinable. In construction, they usually follow and are coupled to their nouns by the izafat,
as
:

asp-i qizil-i
(b)

man &* <J>*

>-~*\

s (

my

grey

horse."
its

In old Persian prose, the adjective preceded


In

substantive without the


their nouns,
*

izafat.

modern Persian, some few adjectives may precede


This construction
is

and

in this case the izafat is discarded.


'

called the

inverted

epithet

izafat-i

maqlubl

^^^
(

^t*

).*

the "^5- of unity/'

man";
The

*)te

Mpi^f

v>^ M&& mard-l (m.c) **a good Examples: hava-i mja darad (m.c.) "this place ^j* ^-^^ ajab

^^

The substantive has usually

has a fine

air,

good adjectives their substantives in this manner.

a good climate." JX mk "

" and

bad

f<

bad"
good

frequently precede

With the exception


'inverted epithet'
is

of the simple adjectives

"

" and " bad ", the

used only in poetry or in rhetorical language, or in


:

modern colloquial
3

for the sake of emphasis


signifies

in the last

by position emphatic and


(m.c.)

"a

really fine air."

example above, v*^p is Darakhshanda zan-i


sharir

**a bright,

cheerful,

woman";

mard-i

(m.c.)

1 Can this be a translation of the Arabic rummanl "scarlet like Qizil, T., "red." the flower of the pomegranate," the epithet for a nutmeg grey, or is it applied to a grey horse because in Persia the tail and legs of a grey are usually dyed with henna ? 2 Vide 117. 3 m.c. for duru&bshanda.

150

THE ADJECTIVE.

(t>j*j?.j**

"a

wicked man,"

etc., are

used in modern Persian and are more

emphatic than tfce ordinary collocation. the nouns (c) Arabic adjectives and compound adjectives should follow they qualify, but vide 117 II (e).
lit.

Turkish adjectives precede their Turkish substantives, as: (J$> J>i> (m.c.) "red-head," a name for Persian and also for certain other settlers in
' '

Afghanistan: L&-* fy qara-qush

the golden eagle

"

(lit.

the black 1 bird of

prey);^ty
(d)

m.c. for qarqaval

qard-kahar , adj., "dark bay (horse)." In Jjl? fy qardqdval, 'a pheasant," the first word is perhaps not an adjective.
'

The
'

many/
e>;

and bisyar (class, and mod.) "much, or take either a singular plural, as khayll (or bisyar) zan ( ;U~j or) ^J^adjectives khaytt (mod.)
:

"a

lot of
;

women "

women "

khayR

(or bisyar)

also zankd-yi bisyar ^-^

zanhd l^) ( ;U~J or) J^- " many c$Vj> but not zan-i bisyar zan-iziyddis,
;

however, used.

Note that

^^ unlike ;U~j cannot follow


"

its

noun.
for it

Note too that ^;Jo ^$*^ ^"^ 3V^ * s ambiguous,


jahdzhd-yi bisydr-i buzury
11

may stand

either for

many

large ships," or for jahdzhd-yi bisydr-buzurg

ships very large, very large ships."

For examples

of bisyar as

an adverb,

vide.

89
(e)

(/)

(2).

Ghand ^x^ is followed by a noun in the singular, vide 39 (g) (1) to (7). Chanddn oi^i^ has many meanings; "many, as much, how long, (/) " " etc." When it signifies much, many it is followed by a singular noun and in Modern Persian always by a negative verb, as chanddn sarbdz dnjd na-bud '* Uuf jLy. i^'o^ (m.c.) there was not a great amount of soldiery there ":
:

chanddn sar-rishta-t dar zabdn-i Fdrsi na-daram ^3 )* <k*;^~ c^t^^ " I don't know very much Persian." (m.c.) Remark. Chanddn sarbdz dnjd budand *>ty l?^f 3^ ^ <^i*- " there were many soldiers there", is old. their (g) In modern colloquial, one or two adjectives sometimes precede
substantives with the izdfat, as pir-i
:

^^ ^^

mard *?<;** a

' '

the old

man

' '
;

pir-i

mard-t

The young
Plr
is

of the

Golden Eagle

is

black.
:

any religious sect o&J jb .x> plr-i tfiriqat *a spiritual guide." Sabza-Maydan, a square in Tihran, is vulgar for Sabz Maydarl. Sabza &*** is also used as an adjective, "dark-complexioned," of people; rang-ash
2

also a founder or a chief of

aabza aat

o**

)A*

eA^;
vJl

(a.c.)
t;

but

ailrat-ash sdbz oat:

ll

he looks green,

ill."

^]{

x>y'f

*x*

>>iA

tf

(jj$

AXA

|-U!i

)& ^^vi ijUJ

>>*

J^J

" There was not a dark face, bad-looking, in the whole of Ind. 'Twas as though Ind were created of salt." " [The word green," 'sobza? adj., is applied by the Persians to a dark complexion, face is said to be " saltish" or " "ull of salt" while a or
pleasant

good-looking

J^c

_j:

the play on the words

is lost in

English.]

The Arabs, however, do not


mouth
"

consider the

word jpJU " good-looking about the

to be connected with J[>c JL* " salt."

THE ADJECTIVE.

151

eJ^^xj
m.c.)

the grey-headed old woman" W-* fartut-i (m.c. and class.) " a decrepit, worn-out old man" but JM bdyhbdn, or ^u &\*c^. bdfj&bdn-i pir (Afghan and m.c.) " the old
ld
;

" au

man"

pir-i

zdl

JfJ^

"

gardener"

lo^U^u pw nd*khuda, " the old Captain."


:

or^ ^f^li nd-khudd-yi

plr (Afghan

and

or

jj;

"aged" is an Afghan expression for JU te>j*t> dirina-sdl *^r^ dirina-ruz, or s^>^ JU sal-khurda. For the modern colloquialism L ^^A^ marhum-i shah "the late Shah "
Plr-sal JL-^jJ

and

bachclia

Turk ^Jy
117, III

*^->
(6).

or

Turk bachcJw
in

*fxJ

uiy

(for

^3
is

<texj

bachcha-yi

Turk), vide

In classical Persian, the


jfir-mard-l
(A)

izd/at

the above cases

omitted,

thus

<^y ^,
as: ._&>

etc.

Adjectives, without an izdfat,

may

compounds, " " docked (of horses) y^ dum-daraz " long-tailed, i.e. donkey" 3i>> c4/ " gush-dardz (m.c.), more commonly ij donkey" vSAftlT 'J\^ dardz-gush
;

c/S^ khush-rang "of

precede or follow nouns to form " ; toj {* dum-zada, pleasing colour


;

^^
ot

yardan-kulujt, adj.

4<

of strong-back (in a vulgar

sense)";
to

also

"a man

power, no weakling."
(t)

When

several

adjectives are

attributed

the same

noun they
izn*at
:

may

(1)

Be connected to
is

their
9

noun and to each other by the


(

this

construction

called

tansiq* s-sifat
'

ei>&^(

'"

^>-^^

the stringing,

or

arranging, of the epithets.'


)\*

Examples

kuh-i buland-i sangt-yi barf-ddr (m.c.)

ojo ^&~> ^->

t^ "the

high rocky snow-ottered

mountain":

ydr-i

gul-

badan-i shlnn-zabdn (class.) vybj eri^-^


' '

^ J^>^
*

the mistress with delicate

body and honied speech. a construc(2) The adjectives may be coupled by the conjunction vav j (A tion not common. o^f^ ^i^ Examples Ja p ^ft. sjty ^ w^JG a$ ^\
:

W
of

f^

e>-y

^3

^J

(Tr.

H, B.
in

soldierly appearance, he

was

though he was of a fine reality the most timid and pusillanimous


OLiap.

XXXII)

"

men."
j
.,

OSop. F.,,%

20.)

'

gallant youth there


to a

Pledged

was and fair maid beyond compare."


(East. Trans.)

xojbf *$

sJujax:

A^ (Afghan)

4<

what

From
In modern Persian

152

THE ADJECTIVE.

does he see but that Ayaz has opened a wooden chest and taken out some old

and dirty clothes." (3) The adjectives may follow the noun
junction
j,

in apposition

without the con90


***>

vide

139
did

(b)

vide (2) or with the conjunction j,


za'lf

(a)

Example:
l^aJl

shakhs-i
Ck

siyah-fam

anddm

(Sa'dl)

ftfU*

^^
"
:

(5).

*-&***o

he saw a person
j^AiL

dark-complexioned

^b iJ**
into

j j**j+ ^\)

^ ^.3xjM3

^^ c^-^ <^*^f
foolish,
!;

;1^>J

and feeble-looking *J " thou didst not fall


fickle

bondage to a youth, vain and

hot-tempered and

"
(Sa'di).

Remark

In modern Persian
it

would be necessary after


for the subject.

^^

shakhs-i, otherwise
(j)

might be mistaken
also qualified

If

the noun

is

affixed to

the

adjective
*aziz-i tu\

o)ij* [or awqat-i

by an affixed pronoun, the pronoun is and not to the noun, as awqat-i 'aziz-at otfjl " thy precious time."
:

The

I;

of the dative or of the accusative is


*j*
\)

added

to the last adjective

only, as: jy
9

^j* *-<
*H?

*'

robbers carried
c/2y*-

off

the Arab horse

"
;

*-*>.

<^tf

f***3j

b ^s)^"*
If

**jsJ^

^&)

''Isold the large finely-coloured moth-

a eaten Afshar carpet."

(k)

izafat

is

a predicate after the verb "to be " (in English), the of course omitted, as barf sard ast va dtash garm j o*i ^* iJ/j

an adjective

is

For a predicate pluml

in

English (substantive or adjective) and qualified


a

by an
(I)

epithet, vide
If the

119

(o).

predicate

is

noun

qualified

by an adjective

of the class

the adjective may, according to ordinary rule, either ^3 jx>, precede or follow its noun, as: pidar-i tu mard-i khub-ist o~jj^ In such cases the noun of the or pidar-i tu khub mard-ist cu-j^o v
in (6),

mentioned

^f^

predicate has usually the


(m)

^ of unity.
:

An adjective used

"the sages say":


influential people of
this plural is

substantively may be in the plural, as *,j&+* o*j c*!^^l<! j| az a1cbir-i Baghdad ast *'he is of the

^;>

Baghdad."

In such cases the plural


:

in

an

is

usual; but

khushnot rigidly adhered to in speaking: O^ P^ " 4< is and m.c. incorrect: big things ^>jj buz^^fha properly gilha-yi majlis **ixe (soldiers) as opposed to is sometimes in m.c, applied to persons f kuchak-ha; but olf;^ buzurgdn "the gr^at in rank forefathers."

c^M^A

'

<

l^y

In English, adjectives
(3)

may

occasionally take the place of nouns; vide (p)

and Remark.

1
*

The

singular duzd aja gives


'

an

indefinite sense

equal to the passive

either

a thief or thieves stole


'

or

'

the horse was stolen,"

scattered Turkoman tribe whose head-quarters a**e said to be in Azerbaijan. are nomadic and live on the produce of their camels and flocks. The men act as carriers and the women weave carpets. Nadir Sh*fc waa a& Afahar.
2

Many

THE ADJECTIVE.
(n) (I)

153

In a few instances in classical Persian, sometimes imitated by writers, a plural substantive, Arabic or Persian, animate or inanimate, is qualified by a plural adjective, Arabic or Persian.

modern

(2)

The use

of a plural Persian adjective to agree with a plural


is

noun

denoting rational beings


copied.
(3)

in imitation of
4.

the Arabic and should not be

For an exception vide p. 122, line It must also be recollected that,

in Arabic, all

broken plurals are

and may, therefore, be grammatically feminine singular, and that the commonest Arabic feminine termination is * sing., and of pi. * (4) and (5) Examples: <xu~^ ;<v e^$' j\ ^^y* &\*j* (Sa'di) "the brave men sprang out of their ambush": <^U? j ^ ^\^ ^LfexU (Sa'df) "they
collective nouns,

appoint coarse ruffians

."

Bishtar-i ishan dilavar an va bahddurdn-i kar-dzmuda* j c>U>^


**r*tf

o^ty^#

;^

c^V (Trans. H. B.

Chap.)

here

o ;^,> dilavardn&nd ert>^ bahddurdn


:

are treated as substantives and predicates to oUfi ^shdn and are qualified by the adjective kar-azmuda *.^jT;l<. Ashkhas-i akdbir j&i ^(^^\ (mod.) "persons, grandees," vide (1):
9

[akabw-i ashkhas "the great ones of


construction].

the people,"

would be an ordinary
^

Qasamha-yi
^oJtj

cfaildz

*U ^l^-j' (m.c.)
*\ . Je)U

"solemn oaths";

^^

(J^*&r

&lj^>

,>fo^

(mod.) "I swore strong and mighty oaths."


*

In the Quran

"angels strong and harsh," and this the Arabic for accounts plural adjectives being (incorrectly) used probably
occurs the phrase ^<*5
after
A^j^lx

U^JJ^ and

(f~~*.

Common

in jarmans are, flkc

^UjyL^ and f&

^1*
\

Shuhud-i muvassaqa

(rare) *5^A)

o>^

(or

nesses "; ^j^ JU-; or *jy Jl^j (but not in Pers.

&*&?* ^^*) "trustworthy witrijal-i aqwiya* &* J^;)*


is

"

strong men." (6) The regular Arabic masculine

plural of adjectives
:

sometimes used

for

men, but always in the oblique case, as Ghuzdt-i mujahicRn* tifcf**^^" *}j* " kubara*-i 'arifm &*j\* dy "great mystics." "true warriors of the Faith A regular Arabic masculine plural substantive may be qualified either by
:

a regular Arabic masculine plural or a masculine broken plural.


(7)

else, less

frequently

in Persian,

by
be

broken plural signifying rational beings may, as


*

in Arabic,

In some copies of the Gulistan dilavar occurs and no*

'""

Or

K^jf

)&(tf

)}$& ejLkjf^Lij^ Or

*ty$

j*i

ishan dilavar va bahadur-i kar-azmvda or blshtar-i Ishan


8

dill

Shidad ^f>A plural of Shadid *x>^, and ghilaz &%*

But \f

J^;

is

used in Persian.
pi.

Not

e^*^^

nom.

154
qualified

THE ADJECTIVE.
by an adjective in the masculine broken plural, ^t " the Imams/'
tahirin) ;t^f
(3),
:

as

A^imma-yi athar

(or reg. pi.


(8)

As stated in

pure Arabic broken plurals are collective nouns and


therefore also correct to say a*imma-yi tahira
;

grammatically feminine
*j*lJD

it is

hukkam-i 'azima **& (&*>, etc. but **j* Jl^;, however, does not be used in Persian, though correct Arabic. If, however, the broken plural is not applicable to rational beings, it is usually followed by a singular " the 99 feminine, rarely by a broken plural, as: asma*-i husnq <j^~^ *U*ot = attributes of God; ^<3^ ^&" exception ^* &&> c>^ vide (4).
&J|
;

appear to

>

Arabic regular inanimate feminine plural is usually qualified by (9) a feminine singular, less often of a masculine singular, and very rarely by a feminine plural: darajat-i aliya &J^ eL*p " high ranks" is commoner than while oUH* oU^a is rarer still. However, in a few instances a <^U
'

An

oL*;ii,

regular Arabic feminine plural

is

qualified

by a regular feminine
' '
:

plural, as
' '
:

euUJU?
the

eirUJ'b

first

pious works that are permanent occurs in the Quran.

"

oljJU c^Ula*:

<

high places

dual denoting rational beings may be qualified by a dual, as '* noble parents." walidayn-i majidayn ^x^U <^aJ(j
(10)

A dual denoting irrational beings or neuters is rarely qualified by a masculine singular, as tarafayn-i muqabil cMa/o ^J^Jb. but generally by a dual. (11) An Arabic feminine singular denoting a lifeless object is usually
followed by an Arabic adjective agreeing with
it,

as yad-i bayza tl*a#


f

c<

the

white hand

(of 3Ioses), a miracle"; rutba-yi "ulya UU &) It does not, however, always agree, as yad-i rahid ^Ij

"of highest rank/' ^ *' monopoly."


is

If

the noun ends in

CL, for
?

the servile Arabic


(3).

Ji,

the adjective

usually

masculine; thus

^U

CU*A

vide

(t)

When, however, an Arabic feminine


adjective ending

rational
(ya-yl

noun

is

followed

by an
is

with

the
it
-.

relative

nisbati),

the adjective
]

feminine:
**

if

irrational

is

masculine or feminine, as:

cs-JtrJ^ "

v^^ ^ u ^

A>ij^

V^^; t5^ ^+*> but

AjJUlc

^j.
denotes a rational being, the Arabic

(12) If a singular Arabic substantive

and adjectives in Persian usually follows the rules of Arabic grammar. (0) Summary of rules of concord of substantives and adjectives other than the ordinary Persian concord.
(1)

adjective should always agree with it. It will be seen that the concord of Arabic substantives

'ified

either
*
f

^ A

regular Arabic masculine plural denoting rational beings can be by a regular plural or rarely by a broken plural. broken plural denoting male rational beings may be qualified by a
ral,

a regular masculine plural, or rarely a feminine singular.


t

But

THE ADJECTIVE.
broken plural not of rational beings feminine singular, rarely by a broken plural.
(3)

155
is

usually qualified

by a

A dual of rational beings is qualified by a dual agreeing with it. dual of irrational (or neuter) things is rarely qualified by a masculine singular, generally by a dual.
(4)

(5)

singular Arabic feminine of lifeless things usually has the adjective

agreeing with it, but not always. If the noun ends in o for the servile

X,

the adjective

is

usually masculine.

An
(6)

Arabic noun
If

adjective ending in the yd-yi nisbatl and qualifying a feminine rational is feminine in form; irrational, masc. or fern.

a singular Arabic substantive denotes a rational being, the adjec-

tive should

always agree with it. Plural Persian nouns should not be qualified (7)

by a plural adjective,

neither Persian nor Arabic.

few Persian adjectives are also treated as substantives, as: " j fjt j 3.>f> e^a* j aliu (Sa'di) (thou wast ibyejT fkf ^jj t-&jj j ^&a. j(f)jj most fortunate that thou fellest to the lot of an old man) experienced and
(p)
(1)

travelled, one

who had seen


^-y*

the ups and


j

downs

of life,
,

and

tried its

good and
are often

bad."
so used.
(2)

The

adjectives

*& and
,

'^ j cW>
may

and

^JJb >

o~J

Adjectives, Persian and Arabic,


of ^AA>)

stand for substantives, as:


,

of^of

(pi.

" the dead

'

'
;

also

&&&$ and ^^o

vide

(r)

and

115

(r).

(3)

An
"
:

adjective standing for a substantive


:

adjective, as
sick son

oj* jj-^*) <*sj~*$

^^-

may be qualified by another t( c5>^L^ (Sa'di) a certain rich miser had a


** <jr^^ ^f (Sa'di).

*V*

c5t^

c&

*=***

lJiAj*H

Remark.
i

the past."

In English, -adjectives occur as nouns, generally in poetry, as: " and the "irreclaim" painful right George Eliot talks of the

able dead," but only a master of English prose can so introduce an adjective

by another adjective. an adjective is better, or as well, known as the substanSometimes (4) tive it usually qualifies, and hence is used alone, as c-Lj
qualified
:

Hindi here stands for


blade."
(q)

figi-i

Hindi.

Compare

"

my

Toledo

"

for

my

Toledo

as:

few substantives are in modern Persian treated as adjectives also, kishti bisyar aram bud (Shah's Diary) "the boat was f l;f ) #~J
{

&&

calm, did not roll

comfortable."

": e^( o^i; ^U~j C5^>i^> ^\ (m.c.) "this chair is very That dram and rdhat are considered as adjectives arid

not as substantives forming a component part of a compound verb, is shown by their having in modern Persian a comparative form dram-tar and
rahat-tar.

Tamizj+>

(for _>***>

judgment, discrimination) in m.c.

signifies

"clean."

156
(1)

THE ADJECTIVE.
(r)

The noun

of agency,

and

participles, are used as adjectives.

the present and past With these must be classed the verbal
as in English

adjectives in a.

The noun of agency is not much used. In modern Persian it is nearly an adjective: shakhs-i bakhshanda (m.c.) &x&4u o<aJ "a liberal always man"; ru-yi darakhshanda (m.c.) *xiA)^ ^^ "a bright-looking, cheerful
(2)

face''; mard-i

'

ata-kunanda (m.c.)

*>ixf

Ife*

a generous

man."

Vide

H5

(r).

Even

classically, the

noun

of

agency was used as an adjective:

"In synagogue and


Hell's terrors

mosque and school, and Heaven's lures men's bosoms rule. 0. K. Rub. 49
cloister,
is

Whin.
from an

Remark.
obsolete

The adjective *M*jA sharmanda "ashamed" verb e* >**>.


**'

The
Pers.,

adjective farkhunda *>i^y


;

is

connected with

Pers.,

fromy

far,

beauty, lustre ", and In charand u parand >ijg j


In m.c., charand

"

rukh, Pers., "cheek, face."


*

dropped.

the ^^ "grazing beasts, and birds," " an adjective, meaning bosh, rot ^^ alone,
is

is
' *

Manand,
'*

prep.,

" like"

(in

India vulg. manind),

iuS

from the verb

to be like, to resemble."

other adjectives, possibly derived from obsolete verbs, have this {< agent form, as diranda (m.c.) >J^ slow to act."
:

A few
(3)

Present Participle c>D^ eA'0> ^ ** ^^ J^" T^^^'* 3; of c^j " 1 said you are like the fox who was seen fleeing c;^j (Sa'di) and stumbling blindly in its haste."
:

away

(4)

Past Participle
c

jj^C^
table

* s

(/Sa ^?)
:

in short

i;_y J^U j none had ever seen


9

his

spread"

(Shah's Diary)

them":

ty.j^ jjj BH* ;^ l$~^U? gilds-Jia " the cherries too were ripe and (the trees) well laden with ^j^iwU kar-i na-pasandida kard (m.c.) "he committed

house with open door or ham raslda va pur bar bud

^^

a displeasing

(or reprobated) act.

* '

(5) According to Platts, mast, dust, and a few nouns and adjectives were once past participles. (s) (1) The Persian adjective ^xj appears to have a feminine r^j;

&J V*v fc^ -*

</^ -^

*&

(L>*

il

Jb;

e^O^

C5^

(Sa'cfi)

"

Thou wouldst not have

treated

me

roughly in these days

When
Pira-zan
It

ihou art a strapping youth and 7 a poor old

woman."

cjj

s^u

is

also used in m.c.

must be

recollected that Persians

sometimes express or emphasize an

THE ADJECTIVE.
izafat

157
*

by writing

it

as

Possibly, therefore, this

may

sfeand for

an
<;

izdfat y

vide

(g).

(2)

"

me"

is used by women for the In modern Persian, pronoun when writing to a superior, vide pages 51 (/) and 69 (e).

&^

"

or

In classical Persian,

****

kamina

is

generally used as positive masculine,


+

"

mean,

vile."

*\*&

^(fiXw

uA

*c

)&

1>

^ijj

f J*-i
(SadI).

&

y&&

(t)

(1)

"Permit me for I am just a humble personTo rank and sit amongst the slaves." As stated in (n) (3), all broken plurals are grammatically feminine
is
.

singular, arid the Arabic feminine termination singular


(2)

This feminine

is

frequently

added to Arabic

participles
:

and

Examples masha*ikh-i adjectives even if the noun qualified is Persian. " the mazkura *)** ;~5U^> (class.) Shay kbs mentioned above"; "the women described"; ty^*^ oUuitf " the duties mentioned
^^JLoj^j

Axiyyo mukatdba-yi

marquma

bi-dusti (class.)

*'

correspondence written

in friendship/'
(3) If

the

fern,

rational beings, or
JU*j,

if

noun is Persian or Arabic, singular or plural, and denotes the qualifying Arabic adjective is of the form JW* or
is

the adjective

usually put in the feminine singular: al*


<f

o^^
of

or

(perhaps incorrectly)

cW< o*+^

perfect wisdom," but cU

^^

man's

power and
(4)
it

Al<tf

If,

o)x? of divine power; vide (TZ-) (11). however, the Arabic adjective is separated from the Persian noun

if it is a predicative adjective, it is preferably left in the " masculine form, as: *^*f cU'b ^LxL cjjy " she is a very intelligent woman. *

qualifies, or

In

e^j e^?t **this woman became famous in the town," a^Sfc/o^A to substitute be better would ;^^.

txi

it

(5)

It

appears that

it is

optional in modern Persian to add a


the
:

'i

to Arabic

adjectives and

participles: in speaking
1

writing
writing)

it is

"

generally inserted.

Examples

generally omitted, but in y*U* ^UJ (m.c.), or fj^k'^lJ (in


* is

rich apparel

"; >!J* S^U*

(m.c.), or

*>?J*

x^wfc

(in

writing).

There seems no

sufficient reason for


:

adding the

to faKhir in the previous


i'

in

example, as libSs is masc. in Arabic in fr^ <j^ the is correct, as khil'at o^JbL has a^l* os*U> the
termination,

is

never added

but

itself

the feminine

used as a substantive signifying " a woman (in m.c. especially a married woman)," the feminine termination is only added to *-AVA* when

As

&&****> is

the qualified noun


1

is

a rational being: *-***+

e^U> madiyan-i

za'tf

"the

adjectives

The author is of opinion that it is better to add the 8 when they qualify a noun, Persian or Arabic, that

is

to all Arabic participles and feminine either logically or

grammatically.

158

THE ADJECTIVE.

weak mare," but madiyan-i za'tfa "the mare of the woman": " the feeble lady" is commoner than &&$*<* ^JU.. (m.c.)
In
AaJiXp

word

is

court of justice." the second an Arabic abstract noun formed according to rule, from the relative
jjj^-o, generally translated
to Arabic participles will be seen

"a

adjective.
(6)

The advantage
:

of

adding

from the

following

" the deceased woman/' but (*>^ x ^3 "the wife of the " " the river *A5l^ iXK^ deceased intervened," but *# u*;y. j here <J5U^ could be (mod.) "the intervening river prevented an assault"
Axyx^x

it is a qualifying adjective and is not feminine. not predicative, though or participles that are commonly used as adjectives (7) Arabic adjectives There is, however, no rule; for inflected for gender. in m.c., are seldom

substituted, but AMU*, clearly indicates that

Persians that pride themselves even when contrary to Persian


in

011

their Arabic, will use Arabic constructions,

grammar and

idiom.
is

The Arabic past

partic.

m.c.
is

means ''pretty," and " used in m.c. for

hence

rarely inflected:

however

(8)

In 4U)U

oi?

pretty girl," as well as J^a^^.1^^. (m.c.), there appears to be no grammatical reason


in Arabic for

for the feminine termination.

most

of the
(9) *

common words
s*

Possibly the explanation lies in the fact that conversation are feminine.
'

'

Musammq
*
1

"

fe*~*>

named "

+>

(in

Persian written and pronounced U~^


*

and <^>~" musammi) has

for its feminine

musammat o>U~^
C{

^
(10)
t

&

(^

called Haji Blbl

"

^ ^^*
;

vsU
l

but

^
is

^j ^^

Issjf (m.c.)

there he married a lady


U

*U

j^v
>>

U~*>
is

^^iU

^ ^ ^^.
**

In India, in written documents

ci^U**^

prefixed

to

almost every
(

woman's name and


*

Mrs., or
?

Madame,
is

or Miss.
ulya-jdh

Ali-jah slaxJU

used as a form of address for men, and

aU. IJ^ for

women.

'THya

UU

the feminine of
i.e. U>U. IJLc

^^
"

the elative of
to

^^.

The construction appears


1

to be Arabic,

high as

rank."
it

Nikah

in its literal sense signifies 'conjunction


its

',

but in the language of the law


part. fern.

implies the marriage contract and


**

celebration.

The past

mankUhah A^yX-c

joined in legitimate wedlock

'

applied to a

woman

married by the ceremony of

&

as opposed to that of &***> (lit. usufruct, engagement), which is a marriage contracted for a fixed period and for a fixed sum a kind of legal prostitution. In Persia the word

****

is

used only by the learned, the term

**>>?*

siyha being substituted both for the

ceremony and for the temporary wife. The children of a riyha wife are legitimate, but do not rank equal with those of a &A>J&*> mankuhah wife, except in the eye of the law. Though the Prophet sanctioned temporary wives as a preventive to vice and the Shi'as still practise such marriages, the Sunnis consider them unlawful. Kirman, in Persia, is noted both for the number of its *** ?igha women and of its prostitutes.
'

'

THE ADJECTIVE.

159

is still an address for In India, and probably in Afghanistan, U persons of position, but in Persia it is used for JjjG ^.5l> ncfib vakils, etc. (11) An Arabic feminine elative is often used to qualify a feminine noun, " " the most Persian or Arabic, as dawlat-i 'uzmq j^Jap <^Jj* great empire

^U

'

"the smallest sister"


jjj^

&>kc ^ <]$&* OAAA^

^t

fi&&

ty **'^

ofy cJ*V

^^

*f*

&

of*aa.* ^ &/cf

kj*f Iq. Nama-yi J.,

Ed. Bib. 2nd., As. Soc. Beng.

Remark.

If

an Arabic adjective
is

of the

measure cU>f has


9
(

an

elative

signification, its feminine

on the measure

\^*>

but
f

if it

denotes colour or
fern.

deformity
S\

its

feminine
fern.

is

on the measure *&*, as

"

j**>

yellow,"

"lame,"
(u)

Arabic participles used


rule,
:

^is

substantives
friend

make
ll

their feminines
&*>

in

according to

as:
*
9

er*

v^^" "my

(male)";

i^x^x

"my
"
;

friend (female)"

f?*j* "deceased (male)," &*j^j*>


;

deceased (female)

^^x^ and

A3y^/o

afiJJa*>

4<

a divorcee."
is

In classical Persian and Arabic, <j^^


while (jji^*^ or vj* 3*"
of

generally used for the male lover,

"the beloved"
it is

is

generally considered to be feminine


fc

necessity,

and hence

not necessary to add ar

to

distinguish

it

as feminine.

" which a rule that " nouns by their nature can the do take feminine termination. to females not Sa'dl, neglecting apply only " this rule, writes M^l^ pregnant," but observes it in the word (j^*^
In classical Arabic,
it is
4
(

mistress."

'Utnar-i Kliayytim, however, uses ma'shuqa

And

In Paradise, they tell us, Houris dwell fountains run with wine and oxymel

be lawful in the world to come, 'tis Surely right to love them here as well."
If these

0.
9

K. 185 Whin.
both a sub-

(v)

(1)

Mushkil Jlwo

(pi.

mushkilat)

is

in classical Persian

stantive and an adjective.

In modern Persian it is generally used as an adjective only, ishkal being usually used in writing and in in.c., for the substantive. (2) 'Umda **+* is both a substantive and an adjective: i*+j^ "an
excellent

J^

thing"; ^y

^Jby^ J^w

<{

jfy (mod.)

he was one of

my

best

Great offence was once given to a Persian Governor by the Afghan interpreter of
official

a British

ignorantly writing to him as 'all-jah tk

160

THE ADJECTIVE.
1

customers'
66

*tjij}

x*+*

*'
)\

of the best of the ministers"; f,i>Aax>

$&**

jt

my

real object."

(w) (I)

Two

substantives are often substituted for an English substan:

tive with its adjective, as

OJ^A> t>jjb cu*# ) "he was endowed with high aspirations, a noble ambition" c>U* *** <^iy^^ &LU " o,**> " by the previous acquaintance we had ^y U> (Sa'dt) &\y~> (Sa'dl)
(or ty
: ] ;

^ v3^*yoo^A ^AxJLw

"by former
days"

beneficences,

by previous favours"

(*l>*

J^fj** (m.c.)

''former

became changed to good ones " _j& AxjjV (m.c.) "what is necessary for a journey "; ^xi &c)iJ (m.c.) "what planning is " e^.^ ^j (Sa'dl) " what is proper to necessary, the right course to take -=~' ( *)t or) w^'lacu: jl j ^t "this is a wonderful good companionship";
their nature, his evil qualities
;

(Sa'di)

"by

the felicity of the companionship 2 of dervishes and the purity of

"
exploit
:

<xxi-^

health";
' '

JU*'

oy j
4<

<ui)

JU^ ;^

(SJiah's Diary)

"they are

in perfect bodily

the highest perfection";

^^
^^
*
^<

complete
(2)

error.
j*^

Kull Jf Ar., and

Per., are vsubstantives


*$ AJT**

while ^tf, fern.

A^
is

is

an Ar. adjective.

In sentences such as,

" there <J^ JUi^' (m.c.)

every probability that


Kuiliyyat

",

kulll is

sometimes mistaken for a substantive.

&&

is

also

an Arabic abstract noun


sense.

"
totality

"
;

the Persians

also use kultt in the


(3)

same

o>

The Arabic substantive ^r^ an d

its

antonym

*)

are in classical
:

and

in

modern Persian frequently used instead


+
*

of adjectives

*&lb

^f

^^ ^

c^-iu
this

&* (^
sect";
*

er-*^

(Sa'di)

"he

entertained the

very
9
f

highest

opinion of

vJ>^Ju

r^^

"upright conduct"; v^

er<^ **good manners";

<jjUjf

i^xu

"

by great good fortune, or very luckily

"
;

fl&if
is us

.9 ^r^

"

good adused.

ministration, also good discipline, etc/' " " the good thing about him is this

m.c. phrase

vulgarly also

^f^j^ &~*

is

(pl-

of *i^^

the

fern, of

<j^U

"
)

"
precedents
:

&^<

birlcar-i sabiq
2

4t

based on a precedent."

In m.c.
'*

^3Eu0 means
(pi.

''conversation, also

" mention "

^^1^ OAS^
' *

i&A^UMiy jf

(m.c.)
3

he spoke in strong terms about him."


of
A^-x/oi)

gama'im
4<
)

"misdeeds, reprehensible qualities:

Jiama 9id

(pi.

of

84^4^.

laudable actions or qualities."


jf*

* Note that the hamza in the Turki 8u " water."

distinguishes

it

from the Pers. su "direction " or

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
Similarly with sy#
1

161

" <JU* * " evil " 1&& ty evil thought, suspicion " " ^ bad +<*& or j~ *j~> doing" J plight" indigestion"; ^^ *y ^^ *f " rudeness *wl^ $?* "evil end bad temper or nature. Jjl^ *r*> " is not so " a common or well-known matter (x) The classical j*U ^^iu*
:

' '

'

'

' '

'

'

common

in

modern Persian,

as

^f+* c^**>

or

^ *U ^^^

(m.c.).

'Umumi

is

an Arabic adjective. A few Arabic adjectives and some Persian and Arabic participles are, (?/) before a substantive, followed by an izafat instead of by a preposition
:

J&c
'*

' c

JUu/o (8a di]

it

is

contrary to reason"; ooG ^'ij


cu^: (+&

o^

(m.o.)

contrary to sound opinion

"
;

^i <^^^

"
(rn.c.)

this is not like

your

usual good sense."

Muhal-i

mumkin ^+^
vJ'b

Jt^x* (m.c.)
*

is

a vulgarism, apparently for muhal

na-nmmkin
(z)

^^./ob j Jl^x/c.

In

m.c,

moans "

clean,

and religiously pure," but JUo means


<{

^smooth, level"; o>^ ^*>, however, is to strain liquid through cloth," clean." and o^ j -b is and Indians Afghans use cJ'U in the sense of "pure" only, and <JU in " also ll " of clean
' '

the sense

completely wholesale

(of

a thing)."
121

Remark
(aa)

I.

For the negative use of


of

^ andy +f

vide,

(6).

The addition

ana

<*>

to substantives forms adjectives,

and to

adjectives forms adverbs, as: **\tyo manly, virile ": " <c ^ malik of muluk, pi. king") *>\^& bravely, boldly
:

"

&>\4^*

&(&$

royal (from AilA^f - AilUU


;

t(

vide also

108
*

(a).

After a

vowel/ the usual euphonic change

is

made, as: danayana

&UUi^,

etc.
Ail^Uuaf

adverb

is

"in a more masterly way" seems to be an exception, as the here formed from a noun.
44.

Compound

Adjectives.
/**>

(a)

whole phrase

Any noun with a particle prefixed may become an adjective, or a the man possessed of may be an adjective JU I ^ A
' c
:

property: o^jj^ij (Sa'di) ^poor-spirited": Jf^^U pa dar gil (m.c.) = sar dar hava (m.c.) "awkward, thoughtless" jjjjLo^^ dar manda: \j*>)t>j<
sar bi-giriban &\**j>>j* *'full of thought,

anxious"
" out

e>'^

**>

kun-ma^kun
"fearing

e^^

none":

^^ ^
i

"hesitating; also
has

command": uy^
of

^ignoramus"

has ma-tars
outlandish

ma-purs

the

way,

Jlacuxj^jja.

"impossibility."

11

162

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
i^." In sar-i dast 0*0^* "ready at hand," sar-i zaban the tip of one's tongue," sar is practically a preposition.
(>(>)

j~

"on

An epithet may consist


" jang girifta (m.c.)

of

a whole clause, as

<jw>&
:

w*Acw l**>

banda-yi halqa
mulk-i dar

bi-gush (Sa'di) "slave with a ring in his ear

"
A!*/ <_&^;j>

c&x

country taken in

" war

o;^l^

^jfj j

Ai~<

^SAf efj^

*x~^

l<

(Sa'di)

a merchant whose ship has been wrecked and an heir

who has

associated with Kalendars

"

(fla'dt).

"

Oh thou

that displayest thy virtues, but concealest thy defects."


pj

mara bi-khalvat-i f^x5 karam kuchak-i si su-yi basta-yi dar-ash bi-su-yi rjushuda bi-khwast Tr. H. B. Chap. XVIII, "he called me into a private place, closed on three sides,
o*tj.=su fc(Z*
LS}"^

u*P

<x

^ C5^ *^ u5^^^ ojlj


9
'

with "

its

door opening into the harem.'

Note the position of ^ in: ^ *vxJ^U ^ ^ ^^x ^.{j ^f^^j?^ have never encountered such a difficult law-case as this." (b) Compound adjectives are formed
:

(m.c.)

(1)

Of an adjective or participle prefixed


-

to a

noun
} >
j

*=*f3 ^A

erf

ugly face
i
i
4.

*-*> i, broken-hearted

both elements, Persian. both elements, Arabic.

vJukJ of gentle disposition


.
.

^
,

in

wretched circumstances

>

of pleasant voice

ill-tempered

^i
J^ ot*

with moustache just coming


pure- hearted

Mnixed

elements.

Ja ^JL, simple-minded, rather stupid J

Remark I. Compounds with e>i and The compound fi ^i^ is common. quial.
Remark
^G^iUI

are

rare

in

modern

collo-

II.

The adjectival member can


J5.

qualify- two substantives, as

strong, 'All

Qajfcir

Jbj Jb ^y jij> f^W (.ftf. CVzap. F/) " here by name J^ Jb c^y stands
;

"a

muleteer stout and

for Jlj

In modern Persian the former construction


(2)

is

preferred.
:

Of a Persian noun prefixed to a Persian adjective


sad, bored,
oppressive.

In modern Persian, both in writing and in speaking,


5jJ=

*-

and

or

-AxW

and <-M^
(pi.

JU.
'*

$5n

of

^n)

notes'*

ilhan inftn.

t(

chanting."

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
(lit.
>

163

round-toothed) v ulg., a thief.

one that drives hard bargains.'

Vide also adjectives of resemblance, No. (25).

Remark.

The members
"
<*+&*>

of the

o or 4ji^
(3)

grey- beard, old


:

compound are frequently man, etc."


'

inverted, thus

Two nouns

vide also (16)

lion-hearted
r
.

")

both elements, Persian.

lairy-cheeked with tlie appearance of

an ^
[both
j
!

an

el -

Arabic.

diabolical in thought

*J ruby-lipped
scattering pearls

billowy

as

the ocean (of a

^.Persian
j

and Arabic.

large army).

munificent
w^J
,

)
[
)

Arabic and Persian.

oyb

ruby-lipped

Remark.
as
l

Rarely the compound consists of two Arabic broken plurals,


(t

v->t*yf

(^d^x;

^jcliv^f

people of exquisite mariners

"

vide also (16).

(4)

Of a substantive, Persian or Arabic, prefixed to a Persian verbal


^li,* (jiof
h're.

root

scattering

"1

$$ J>
2&

heart-afflicting.

Lsubstantive Persian.
)

^^
Ifci t^x>
^4-=

world-conquering.
fault-forgiving.

assembly adorning.
x)

) 8 ubstaiitive

Arabic.

AlLxj

"Pardon

these hands that ever grasp the cup,

These feet that to the tavern ever stray."


(0.

K. 884 Whin.)

often a passive, not an active, sense, as: ^wj txk " known ru shinas khuda bakhsh "given of God": <jA& by face, i.e. " tamed (of wild birds, etc.)" JU acquaintance" 3>^T ^"^ dast-amuz

This

compound has
:

^U

pay-mal

"

trampled under foot."


"lion"
often an

In modern
' '

as

well as

classical

Persian,

shir

is

adjective

' '

brave.
2

Mahasin (*y(^*>
:

pi.

of

nr^

<f

beauty, any good quality; the moustache and

beard"

adab v^f,

pi.

of adab ^&\ manners.

164
(5)

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
Adjective (P. or A.) or adverb prefixed to a Persian verbal root
*
LvJ
1

sweetly-singing.

well-wishing.
^

ft*

*-&)

quick apprehension.
thinks after
the deed
is

[>

prefix Persian,

who

1+J^.xft'

done; imprudent. mild looking, but not


reality.

>so

in

1
I

.
.

..... uj fy>c apparently oppressed, but


reality a tyrant.

in
j

-prefix Arabic.

Some

of these

compounds have a passive


t(
:

signification, as )

be obtained, scarce." experienced, a beginner" v^ f (6) Of substantive (P. or A.) and past participle
difficult to
:

<)^
,y

experienced. r

i
i

substantive Persian.

T>

c^JL^ tried in battle,

proved. one that has seen trouble.

j
"i

shame- stricken.

J
1

substantive Arabic,

whose owner an animal).


In a few words the
"foremost,
perfect; also
final

is

dead (abuse to
j

is

subs, froth,

dropped, as j>/f ^) "rusty": scum; a chief": ate laA "given by


:

God."

Compounds
"of ill-omened
(7)

of Arabic

nouns and past participles are rare :


k
-

unlucky." Of substantives with prepositions,


irreligious.

fate,

*J

<y -j*

yj

j>.) 9

etc.

unjust.

cowardly. unwise.
lasting.
}
>j

imperious, tyrannical.
subordinate, oppressed.
useful.

ti

useless; vide (10)].

9
jjV

b (m.c.) of robust frame, I wealthy.


I b

jj
j

with

salt

pleasant-featured

pleasant of conversation,

possessed of sense.
a Persian verb from the Arabic root
fefaajlat.

From

c"**+t

Properly cJtap^

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
(8)

165

Of a substantive, or a Persian verbal with the prefix p&


j +*>
'

bed- fellow.
__

v
j

Persian substantive
.

fellow-traveller.
T*
'

*a of the same age.


school-fellow.
A

)
;

, "^ *

Arabic substantive.

,.

^;
3^>

travelling together.

(9)

A substantive
^j>3 f*
1

^A playing together. with the prefix

as a privative
.

cuiu +$ unfortunate (contemptuous). r


'

weak.
inexperienced.
,

1 ^ ^Persian substantive. J
.

aj^su

^.r

cucUu
(10)

..

possessed of

1.1.^1 -x i little capital.

r Arabic

substantive.

U a prefixed to adjectives, substantives, Persian verbals and past participles (compare with 12)
:

Na

H^ ^ displeased

(class.);

unwell

(mod.).

impure; in m.c. saucy, roguish ^adjective, Persian. (of a woman, in a good sense).
J

not liked. ^ under a ore, immature.


^
IJ

J
) '
^

A u adjective, Arabic.
...

,.

*>

rough.

impure intent. inconstant not durable.


;

of

k useless.
1)

>

various compound*.

out of place.

^ of

mean

resolution or ambition.

ignorant.

not understanding, U rude rough. xity


;

C unpraised.

unabridged.

Was
L>

e'er

man born

that never went astray


0.

"

K. 391

unmanly, coward.
worthless.
hopeless.

l->

Ij

For the negative use

of

f$ and

^,

vide

121

(6).

In compounds usually na and not no.

Before an

infinitive either

l->

or

166

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
In modern Persian

&

is

frequently used instead of


Aiafcvj li

li

as

Axafaoi

o*&/

in

modern Persian

is

preferred to

o^/ **x^
:

cc

(*>

^J

rice

not steamed

(after cooking)."

In negative compounds, when part of the compound is a verbal root, the '* Godless vl^ l*/^ negative should immediately precede it, as vj& !*** "not having slept." Sa'di, however, has <j*^ (j*& for <jj^ J^.
'
'
:

Remark
(11)

I.

In speaking, na-ghafil
l

is

often used for *!AP

an
gh.afl,at
.

The privative^*

yhayr-i
:

prefixed to Arabic nouns, participles, and

phrases, and Persian adjectives


X

j^ g&ayr-i insaf
x*

ghayr-i tahqiq

contrary to justice (not unjust). " not verified.'


7

absent.
p unconditional.

11 ^

or(i er or

proper arrangement.

not in use, obsolete.


(fern.)

unmarried

(wife).

uncultivated, etc.

involuntary.

not allotted.

uneducated,

ill-bred.

(m.c.) unofficial.

incapable of being cultivated


irrecoverable.
fj

o^ jj>j^ ^ **A o^jl^jJi^jji

jj)'

^
of,
is
,

^7

(Shah's Diary)
in lines

14

men and women without number were everywhere drawn up


Remark. In *<*e^/c jc "not taken possession " immovable
viz.
:

on

both sides of the way."

unappropriated" and
feminine to agree with it is not clear why the

AJjiux j**

(property)," the participle


*JJU'.

a broken plural understood,


feminine
is

In

A-'yiU

used.

In Persia, but not in India, the izdfat always follows j**

the use of^J^


is

is

rare

in

modern

Persian.

In Arabic
^
^*i*

^6

is

a substantive, and

when

privative

followed by
is

the genitive, as:

CJ^
JL

"impure."
nom.

Possibly the izajat of tho_>J^ in Persian

corruption of the
ft

of the Ar.

case.
2
51

In Persian often incorrectly written and pronounced

alu.

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
Sometimes the participle has the
inherited."
(12)

167
it,

added to

as:

^5)5*

j& "not

Arabic

SI

Of a Persian or Arabic substantive or adjective prefixed by the "no, not" [compare with (10)]:
;

&;lj K belonging to no one.


<yl3
II

unique.
)
>

\U
*

J|
,. u

helpless, without

;l^

remedy

*)U.

).

Remark.

La-uball

^JU
"'x>>

K,

adj.,

'"careless,"
),

is

really

an Arabic verb

"I do

not care," from

alfUxj

(root

.fo*-

vwfe (15).

" void of Arabic substantives prefixed by the privatises, *>**, adj., " and *j.**>c, past part. " non-existent
(13)
j*>jh /*jxc
yjli
;

"

non-existing.
(m.c.) lost to ken, disappeared (of a thief).

-^i3Jt

*~:pJt

|^*x**=

+,y\ 2}**yo

" known by name but non-existent,

i.e.

fabulous"

(as the SlmuryJi).

Remark. --The

Uy

,o^, Ar.,
14)

and

^,

is used for forming substantives, as substantive " want of Per., fidelity."

^j^,

Compound Arabic
*

adjectives,

comj)ounded
'

of

an adjective or a

participle and a substantive in the genitive case

Ui^ (m.c.) of noble dignity.


Aj*.

known by name
s
2

only.

(15)

Arabic

phrases,
at ";

as
S

<*^t

jtxil/o

"mentioned

above";
lt
:

Axff

" mentioned, hinted


'

^
.?

^>*>

U
' e

"

beyond expression
' '

"
o>j*j
Jl

immortal "
:

(lit.

he will not die

"
)
:

f j>'^
will

uncultivated

(lit. it
<{

was * not sown)

^1 r

"

"
boasting
i

lit.

"

you
:

not see
*'

me

")

uXl^U
;

possessions," subs.
{<

(lit.

what he

possesses)
;

-ka^

J|

unceasingly, adv.

J^l-^l cf'U^ adv.,


[lit.

as for-

merly"

Ja*.

SI

^^^

mast-i la

" dead drunk ya'qil

drunk (and) he knows

nothing "J.

Remark.
ta'ala

When
"

^^ &M
The

the phrase contains an Arabic verb, such as in Allah God, may He be exalted," the Persians, if the first word is
vowel of the genitive
is

final short

omitted.
1

Many

of these are substantives as well ae adjectives, vide

(>?).

Tn m.e. m~#nl ilayh &*J\


*

^^.

Mitshar 11 *

> ilayh &)\ ^*** can bo used alone, but


*

q ilayh

^V J^y must
1

'

qualify a noun.

Lam

in Arabic gives to the Aorist a preterite sense.

168

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
:

Persian, frequently but incorrectly insert an izafat, as


*L
;

Khudawand-i

ta'alq

mast-i la ya'qil. <Ja*j

Jl

(16) Adjectives of resemblance are formed by affixing to nouns certain words, chiefly substantives, vide (3)
:

.*

like

an angel,
like

angelic.

acting like a fairy.

(3w shaped

a boat.

*Jti (old) like the sky.


like a houri.

with a face

like the
is

moon

beautiful.

Mdnand

^U

adj.,

"like",

derived from &*uU; and, affixed to a


^\~*> Ijp
* "like the sea*

substantive, forms an adjective, as: darya-manand


(gen. to signify quantity).

Rarely, a broken plural is used, as haza*ir-i falak-naza^ir J-51& c^U^Lka* enclosures high and inaccessible as the heavens 8^k> vJU* falak nazlra (or
:

' '

nazw) would

also be correct.

(17) In a

few compounds, a numeral


very
la.

is

prefixed to a

noun

alert.
;

U- four-cornered

square, oblong.

four-year-old; vide

98

(6) (4).

Remark.
<4

Adverbs and substantives are

to

6 *

go at full gallop'': a market- pi ace.


' '

^i-^

also so formed, as: e>M>

to

sit

tailor- fashion

"

^*^^
j~*

(c) TliQ following words, chieily Arabic, are frequently attached to substantives and adjectives to form compound adjectives
:

(1) ^jikj "receiving," JP.JOO Jy<^ "possible"; jto j**** (m.C.) " " can be mended (prop, of buildings). of tia (2) &&* pana h "asylum, refuge, shelter", as: e^i*>c "asylum
'
'

as:

pardon
(3)

(an epithet for kings, governors or mujtahids)


5

VU

ma-ab

lit.

"

place of

return":

v^

^ c t^ "
l

(^ or

kings).

ij^j* (in5d.)

Europeanthe

ized."
(4) ^Uxi
' '

body

;l*

lit. "outer garment; " &)j**> clothed with justice."

shi'ar,

anything

that

envelops

Kirdar

^^ from kardan
Pers.

&&j$

',

when one would expect kardar

In mod. Pers. ishtibah


3

*Lwli>/

means " doubt, error."


is pi.

Hurl <^)^
is

ISur J^, Ar.,

of

j^,

fern, of

)^\.
is

In Persian

huriyya
4

used as a singular: though Ar.


'

pi. in

form, this word


tl

not used in Arabic.

From

pazlrujtan ^jiJy&j or pizruftan t^>)*

to receive."

From vV?

Vf

' *

return

' '

INTENSIVE ADJECTIVES.
(5) jjf

169

asar " trace, sign


:

"
:

j*\

/if asar, pi. of yt


(6)
(7)
f

^ o^
"

^^ "
:

inspiring awe, majestic."

"
friendly

e;UJ nishdn "sign,

mark"

cjUJ

e^}.c
"

#55 =
: :

(of people).

o^-c *_^l*.
*
s

v^f
"
;!y>'

i**fe&

''arrangement,
(of things).

manner"

^^1
)j*

j*$

^j^T ytf

o4^
(8)

well-shaped

^arar "dwelling, fixed (9) e^^/c mashjmn "tilled"


1

abode"
:

"dwelling in Hell."
of returning,

^XL-^/O j^oUx
Pers.)

"wicked."

(lO)^A^
ojl&i
(11)

7/ia5?*

(rare in

mod.

"

"place

going":

unfortunate."
4<

^l^ maddr

centre, pivot

"
;

j!^^>

$ " centre o>c

of respect."

(12) ^j&o

makan "place "


nasz6

^^ ^^

"dwelling in Paradise
JJ S

(of

Muslims

only).
(13)
v-Ajj^J

"portion, fate": wo^-i

cr^a.

"having received the

award

of Paradise."

(14) A^LXJ

(15)
44

" <**^u " = j(^ /j^M "trade tyrannous." " and " joined, contiguous maqrun ^^i ^arm adj.
:

^^

past. part.

joined,
ft ' c

contiguous"

oO* ^^^^

viA^^o^
3

^.^l^;

e,^ c^.
< 4

c^Jj^ "fortunate, wealthy"; ^JL?^ ^l*** = o^*- I. ^jr Note also the following qarln-i maslahal o>*0la^ ^^jl

advisably ":

o*3x^j e^ft/o " healthful, etc., etc."


y

(10)

The verbal adjective


* *

in alif is
' *
:

jadtt-kuna (obs.)

practi&ing-inagic

very rare in compounds: US'^U. c?^U (old) wandering in the


4 *

desert."
5.

Intensive Adjectives.
is

(a)

(1)

An

jective a iinal
'i

ta'ajjub
<4

formed by adding to the simple ad* Or alif, called alif-i kasrat *j& -^i, or alif-i mubalay&a k^U>c bi-hdl-i Khushd as: JU> *^>^&* <-AJf, sulh-kunandagan Jl^u U^.
intensive adjective
1

>^

Blessed

;\re

the peace- makers."

This intensive

alif,

which
'

is

probably the vocative


<j4r^
.

alif

and
3.

is

ot

rare

occurrence, the noun it qualifies

except after the adjectives


;

jj

and

^^

usually precedes
(I)

but

vide

'

basd Adverbs of Quantity

(2) In old Persian, the substantive so qualified has often a final alif O'' " &* as well, as khusha Shir am " oh delightful is Shiraz tjy &>jj* \*>
:

(b)

(1)

The adjective may be


-

intensified

by adding an adverb or adjeo^

From jt**?.

y**

There are several final ali/s, as: *$$

^f,

^*^>

*$& (j-^^

f<*>
,

vide p. 12.

170
tive, as

INTENSIVE ADJECTIVES.
:

JX^^. "

^^

'

<(

"
very pretty
:

(rn.c.)

& ;U-o
x
;
f

"

very bad
:

"
:

"a

great eater,
:

glutton":

J-a^

sfead / unpalatable shud (m.c.) " he became very delighted": ojlfj^ J^A ^^Jk;j ^su the precipices appeared in my eyes extremely terrifyj^+jujx ^sJiA^^ vsJ^

J^* <-x> (class.)

"

^^j "a

perfect fool

"
jf^li
o*iu*.

o.=fcu

quite easy

"

"very

% saMtf

j&

ing";

vide.

45:

*X;<xJ

b^A. (m.c.)
f

"an

accentuated ass, an ass and an ass

again."

For bas, az baz,


(2)
is

etc.,

mWe Adverbs
" =

of

Quantity
:

(I)

(3).

It

may

be intensified by the

of unity, as
c/?t

z}$

^&
' *

a very beautiful flower fine colour this flower has."


(c)

tw 7^?

rany-i khub-i darad

what a very

(1)

Repetition

may
4<

*VxrU j e^U

pak u 9 pdklza
**>j

give a continuative or intensive signification, as: <c " very far 3 ;^j;j^ ^wr u daraz very clean
(

away
(a)

"
:

*i^

rujta sliusta

" tidied and cleaned

(lit.

swept and washed)."


meaning, vide
140

(2) Sometimes the meaningless appositive gives and Remark.

this

(3)

The repeated adjective may be


'
'
,

in

the plural, as
'

mast-i mastnn
^>ft>

ejlw^ o~x: "dead drunk": c^**^^* faqir-i jaqiran, or ijzti a pauper of paupers very very poor. fuqara*
"

faqir

'l-

In the

title

^Uiiulx modern Persians and Indians insert the


i(

izdfal.

Mons.

Raymond,

the translator of the


title,

Seir Mutaqherin,"
izafai.*
is

who knew

at least one

Indian holder of the

used the

In Turkish, Mir Miran d\j** j**

title

equivalent to

Amir^l-

Umara*
(d)
(e)

\j*y\j**

For sar mast, sar


(1)
(

sabz, etc., vide

117
to a

The

prefixes

^ -#&
"a

(j)

(4)

Remark.
form
an
ism-i

substantive

mukabbar
Wj *&
etc.
* '

j&*
:

^
'

giving the idea of size or fineness, etc., as: shah-rdh

(of wing)

main-road ": *-l^ " U> " a


c^y

big cup or

large variety of

mulberry

pot": "
:

*'

"flight-feather
j;f*i

)*j*

t&,

^, <^^

li,

pavilion

Khar-magas j^Xc^x "horse-fly": *J^*>j^ "crab": 'f^ "a a of stone


' '
'

"

large tent,
' '
:

'

'

^J^*jo*

large

*xiuj^

species

large mosquito

The comparative and


* '

superlative can also be so intensified, as:

**

much
8 4

prettier.

Vide,

Repetition of words
k

140.
'

He however

writes Rtiy-Bayan

(an Indian

title).

Khar j*. i n Pahlavi means "big, ugly."

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


Div-savar

171

Jy*^

" bold horse-man "

t& #*

"large clod": d> hearted."


(2)

of wheat": #& "whirlwind, frenzy": cAe>>^ "brave, hard-

p*& #&

"a large kind

In the following compounds,

"ass-mill": ^/f "asinine": o^^^aL " stupidly drunk ": very large penis."
(3)

khar-as

^ ^Aj ^
(

signifies

" ass

" and not "


a

"
large
:

hog- backed,

tomb":U>y^
ass-like or

j^ j^

vulg.

"having an

Whether

^^ ^

means "big-eared"

or " ass-cared

"

is

a disputed

point.
46.

Degrees of Comparison and Comparative Clauses.

(ft)

(1)

The Persian comparative


i>

is

formed by adding

y
:

to the positive,

>s:

purjam'iyyai-tarj* S^AJU^^J (m.c.)

Mod. Pers.
_3 ciy I.
(2)

" more delicious." The superlative, which

c^>

b
;

" more populous" y cj>*j (Sa'di), in "more honoured ": y vs*I> (Sa'di), in Mod. Pers.
is

not

much used

in

Modern Persian

[vide

r ( ) (3)],

q i.

formed by adding tarm

^y

to the positive,

sometimes contracted

to

in, vide (b) (6).


(3)

The comparative can be used

in the plural,

as

" those greater than us."


(4)

U ^Uy

cJ;>

(m.c.)

The

superlative has no plural

Remark. Note that the comparatives of the past participles *j^f " " " more " (< (( comfortable more humble ^^ more y intelligent
;

are in
use.

common

use

but not

&v^ y

*&!-'

^-h^,y ^-'^^,y

**>

/^> which are not in

(6)

(1)

Arabic adjectives,
9

in
?'

Arabic,

form both the comparative and


"-?

superlative on the measure J**f for the masculine, and


lative
'

^**

for the super-

feminine,

as: kabir

y^f "great,"
is

comparative and
*'

superlative

y"

masc., and kubra ^jtf fern. When comparative, the elative

followed by c^^
x

than," when super-

lative

by the genitive.

The Arabic elative (ao called because 1* includes both comparative and superlative), when it is a comparative makes no change in Arabic for gender or number. The Arabic elative is used in Persian.'2 dar vaql-i ahsan tr~^ oJ^^ tc in the most (3) Note the superlatives in
(2)
1

>j

The Arabic comparative has no feminine nor Both as a comparative and a superlative.

plural.

172

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


time": ^^j ^ uo! )* dar as'ad zaman-i "in a very fortunate " the most fortunate of the as'ad-i zaman c> *j **** age." Sometimes a cognate Arabic noun follows an Arabic superlative
l
t
1

time "

propitious
:

(4)
J

tf *jU oUUxj a^&j} (Tr. H. B., Chap. XXI) "no, lyo fiUut ^Jsf no, such an honour is fit for me who am the most skilled of physicians " ^t \j*& ytfit (Tr. H. B., Chap. VII) I am the most poetical of poets.'
* '
:

^^

'

of

Generally speaking, Arabic adjectives in Persian form their degrees cl^U*. _y JLel* ... comparison in the Persian manner: JLel*
(5)

^y

(6)

The
j

affix

t^

tarln

is

sometimes
a

contracted

to

In,

as

<jV*

" the best": or e>lA


greatest":
&>>

^^

-or :

u^y
:

or "the least": &w> j "the highest": these words

&

or^yyo
are

"the
or

classical

poetical only.

double comparative is sometimes formed by adding the Persian cXa*f Arabic elative d** l^Us j **jj (Sa'dt) " he asked p\c " " the most excellent*' (J"A' (m.c.) what is the best kind of worship \*j>j* cu~M V^i c>^ ^i=i^ ^,1^*1 ^U! ^ cL*i ?i6^ ?* labar-i Islian munqati' kardan
(c)

affixes to the

aula-tar* ast
(d)

(Sa'df) "it is better to destroy their stock,


is

and

root

it

out."

(1)

Than with the comparative The preposition jf as &i&


,
:

expressed by

^j** )* er^^y ^-^


this

have never
bihtar

in

your

life

spoken a truer word than


*

"

(m.c.)=y

^^

&* &*) az In chi aulq-tar


vsignification of
ce

m.c.

" what better than this?

^^^
"

"
3 (Su'di)
!

you

j\

az

m chi
"
:

Remark.

Note the

Jl

one of

"

in the following

o
me

'

JU;

^Ui y

*t

** ALJf^

[Tr.

H. B., Chap. VII).

that he was a

man

of the greatest

consequence"

it became known to mara az quzidagan-i

shu'ara* sakht (Tr. H. B., Chap. VII)

"he made me one

of the chief est of

poets"
(2)

vide

(e) (4).

Nisbat

o^,

or bi-nisbat oo~j

^ "in comparison with,"


(

as:

nisbat
cuf-o

bl-digarafi (or nisbat-i digaran)

bihtar-ast (rn.c.)
is

^j&>*
g >od

*>**>>
:

o^f

yy
(3)

"
J
1

m comparison
is

with the rest he

"

or)

^^^

bi-nisbat-i n bihtar

ast (class.)

" she

better than he

"
;

vide (w) (6).


jt
:

In classical Persian, &f


tf
aj

is
'

sometimes substituted for

(J)j**

^+&

(Sa'dl)

" he

said,

dismissal

from

office is better

than employ-

The

plural

^xfc>r

could be substituted for the Pers.

pi.

eAfir^ here.

4< Mihtar, the comparative, alao means, prince, lord," and is the title of the ruler of Chitral. In India a sweeper is by a euphemism styled Mih-tar, just as a tailor, In Afghanistan and Persia mihtar etc., is called Khalifa, and a water-carrier Jama dar.

means
3

* *

a groom.
aulq>
'*

' '

^V

more
y

or

most deserving*'

is

an
*,

elative without a positive,

and must not n gu>

na-kuriim, (m.c.)

be confused with d?J ulq the feminine of <Jy 4< first." ** it's best for us to hold our tongue."
* Plural of
Jacf, elative of

Aulq an

kl dlgar gu/t

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


ment'
death
"

173

"
:

L> jf

is

better

^ than

^
thy

**

^^ murdan-at
]

bih ki
' '
:

mardum-azdn

(Sa'df)

"thy

afflicting of

mankind

thou desirest the truth, then it were better that a thousand eyes should be blind (like the bat ) than that the sun should be darkened."
If

For the use


(4)

of the positive for the comparative, vide


is

(i).

Occasionally the comparative

followed by an izafat,&s: bihtar-i

yihtarln guzin-i

Dm, Bukhari
(e)

(Nam-i Haqq of Shah Sharaf^dthe Prophet) "better than the best and chosen of all " =
:

hama ** eMj^ oi/V^t


(4).

az bihtarm bihtar, vide (n)


(1)

is followed by the genitive, * and generally by the plural ^ o^JU-c ^y u4f& (Sa'cK) 'I will not grant the rule over this country except to the meanest of the " the most illustrious of the oli5l JLx *U*> slaves prophets (Sa'di] oy^
:

The

superlative, Persian or Arabic,

^^

^^]

' *

' '

t4

the most noble of created things": cul^^/o

J,*(

(Sa'di)

"the meanest

of existing things."

In J^Sff ^r-a.1 <l the best of shapes, the best shape" and like constructions, the second noun is in the Arabic genitive plural.

In
correct.

cnJJisx

(^^t ahsan-i

khilqat

"the best

of creation," the singular is

For the superlative followed by


comparative, vide
(2)
(I).

** hama and

for its substitution for

the superlative qualifies a noun absolutely, it is treated as " the an ordinary adjective, as: pk? &?) greatest support": ^Jkf j&*> "the

When

Prime Minister
or

"
: <

^~ cHt^
!

u bihtarm mard ast, o?mard-i bihtarm ast ^ie ^ s ^ ie ^ es ^ man -"

W)
<:

j*

o^;^

31

-^*
it,

Such a

terrible

water that the water-bird was not safe in


mill-stone from its shore."
:

Its least

wave would sweep a


it is

In old poetry and prose

sometimes merely intensive

1 will not say I have given a most noble pearl (lady) to a most renowned husband." 3 (3) Such sentences as "go to the nearest village" may be rendered, e>U^ eVT $ ^^ e? y *-&5>V (class.) but more usual *k >j>
j
;

"

(m.c.).

Mush-i kur )j>

O*?"'

is

" * no hat

"

2
s

But

khilqat-i

This construction

tho best creation. ahsan w****\ is not used in this sense in Modern Persian.

^^

and not the " mole


'

'

'

' *

'

174

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


" This
(i)

is

the largest hriuse in

Buzurg-tar 'imarat-i

Kirman " may be rendered ki dar Kirman ast in ast &(

in five

ways

(ii)

Buzurgtarin-i makanat-i ki dar

Kirman

ast in ast

(Hi)

Buzurgtarin makdn-i ki

&> (iv) Makdn-i buzurgtarin-i ki In makan-i buzurgtarm-i Kirman ast o (v) " is " One of the most Rustam yak-i azdilavar(4) expressed by y tarin-i Iraniyan bud ty e/t-^f e^y ^S^Jf vide (d) (1) Remark. (****;> (/) The comparative can be strengthened by prefixing the adverbs 45 (6) (1) ^\ jt-jr ^s^* ^$1^ and ;^, etc. vide Intensive Adjectives, (Shah's Diary) "peaches of a very excellent kind" o*t ^-Ji^L^j "this is

much more fitting" is much better."


(g)

(m.c.):

o^

<^j^

&>} In khayli bihtar ast (m.c.)

" this

The comparative can stand alone,


this is better, this is

as

o**
:

v-^^Ji

(m.c.)

"

the better course

&>

^^A, orcu*! jJ^ &$+* o-of \^\ aula an ast ki

(m.c.)

W c^^ty^ CJ^A haman bihtar ast ki " the


'

better course

is."

of <J^K "perfect" (a super(h) The Persian comparative and superlative lative in itself) are vulgar or poetical, and correspond to the incorrect English more perfect, most complete, more unique, etc." The Persians expressions
'

also say
(1)

y ^y
(1)
:

farid- tor,

but not^J' U^ yakta-tar.


AJ
-

The

positives

Af

AX>

and

parative
(Sa'di)

^ are

sometimes used for the com^t^j for


jt

j~** & (^

ji

o^U* cxp|y

"we

[the

king] will

a^ ^jU ^5*^ y make ready accommodation

^^ ^
'
' :

you in the
'

obtained city, so that leisure for worship better than this may be " : lt this is better than that in bih az an ast (m.c.) c^* e>(; *t
t
f

by you

JU^ ^f&

JU^jU-^3 ^ andak'i jamal is better than much wealth


'

'

bih az bisyari-yi* mdl (Sa'di) a little beauty cuiu. ^jb tf au o<iu bazu~yi bakht bih ki

^jb

Vide also (d) (3). bazu-yi sakht (8a*di). AJ is also a comparative or optative in poetry Bih (2)

"

traitorous army, let

it

be disbanded,

One that seeks the


(3)

ruin of his country, let his head be cut off."

The

positive can also be used in such sentences as,

" come nearer,"

Uj

(j&ty
(4)

or) *-^u>, nazdik (or nazdik-tar) biya.


is

Ziyad a^j

a positive, and ziydda 1^3

a comparative for

^
;

jU3

for

Muyassar jr*^ properly means "facilitated." Here c)^r^ might be either an adjective with the ^$ the sake of euphony (number of syllables) Persians make
i

of
it

unity, or a

noun

but

a noun and say bisyuri-yi

mal.
8

In Modern Persian ear afganda 1&&*) j<

means

**

ashamed."

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


ziydd-tar:
<c

175

(m.c.)
' '

people.

az hadd
(5)

^
-y

give ine more," nutq-i ziyad-i " an excessive concourse of a long speech"; but oa*+;x <x^ jf ^Uj Ziydd az hadd*^ jf ^,) is a modern vulgarism for ziyada (or ziyad-tar)
x*>

^j

or fcvy ^bj

"

jt

(y^ j or) *^>


and
(of

Pish Jk|J

Afzun c>'l " before


<ji#

6^

Ji-AJ

" more

"

are practically comparatives.


sense.

time),"

has

also a comparative

However

y
jf

cj^t
(6)

andy

<JkJ are also used.


also

The comparative "more" can


jl

be expressed by the words


;

J 5 l.:lx> mutajaviz az,

j&.>

cKgar as,

j^^
ki

'alava bar

f;l<^

,<j& *'

man yak

harj-i

dlgar na-daram

bi-guyam

(m.c.)

^&i oy* u "I have not a single


expressed
or
)

word more to say."


(j)

An

English

adjective
:

positive (as in

Urdu)

" This teais too weak " o**f


ast (m.c.)
:

qualified

by "too"
(
(

is

by the
is

-&r^

^~ ^s^ u*M
" this tea
:

m chay subak (or kam-rany)


& ^f
good)."
cu*t

c^>t

^~*

^l^

e^t (m.c.)

too strong." the adverb 6^2 30 (k) In m.c.,


jL>

is

" used in the sense of better," as

^ ^-^

tf^'

"these carpets are bad

yak-1 (m.c.) eM *^ qafo-h kJfwyfi bad astfiaz but this one is somewhat better (but still not
J

a comparison is drawn between a person or thing and the rest of the class, either the comparative or the superlative may be used, as " A \\ &$ " u follows They say the ass is the meanest of animals asl IA c^t o~j JT>U guyand ki khar az hama-yi janvarlia past-tar (m.c.).
(/)

When

^
1

This could also be rendered by:

ft

o^^A.
:

;^iU.

^y

o--)

A"

^/

or

^ ^/

a vulgarism kucJmk-i fc^ 4^!, -si dukhtar dasht, yak-t buzurg, yak-i kuchak, yak-i kuchah-tar.^oi. 8. T. "he had three daughters, one big, one little, one The third term should be az hama kuchak-tar smaller than the little one."

(m)

The following

is

jf,
(ri)

or kuchak-tarin-i

hama

&+*>

vifa-jf:

(1)

The superlative can also be expressed as follows " as Ear chi tamam-tar y^U JU^A complete as possible": e^|*J b '* I came out with feelings of the greatest regret J *^;* (m.c.)

in
,

my

mind."

(2)

kiazan

buzurg-tar

(or

kamtar,

etc., etc.) nisi

(or nami-shavad)

f*xu ^,-Ui lif^ laxxj) e>f 31 /JU^5A> o^f 8<x has been found here, the largest in the world (lit. as large as any in the

o^ojy ^j>

" a diamond (m.c.)


lki.

world)": *Jj^cy khitab-i Ramraj,


l

cuilJLc

<xb

v lka.

^jf Jf yjfb

^^ cXU ^ ^

ki

dar mulk-i

Dakan

bald-tar az in

^f; p f; v khitab namibashad

inayat farmudand.(Iq. Nama-yi Jah.,


1

p. 244, Bib. Ind.

Ed. of As. Soc.

Adjectives ending in d> are sometimes incorrectly written as

Batar
a

jh is classically and No izafat.

colloquially usod

176

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.

Beng.)
(Tr.

^
By an
intensive

H.B., Chap. XXXIII) "the water-carriers had so sprinkled and swept the roads that their work couldn't have been better done."
(3)

word signifying ''extremely,


"
r

perfectly, unique,"

etc., as:

^j

o*&j c^U.'
:

bi-yjiai/at zisht-riiy

extremely ugly

" " of extreme beauty

^^ JU

b (m.c.)

ilq

giayr*'n 'nihayat khush-gil

nihayat khushgil: ty )&+* j+ac sovereigns of the age in justice"


:

" ~< ^Jr^U j J^ j> "he excelled all the ty) cua>^ ^J ^,1U| ^ "he was most the
"
of

" in a perfect rage

utmost prettiness
1

pious

of the e^iy t5
J

Muslims": dar
or ji&^V or )

'Urn
c
/*^

o^t

^^
(

yagdna (or bi-nazw or bi-qarina) ast ne s un l u or alone, in knowledge": )*


'*
^

i(

yakta-yi 'asr ast


(vulg.
,

if

O^I^-^P ^(&*

he

is

unique
jk

in his ago
_
r^ar

"

(J,j>

*> G

A^^
^^,

in.c.,

abuse)
^^}',

= ^f^
z &a-5

j!
1

e^.
_,

Azhadd

bi-sliiddat

oaio,

kamal-i marlaba <*x^ JU^

are similarly used. or ^ar nihayat-i martaba ^^(^ Inhtar bihtarin .42 Jiy w>j>? $ "better than the (4) c (^) ( 4 ) etc v bihtarin, e/irV^)*

^^
:

best"

(or bihtar-i

" the positive, as ou^t 7t ^Lif^ he is the clever man of the city " = he is the bravest of his tribe." o*t pj$ ))$3 is sometimes prefixed to an (6) In classical Persian bar adjective to give f< bar buland &&> it a superlative idea, as and rare) (class, high."
(5)

By

c '

very

The comparative or superlative suffix is also added (1) To participles, as: *UJUjf^ c^>' ^i^v-jti ^, ^La &f j& y jf*yAx~jU (Sa'di) "sin, by whomsoever it may be committed,
(0)
:

CUX^AVC
is

objection(m.c.)
JujtiL^-o

able, but from the learned

it is

especially objectionable":

^jy Jjf^
^.^y;

"the prettiest": ^jy J^U sabiq-tarin " the most used." musta'mal-tarin

"the most ancient":

Remark. The superlative suffix ^.y is seldom added to Persian participles. The comparative takes its place, as In rang az hama girifta-tar ast &+& jt J^) e> o~! y Asuda-tarin er^J te^, (m.c.) "this shade is the darkest."
:

Jf

&

mahbub-tarin
(2)

^^ ^^^^ are m.c. only.


prepositions

To a few
(

and adverbs: bar ^

"upon,"^y "higher":
e>y ^j or e^7^
:

j>

w'j) "highest": ^j "below",


,

^0 and

^
(3)

Sib,

etc.

To

in modern Persian

and

vulg.)
l

"more
rfar

a few substantives: asudagi-tary " comfortable foryaa^f asudatar:


!

^^^f (m.c.
^j UT
1

y o^T p

Dam-i

^^

^ (m.c.)
*

*'

threshold of the door."

" Radd ml-shavad does not


back, repulsion":

mean
kV
1

that

he went through the door."


retort, repartee.'
A>

Radd, Ar. "driving


J*

v'j^

^5

"a

In m.c. ()&
' f

means

'*

to pass, pass by, miss the

mark," and

radd-i

pa ^

&) is

'

foot-print.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


<$>

177

Lankuran, stage direction). " Taymur Aglja crosses at back " " " a little more this door y oj-k <^)&* way " " a li^ e more that " y ijjj? c)T e;^ way y o^tj more comfortable" ^*-f y^xi^xwjt (m.c.) "he is more of a lion (braver) than a lion": dushman-tarm-i dus/imanan (m.c.) c>^^ ^.y ^.^^ <f the most inimical of one's enemies": dust-tarm-i duatan &$*j* (&*j**)& (m.c.) "the most friendlike of
(Va^lr-i

on

the further side of the

all

one's friends."
(p)

To compounds
member,

of

may sometimes optionally


or to its first

an adjective and substantive, the comparative suffix be added, either to the end of the whole compound
1&>* eAt"*> ;*

-^> ^^ j <>juui? i^ ^U? j*>l^ had he if ever Ta*i seen anyone with a more asked Hatim-i (Sa'di) they this In nature than himself." example buzurg himmat-tar CU*A ^jj* generous CU*A y ^)^: and this latter himmat could be substituted for buzurg-iar
as:

^**y

"

reading,

more pleasing to the modern Persian more usual


to

ear, occurs in

some

editions

of the Gulistan.
It
is

add the

suffix at the

end

of the

compound.

Remark.

The

superlative

is

C^+A
:

&j)j*
*

buzurg-tann himmat (and not

cu^ ^;JJ buzury himmat- tar in)


correct.

but

ali-himmat-tann

^y

c^wfc

^U
:

is

(tf)

a>

<>b

e/f

of Resurrection will
l

comparative sometimes gives the meaning of the superlative ** cu>oLx5 3^ c^T^y ^J-^ " (Sa'dl) the greatest regret on the Day be a than others
)

TJie

this, that

(lit.

regret greater

j**>

c^xxy *J^y
^I^Jr;o>
:

o^ 'txc ^ac^
3
:

(Sa'di)

"

in the sight of
*

enmity excellence
is

is
:

the

greatest blemish"

o**y^

^'tf l^vi

31

which of these

the best

"

^;>

(m.c.) "the biggest and strongest horse in the A<-^| *y ^y> ^ " tf C^^A stable (*$*j*J&)y. buzurg-tar mard-i, dar shahr kas-l hast ki " the ." greatest man in the city is that man who (m.o.)

o*f

^J j^^

In

all

these examples there

is

an

ellipsis of

az

hama

A*^

jl

or az dlgaran

^'j&z

jf.

Note the
*:

of unity.

(2)
1

Buzurg-tar az buzurgtarin
vide (d) (4).

^y

^)^

3'

y ^;^

<

higher than the

highest
(3)

As already stated
:

in (a) (2) the superlative is rarely used in

modern
a+*
f<

Persian.

In compound adjectives, the comparative with az

hama

usually substituted as

o~.ty

cjlaeJf

(jS^^t^ ^l^JUb i**

31

cJUb

31

is

(m.c.)

this

nightingale has the best note of all."

Hatim

is

in Persian usually Hatatn.

In India the iza at

is

omitted after Hatim, as

Satim
* s

T&i
Or

Or kudam yak bih-tar (not bihtarln) Or ^c^ ^ *-^L^ vWc (0.

aat

12*

178

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


(r)

The phrase " and what was stranger


and
*&T

still,

etc."

is

rendered

y&
:

A- ^Jf (class.),

y ^j*

(mod.).
in English
(m.c.), or
is

(s) The progressive double positive " " He got worse and worse cu**y<x> j^

rendered as follows
;*

more correctly

(t)

suffixes

may

If two or more comparatives or superlatives occur together, the can be added to each, or to the last only in the latter case the clause sometimes be ambiguous: L^T J J^ y &{** +& v UfA>^ v UJf jf^f
(I)
;
f

>

&<

y ptjti"** j **u\.* (m.c.)


large

(f;he king of the gods) is more ancient even than the sun and the moon, and is more lasting and enduring than they." In khana . buzurg va va&i'-tar ast o*,y \J^ &{ ^\ may mean either "this house" or " this house " is and more is

" he

^^
is

spacious
j

o~!

l^U- <UA
all

^y g.*.)

^^

spacious of

the houses,"
in cu^> ^&j>

and more spacious aiUL ip>\ (m.c.) "this is the largest and most open to the same criticism.
larger
:

Note that

^U^

&+A

^y ^U
j>

^ *Jjy ^:^ ^>\

(ni.c.), digctr

should be omitted.
(2)

In the case of superlatives, the

first

may take

the comparative instead


\\

of the superlative suffix, as:

(m.c.) "formerly Kirman was one of the most important ^yo'yf and most populated cities of Persia:" in this example ^*>c -, or ^^^^^,

^^

u-l/o^*^

^ ^y ^^

^C<

^Uy

^U
is

^U;

could be substituted,
as a superlative.

but in

all

three cases the

adjective

regarded

" " the " the quicker the better are rendered as follows " farther you go, the f deeper the water becomes .>Lj v ^j^y;?^ **>j* " the nearer we the shore the (m.c.): approached rougher the sea became''
(u)

Locutions

like

oWy
ti

**>
ki
l

bp

;*X5

^Jivof

<*

J>

^*y
is

;U^
<^*

^y

(m.c.):

zlra

Mr

nazdik-tar

ast

parishan-lar ast
is

(m.c.)

y>^^

c^^t y^j^>

tfj* >j)

4<

because the nearer one'1


(v)

the more

one'1 distracted."
are
illustrated
in

Comparisons
:

between

clauses

the

following

examples
(1)

s*>

^Ubl^ib ^j&u i^i&i'co^x &' &jj ^lx3B.x> ^ftXx/o^i^ CU^UJAOXJ " kings are more in need of the advice of wise men, than wise
tion with

c;^ A

^^^( (Sa'di)
of associaf

men

kings"

;r^
*f

>> **

^^ ^y ^*
8

jt>

^**^
^*>
\

&***- c5

^t

(tiaidi)

"the performance
friends!

of such a service

is

better in their absence than in their


y,

presence": ^ld> y

^U^jASi LU &)&> ^\

^;

lj

(Sa'dl)

"0
"
:

I'm more

afraid of this escort 4 of yours than I

am

of the robbers

)&$ itf

is

a construction to be avoided though occasionally


of the indefinite

heard in m.c.
*
8

Note that A^^k " whoever " takes the place Ghaybat ^^^ absence, but yhlbat ^***f "
In Mod.

pronoun "one."

back-biting."

Pers.,o^ A^>^ means

speeding a friend on a journey by accompanying

him a mile

or so on his journey

DEGRFES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


e~~a> ;U~j

179

chust

c/* y & dar an &ar bisyar u chaldk bud (ki) man bi-an miqdar na-budam (Afghan) " he was much quicker and cleverer at the business than I was." " o~*f (2) "I would rather die than beg j^ <vf^ jl &*j* &* <_y (m.c.),
more
(3)

or

rhetorically hi-mirad insan va gada*i na-kunad


'

'

To be

like,

equal to

"

*& J*^ j &L~>>\ ^^


1

e>^ & &' o!ay v-$* t^l " To do kindness to the evil,
(4)

o**:
is like

&(**

c>^/

c) **

L$^

(Sa'di).
'

"She

(equal to) ill-treating the good.' " o^-oc was as much renowned for chastity as for beauty ;>/ " (m.c. and incorrect): "he has as much right as you
.

*^

c)^
;

(m.c.)

" I have never eaten as much as


!

have

an qadar na-khurda budam ila In vaqi :^iu xo>ajf oJ>^ ^xtb he was as brave as Rustam 2 and as wise as Luqman" 8 (m.c.) uS> "he was as beautiful as Joseph 4 )$ y and as faithful as Majnun" 5 ^jiap-* ^he was as j o^tj> ^Ay ^.^wx ^f as Job and as afflicted as Jacob" u dar tahammul Ayyub va dar patient huzn Ya'qub had j^i ^^ft*j CL>^;>J vj-^ cA*-^ ;5 y "the carriages and nor neither as numerous horses of this as good as those of are carriage city
hlch vaqt
'

now"

^^
1

(j

Russia
s:
*o

' '

vo It4-

) *j*j)

* AC-J

l^uf

(Shah's Diary).
as:

(5)

So
7

^ p*1
J

^toJlL

by ^A

cu^j>

"Never would a

"As Thou
Or bhurda
<

father act so kindly to a son," hast acted to the race of Adam."


Instead of

am

+\

fc^j^.

cui'j

jJ

it

would be better

to
:

say

JjLx &>
is

ailed

also

Eustam-i Zal Jij /*i^j and Rustam-i Sigzl

^_~* ^^j

he

the

Hercules of Persia: his exploits are celebrated in Firdausi's great epic, the Shah-Nama. In IV tod. Per j?*+*> is pronounced hamchi.

Luqman, the sage of the East, said to have been a black slave and the author Others state that he was a son Lnqman's FaWes. Ho has been identified with /Esop
"'

of of

Job's
*

sist

a son of lob's aunt, a disciple of David, a judge in


is

Israel.
k *

Joseph

the ideal of youthful beauty

Yusuf-i #anl ^>biJuo^.


beautiful/'
it is
*

a second Joseph,"

and

Yuafif-janial
&

JU^>

^-&*f>, adj.,

mean "extremely
:

of Layty
6

MajnTm ^jJ
.

signifies

"possessed by a jinn ^-^''

the

name of the

celebrated lover

Taha<nmul Jl^aRJ " enduring a burden patiently.'* The grief of Jacob is proverbial amongst Muslims from mourning for Joseph his eyes became white. When Joseph's shirt was yet a three days* journey distant, he perceived its odour, and his sons said ho doted. The shirt was the same that Abraham wore when cast into the fire, and it
* '
:

contained an odour of Paradise:


the well.

it

was on Joseph's neck

as an amulet

when he was
'

in

Joseph, cast on any one afflicted with disease, but he shall be whole.'
7

by command

of Gabriel, sent the shirt to

Jacob

for

it

shall

not be

Khurtadan

for fchandan.

180

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


' c

such as In this example * may be translated merely as the connective of a relative sentence.
'

" or it may be considered


,

" had

*^ $ o*^\ e;&L> j'y ** \j****j* v*^ (Sa'di) <e I but feared God as you do the king I would have been one of the
jt
f

^*

Faithful Witnesses."
(6)
^~**>

"Compared to";

kj* *jb* *^*~*

^b ojliu*j

to the generosity of
to the ocean.'
(w)
(1)

"

o*j~i ^ax/o ^IkL, o;Un*9 ^sS H. B., Chap. VII) " I said, compared our king the generosity of Sultan Mahinud is as a drop
'

vide also (d) (2):


(Tr.

" How much


"
If

the more," and

Arabs die of eating dates,


u or]

how much the less " how much the more must Englishmen,"
"
:

(2)

fear

God "
(3)

mi-tarsi

you erv^ bay ad az

'*

If

fear
|J^*

your Mulla
*V^ j**
**$-

like this,
c

how much
f

3^

<g~'j*v

the more ought you to or az Mulla 3 )** u^'>*^


f

^^

tariq-i

awlq

azKhuda

bi-tarsi.

then how

much

the more with regard to


?

me who am

seated in

chief seat of
(4)

^ tf yo CAX<. j*x^> ^ ,-f<u~~ "If coffee intoxicates you how much the more must opium do

"

^^
&*.

so"

^ c3.A^ a Persians can't pronounce the <^J Englishmen" *>\jk^ ^J &J*> ^y


(

'

..

**f

^/oy J JL^JO ^jJ


i

or)

A[^>C

^JL^j

^J

^^^^ >^yf
how much
{i

(5)

If

letter 'ayn,

less
(

can
' '

oj^j

' *

(6)

If

opium

will

not intoxicate you then


^ji ti.K^^J c^*ix>
f^j

how much the less

&& ^

^!^L^

will coffee

o^!<i Ookj-iu^

-r^k A^

c^L^j ^?t (m.c.),

or o^a/* tiryak turn

mast na-kunad (or nami-kunad) qahwa bi-tariq-i aula mast naml-kunad. " It has been said that there is no reliance on the friendship of (1)
friends,

how much
o^*A^

the less then on the flattery of enemies


5

"

^*}^

<x>t

AX?^

J*;

&*>

(ji^

tf

^>-^

'

^'*iffl

c;^^^

(Sa'di).

In m.c. this would be

(8)
kill

"If Rustam could not

kill

the father

how much

the less could he


(m.c.).
the

the
1

" &&& son

\j

*'

^-j

**$

^^J
;

'jj** o-^Siyi

^i^^i
;

There are four grades


;

in Paradise
!

the

first for

the vUfif

second for

the

the third for the


Jsia. ^u

f-

j>^

and the fourth

for the

^rsJL*.

Or bi-chand
Fa~kayj
a
is

only exceptionally used in Persian.

(also called pad-zahr j&) ^J, from pad ^ U a stone found in the stomach of certain rumipoison "), protection" and za&r " discriminator " between health nants. Tiryaq-i faruq is the best kind of antidote, or " is " In Mod. Pers. and disease. opium generally <*^jJ> and antidote <5^y*

Tiryaq-i Faral

" the bezoar stone"

'*

^3

**

Awlq J^jf Jj
the
fern, of

**

worthier, better" Ar. eiative of

) ^)

-,

not to be confused with

^>

Jy.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


ft

181

(9)

ported to
(Afghan).

was unable to move it even how much the less could it be trans* the sea" <xia>c aoaJU,^ Uj<x &' ^f ^U. AA. (jtXxiUi*. ^ &t ^wily^
I
;

In Mod. Pers.
(

this sentence could be,

AS* 8&xiU.^ or) f^*iH ljj^


lei

af ^^
?

*<$

f*>&

cu^

j+i~jtyo lyf

r^

na-tavanistam

harakat bi-diham chi ja-yi

an

bi-darya bi-rasanam (or rasanida shavad)


eH^i>
<*>
/*"*^^

(10)
S jj
1

L^V
_j

^^'J^ ^^

&$&*
(Iq.

&

c)T

^*^

*^

7^^

jj>j
,

oj^

j^^ ^^./o

x.; *x

t\xiul5 *juiXl

Nama-yi
is

Jah., Bid. Ind.

As Soc.
*

JBeng., p. rpr).

(11) In

Indian

and Afghan

writings, aoJU U*/

sometimes used for

how much
is

the less."
less drink.''

" Hedoesn't smoke, much


This

u\y

^ &M ^ e)^
;

(Indian).

perliaps a translation of the

Urdu &
a kind

In m.c. jumbamdan ^xXjJUx^


dancing and
also gadan

is

a word to be avoided

it

signifies

ot'

poaturing in

CHAPTER
THE NUMERALS
(a)

V!.
<

Ism-i

adad

~*\

).

The numerals,
or

ism-i 'adad, are divided into cardinal


'
}

numbers

(:*-

or

anc ordinal
^

numbers

'

The thing numbered is The cardinals consist


tens"
;

called ^o*x>
of

''numbered/'
oU>T

aMc
"
;

)"
(

units
>

'ashardt

<

mi*at

ott*

" hundreds

^?7/

o^t

thousands."'

47.

Cardinal Numbers

a dad).
o br.
pi.

as/a/.

'j

^
<*

yak du
si

ckahar

4 also
5

;l

AJ

panj
shash

6 classically

sliasli,

vulg.

haft
hasltt

7 vulg.

7ia/.
/^ff.^,

,,

nuh
dah
or)
u^jlj

10
ft
|

yazdah (or ydnzdah) davdzda (or davdnzdah)


.

11

12 13

sizdaJi (or slnzddh)

>

chahdrdah
pdnzda/i

14 vulg. char dah. 15 in m.c. usually


dah. 16 in m.c.

shdnzdah

'S'*'//'

in Arabic
I,

is

not a numeral as

it

represents naught, and not a number.

For ^l no other ot the


*
fc

The article is added to yak (yak-l " a certain one ") but to " fi.kran, " hazar is a noun. In cardinals. yak-hazarl In the Shahnama dah u du occurs for twelve.'
obsolete.
'

generally

an unlucky number amongst Muslims and Zardushtis, as amongst The Muslims believe that the twelfth Imam is Christians, though for a different reason. Hence the Persians alive, but concealed, and that the thirteenth will be a false one. " A hich or avoid slzdah: instead
*

Thirteen

is

saving

they say

gr

nothing,"

8^3

ziyada

" more."
unlucky.

The Zardushtis consider the

fifth,

thirteenth

and seventeenth

of every

month

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
hafdah (or
haft-

183

llihavdahor hivdah\
*

<3

or

hashdah

(or

18 (hajdah or hijdah 19 Mod.

hasht dah)
or;

nuzdah

(or nu-

Pers.

nuzdah,

vanzdah),
r

vulg. nunzdah.

20 sometimes
21

incorrect-

-$

u yak

r\

30 40 sometimes contracted
into chil u^..
. .

panjah

50 colloquially pinjah.
60 Sometimes
correctly

c^being
letter.

shast, ^j

not

Persian

hajtdd

70
80

hashtad

navad

90
100, in dictionaries,
also

correctly ^~

or

duvist (or in writ-

ing only du sad) si- sad

200 du sad in prose and poetry, not in m.c.

300
400
500, in m.c. usually punsad.

chahdr-sad

pan- sad
shish-sad

600 classically shash-sad.


700, vulgarly in m.c. haf~
sad.

haft-sad

has/it

sad

800 vulg. in m.c. hash sad. 900


\

hazar

1,000

du hazar
si

r-

2,000

hazar
hazar
f

r-

3,000
10,000

Also

*^*

hizhdah

(old).

Notice that*'*' '

s/ is

" three

pronunciation of these two.

" and " care must bo taken in the "* thirty ^^ si " three hundred "; an si-s&dis Though si is "thirty"
:

cannot be used in Persian. expression like thirty hundred is met with, but this form is not used in modern Persian.
s

' '

Classically

JM^UO si-sad

To be

distinguished from the Arabic

word sadd

prohibiting, checking."

184

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
.

sad hazar

100,000, in India the word


lak (for lakh
a
)

cJ

is

also

used.
.

kurur

. .

500 ,000 in India a karor = KM)


Za&7&

ten millions.

oj*k or c>t^
)

milyun

(or

milyun)

1,000,000

modern only, from the


French.
to 10 are, &^\ or

Remark
1

I.

The masculine Arabic numbers from


aLjk.
*!*,,

***fj,

olii

fijtf,

4-uy,

afiu,

WU$,

*-J,

j2L.*

From

3 to 9 inclusive

Arabic numerals (masculine) are used in Persian as adjectives to " the four elements " qualify a plural noun, as: 'anasir-iarba'ah A*j;f j*>lu=
these
;

wvqat-i khamsa

&+^
"
;

&-^

crly^

"the

otfy "the five times of prayer"; havass-i khamsn five senses"; kawakib-i sab' ah <***% v^!^ "the seven

<f the eight Paradises stationary planets jannat-i samaniya *xil*i oti^ ^--3 *J$j tis'ah "the nine heavens" aftak-i r^ 'uqul-i 'ashara
;

"

44

the ten angels (of philosophers)

"
;

mavaUd-i salasa
;

*X

"
oJi^x
i4

J^

the three
tiie

" kingdoms (animal, vegetable and mineral) ** " the six Gospels" ayyam-i sitta &** fty days
;

anajit-i arba'h
in

four

which God created the

world."

The Arabic
writers,

ordinals

but the use of

up to 20 have been employed by some Persian these ordinals beyond 10 is by some considered

inadmissible.

Remark //.The word for 100 is written &*c instead of o* to avoid any common Arabic word sadd li boundary." it and the 60 is written for ^~~^ which means " thumb fish^ftOtfk," Similarly,
confusion between

^^

In grammar, this
or obscurity."

is

called

^-^

daf'-i iltibas

"removing the confusion,

Remark
**

one"

vulgar say yeg, and more " six " shish and shisht for ; haf hash for
}

///.The

commonly
'

'

seven and

or yey for " eight yazza


ye
;
,

duvazza, slzza, punza, shunza and nunza.


(b)

The Persian system


'

of counting ceases at five


'

at half a million or one kurur ^j/. 6

To express one
and so on.
lak, vide (b)

hundred thousand, i.e. million, five hundred

thousand
1

they say

si

kurur ^^ A*
(obsolete)

Also

^UjJ tum&n
tafcfa (in

and c^J

and

(c).

Persian lak) and karor (in Persian kurtfr) are of Sanskrit origin, and have been borrowed by the Persians from the Indian system of calculation. They
2

The words

are terras to be avoided in Persian


(pi.

as the ideas as to their values differ

In Persian lak

lakuk)
&
i.e.,

is

correctly a

hundred thousand.
numerals assume the feminine form
for the

in Persia, a kurur is only half a million.


3 to 10 the

From
i.e.

masculine,

and

vice versa.
&

half million according to the Persian calculation.

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
While
in India.
in Persia,

I8t

ten millions.

a kurur equals only half a million, in India it equal This must be remembered when reading Persian works writtei
lak

by Persians. In India it signifies hundred thousand, but according to Dr. Rosen it signifies only ten thousan in Persia. The Zardushtis and merchants trading with Bombay give th word its Indian value. 1
is

The word

J^

rarely used

(c) Tuman &(*y, T., signifies a myriad (10,000), or a sum of money equal t 10,000 Arabic silver dirham hence, also a district supposed to furnish 10,00
;

fightingmen.*

The
In

chief of a
j*Jl*>

Baluch tribe is

still

called a

Tuman-dar, corruption

tuman-dar

y.

Persia,

the word

equivalent of ten qiran,


(a

tuman e>4P is only used for a gold coin, or it Ck commander c or = the word c^y j**' Amir tuman

nominal) ten thousand."


(d)

greatest

From twenty upwards the numbers are arranged by having th number expressed first, and the lesser added by the conjunction
:

[Though deviations from this rule may occur, they should not be copied " is hazar sad B u nava k< eleven hundred and ninety-nine (1199) u Example " ar Ci * * *A<> u nuh 3 hundred Such as eleven n j )*yt> ij. expressions
<*-

never used.

The

use of the conjunction^

is

obligatory.

Remark.
occurs:

In the Tiiztiki Jahangirl (Jalmngir's Memoirs) the followin


c;J>?

^T^
u
hazar u

<xUyo

Jlajl/o

C^PA

^^

)\yt

^>

A> ^J,3

*^-ib

x^^

chaJiar sad

pn.nzdal* tola ki
:

ba-wazn bar
tola ki

amad
si

yak hazar $i u hafi u misqal rm-badiu in Modern Persian this would be ch,ahar sad u panzda
u

mm

haft misqal

mm* j

^~

its noun (without the izafat) and th hazar mard il one thousand men", bu noun is in the singular, as: jyj_va> e< ten individuals." An hazar mard *' th ^cUx^i^iJ % dah nafar ashkhas
(e)

cardinal

number precedes

thousand men."

Very rarely the ma dud


1

^<***>

precedes the 'adad


:

^*xc

in this case

tii

amad

former has usually the indefinite ya, as *>^T j ^.y ^^^U- sal-i du bar <l about two years, a two years or so, elapsed." (Sa dl)
f

in bo

Vide note 2, p. 184.

2
8

Amlr-tuman ^*^j+*l (without

izafat) is
is

a Persian

title.

Yak hazar u yak sad &*&^


is

jj

}{*-'

also used for emphasis,

but ordinarily

tli

numeral yak
*

omitted except in Indian Persian.

Notice the position of nlm in the second instance and the insertion of j hetvvee
al.

hazar and

186

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
In poetry the cardinal sometimes follows for poetical license, as
M
(T
:

and

The ma dud
1

is

occasionally understood, also by poetical license:

broken plural
cL-Ud+c
si

In Modern Persian at any rate, an Arabic plural, or Persian imitation <c is sometimes em ployed, as: *A*i to dah'fa'ala ten workmen"
!

&

null
C

qal'ajat

'amalajat "nine workmen" three forts "; ofjfef ^^ chahar

or

"artificers";

ci>la**i*

&~

for chahar taraf', bi-sad mushkilat


bi-sad ishkal (ni.c.).

o^&*

"on all sides," **& (Afghan) for bi-sad mushkil, or


atraf (m.c.)

definite noun, the


<*

In the rare instances where the numeral stands as a predicate to a " noun is in the plural, as: " the men were two thousand
(j^j-*

mardan du hazar budand.


in the plural after sadha U<w> " hundreds
:

The noun may be


>

"
;

Jiazaran

t)j1

orhazarha UyjA thousands," as !;^ (e>^^ or better) <j*^ p* UyjA 8 *xijb'.:x hazarha bettor Iwm-jins-i* (or ham-jins-Jia-yi ) Wiud ra khivahand
<;

<4

award

(m.c.)

they

will bring
fil-ha)
;

J*i Ua*o (or incorrectly


after sadha, etc.,

thousands of their own people hazaran (or Jiazarha) fit (or fil-ha).

**

sadha

fi,l*

The

plural

" thousands
(/)
'j

is probably incorrect, for, as, already stated, sadha is rarely used in m.c., haza.rha or hazaran being substituted hazaran kurur (m.c.). thousands of krorzs" hazaran hazar (m.c.), or hazar hazar (m.c.) many
:

(lit.

" thousands of

a thousand " and

<c

a thousand thousand ")

chanrRn hazar " several thousand."

substantive preceded by a cardinal

number does not admit


:

of the

of

the accusative unless specially definite, as

"I

shot two and a half brare

of partridges

to-day" *:>y ;^

*-***"
6

**^ JkJ j-y

kardam, but har du both of us (def.) har


;

man
si

ra

firistad

imruz panj dana kabk* shikar *' he sent (m.c.) ^U^j t^JU ^^ yk
t(

<V

(def.). ^Uy> I sent all three or by the preposition [The dative, however, can be expressed either by as j>Ai j^ ^o o e/f a-^ man/ ra bigu, or ^J ^^ ^b 6a an rfw mard( bigu
I;
:

ra firistadam (&&*;>

"

\)

'!

here
;

as singular
2
z

a tendency in m.c. to treat some of the commoner Arabic broken plurals s^U^J asbab, for instance, is sometimes treated as a singular vide also 29 (c)
is
:

Remark and

footnote

I).

But u hazar ham

jins darad (not ham-jinsfia).


;

Here the plural ham jinsha sounds better

also

it

conveys the idea of hazarha az

ham-jinsha-yi Mtud.
*
6

The word hazaran or hazarha is used in m.c. and sadha rarely. Or kabg m.c. Or har du-yi man raj or har du ta man ra, or ma har du ta ra.

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
*

187

'

tell tliose

" two men


ra ki az

an dah mard ra bigu

j&

f;

'

'

tell

those ten

men," etc.]. Sad tuman

u+> O^f

*'*'^ v*

man duzdidid pas nami dihid (m.c.) jt tf f; " won't you return me the 100 tumans that you stole
may be
considered as pronouns.

from

me

' '

Remark.
(q)

liar du, liar

si, etc.,

various objects
cattle,"
'

The Persians have several qualifying or determining words for when used with numerals, like the English " twelve head of
etc.

These are placed before the substantive, which


'

is

in the

singular without the

imfat' (vide
;

117), as:

*^ v;^ or) v ^^j*


lj

duwst*
' '

bab khana,, 200 houses \(*j~j& ^~y bist nafar sarbaz" twenty rank and du farsakh rah " two farsakh's distance. "

file

Such words are especially


principally

common
nafar

in writing.

The following

are those

employed

Persons

*_&
I

>

\ji

du nafar
uwf;
*~*

far rash.

Horses

Mules

ras

y-t

si

ra*$

asp,

Donkeys
Mules

kamand
mahar
camels
a
11

applied to single animals. a slip knot kamand


* '
;

Camels

lasso; scaling ladder." chahar y& (j& or) ;^ ;

mahar

(or nafar) shutur.

Men

or
1

nafar
li

Mu

o s

qitar

qitar

line, string," is

camels.

string

of

camels
(of

under
usually

one

leader

seven camels).

Klephants

zawjir

mirbat

zanjir
1

'

*'

cliain

'

'
;

mirbat

anything for tying or binding such as halter,


etc."

'

Mso

twelve brace of partridges

'

* ;

six pair,'

'ten

'

sail

a thousand horse

'

or

foot.' etc.
2

Colloquially
v

o-"J^

didst.

Derived from

*-^~-*Jrf

(k)to dah

(ta) blsl

" ten twenties."


;

&\A. o.v-,. c^J yak dast khana moans one house with a complete set might consist of only one room.
.V,

of

rooms

yak

feliana

Far rash (j&j* lit. carpet spreader ": a servant whose functions are to pitch tents, sweep out the room, walk before his master, carry messages, apply the bastinado, and anything from a housemaid to bring tea. This functionary has been aptly described as
a
*

* 4

an executioner."
*

Also used colloquially

188
-

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
.

Sheep, goats

l~

shakh

dart a

'adad; ra^

shakh " a

= "horn" dana ~ grain"; adad = "a


;

number"
Fowls
dana
61

ras-s

'*

a head."

Dogs

qilada
I;

a collar."
bahla
1

Hawks

bahla

AwJ = "hand";
4<

(classical)

falconer'?

glove."

Falconer

bazu
l

(classical);

bazu

"arm."

Guns (cannon)
Sails

arrada

"a
' *

kind of small balista;


' '

farvand

a cart (modern)." a sail vulg. farund.


:

Money

dana

^-ky &
m>am
rn an
<;

$ ***

sad dana

tu-

(m.c.) 100 gold tupieces.

Jewels, fruit

dana
sanb

Clothes

yak saub
sardarl (also less correctly

Guns,

etc.
,

lula,qabza.

yak dtrna sardari). mJi " a bodkin for applyan obeing collyrium
;

lisk; a milestone; probe,

etc."; lula
barrel/'

*'a pipe;

Swords
daggers.

and

qabza

..

qabza "hilt a handle."


<;

of

a sword;

Books
Shawls or piecegoods.

jild

volume."
stani

corresponds to the Hindu-

word
;

than.

Carpets Felt

or

fard
takhta

"a
*

one PITM< a board."


unit
lt

For mablagh
139
*

sum

(of

money)" and muwazl

equal to, etc.,"

wV

(A).

Also naed colloquially.


j

qir5ngs panj gold five nine qirans). * Carpets in Persia are woven and sold by the pair, each pair being identical in pattern. Persian taste requires everything in a room to be in pairs the same pictures even (coloured prints of European women of ample charms only partially concealed), repeat themselves on both sides of a doorway or arch. Fard also means " an account "
bit
**

In m.c. dast-kash J^S o-^^ s use d for a falconer s or any other glove, this word signifies " an assistant falconer," " one who strokes " the hawk. i.e., -. " a Panj hazar ;!> 4five hu t fiazarl
'2

fn

India

(value

now

or

"a

list."

CARDINAL NUMBERS.

189

Remark
rendered

I.

A
si

"ura

phrase like, "I struck him three blows with a sword" is shamshir zadam fo)^*&* *<* f^f, or si zakhm-i (or zarb-i)
1

shams Kir zadam p*)j^+ vj** or) ^j A~ (m.c.). Remark II. In ordinary conversation,^ nafar
(

is

used for persons and

13

ta or

A>'^

dana

for things.

Tais also used in forming nouns


''

a score
t(i*i,

"

^3(3

t^j*

<->

number, as ^Iwxj yak btstd^(m.c.) " a dozen " yak davazda tafi (m.c.) ^13 te ,_> yak
of
:

dah

etc.

In classical Persian, the


of
11

of unity

was sometimes added to form nouns


ll
)

number, two and two "

as: davazdah-3, (in speaking duvaza-i


;

dozen"

duv-i (class.)

yak-i is a
will

pronoun "one, some one."

Remark ///.It

be noticed that, as in the case of the cardinal

numbers, these determining numbers are usually followed'by a singular noun.


A&J linga is the odd one of a pair, or the load of one side of a transport animal &j)& cJo yak darzhan (or dajan) " a dozen" (applied to things generally sold by the dozen); (in.f.) is
(li)

Juft

cufiA.

or

jj

zauj

is

a pair;

t^U) cu-,>
'

u>-'

yaA; dost libas

" a suit of clothes

' '
;

J&^ j ^

c^^^

^ yak

dost

" t4 a set of plates and six cups yak dast finjan n'alnakl ^^^ ^**** o~*^ uXj six cups and six saucers"; muqamir ra si shash mi-bay ad va llkin si yak mi-dyad (Sa'cli) "the gambler wants three sixes, but three one's keep
;

kdrd u changal 'one set consist! ag of 2 knives, 2 forks and 2 spoons' (or one place at table ') yak dast zarf ojfe ^ * wX " one set consisting of six
;

coming up."
(i)

man yaka va tanha signities The emphatic phrase l^xi j unaided." quite by myself; (j) The phrase &* ;^ Jk> du char shudan signifies to encounter unexpectwe met each other" Ex. +*(> ba ham du char shudim edly." ^*xu )^j& " I met him." du chdr-i u shudam, or urn du char shudam (m.c. only) " hundreds of: (k) 8adha* U^^; hazaran &\y\*>, hazdrhd U)|;A signify 4 thousands of." Ex. o^; ^U laJL^ cu^t JU UiX^ sadha salast inja manda ast
" I single and alone
;
*

&

<4

(m.c.)

it

(Afghan)

has lain here for hundreds of years" "hundreds of kos." b

j/ UKX* sadha kuroh

In India
,/M/^

si shatushlr
;

zadam

^? chitb

zadam,

etc.

nami-fchwaham linga ml-Mtwaham ^*^^a.^ single (odd) carpet, not a pair." 3 The plural -an of this word not used.
i

^JJ

f^lr*-^

^^
:

*'

want a

Hazaran would be more usually substituted

in colloquial idiom

no dah nah
it

sad hazarha (Qa'ani).


5

kos

is

an Indian measure
districts

however, varies in

of distance supposed to be about two miles and may be anything from H to 4 miles.

190

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
agar

chunm

amal mi-kardam

hazarhd daf'ah bihtar mi-sJmd (m.c.) "had I done so, it would have been thousands of times better for me" (better hazar chandan, "a thou-

OA? j* jj$ ^J y ;Uju &*> sad bimar az lab-i gur sand-fold"): " a hundred sick have bar gasht (many a sick person has) returned from the
brink of death (recovered

when given up)," but sadha bwnar "hundreds

of

sick."
The Afghans sometimes (incorrectly) say sadha-yi marduman&\*>:j*^*** instead of sadha mard d/ ^<x*>. :( we two, both," etc., vide 39 (/) (3), ma du tin far (1) For the expression
j&

t/o
?

or

ma

liar

du

?&

j*

I*
,

or bar du-yi

man

d*>

^^

**>.

(m)

The

cardinals are used to express the year, vidv

48 (*)J

This

life is

often, especially in poetry, referred to as In panj ruz jj;


*

<^'f,or
in

In du nlz-i 'umr j+* JJ) tho next


*

&>

"
:

haft

qalam

^
'

c^Urf>

Dar du dunya ^^ )2 )t means "in <k " is the seven of


l

this

world and

styles

writing
t]io

haft iqllm

*-^

^&*>

the seven climes of the world"


l<

haft darya {{)&

oJik

tk

seven seas

"
;

haftjahannam

*>

+t^ oA*
name)"
eight.
;

the seven divisions of the

haft blhisht

o-y oJi*
.

Muslim ilell (each of which has a separate the seven Paradises of Islam (exclusive of the Kursiy
According to tlie vulgar there are
.

or Falak^l-Buruj,

and the Arsh


5

or Falak**1-Aflak)."
.

Haftad u du j*

^U&A

for

haftadudu
:

millat

^~U j- j

,vUUu occurs in poetry for the

seventy-two religions of the world

Jang-i ha/tad u
f

<hi

millat liama ra

uzr bi-nih

>hun na-dldand haqlqnt rah-i afsana zadaiid.


(Ha/is.)

Haftad u
is

si firqa &*j*

A-

} ^Uft^ ig

the seventy-three sects of

Islam.

Muhammad

reported to have said that there were 71 sects of the Jows, 72 of the Christians, but There are five more. that there would be 73 of Muslims There are ninety-nine attributes of God called al as naP'l-hiinna or " the excellent names," but commonly Persians talk of the thousand and one names of God. Alia hi*

and with the ninety-nine attributes, completes the one hundred names recited by means of the rosary in tho exercise or The IsmP'l-A'zarn,, or tl Uroatname of God," is supposed to be known only to zikr.
*

called the Istn u 'z' z at or

essential

name

of

God

'

'AH is supposed to have one less, i.e. 1,000 names. There are supposed to be 1,24,000 Prophets. The world it is supposed is 8,000 years old, and will reach the age of 50,00(1 years
saintly persons.
:

Farda

ki az in dayr-i

kuhn darguzarlm

Ba

haft hazar-salagan

ham

safar-im.

" To-morrow we

and march With comrades who have marched seven thousand


shall quit this inn,

' '

years.

(0.

K. 312 Whin.)

THE ORDINALS.
48.

191

The Ordinals.

(a)

The Persian
This

ordinals are formed


is

cardinals.

termination

turned

by adding the termination urn by Grammarians rnim-i

to the
siiati

) They are treated as ( ^l&o (>*) or mlm-i Wyln4 to,' dad ( &\**> (^**> adjectives and as such can precede or follow their substantives

p*

1st

J>!

+&
'

-or o~--so

avval (Ar.); yakum, or nufchnsl.


.

2nd
3rd
4th 5th

^
***

or

^^
***

duvvum

or duyum.

+r* or

+**>

f;^
.

sivvum or siyyum. chaharum.

f?^J
.

panjum.
.

6th
7th

^^
f
XR&
^.i^A
ffj

shishum, classically shashum.

haj turn
has/itum.

8th
9th
l()th

nuhum.
dahum.
si-urn.

^A,V
.
.

30th
(b)

fl '^w

2
.

When

there
:

the last only, as

more than one number, the formative affix is added to " f;^ ^-W ^^ ? ac^ w chihal u chaharum the hundred and
is
->
->

forty-fourth (144th)."
(c)

The Persian

ordinals can hi addition take the affix


^jjj^iu nukhusfin, (^*+:j3
*

w&,

sometimes
Ex,
^ij;

contracted to ^, as: c.^ raunaq-i avvalin


f

duyyumin,

etc.

" former (Sa'di) brightness (or splendour)."


takes the place of

Remark.
an ordinal,
(^)

In poetry a cardinal number sometimes


fjZ-'

as:

**

c>'

^3 f/ 3^

The

ordinals
t $*[>-*
x>

may
^s^.

be
1

followed by the ra

of

Question:
Inn, as

^ f
time.
9

the accusative,

as:

kudam

yakl-ra

mi-khwaht
**

"which one
who have
pro-

we stay only a short

Haft-hazar salagan,

all

the dead

" ceded us

May

kh.ur ki

z dil

kasrat u qillat M-barad

V andisha-yi hajtad u du millat b>-barad.


to root

" Drink wine

up with a metaphysie's weeds


(0.
***

And

tangle of the two-and-seventy creeds."

K. 194 Whin.}

Yakum
is

yakum

is In India and Afghanistan p&> used instead of avval for month. the the 1st of Nufehust o^iu generally

much

less

used in Persia than avval J^'.

and nuts&ustln ^>^*u are classical, and only used in writing nukhmt zad <( ** 2 Note the distinction in 3rd and 30th " in Persian. writing between
S

first

born."

Here avval
'

J;l could be substituted for avvalin

&~j

In avvalin

afyfairin

c^/^ 2

&~J

**

ancients and moderns

"

the terminations are the oblique case of the

regular (classical) Arabic masculine plural.

192
' '

THE ORDINALS.
'

do you want ? Answer t; fo > cu-jj Ust u yakum rd " the twenty- first ?<xi ^;t^. chahdrumi rd bidih (m.c.) "give me the fourth."
:
l

'
:

t;

(e)

The Arabic

ordinals, which are

also adjectives, are to

a certain
of

extent used up to
the agent
<J.cU

"the tenth."
.

These are formed on the 'measure*


the first

(masc.),

and

isb'

(fern.),

excepted.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

ula (rare in Per


sian;
(,?)

saniya.*
| \

sdlisa.

rdbi'a.

khdmisa.
sddisa.

sabi'a.
i

sdmina
i

tdsi'a.

'ashira.

Remark

I.

The Arabic numbers

20, 30. etc.,

up

to 90,

and the numbers

100 and 1000 are the same for both cardinal and ordinal.

Remark

II.
:

An
(^^

Arabic ordinal

substantive, as

be employed even with a Persian " the eighth heaven." ;* charkh-i samin

may

(/)

Sovereigns bearing the same

name

are distinguished
' *

ordinals, as

(who

lost

<y ^-1^1: Persia to the Afghans).


:

li

& Shah Tahmdsp-i sani

by the Arabic King Tahmasp the Second


' '

For chaharumln ra
In speaking up to
4<

2
s

the third
..A l>

"

only.

*
6

In Persian always <^ sanL In Pers. generally only used for


9-

* *

a second of time.
first

'

'

\)j**\&

'ashura

is

the tenth day of the

Muhammadan month Muharram, when


must be
recollected

the miracle play is performed by Shi 'as. calculation the night precedes the day.

It

that

in

Muslim

THE ORDINALS.

193
generally used in dates,

(g)

The Arabic

ordinal

" the Jy avval


1

first"

is

as

^Ua.^;

Jy

avval-i
j^jf

mah-i Ramazan
is

''the

first

of

Ramazan."

The feminine
Arabic months
;

rarely used in Persian even in the names of the


j^

thus ^^if c^+r-

is

less

used than

Jjll!

^Wit

Avval Jy
substantive.

is

an adjective and
it

is

coupled by the izafat when


it is

follows

its

When however

precedes a substantive

generally to be

considered a substantive, and

is

dar avval-i khak-i

Kirman (me.) "at the commencement

followed by a genitive, as: &\*j> ^\a* Jj) )& of the district of

Kirman."
is J'y a va til signify ing "the beginning; of ten every month," as opposed to y^fy d-iys part; the " the plural of /^f akhira ( and akhir y^T ends, latter parts; the oJJiiEx. each month." of ) JJty ^ dar ava*il-i saltanat-i u days

The

plural of Jj avval
first

the

first

avakhir
last ten

beginning of his reign


his life," avval shab
of the night."

"

(J**>)
first

^3

"in the " at the close of dar avakhir-i ;^ zindagi

" the

night," but avval-i shab

Jy

" the

beginning

(J^J

f^;^

^^

c5;^^ \^

Janvarl
the end

li-

<jjhayat-i

chahardahum-i April (m.c.)

az iurikh-i siwum-i f*fi $ "from the 3rd of January to

of tho 14th of April."


!>
!j

Remark.

Ula ^jf, the Ar.

fern, of avval
is

Jy, must not be confused with


the elative form from

^f

awla " more or most excellent" which


avval, uln.

waU

^
^^

and has no connection with


(h)

first of the month is also called g&urra, Ar., which properly " blaze on a horse's or a "star too large to be covered by forehead," signifiesa

The

the thumb-top, the


salkh<> Ar.
,

new moon/2
its

etc.,

etc."

The

last of the

months

is

also

which has for

original

meanings "to

skin,

flay;

to

shed

the skin (snake); to shed foliage and grow green again."

Not an uncom(

mon

phrase

in

writings

is

&*<*)

^l~j

^
t^

jl

^
lit.

*U mah-i
" the

umr-i u az
of his life-

" his gjmrra bi-salkh rasld day.s drew to a close," time travelled from its ghurra to its salkh."

month
U^*

The
and the
(i)

first of

the

month
akhir-i

is

also called

Jy

avval-i mah^ or

sar-i

mah,

last

aU^Lf

mah.

ordinals are used in computing the year of the reign of a but the cardinals are used in expressing the date of an era. sovereign, (j) The ordinals are sometimes vulgarly formed by adding digar to a
cardinal, without

The

an

izafat y as:

Ufy ^ to* j

jS.>$

tawana
J

(Tr.

H. B., Chap. VI) "the third was a


of the

man
moon

&> si-dlgar tanumand u robust and strong."


of fasting.

Ramazan, the ninth month

Muslim year and the month


)** the full
:

The new moon

is

hildl
is

J^*, and badr

in speaking

mah-i ahab-i

chafiardah to

)^^

|/0 *r^** *'

generally used for the

"

full

moon.*'

13

194

FRACTIONS.

OTHER CLASSES OF NUMERALS.


49.

Fractions kusur

pi.

of kasr\

(a)

Persian fractions are usually formed by placing the denominator

after the

numerator, as:.^

^A

haft

du

C{

two-sevenths

"
(

).

In

mixed
:

numbers, the whole number precedes the fraction as in English.

Examples

To(H

Remark

/.For
;

jj,

etc.,

tlie

Arabic fraction du mis,


si

5/A

sumn,

etc.,

must be used

-s

hasht yak or

7^a^

would he wron.

Remark II.

The fractions

are followed

by the

izafat, as
:

*<x>

khhums-i in ra bi-man bi-dih "give


yak-i in haqq-i

me a
c

fifth of

this"

-=*~*t

c^^

man
;

ast (m.c.)

'a tentJi belongs


]
' '

by right to me."
is

The Persian

fraction \ si yak is not used, and and measures for weights give me a fourth and not the Persian would be used: similarly
'

chahar yah

only used for

'

of this
'

the Arabic fraction

half
\t

of this'

uun

nfof-i

In,

but

t4

!^ yards broad cloth"

c^t^
"
:

+**

*J*>

yak gaz

u nim ma hut.

Kusiir-i *a?nn> " vulgar fractions

kiisur-i a'shariyyah
:

"decimal fractions."
]s

Nlm
<Ux>

+*?
is

in

generally used in compounds


fc;

in

speaking nisf Oi^aJ


;

prefeireci.

Nlwa
(m.c.)

also used as nlma-yi rah (m.c.)


:

&+> "halfway "


is

" the fifteenth of the month "

nirna alone

used in

niwa-yi wah %k* ^Ux m.c. for ** half a brick";

*J

^i^

ki'abat riima~yi
is

dMar

= ol3'i
i.e.

c-ft/o.

c^jU^ kitabat nisf-ul-mulaqcit

Ar.,

**

writing (a letter)

equal to half a visit,"

correspondence with friends doen

away with

half the pain of separation.

FRACTIONS.
(6)

195
in speaking.

The Arabic

fractional terms are

sometimes used even


(e.g. ^JL>

In the singular, they are generally of the measure cU*

"a

third")

and
2

,^'

in the plural
-

JUf.
**&&>

Examples
l

m's/

Used

in speaking

instead

of

nim.
9

i
1
"a
.

*j
>j

rub' or ruha
si rub* (or

PI. a ty arba' (rare).


)

A-

ruba
.

-^

suls

PL

asla* (rare)

also

the

three- thirds).

sulsayn

Dual; (the dependent case in


the
classical

language);

du

suls in Persian.

khums

PI.

u*^
^U-'
^^^t

akhmas

(not used).

PI- <j*t*~
.

asdas (not used).

PI.

asba' (not used).

PL PL

asman (not
'

used).

a^sa* (rare). ^Ui}


ushiir
*

PL ;^^

and

;t^

The duals
Remark.
*

arid plurals are very rarely used except


c

by Mullas in writing

tjuarter to'

is

sometimes expressed, thus: chahdr


is

ilia rub'

four minus a quarter," etc., but the expression


v

perhaps incorrect.

c)

In

m c.

c^/^'jj v^*ai
c<

tiisf-i

ziyad-tar- ax k^ or better

/ii,s/

zii/a(f-t(tr-ash signifies

more than half."

(d)

In

Modern

Persian,

mV

v^^aJ

is

generally used for the substantive


:

"half" while
^ radius
asleep."
as

mm

^
(lit.

is

preferred for compounds, as

jlaj

^A-^

tusj-i qut/r

of a circle

half the diameter),"

but

v^

/*V

nim-khwab "half

However, in m.c., nwn-shab shab tiisj-i shab and nitna-ifi


:

is

occasionally used for


*

"

midnight/* as well

nim-rTiz (class.)

midday.'
"
:

Bil-muna#afa

A^UJb
S>

>

iri

halves,
o '

equally

but\vooii

two

dar

lutf-i

iarlq

'

half way.'*
'9
';
'2

In Arabic the forms


-

ami

>J;

in Persian (and similar measures) arc found, but

tho measure C/* ? only


'

is

used.
t

In speaking

du

#idft

du

kfeiims, si fcburns, etc., J,


is

l),

-\

*
fi

In Persian, the

pi.

;>^

used for the singular

T\jtli.
*'

In Arabic, the fractions above a tenth are expressed by a paraphrase

so

many

parts out of so

many

parts ( *y^ )."

196
(e)

ADVERBIAL NUMERALS.
Such expressions as "
^9
fl

5%"
daft
to>

are

.Ja

<i*o

sad pan].

Yak

bar

rendered by u& " ten to one

*u
(in

**>

sad panj, or
'

betting)/'

(/)

g*\

Juj

Decimal fractions are rendered by a paraphrase, thus *75"= j ^'&* ^^ J&* haftad o.*-J <w j' o*-J> sad 2 haftdd u panj-i inch, or g\

^j

u panj qismat
(g)

az sad qismat-i inch.

Fractions

may

also be expressed
j

as

follows

*&

jl

^C

?/afc-

as daA

"one out of ten, or one-tenth"; &^ or two- thirds."


50.

ja dw as

51

"two

out of three,

Adverbial Numerals

uJfi

^^

(a)

The
;lf

ordinals can be used as adverbial numerals.


$ j^t ^ ^iii> <*&f

Ex.

ty v^J.

^ dj&

^^

<*&f

^.

^.i ^ v^

2/a^-t

anki garmi-yi aftab bud;

tufang u barudugulula yak bar bar man bud, "firstly, there of the sun; and, secondly, the rifle with powder and bullets was the heat was " in this sentence avval could be substituted for yak-l. quite a load for me

duyyum anki

(b)

The Arabic
:

ordinals in the accusative case are also used in Persian

as adverbs
;?--<

Jly

anval- on

firstly, in

the

first

place."

Uils
*
'

saniy-

an
,

"secondly, in the second place."


etc., etc

n
,

(c)

The Persian

ordinals,

with the exception of yakum


ci

8 <e

added to

first time, martaba, A*^ daf'ah, or ;L> bar time," etc., etc., signify second time," etc., as Afyo Jy or J^f V|/ X> avval martaba or martaba-yi avval
:

"the

first

time,"

etc.,

<U?\>

daf'a-yi

duvvum

(or daf'a-yi sani), py# &>*&

daf'ah-yi sly yum.

Remark.
etc.

Bar-ha

U; l

(pi.

oi bar)

means

' c

oft-times."

For du-chandan,

"twice as much,"
(d)

trc'dfe

Multiplicative Numerals.
to

The
etc.

cardinals

prefixed

twice,"

Ex.

;b &** si bar

"seldom."

Ex.

^yj^

*^ ^jj;

the same substantives signify "once, " thrice" kam-bar (classical only) ** ;L> " he used to ruz-i si\bar khwurdl
;

(Sa'dl)

eat three times a day."

The expressions found in old Persian fl dah bis' 200 are not used in modern Persian.
1

and

/*

dah yak, or yak dah


-75 inches.]

2
*

Sad

">,

i.e.

per 100.

[As -75"

is

singular,

it

is

wrong to say

The Arabic

ordinal avval supplies the place of yakum.

In modern Persian )b p

kam-bar

is

an adjective signifying "of

light

weight or

load."

MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS.
(e)
<k

197

" " Once again is^jj>


>j*>

'

4*^

^ yak
jL>

daf'a-yi dlyar, or

)\^

bi-takrar

by repetition "), or
(/)

)j&* mukarrar, or

33

du bam.
etc. are

Such expressions as "twice two makes four,"


:

rendered as

follows

2 x 2
ast

du martaba du chahar

ast*z+~\
td

;l^

^ *j*j*, or du bar du chahar


^ j>

c^f

jly*.

5-1-5

j&jjt, or du du ta chahar panj u panj dah ml shavad


^
13

dah

to &

Jj.

5 panj az panj, hlch g**

5-f-5

panj dar panj,

^^ ^ ^u ^ yak u& ^ ^
to

y^

^
j -*J, or panj ta

u panj

ta

;^

51.
(a)

Multiplicative Numerals.
:

The

multiplicative or reduplicative numerals are as follows

"

"

Single

^xj mufrad,
ubUax;
^

U5o yakta, A>KJ

yagana.

"Double"
"Treble''

muza'af, &x

du chand,

^*^
5i

3*

du chandan,

&^}z dur/ana, Uja

rfw /a, J/^o> c?^ /a. 3


.,

^\^
5*

musallas;
; J!

U A^
8

5^*

^a;

<>Aa.

A^

chand ;

^'^

*-

^t

chandan

<*Jlf

A-

^ana

AV,

54 /a.

"Quadruple" g^c murabba', oU^i


chand, etc.

A*J;|

arba'a az'af,

^i^;^
a,

chahar

"Twenty-fold"
6i?^

c>f<>^ ^-*^
6^9^

^^

chandan,

o^x

Ms/,

Jblix;

c:

jj

muqabil,
'*

&L^
:

o^-y

muqabala.

hundred-fold
cu^;

"

c;i<^^ <^

s^ chandan,
t^
J

il'tflx i)^,

U xo, etc.
as that

Examples

^f

^ ^^
l

v^
'*

'*

this is twice as

much water

"
:

i?

^i twenty times the amount of wheat v^^l;i parisham-yi ma chahar chandan izafa shud
this is
:

' '

(m.c.)

"our alarm was


cc
J

increased four-fold": in

si

barabar-i

an

ast

o^'
ft &

*^ cHl e;Tj^7
\

this is three times as

much

as that

"
;

(m.c.)
(>*>

+^

y.\y.

&*jk

>=* f.f. ^vijfj^ or) man bi-u si barabar-i hakim (or duwazda barabar-i f hakim) dada am (me.) "I have given him three times (or twelve times) as much " as the Haklrn gave Jbla/c A^ si muqabil ziyad-tar oy ai^iyk *5of 3; f&\tji
;

dadam az an " he asked


:

gave him more than three times what Ai^tyx Aaeuf Jblax ^^ ^/o man si muqdbil-i anchi khwasta f>to' ^ bud bi-u dada am (m.c.) " I have given him three times what he asked."
ki

khwasta bud

((

(rn.c.)

^^

Arabic multiplicatives are seldom used. In ordinary use are the compounds of 0' ta, 31 la, &*>*. chand, e;!*^ chandan and
(6)

Of

the

above, the

muqdbila.

Or bar

;L>

or martaba
is

i ^

In India the word takrar


Colloquially dulla,
silla.

also used for

"

altercation, dispute."

198
52.

RECURRINU NUMEKALS.
Distributive Numerals.
:

The
v5^
also

distributive numerals are

-X>^;
*

yakdyak, or <-*

**>

yak yak, or
'
'

^
ta,

J
.

yak-i yak-l (m.o.), or


}&

&& &&
3
:

jj-*j

huva bi-huva

(rn.c.)

^^

one by one yagdnyagdn (obsolete) du badu, or *>> ^ du du, or Ujj> l^^ c?w
si se
;

"

/a

du

or dugan

"by twos"; *~ A^
"

''three

by
<k
:

three, by threes

";

chahdrdri chahdrdn (old)" four &t,B, time''

i&dahdali

by tens";

yagdn u dugan
^ixiix'C

(old)

by ones and twos."

Examples

jj>

;&

*^f bi-nawbat jihai-i shikar ^.;o.xf (j^^ AsuU^ ^xi5jjj/o du du ddam me-raftem chundnchi du me-dmadem wa du-yi dlgor me-raflem " we* used to (Afghan) go out shooting by turns, two of us at a time, viz. when two of us returned two others from amongst us started in their place." ^ The Afghan idiom -^ If&Jb ;^ ^b^^^^ L^^^J er manriimnlmsir,
AJfjj^j v
v

^^

yd

bar ad, dar tujangha kardam (Afghan) s< I (oaded the guns with " would half a seer or a seer each in m.c. be expressed sir yd yak sir yak
sir sir

mm

sir

bdrud dar tufang- h d ka rdam


(2)

(m.c.).

Adverbs and Adjectives such

as

-H*^ takhmin
:

" about."
Inst sal

etc.

are also used to


&> Tb<^>
j.^,1

express approximation, as

takhmm

fln

slmda ki

JU
*'

o/*oj

1x^4.3X3

" about 20 years have elapsed since


pan') t'umdn
is

"o^b* ** o^y ^J
mi-bdshad

^c

AAJ^
five

*^'^

ki

mmcnzi-yi
x^

pdnzdah ruplya

(m.c.)

tuman which

equal to fifteen rupees

"

qarib-i sad (or bi-#ad)


)

nafar shutur dnjd bud (m.c.) about 100 camels there."


(3)

Uufy^

j'su

o^aj

or

^^

"there w^re

English

And *>j (connected witli ^oJ andak and ^^ eland), corresponds to si tuman ca and (class.) "thirty odd "odd," as: <^'j oUy

tumans."
53,

^
'*

Recurring Numerals.
:

" come every Examples: ^ ^Ij^a j; ->: ynk ruz dar jniydn biyd other day 6 "; "cut down every third tree" du biguzdr siyumin rd bi-bur
'

The recurring numerals are "once every ten days" &j-o

^ JD

alternately" e;^;^ ^0 yak dar miydn\ 8^ j& liar dah ruz yak martaba, etc.

Also moana

siuldouh.'

iSoiiio Ai'gliann still

say yagan yagan

\*y&* ^)^-.

he termination an appears to be
sevens

adverbial rather fchan a plural: ^J&LftA liaftagan

"by

"
(obs.)
;

e^t^ *&*[>

bum-

dadan "
8

"in

the morning''

(Sa'di)

the

Afghans say ($*]) rastan

for

the

adrerb

straight.'*

Means "

in detail

or exactly.
1

"
y

In Indian pronounced }&j*>


6 (

hfi ba-hfi.

In modern Persian
c
J
.

t^- f^ j*'

j&

J^.

j&

or) j<V J&

fo" *^t^

***';

**

^f'Oj&j^ bi-nawbat jihat-i shikar du bi-du (or du nafar p^j& j*t&j&J*Jp nafar) ml raftlm ya'nl du nafar ml amadlm va du nafar-i dlgar ml-raftim (m.c.).
t
i

*M

bi <tu

*
'

ghibb

an
, '

**

alternate days

visits of

a friend.

at intervals, occasionally,** is also sometimes used in writing for from a saying of the Prophet who was somewhat bored by the daily The Prophet suggested to his friend that he should visit him y]ihibb- a ".

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
*^ J* or du dar miydn yak-1 rd bi-bur " take one dose every three hours."
54.
(a)
;

199

j}**>>

Approximate Numbers.
:

or

15

4u

** Approximate numbers are expressed as follows " " or two or three j& du si td (m.c.) jl &> chahdr panj,
;

ji
13

du

si,

chahdr panj td (m.c.) " four or five " six or seven," cJU <_ s/*as/& fca/J, Ex: o^> chahdr panj angusht, "four or five fingers' etc., etc.
f * ;

^t^

Vi

^ y^

breadth"; du si musht-i bar kalla-yi u zadam f <4 I boxed his ears once or twice for him."
Remark.
(^
is

jt $\$

^!L*

&*jt> (m.c.)

In du

si bar-i

^t

*~>j*

" a two or three times

or so." the

the indefinite ^5.


(b)

In the m.c. phrase haft hasht dah


is
c<

td

*t>

owSu C^A,

'

some seven or

ten," the number nuh


(c)
<c

invariably omitted.

For *\^

e/?and,
}

a few," vide
an

about 20 persons,"

or taqrib

or

_Jii ^*-Jo an takhmln blst nafar.

39

(gr)

^^y gart&-i

6^ na/ar,

55.

Numeral Adjectives.
: :

aJU (a) Many numeral adjectives are formed by means of the silent h " ** <^> u of six years old &)(* *^**> j shash-sala, panjdh sdla, pir-i sad ** an old man of 150 years " *&; oAfc hajtranga, " seven coloured (the rain" bow) *^ y t^ v^w ^a7i7-i chahar-ruya, " a square a stone." In *Vj* ^-^ 5

^A

tufang-i du-lula,
lt

word Ma, The adjectives

" double-barrelled gun," the a spout, etc." *<fcUy> har mdha,


;

is
<4

already a portion of the

of every

month."

8j^j^

du-bdra

&;k

*^

si-bdra can also be used as adverbs,

wde

50
(b)

(d).

A^^O ma rika~gir, or J& naqqdl)* " often express ^everybody old and young by the phrases eJU 31 (j^ a+& 13 AlL. ^UiA U aJu hama kas az AJI* haft-sdla td haftdd-sdla, or *JU liij 31
Professional
(

story-tellers

(^

aa:

panj-sdla td panjah-sala,

or ^^U

os^

^u

aJl*

ji-i

j|

a^ shash sdla td shast

sola.

The following idioms


Memoirs
'*

(obsolete)
:

occur in the Tuzuk-i


j>

Jahdngm

(the

of the

Emperor Jahangir)
larger than the
^jj^j
tj

they are
e;ly

somewhat
AAU^J

6iw>y ^)^ ^A^jb ^^-^ e^b^3l common wild pigeon " 3^ &*> 3 A ^- J*
1

^^Us ^tu
means "

^lU"

jj^U

''they

(i.e.

pair

of

adv.,

at an estimate."
><

The Arabic

adjective

g*^
is

murabba'

"square"

is

also

used, particularly in

mathematics.
3

The term qie^Jsihwan

seldom used in Persia.

200

ARABIAN MONTHS.

newly-hatched sarus cranes) are somewhat larger than the a goose, or about the same size as pea-chicks a month old
these idioms arose from the everyday

young
1

of

':

possibly

Urdu idiom
(lit.

"the
21).

difference

between them

is

very slight

kd farq hai, the difference of 20 and


ikkls bis

(c)

Arabic numeral adjectives are


rub&i,
a four-lettered word

J>&
;

trilateral,

triangular, "treble

J '

a quatrain:

"quadruple" and

so

on.

CHAPTER
56.
(a)

VII.

Arabian Months.
'

The Muslim lunar months

are arranged to consist of

30 and 29

days (usually alternately), so the whole year consists of 354 days (and 9 hours). In a period of thirty years an intercalary day is added eleven times, i.e. the last month is eleven times in thirty years made to consist of 30 days instead of 29. (Hence the Naw Ruz would fall every year about 1 1 days earlier than the previous year and not, as it does, on 21st March.) As with the Jews, the civil day commences at sunset, and the month

commences on that evening when the new moon * is visible. [Hence the early Arab writers reckon not by the day but by the night ] The ordinal numbers are used to express the day of the month. (b) The following are the names of the months, which do not in any way
correspond with the English months
:

ARABIAN MONTHS.
*>
*.

or

?&>*>

Muharram
Safar
Rabi'u

_riJf ^ft^ or ^&*>


J^J/f

#jj

'lavval or Rabl tuni

'l-Awwal.

-r^Si C*;

Rabi' u 'l-Akhir or Rabi tuni


'l-Akhir.

now, but about

supposed to have consisted of 12 lunar months as was introduced, one month being intercalated into every three years. It is, however, related that the Prophet on a certain occasion said, " A year is twelve months only as at the time of the creation," and by There also existed amongst the this saying reintroduced the old lunar year. Arabs a system of commutation by which Muharram, the last of the three continuous
1

The ancient Arabian year


A.D. 412 a

is

system

of intercalation

sacred months, became secular and war lawful in " 2 Hilal J4U is the new moon" and badr

it,

and Safar sacred. the " full moon."

8 These second forms with the adjectives are used in writing and occasionally in speaking by the Persians.

Or

'ayn-i-yak cJ

ARABIAN MONTHS.
.. .

201

Jumadq'l-Ulq
Jumadq'l-Akhir
Rajab

6
7

y^Jff ^<iU.A.

^^A.jJi WAJ, or ^=*j


%

^fe*4^l
a

c)

9
10

u()Ujf

-^j or e)U* ^LA*^ or cjUaoj


l
f

Shcfban

Ramazan
Shavval.
.

V^^t J >~>
f8**ftJf,i

or

J -^
1

Zu'l-qa'da
or
or

Z* qa'dah
Zu'l-hijjah or

Zi-hajjah

Remark.

The fourth month is also


}

called

^)lU( j^;,
5

and the
lj^f

fifth
8

and sixth

ungrammatically

J^Vl

^l**- jamadi*' l-avval


*

and

^^U^

jamad

's-

sam or^^t ^^l*^ jamadl u 'l-akhir. o (( month" is^^ (c) The Arabic word for
o^

shahr* and the plural

is

)^
Zu
9

o^

shuhur or^-if ashhur. (d) Four of the above months are held sacred, Muharram, Rajab,
Qa'da, and Zu'l-Hijfa.
(e)
is

(I)

Muharram
it

fj**'* is

the

first

month

of

the Muslim calendar and

so called because both in the 'days of ignorance'

and

in the time of

Muhammad
The
first

was unlawful
Husayn,
5

ten days
of

( f\j* Jiaram) to go to war during this month. of this month are observed in commemoration of the

and the tenth day is called I;>1* 'ashura; some this on Sunnis fast day. very " to be a (2) Safarj&<6 is said to be derived from safar empty," either because the Arabs left their homes empty by going to war, or because they

martyrdom
strict

left

those

whom

they attacked empty.

Another derivation
leaves

is

from
first

sufar,

"yellowness," or the tint of the

autumn

when the month

got

its

name.
1

Or jlm-i-yak

&

*%*>

and jlm-i-du

^ ^j^.

The Arabs say

^,J( ^ujj j

Jjjf|

^J j and

2 These second forms with the adjectives are used in writing and occasionally in speaking by the Persians. 3 In Persian the forms with <^i are usually used. Jamadi incorrect for Jamada.

* Not month is a] so

to be confused with the Persian


fcU^

word shahr, " a

city."

The Persian word

for

mah, which
is

also signifies

"moon."

Mah-i-qamari,

" a lunar month"

shahr-i hilall; mah-i shamal,


6

"a
'

solar

month."

called Sayyid* sh-ShtJiada. Husayn than FStima 'Alavi.

The descendants

of All

by wives other

202
It

ARABIAN MONTHS.
was in
this

month that Adam was turned out of Eden, and it was during this month that the Prophet was taken ill it is the most inauspicious month in the calendar. Hence the month is superstitiously called ^*Jf j&*
:

or the lucky
(3

month.
Jjill jyo>
>

a,ndRabi uni 'lalchir jMf' second spring months were so named when the calendar was The Prophet died on the 12th day of Rabi tu 'l-avval.
tuni 'l-avval 4) ltabi

&

the

first

and

first

formed.

(5

&

6)

Jamdda

'l-ulq

^y\

probably derived from which no rain has fallen."


(7)

a^

and Jamadq 'lakhira *>^JIl c5-aUa> are M or <c "a dry and on jamad, dry year or season
<^j>U^
'

Eajdb v^j, the honoured month the root-meaning signifying veneration with fear.' Good Muslims spend the first Friday night (the English
,

Thursday night) in prayer.


(8) Sha'ban ^^*^, the month of disbanding or separation, is 20 called because the ancient Arabs dispersed at this time in search of water. The Arabs call the middle or fifteenth of this month, " the night of the middle of

Sha'ban," but the Persians ci>i^? v** Shab-i Barat "the Night of Registration," for Allah on this night records the actions of men to be performed
during the coming year, and those

who

are to be born

and to

die.

Strict

Muslims pray
(9)

all

night.

of the annual fast, is said to be derived " from a root-meaning to be very hot." During this month the gates

Eamazan <r^j, the month

are opened and the gates of Hell shut. In Persia, night is more or less turned into day and a great portion of the day is spent in sleep the bazars are barely stirring before noon. The
of
:

Heaven

most

irreligious

become devout and read holy books aloud.


fast will
1

Even those who

make a pretence only of keeping the


the fear of

not touch wine, perhaps through

break the

fast,

being detected by the smell. Some Persians who secretly cover their lips with dust when they go abroad, to give them

the dried-up appearance of hunger and thirst.


(10)

of this

Shawwal Jfji month.

lit.

" a tail."
9

The Id" lFirt*jWt

***

is

on the

first*

(11) Zv> 'l-Qa'da

*ft*Jf

ji the

month

of

"session" was a time

of truce

cind peaceful occupations.

to

(12) Zu'l-Hijjah JsuaJtji is the month of the Hajj or Pilgrimage Makkah, which is made in the 8th to 10th of this month. The <^*Kl *& W'l-qzhq (vulgarly zuha) " the feast of sacrifice," called
l

The Persians maintain that the custom


Called also the

of drinking

wine has come down from

Gdbr times.
2

" minor

festival

"
;

fitr signifies

"

cleaving; breaking a fast."

THE TURKI YEAR-CYCLE.


also

203
1

"the great 'id,"


it

is

celebrated on the 10th of this month.

Muslims

are of opinion that


to offer
(/)

was instituted to commemorate Abraham's willingness

up Isma'lL

The Muslim era dates from the morning after the >?"> hijrah or 'flight''' of the Prophet from Makkah to Madinah, which occurred according to most on the
earlior
/V.D. (>22. tfaeh succeeding year begins than the preceding, and an anniversary, occurring one year in the

16th

July'

hot weather,

will,

sixteen

years later,

fall in

the cold.

Thirty-two English

years are nearly equal to


(y)
(//)

thirty-three Muslim years.

The 1st May AJ>. 1900 corresponds to A.K. 1318. solar years that have elapsed (1) The number of

since

any given

Muslim date
der

(current year

of

answer.

For example, to
Hijra year
is

Hijra find the

the given year)

3%

of the remain-

number

of years that

have elapsed

since A.H. 800.

The current

formula (1330 - 800) i.e. 515 years have eJapsod


A.H.
(2)

= 1912 A.D.]. Thus according to the - 3% of (1330 - 800) - answer or 530 - 15 = answer, since 800 A.H. or 1912 - 515, i.e. 1397 A.D. = 800
1330
[

To
+

find

the

equivalent

A.H.

year

of

an

021-54)

of A.H.
is

A.H. or (A.D.

621-54)

year :~-(A.D. '970225 - answer. For

A.D.

example, 1330

the current Hijra year.

equal to (the current A.D.


evident.
(3)

621*54)

-f-

According to the formula it will be ~ 621-54, which is '970225, i.e. 1912 970225
13.

To

find the equivalent A.D. of

an A.W. date, vide

57

The Turki Year-Cycle.


ei>(jx~

Sanawat-i TurTci.

This consists of twelve solar years each named after some animal in The following old Turkish terms are the names of these a fixed order.
(a)

years

v '

Jj?

cM^*~
..
. .

sichqdn-il
ud-il

The mouse

year.
' '
.

Jb> *y

..

"The cow
' '

year."

J*

<

^t
^Uy

bars -il

4
This
feast,

Jbt

..

tavishqan-U

..

The leopard year " The hare year."

known by various other names, in India it is generally called *c *,& Baqara, Id the cow '^7," and in Persia ^j* *** >ld-iqurban. In 1902 the is called **? <id-i naw nlz fell on the same Friday, whirh day <ld-i qurban and the
1

is

'&

cxTaxx^x^

id-

},ufiamt fl adi this concurrence of three

<Us

is

considered very fortunate-

^*uJ|l noun of which the noun


2

or

^^ ^
is

"The

Day

of
4<

Victims":

^^Sl

being a

collective

Another date

a sacrificial animal." of unity is Uu*l 20th June, vide Hughe's Dictionary of Islam.

204
5
(Jjf
JL?i

THE ZODIAC.

^p
e^U oJ#
..
..
. .

lui-il

6
7

ilan-ll
$

..

The crocodile year." " The snake year."


" The horse year."
"

"

<Jj

until

..
.

8 9

Jji <_jj
<A?'

qm-il
bicht-tl

^H^
^jj Uu
..
.
.

10
11

ckf

takkdqui'll
?^-S

..
.
.

The sheep year." " The monkey year." " The fowl year."
" The dog year.
1

cXf ojf Jj' j./xi

'

12
(b)

..

tanguz-il

..

In Shaw's

"Grammar
:

of the

Language
(4)

of

'^The hog year. Eastern Turkish tan"


Ralik [The

the

names
(1)

are as follows
(2)

Sachqan,
(6)

Ui,

(3)

Bars,

Tausqan,
1

(5)

Fish or

Dragon),

Ape"],
(c)

(10)

Ildn, (7) ["The ToMtt" The Cock"],


entire cycle
is

At

Horse
muchal

'],

(8)

Qoi, (9)

Maimun ["The
by the Persians
first

(il) ft, (12)


in

Tun&uz.

Each
sal-i

called a

Uigljur, but

davazda
(d)

TurH.
in the Spring,

The year begins and ends

when the sun


it

enters

Aries.

When
(e)

A.D. 18t51

the cycle of twelve years is completed, = A.H. 1267-8 " the Hog year."
<Jj

commences

again.

The Bars-U
21st, 1902.

^-;^

commenced with the

Persian

jj;

y naw

ruz of March

58.

The Zodiac.
(or
r,

a)

Jj^*

(3^^ mintaq"' l-buruj

^
is

a'AkLc

).

"The

Celestial

Girdle," the Zodiac,

a belt of twelve constellations

extending about 8 on each side of the

ecliptic.
pi.

A
1

single sign

is

called

^
..
,.

bur)

Ar.

^f

'<

buruj)

tower or bastion."

The names of the <J*^ Hamal ?


(b)
.

signs or constellations are:

"Ham"
"Bull"

..
.

2 3
4

;>J

..
..
..

Sawr
Jauza*
Sarafan

Aries (Nawruz). Taurus.

*')y

..
..

oll^
o^f
<xJUi~

"Twins" "Crab"
"Lion"
<

Gemini.

..

Cancer
{*>j?

(1st

of

or e)UUoG Summer)^

..
.

Asad
Sumbula

..
,.

Leo.
.

6
7

Ear of Corn "

Virgo.

e^lH^

Mlzan
'Agrdb
.

..

'"Scales"

..

Libra( 1st of J^SU Autumn).


Scorpio.

v^
^r^'
.

..
.
.

Qaws
Jady

"Scorpion" " "


Bov^

..
.
.

Saggitarius (1st of

Winter).

10

^5^
1

..

..

"He-goat"

..

Capricornis.

This dialect of Turkish

is

called also Vighur.

2 3

Bars cu<*

is

properly the white leopard.

Jy

etf^*

J_jf

are used in speaking, but

all

are used in writing.

THE SEASONS.
11

205
.

12

>^ ei^
(c)

Dalv

..
..

" Bucket"

Aquarius.
Pisces.

..Hut
to

"Fish"
Arabic

..

In addition

the
:

names, the Persians

make

use

of

the following Persian names


1

V
jV

barra

2
3

gdv
du-paykar
.

The lamb. The ox or bull.

j**&

"The

two-faced

"

or

'

'

4
5
6
7 8
-

^'^
&&;&

two-figured."

khar-chang

" The crab."

..
.

4r
khusha
tarazu
'

..
.

"The

lion."

" The ear of wheat or barley."

jjty

The scales."
" The scorpion." "The bow."

pS^
e^U*'
^

gazh-dum*

..

.,

kaman
Zmz-t'

..

10
11

c^y JJ

kuhl
.

^ **T
l

J^jb

dfU-i-asiyab

The wild goat." " The feeder of the hopper of a water.


mill; bucket.
5
'

f<

12

^U
(d)

..

mahl
is

..

-The

fish."

The Zodiac

named

after the constellations,

equinox, which is March. The Sun spends a


(e)

divided into twelve equal parts called signs and and the first point of Aries begins at the vernal the Persian Naw-Ruz or New Year's Day, about 21st

month

in each of the

above

mansions.'

It

is

supposed that the Zodiac was formed about 2000 B.C.

59
(a)

The Seasons.
(

The seasons
or
'
'

are

t%

Spring"
'

;^ bahar) commencing with the


(

jj;^>

Naw-Ruz
e; *^L

New

Year's
th< j
;

Day

'
;

"

Summer"
' *

(^U^'G tabistan or garma


)

U^f)

commencing when

khazdn or khizan) ^
(6)

sun enters 'Cancer'; il Autumn" ( u'U pd^iz or * and " Winter (^jU^^j zamistan or (*y sarmd*).
is

**

Ghilld
Ala.

*JU*

or li^

a vague period properly


is

of

forty days.'

The

vj^.y

chilld-yi

kuchak or "small chilld^

a period of twenty days

of slight cold just

after the ^;,> ^i^. chilld-yi buzurg,


' *

forty days

of greatest cold preceding the

chilla-yi kuchak.

which latter "

is

the

The

ehilla-yi

also
^
&

=" a

bunch
'

of grapes

'

'

Or

kaj-dum
season
is

occasionally dated from the appearance of Suhayl or" Tanopus,'

f*^

. '

which

in Porsia occurs
*

about the beginning of Mlzan.


also ^-*
shita

In writing

and ^*+

seyf for

Winter and Summer

vjc^*and

Adj. are applied to the Winter and Summer crops. uaed in speaking they are often used in poetry.
;

The words

*-*-^

and

^jB**

are not

Garma and sarma mean " heat " and

'*

cold.

206
tdbistdn

ANCIENT PERSIAN YEAR.

is the forty days of greatest heat in summer, and commences when the sun enters Saratan.
(c)

Yilaq,

T. JjlUj

"summer quarters"
ing tribes, Turkish

( or jU'b ), and qishldq, T. ^4*3 (or J^-^ ), are and " winter quarters, " especially of the wander1

and others.
of obligatory prayer * are
.

The times Subh Zuhr ..


(d)
.

..

f* Dawn. Noon

[less

common

ntm-riiz* or
.

nima-yi

'Asr

j>&*
<-i*x
*\2*

peshm Afghan] Between noon and sunset; [namaz-i


;

ruz

or nimaz-i

dicjar*

Afghan].
4
5

Maghrib*
'Jsha*
..
.

"Sunset": namaz-i .tha HI." '* About one-and-a-half hours after sunset
(narn az- i khuftan }
.

'':

The three periods


1

of
.

voluntary prayer are


,

Namaz-i ishraq Namaz-i chaiht NamdZ'i tahajjud

tjy*' jUJ

When

the sun has well risen,

i.e.

about

9 A.M. (Sunni prayer).


2
..

cuU.jt*J About 11 A.M. (Sunni).


^as^jlw
say
the

"After midniglit " (Shi'a or Sunni ^.


'

The

Shi'as,

however,
tlie

j%&

ZuJir

and
<

j^^c-

Asr

prayer
5

together at either of
Similarly
,

witli

tJie

two times, and name them namaz-i Zubrayn, c^'^t^ ;^* which they name isfia^ ^j*>* magjirib and >l&c
9

^jj^Avcjl^ namaz-i
five.

nt-ag&hribai/n.

They thus pray

three times a (lav

and not

60.
(a)

Ancient Persian Year.


of twelve

The ancient Persian year was Solar 6 and consisted


Five days
7

months,
and,, as

each of thirty days.

were added to complete the year,

>ll>j

moans

**

to migrate" (of birds).

Arabic
is

J^^
of
is

salat,

Persian. }*+>

namaz.
repeated

Namaz-i

panjc/ana

or

wimu~-i

panjto

vaqtl

sort
ide^t

liturgical service

in Arabic.

IVayer
In

according
to

th^
daily

Christian

best rendered

by tho word

^J>

du'a.

addition

tlie

prayers thore are special services for Hpecial occasions. Shi'as usually pray only three times a dav but perform the same amount of prayer; they can combine tho noon and evening prayer which is then performed any time between noon and .sunset, and in the

mayhrib they

include the

"

laha

p'-vyer

which

I'M

then poformed any

time

hotueen

mo^hiib and midnight. 3 The Afghans often Bay nlm-i


*

roz.
'lifjur

perhaps, the Panjabi word word digar "another.*'

This

is,

meaning evening, and not the Persian

6 6
7

May!) rib
8al-i

is {

hour after

yjiarnb.

shamsl

^*+&

Jl*>

" ^olar Year "

it

was

bi-sextile
'

and

fall.

Panja-yi duzdlda

*&*.&\&

^^

now

also called

/fcha

n^sa-yi

mustanqa *J*w>

ANCIENT PERSIAN YEAR.


1

207

The new year commenced with us, a leap year occurred every four years. when the Sun entered Aries i.e. about 21st March. The jj; y **? *id-i naiv;

ruz, or

is still the great day in Persia, though the been has above solar year superseded the Persians changed their calendar and their written character, with their religion.

"New

Year's festival,"

Some It is supposed to have commenced with the mission of Zoroaster. Avesta Scholars maintain that Zoroaster flourished 12,000 years before Christ
others 8000 years, and others later
still.

None, however, places him

less

than

4000 years #go.

Some modern
was
originally

Zardushtis maintain that


first

^* Day and not

&J3)jj*

Farvardm

the

month, but

all

agree that the year began at )*J

Nawruz.
(6)

The following

name
1

of

are the Persian solar months, each month being the an angel, who presides over the month
:

&>&)}**

Farmrdin

March and
this
is

April.

The

1st of

month
May.

(21st

March)

the Persian 'id-inaw-rvz.

cui^x^M-

Ardi-lnhislit

or Urdl

April and

bihishl

3
4

^^))^
j*i
jsij^A.

Khur-dad
.

May and

June.

Tlr

5
6
7 8

Murdad
Mihr

1
.
.

June and July. July and August.


August and September. September and October.
October awl November.
five"
in

tyj^
jrf

WjaJtrivflr

cM

Abati

The
in.

leap-yoar six

tercalarydays were inserted at the end of this month.


9
10
1

;if

Azar

^j>
c**t'

Day Bahman
Isfandarmuz or

November and December. December and January.


January and February. February and March.

12

i*o;|ii~

(colloquially) Is/and.
(c)

The

following are the

names
:

of the
-

days of the month as now pro-

nounced bv the Zardushtis


1

of Persia

^y

A?

fJrmizd or ffurmuz

2
3 4

tir*f

Bahman
,.

also llth
also the

month.

cuA^;f
;

Irdibihisht

..
.

2nd month.
month.

^j^

fthahnvar

also the 6th

Kablsa *
A'MCtrdad

"

^ty\

Leap Year." 9 or murdad ^^j*

former more common.

Vide note

0, p, 206.

208
o
iX-o

ANCIENT PERSIAN YEAR.


Isfanddrmuz
also 12th

month,
month,
month,

6
7

Khurdad

also the 3rd


also the 5th also 10th

Amurddd

8 9

Day
Adar

month,

also 9th

month,
month.

10
11

Abdn
KJnr or Khurshid

also 8th

12
13

Mdh
Tir or Tishtar
also the

4th month.
month,
month.

14
15

Gush

Day
Mihr
Rurush

also 10 th

16
17

also the 7th

18

Eashn
Farvardin
also the 1st

19

month.

20
21

r>'

Bahram

or

Virahrdm

Ram
Bad

22
23

Day
Din
or
*

also 10th

month.

24
25
26 27 28
c
^

Ird or Arashvdng

Ashtad

Asmdn
Zdmydd
Mdntarasfind

29 30

Urmuz
of

or

Hurmuz,

etc., the

Andrdm name

of the 1st of the

month,
all

is

Good, as opposed to Ahrlman the principle of Evil;


of Angels

the principle the remaining

names are the names

preside over the days named after them. It will be noticed that three days in the month are called Day, distinguished

who

as Day-ba-ddar, Day-ba-mihr

and Day-ba-din.
Christians of the Eastern church use the
call their

SYRIAN MONTHS.
European
their
ecclesiastical

calendar, but they

modern months by Syrian names. Their year still begins, as formerly, on the 1st October. The names of
: .

months are

Kanun*-8-.Ranl
Shubdt

<y$' j>K
J=U
jU'i

January.
February. March.
April.

Azdr

..
.

..

Naysdn or Nlsdn

cA"*^
*
f

Ay yor
Hazlrdn

;t^

May.
June.

cjjj^

YAZD-GARDi YEAR.

209
.

Tamuz Ab
Aylul
Tishrin u -l-Awwal
Tishrin^-s-Rani

j^w

July.

vf
JjJbf

August.

September,
October.

Jj$\
.

^.^
tir.^^

^li
J^ilf

Kanun*-l-Awwal
'

c^y^

November. December.

J^), also called Malaki and Malak Shahi, is (d) The Jalall yeai reckoned from Jalal-ud-din Malik Shah, son of Alp Arslan-i Saljuqi, and begins A.D. 1079. The year begins with the Vernal Equinox, i.e. with the

(^^

Persian Naw-ruz, and consists of 365 days, 5 hours, 49 min,, 15 seconds, and a fraction. The names of the months are the same as in the ancient Persian solar year, but the intercalary days are added after tho end of the 1 2th month. The Jalali year is entered in Indian, Persian, and Turkish

almanacs.
61.

Yazd-Gardi year.
and the Parsis
the
b
$J>

(a)

The
'

Zarduslitis of Persia

of India

have gone astray in


(

their

calendar: they
l

reckon
(^

by

Yazd-Gardi

year

Yazdajircl

or Yazdagird

^^ *j*

^^

$>>

J^

).

was tho name


is

of several kings of

Persia of the Sassanlan race, but


of

the

name

specially

applied to the
of Persia.

Nawshlrwan (the Just) the last of the Kayani kings grandson The era commences from his doath at the hands of a Khurasan!
was treacherously
killed while asleep)

miller

he

about A.D. 631


practically the

but, the

leap-year

being omitted, their calendar has fallen into confusion.


(6)

The names

of their

months are

same

as the ancient

Persian year,' but their year commences five months later than the Naw-ruz. 4 The year consists of 3(35 days only. Tho last five days ot the year are not

included in any
' *

month but

are added on to the end of the twelfth

distinguished by a special name. The following are " stolen days (/y/w *> <-**>) fchamsa-yi mustariqa, or

month and the names of these


6

&.j>)^

^u

panja-yi

duzdida
(1)

(P.)

j^

ahnawad,
(4)

(2)

,>y^T ushtawad, (3) o*JuJi*


,

safantamad

(or

safdnlaman),

ji^*>j wuhukh-shatr

(5)

jS^yL&Aj wahashtu' ush (or

wahista-wisht) (Bir, p. 34).

One Khayyam.
l
-2

of

the astronomers

who

assisted in reforming this calendar

was

Uuiar-i

3 They, however, call the second month Iridibihisht; the fifth Amurdad the ninth the twelfth Isjand. Azar means fire and is supposed to have been A&ar or Adar the name of the father of Abraham. The Parsis consider it to be the name of an angel. * The Persians, both Muslim and Zardushtis, however, keep the festival of Naw-ruz at tho Vernal Equinox, but not so the Indian Parsis: their festival lasts 20 days, commencing 5 days before the fehamsa-yi mustariqa.
;
;

i.e.,

after Is/and (Isfandarmuz).

14

210

DAYS OF THE WEEK.


62.
(a)

Days of the Week.


are
:

The days of the week Shamba Yak- Shamba Du-Shamba 2


.

Saturday

. .

1st

day

of the

We

Sunday

Monday
Tuesday

..
.
.

Si-Shamba Chahar-Shamba

..
.
.

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
. .

Panj-Shamba

Jum'a
or

The Muslim Sabba

-*

or
..

(*Vf
(b)

Adina
: 1

As already stated, the day begins at sunset the night precedes " in day. Thus, if an Englishman wishes to say " Sunday night Persian, must say " Monday night " instead. *
(c)

is &&* hafta, from haft "seven": in Arabic *?>-? usb and <*A*>, sab* and sab' ah " seven." nahar (pi. (d) Ruz jy in Persian and nuhur) in Arabic me " as " shab* P. and cU^ layl " night time." day opposed to night

A week

from

*-

^ Ar. a day, has season." Shabana-ruz ^ ^JU^ the "


(e)

^^
is

Yawm

for

its

plural f tf

ayyam

"

days,
<;

tin

for day consisting of 24 hours ** 6 hours' rail ruz rah would be shabana ast.^ du ) eight journey (by (c) The longest night is called f*xl w_^i shab-i yalda, and the longest d
(/)

civil

^ijyu jjj ruz-i jawza*.

i.e.,

the day
is

In Kirman, the shortest day is called ^5>* AM^I }j) ruz-i ishkamba-shi is so short that while one is washing a sheep's tripe (shikamb(
gone.
last six or ten

the day
(d )

The

days of cold before the


bard" 'l-'ajuz, Ar.,

JJL>>*

Naw-ruz are

call

in the

almanacs
6

}y**l\&j>

and by the people

sarmd-yi pir-zal,

from a popular legend.

J The Zardushtis generally use *^oT Adlna (old Pers.) in preference to ***-=> Jtlm the Muslim name. 2 Though the Muslims of India reckon in the same manner, many of them have a

p. 225.

adopted the English idiom for speaking to English people vide Phillott's Hind. Ma This sometimes causes confusion. The Muslim world was dark before it ^ The Zardushtis, however, say the woi light; therefore the night precedes the day. " With them the "with God was from all time and has no beginning. day precec
:

the night.
3

Used
It
is

in writing.

*
6

Plural shab-ha

and ahdban

*AJ Ar.

'

a night

'

has for

its pi.

c5^

remark that there are no railways nor even roads hardly The toy railway at Tehran, about 4 miles in length, can scarcely be counted. Persia. 6 The Persian Almanac of 1902 gives the period of the bard* 'l-'ajvz from llth
necessary to

17th March.

DAYS OF THE WEEK.


(e)

211

In m.c., for Tuesday, Friday, and Saturday

the phrases

shab-i ckahar-shamba, **+^

shamba

are used.

*AJU*> u> jam a, >^>J& shab-i yak a Superstitious people do not commence journey on these

v*

shab-i

and

three days.

any one

of the

Should a guest sleep at the house of a friend on the night of above days (English computation), he ought for luck's sake
This superstition has nearly died out.

to sleep the night following as well.

CHAPTER
63.
(a)

VIII.

Money.

The following are the moneys now current in Persia. Dinar j'i^ an imaginary and infinitesimal coin, used in accounts: there are 1000 in &*qirani
or qiran.
1

i^*\<$>
,,

Shahi
,,

50 dinar.

20 10

=1 qiran
1

oy

(or

<y^

),

or ;D*

^ yakhazar.

^^

tuman &l*y. ij\j$ Qirdnl The tuman is a gold coin (rarely met with). The qiran, and half qiran ^ dah-shdhi), and the ^;[>* ^ d% Jiazarl or " two ^araw bit," are
2

silver.

(&)

PftZ-i safid

&*&* JjJ

<f

white

*^

<J^

" black

money

"

is

" money copper money

is

silver

8 money, and

pul-i siyah

or the nickel coins that


*x^, is

have

taken

its place.

Sannnr, a corruption of

)&&

a two-shahi nickel coin

(formerly copper).
(c) The following terms are occasionally now represented by actual coins
:

used, though the values are not

jU

Crhaz

Miihammadi
'Abbasi
(or

= = =

5 dinar.

100 r/^war

2 shuhi.
,,

200

,,

^4
a

cc^*^) panahbad*
abbdsl

rather less than half & qiran

23

tuman
20

(10 qiran).

^Uc
*%?.

jl^ chahar

depreciated

^im?i

=16

instead

of

JUj n'?/^

1: |
(!>

qiran

originally the

name

of the

Spanish dollar.

qurush or gh.urush, the Turkish piaster, value about 2d. of (j4r* or <Jk)j* English money or 17 1 shdMs: the term is used in certain places though the
coin

may
1

not be current. 7

European gold ducats,

called j3*~*

majar and

Also called

O^

war* Uo yahib qiran.


is

5 5

The gold

f/w

hazari

now worth

4.1

qirans.

This term was.also applied to the nickel coins (introduced by Muxaffar-ud-din Shah). * Yafc ghaz bi-*hunia naml-diham " T will give you not a farthing," the speaker probably not knowing the real signification of the word yhaz. 6 Properly panah-bad but pronounced and sometimes is incorrectly written with or

without

panahbadl
7

is

In Kerrnan and Tehran panah bad used for ten ahahia.


pi. of
>

is five

ahahis,

but in Yezd the term

Probably an Ar.

The term

is

used in

o^r5 the German groshen. Kerman but the coin is not

seen.

Piasters are said to be

current in Beluchistan.

MEASURES OP LENUTH.
l

213

^i^lj bajuytkl'i, are worth a little more or a little less than the tuman: they are rarely met with. are the English C5 ~jj&l SjjJ Kra-yi Inglisi, and ^l*U'^ x^ lira-yi-'UsmanK, and Turkish pound: the former (in 1901) = 51 to 53 qlrdn. 2 fluctuates from 3} to 3| giran. ***)) rupiya, "the rupee/'
(d)
d.'fjj

^U^-v! Askings, a Russian bank note;


Barat, a cheque or
bill

also

any cheque.

of exchange.

Jl-^.VA;f

" = five oli* Manat, " a rouble qiran, The above terms are not all current in every
(e)

Impiriyal,

" a Russian imperial (gold), present value 28 to 33 qirdn.


district.

no postal money-order system in Persia. Money can be sent 3 by post, insured, in a sealed bag for 10%. Registered articles by post
There
i>s

are called ^^Lftw sijarishi.


territory.

A
:

parcel
<xx

is

" to insure"

Insured articles are sent only within Persian called oJU| amanat or basta: &&j(+#bima kardan
9

<jo*3 qabz-i rasld is


^AO (
*'

"a

'

receipt.*

^ or)

*^>'

^,yak
,

kisa-yi (or surra- yi)

-sot/

blma kardam, I sent 100 tumdns by insured post.'' For the system of keeping accounts by <3^ w vide Woll. Eng.-Per. Diet, and also 14.
(/)

64.
(a\
5

Measures

of Length,
3 *

^^

<J>>

yak

fiq,

"the

distance a shout can be heard.

^ j^
-

y^ ^+*

mu-yi shutur (rare)

" the breadth

of a camel's hair."

jaw, *'a barley-corn's length."


>

o^l&l angusht
*;{-'

"a
1
.

finger's breadth.

bahar, length of one joint of the second part of a zar

thumb (about

1| iuoh), or the thirty-

o^ M
%

v_0

yak band angusht (about 1J inch) "the length of a finger

joint."
(jirah

2 bahar (or about 2J inches).

yi

^ar' orj.f ^aa;,


tf

the Persian yard

(of

about 40 inches)

16 girah-l zar

6
.

vajab,

a span."

&iyal ml-kunl hi yak bajitglili bi-man dadl (m.c.) v^*^ t^*^ " " do you think you have given mo a vast sum for this ? The revenue of Beluchistan is paid to Kirman in rupees at the rate of 2J qirans a rupee, the merchant exchange being 3J in 1902.
1

^^b

2-

J^x ^a^w 'z-zamana. only used in Persia for insuring within Persian limits to a foreign (t tl I'll insure country ^AtXyo &l/ojj Jja^ fj &L~.j ^jf tn 6as^a /a haqq z-zamana ml-diham*
3

The insurance
This terra
is

foe is called AiU*aJi

thin."
6

This term is much used by the black-tent folk yak jlq-l rah ast. " nail,'* Also colloquially yak band nakhun: by the vulgar the word nakhun,
:

is

used

for

k *

' '

finger.

214
araj

WEIGHTS.
or <Jiy arash

a cubit, from point of the elbow to the tip of the middle ringer.

or

p&*

qadam a short pace.


(

the space between the tips of the fingers of both hands the arms are extended to form a cross with the body.'
l}

when

j* <*&. yak sar, or *5 of a man.

yak qad (or

*K
graz

kallah),

the ordinary

stature

JU*^ farsang
miles.

or

j-**^

/aM

6,000

12,000 qadam

3^ English

v_~*jf ^fjXx/o a vague distance, about half a mile. maydan-i asp In addition, there is the Turkish ell, &*)l arshin, much the same as the Persian yard.

Remark.
of sandals

In Baluchistan, distance

made
:

estimated by the numbers of pairs of the dwarf palm (phis) that will wear out in traversing
is

the distance
(b)

they say yak phis rah-ast, du phis rah-ast


*

etc.

Tasuj**

is

a word

much used by

the Afghans for a measure equal

of to about the joint of a According to the dictionary it is a weight ringer. 2 or of 4 barleycorns; or the or measure, of any weight twenty-fourth part

vide

65 (d). [Ar. ^~-k J of a danaq, the latter being J of a dirham and havthe ing weight of a habbah.] Arz (j^jc and " tul J^t are the two words commonly used for (c)
(

"breadth" and "length "


(adv.)

^
*

'arz an (adv.)

"by breadth" and >t


six gaz
;

^7

tul an

"by

length."
Ji>
' '

(d)

Shash gaz dar shash gaz Jt


,

^ J>
(not

J^A "measuring
square
yards)

each

way

(square)

six

yards

square
six

six

but shash

gaz, murabba'

&j*jf <J^

square yards."
65.

Weights,

(a)
is

In Persia, as in India and Afghanistan, everything, liquids included,


'
'

sold

by weight and not by measure. {< a grain of wheat f*vf gandum,

about 3 go to

nukhud'6 weight r

Care must be taken to distinguish the difference in pronunciation between these is not sounded, and the the is pointed by fatha. This measure is ^)^, roughly taken to bo the distance from *the tip of the fingers of the left hand when
1

two:

in

<^>

the

arm
2

is extended to the tip of the nose when the head is turned to the right. In the Anjuman-ara-yi Nasiri, a dictionary of old Persian (Fur*-i qadim), tasu

is

given as the equivalent of


8

sa'at.

In India, grains of

rice are

sometimes used

for

weighing minute quantities of drugs.


:

The lowest standard weight, however,

in India is the rail, the seed of abrus precatorius,

which in appearance resembles a small scarlet bean with a black spot on the end it is used by goldsmiths, and weighs about 2 grains. In Persian works written in India the
rail is called

WEIGHTS.
^acu nukhud,
-j4 T of
a,

216

small chick pea or grain of gram, said to weigh about


3 gandum.

an ounce
sir
*

= misqal =
=

24 nukhud.

16 misqal.

^
-

J-

uqiyya (abbrev. a^j wuqiyyah or

*^ or waqiyyah) = 90
.

misqal (about

14 oz. avoirdupois).
cS'Jirt^

u"

wwm-i

'

Tabrizi
lb. av.).

" a Tabriz maund "

= $"vaqqa"

720

misqal (about 7J to 7J

^&U
co 15"lb.).

^/o man-i sha/iior

"

Royal
of

maund"
Rai
' '

nearly 2 Tabriz raaunds (14i


4 Tabriz

^^U ^ man-i
is

^ ^* man-i Ray
is

or

" maund

maunds (about 30
lb.)
;

lb.).

liashimi

16 Tabriz

maunds (about 116

this weight

only used in the South. " " )hj^ kharvar or donkey load

100 Tabriz maunds (725

lb.).

^J;^ charak

the quarter either of a Tabriz or of a

Royal maund.

The carat, -fc^x? qlrat (br. pi. ^jty qarartt) originally Ja\jS qtrrat, is an of a misqal : it is used for Arab weight and equals about 4 grains or the word qirdt to the T of sometimes The Arabs apply weighing jewels. anything and colloquially they apply it to a measure of about an inch.

In Kerrnan
Nisj-i haft dirham
.

**>)*

oi*ui<w =

Haft dirham Panzdah sang


Si-sang

..
. .

^;^ oi&
-&**

10 J- misqal in weight. 21 ,,
, ,

^>>b

..
.

^^ ^^^
^;U
u^;U
c\.^

=42 =84
=

,,

Charak

Nim-man
tii-charak

..&*{&
.

=2
3

Si-sang ^**

^j^.

Charak

Yak-man

(Tabrizi)

(c^Jt^

u^^
is

= =
little

Charak
Charak
J[>U.
;t t^.

In Yezd, ^;^ <x^ 50^ dirham = In Yezd, the word JjU. charak charak.

^^^
J&>

eX

nim-man

(Tabrizi)

used, ^A;^

t^xj

panjah

dir-

ham

(etc.)
(6)

being used instead.


is

Water

measured by the sang


of

i.e.

by a quantity

sufficient to
is

turn a mill.

One sang

water

^^

^.

(with or without izafat)


is

^ *

supposed to be

sufficient for

one hundred

v^>

and a cMraA;

a fourth part

of this quantity.
(c)

Water
or

for irrigation purposes is also

borrowed or bought by the a^u-U

iascha
1

cjC*>lb

aai

c *

little

cup

"

) ;

i.e.

a metal cup with a small hole in the

Persian for
Ibs.

mann

Ar.
Is

2
is

The word maund


In

the Anglo-Indian term for man, but the standard

man

of India
to

SO

Kerman

fashta, forty of

which go to 12 hours

also in

Kerraan 30 jurra go

12 hours,

216

WEIGHTS.
is

bottom
measure.

floated on water

and the time

it

takes to sink

is

the unit of

For instance, if a cultivator borrows six tasak channel, the whole of the water in the channel is turned into
that
the
tasak takes
to

of
his

certain
for

ground
is

the time

sink six times.

The

tasak

not

standard measure, but varies locally, according to the requirements of a


village.

Another vague term is ^-&fj> dang, which may be said to be the sixth Property of all kinds is divided into six imaginary parts, a dany. An owner of J share of land, a room, called is of each which or a horse would be described possessing two dang " an owner of the
(d)

part of anything.

'

' '

whole would say, "all six dang are mine": dang khana mal-i 'man ast.

0^1^ JU
lands.

&(L.

^Jj>\^

^J^ shish

But generally only houses and

CHAPTER
66.

IX.
(

The Verb
:

Fi'l

j^

).

The verb "to be" (vide also 68) (a) The simplest form is the affixed substantive
!

verb:
2
2

ft

am
1

(I)
i

am
(He)

im (We) ^\
AJ.

are.

^sl (*or)
v^**

(Thou) art
is

(You)

are.'

&>\ and (They) are. be (b) (!) may joined to a pronoun, adjective, participle, or substantive, and sometimes to an adverb and the same rules that apply to the written forms of the affixed 31 (6), (c), (d)\ apply in the pronouns [

[-adj as

These

affixes

main

here.
;

a Sultan "
o**f sxxjy
,

ow*t

Examples: eu-HjLL* JJJAJ jt w banda

j\

u sultanast " he

(for

*A***\

^UxL*

j\ )

"\\e

is

ast, or (with

the

^
is

of unity)

eu~j| MAJ

or (old)

o.j
but

jjAij

M banda
dana^lm
:

tst

a slave

"

y [or

"

am learned":
we
are

pM
^Lo

&

dana-yam

XAXJ^J /^ banda-i

^JU

"
;

" art thou a slave 8 ? " man-am dana-l ^^h " thou art learned "
;
f

fi'l-b

"we

are learned"; ^-t


r
;
!

^x=

or

" I

^y "or
am
;

u dana'st o^Oi^j*

ishan

dana-yand

M?16 rw'^ o^o^ w>^ 5 or khub-rii ast cu^t ^ but ishan khub-ru-yand (not khubru-yast which is poetical only),
aijLi^ vyl^j
>

v^>

Maflmnihada nar bi-farman-i sharab Jan karda fida-yi lab-i khandan-i shardb. " 'Tis we who to wine*s yoke our necks incline, And risk our lives to gain the smiles of wine." (0. K. 21 Whin.)
(2)

The
'

alif

<-flJi

of the third person singular ast

-=**'

is

frequently elided
ra*st ui**!^ AJlx*^^

in contractions, as:

o^b;^

(for .SA^

bj^

dushmanan-am

(for

o^o

ij

^U^i^

).

After w and
k(ir~i'st

i,

this aZi/ nearly


JJ

always disappears, as:


is

o~^&

nikusl;

oij

" he K; mudda'i'st cu^xc^/o


aft/

a claimant."

(3)

In the other persons, the


:

can ue retained or changed into


;

for

euphony, as
j^.

f!

!<>^

x^,

or /*J!A^ x^w

^-t *Ufci,

or

^vjUfci

txi
;

*i^.*e^ or

6i;faBu

This

affix is called mZw-'i

i?6^
in

i fi'l

<^*' olf>f

^.
J/^'
majhid

'2

In

classical
ed.

Persian (and

India and

Afghanistan) these are

sounds em,
s

The
*>\

full
)

form

is

generally nsod after final alif, as:

Muluk

oz baray-i pas-i ra'aya*

and

^j

(Sa'di)

"

kings are for the care of their subjects

"
;

^irf^lf;

ra^aya-yand

might

also be used in

modern Persian.

218

THE VERB.

before ast ow*f, as: c^ (4) Alif-i maqsura sometimes becomes u Musi'st, but better o*t ^**>^ y ?i Musa ast " he is Moses.'' (5) After a vowel, the <^ of the second person is preceded by a * over a " where art thou ? " In other words, two syllables ending and C5"> as
l

^^

beginning with a vowel are coupled by a hamza acting as a hyphen. (6) The final * of Arabic words is, in Persian, sometimes written and

sometimes not. If, however, an Arabic word ending in precedes the first person am ^', the & must be struck out to preserve the distinction between the singular and plural of the verb. Thus the plural of jf& sha'ir a poet h *\* shu'ara*, but man ash'ar-i sh'uara-yam " I am the most j*&\ fi\j*
f-

poetical

of

poets": were the hamza retained, the word might be read


is

shu'ara-tm p\j*&. (7) The contraction

generally observed in speaking and reading, even

though

it

may

be neglected in writing.

Remark
or

fit

o*t "is" and


"
.

riist

o^i
is

"is

not"

are termed *kit>

"copula."

In the proposition

the copula sentence.

is joins

Religion indispensable to happiness," the subject religion to its predicate, the remainder of the
"

Any
into
tc

verb can be analyzed into the copula and a predicate


(the copula),

thus

lives,"

is"

"living"

(the predicate).

(c)

inserted

In the third person singular and plural, the euphonic need not be " khub-rust or (she) is CL~*^J V^A khub-ruyast (poet.) o*~^; v
:

fair-faced

"

o*~jl>fa
;

dana-nd

cu-U

dana-st : i^Uf^ dana-yast or cu^Uf^ o.-l^ shuma-st (for ma-st (for o^t U )
;

danayand or

Remark.

Vulgarly, instead ofa^ o*l.-a (pronounced


is it

e) is

used as Tchub-e

"it

is

" good"; H-e who

"

(d) Tu ast o^l^j is contracted into eu~i fust (or o**^ ) and is so pronounced even if written tu ast o^of^j. Klst ^~*>? and chist c^-^a. are 37 (g) ] and chi ast /os^t AA. regular contractions for kl a^o^f ^* [vide
:

i^ cMyim
1

' '

what are we

* '

chiyam
of

' (

what
'*
:

am
(

"

Kujdfl

t^'^R^

is
?

an adjective

'*

what place

j&'~>&

^^pf j*

"

of

what

place are

which
^
^

is

you a native not used.

"

or colloquially

^^^

Tcuja^l-l ?

This formis for (^[

^4*^,

Dana-yast o~ob|d not m.c.


In
is

modern
'

colloquial, to the

question
is

(^^^

kuja*-%

" where

are

you?

"
is

the
en/a

answer

>:

{*!

f^N>'

in/a

am: (Inja-yam

considered vulgar).

The
"

correct reply

astam
*

' :

p*~**>

-V

Or nii-basham
<5^.

p\*.
_}*<*)

''who''

^Ci (.5^, as well as

^,

signifies

who ?":
&*-.

similarly,

^a.

c&e (perhaps contracted


all

form

of chiz

is

another form of

In modern Persian

forms are used.


6

Better

THE SEPARATE SUBSTANTIVE VERB.


As a
ing
;

219

rule, either

the contracted or the full form can be used in writ-

Similarly, the final silent vi~*f, as c^Jk&^y u barahna'st

but in either case the contraction exists in pronunciation. * of other words sometimes disappears before

"he is naked." Note the following forms or contractions,


are
:

etc.,

&Vjj

c*j

zisht-ruyand
I

"they
slave
"

ugly":

^y

"thou art":

*i,m

" we are his slaves

" ^\ \^ banda-yi u yam I am "


:

^jyoy

banda-yi tu mard-l-i (vulgar for tu mard-l hasi-i


:

banda-yi tu f " his slave ^ty \*>


x^xj

am " U ma

am

thy
l

"Who
'
:

are they

" Ishan kiyand &u


'{

i^L^Jf,

or ki

and

&>

&> ',

or kistand

ishan kiyan-and <xL>Ufr ^l-iof (m.c.). the The of the second (e) person is called the ya-yi tchitabl ^^L. of is a as address" it written final and silent or final with a a y *, ^, " 2 t( ki i who art thou ? superscribed hamza, as: ^^ or <Jtyl*jf kirmam-i " 'art thou a Kirmani (an inhabitant of Kirman) ?

' "

&

(/) The above suffixes form the six pe" ,ons of every tense of the verb with the exception of the third person singular, when ast becomes ad. ((/} The negative form of the simple affixed verb is nearly obsolete, or else occurs only in poetry.

***
<s

^ or ^
sjJ

nay am, "I am not" thou art not" nayl


e "

..
. .

n'ist

" he

is

" not

/**5o naijlm *&> nayld

"we
"you
(or

are not." are not."

. .

<^> nai/and

oJi

w na and)

f *

they

are not."

Angar ki dar khalc na*i bar khak-i. " But now you are above earth, not below (O. K. 457 Whin.) A villager sometimes says: UpJut b ^UaJu^ y tu lnja-1 yd mja na-% "are you there (here) or not ? " Villagers also use nayam p&. The third
(i
!

person nist
(h)

cu^jjj is in

regular use.
<yTtf), aste
(mf

In old Persian (imitated by

*~*\ is

found for

67.
(a)

The Separate Substantive Verb.

From an
>

obsolete infinitive

(^^
.

hastan and &*j*~& hasfidan

to

exist," are formed

hastam "

aS
hast

am, or I exist "thou art, etc."


I
'

"
.
.

" he

is, etc.'

" J^^A Aa,?^ you are, etc;' *&~& hastand "they are, etc.'
'

^X-Jk hastim

"we

are, etc."

'

Or bandog an
:

Ftde p. 92, note 6 thou art a king."


i
<

$$

is

probably the more correct form, as

(J*

should

mean

Vulgarly pronounced nahi

^p.

220

THK SEPARATE SUBSTANTIVE VERB. Hastam


j*i~**, etc., is

substituted for

am ^ whenever euphony

requ

it,

or whenever the verb has to stand alone.

matt

"Am
Here hastam
p*~-

may-i mughana mast-am a wine- bibber ? what if I


zi

hastam

am?"
(O.

K. 334
:

is

used as the verb has to stand alone


:

the

could not be repeated.

Also

ddnam u
cc

u, chunanki hastam, hastam.

He knows

as well as I,

my

sorry case."
(O.

315 W7/m.)

O~A
***<> fa*

is

In khdna chundn ki hast td sad sal

used for asf cuw when euphony requires the former, davdm mi-kunad &*> ti o~* &&x*- *J^

JU

if

the

&

ki of A^li^. be omitted,

chunan
hast

ast ki *$

must be

written.
OV-SA also
/wzs^

Z^a^

means
OM-* ^j|

''exists/' as:

Khudd

A lAi.

"there
is

God":

/aocZ

''there
AiWifi

is

a God/'
TchalalVst

ffeisJ

o^
f;

also
' '

rr

emphatic, than ast o^f, as:

" something wrong with the ship (a simple statement) reply would be, kishtt ra khalal-l hast C~~A ^l^. ^ ^-^^

^^^ ^^ ther a denial but


to
c
'

there

is I tell

yo

The above
(6)

is

the only tense

now

in existence.
is

The negative form


nlstam
t(
tl

of this tense
.

(by contraction) as follows


4;

lt

fi-fci

am not "
"
not
>;

**i-^> riistim

we

are not."

thou art not


is

<*jJU^ >u5/K/
<yxx~xi

"
'*

you are not."


they are not."

he

msland

(c)
*'

^li.

Probably, there was an ancient infinitve ?r7?^ c^>f or " i'rom to be which one or more of the above tenses are deri
ha zagh-i bar dlwar-i bagJi-i khirdman hami-raftami (8a'dl) y dignity to be (I ought to be) strutting on the wall

d*iq-i qc

ma

-asti ki
i

wer
gar^

7v> jtin g

g^

in

company with

^jla.

(j^^j i^~**

a fellow magpie." ^.^j <Jkj^ J^ O*ASX^ suhbat-i gul khush budt gar n
}

tashvlsh'i Jchdr (Sa'di)

^companionship with the rose were sweet, were

tj

no

fear of the thorn."

hastam

^^A

**>\$>

Similarly, Sa'dl uses +>**** skunidastam for shut J have heard." Other instances occur in the
^-~A> (instead

poets of this
Perfect tense.
is

contracted form of hastam

of

am

p!)

with

the English magpie,

common

in the gardens of Persia.

The chou<

called *^*?3-

Here

asti

and null are Past Conditional.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.

221

In kar-i jahan agar

bi-taqlid-asti

flar ruz bi-ja-yi kh wish tan 'Id-astl',

Har
Gar

kas bi-murad-i khiytsh d


^zanlci

tst-l

bi-zadi

na in

hi-hftda t&kdid-asti.

"

If this life

were indeed an empty play,


'Tel

Each day would be an

And men might conquer

all

or festal day, their hearts' desire

Fearless of after penalties to pay!


(0.

"
X. Rub. 434 Whin.)

^
"
I

&*

OH
Gar
'

*HO\

*S&

f^^

C^^)

^^

M?

^x:

J.

man
I

guniih-i ru-yi

zamln kardastam

Afa-i tu

Though

umid ast Id girad dast-am. had sinned the aim of all mankind,
to

mercy he inclined." (0. K. 333 Whin.) J *+& O~AJ ^jfjf y j^ j-tiww Man nlst shudain dar Tu, az an- am harna Tu "And I am Thine, since I am lost in Thee."

know thou would'st

(0.
(d)

K. Rub. 400

Whin.)

llasti ^i-** is a substantive signifying

fck

existence," and

non-existence
It ast

"

^^

nisll

o~~* and niat cu ^ are used as adjectives

Chandan
^ The more

Id zi-thud ms-tar
I die to
sell',

am

has-tar-am.

I live

the more."

(0.

K. Rub. 351 Whin.)

68.

The Verb Transitive


(lazim
]

(muta'addi

^^*Vx>

and Intransitive
).

,-351,

or yAayr-i muta'addi ^-o^-L-o^


simple.

(a)

The
}

Persian verb

is

There

is bufc

called irregular verbs


(

present no

difficulty

one conjugation and the soEvery Infinitive or masdar


'

;0>*A/c

ends in &^ -dan or in


is
}

-tan,

and the

shortened Infinitive

or third

person singular Preterite


All

tenses

zaman

%
(

e)Uj

formed by cutting off the termination -an are formed quite regularly from the root or
:

shortened Infinitive, 8 and from the second person singular Imperative


1

the

2
3

Zaman

In India, laziml t^jJJ intransitive. <k Tense or time " mazdar eA-*}
;

Infinitive or source."

The shortened

infinitive is

always identical with the third person singular of the

Preterite.

222

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.

persons are formed by the affixed substantive verb. Every verb has t two stems. As in most languages, the Imperative is the shortest form of
verb.
It

few verbs are both transitive and intransitive.


in

must be borne
' '

mind that native grammarians do not consider


can
it

Infinitive a verb.

"How

be a verb," they say,

"when

it

has

tense or time
(6)
1

(1)

There are two verbal prefixes

&>

(or

(~>)

and ^o mi

(or

haml ). the same


Preterite.

The first is prefixed to the Aorist or Present Subjunctive (one t tense), to the Imperative, to the> Preterite, and to the old I
is

Potential or Habitual tense that

formed by adding an indefinite


to

^
it

to

The second
it

is

prefixed

the Present

(or

Present-Future)

distinguish Preterite.
In

from the Aorist, and to the Imperfect to distinguish

from

the following
:

example

(poetical),

AJ

is

added

to

the

shortei

Infinitive

Bi'bazuvan-i tavana va quvvat-i sar-i dast Khata-st panja-yi miskin-i natavan bi-shikast

(Sa'dl).

"

By

strength of

arm and power

of hand,

It is a sin to crush the poor


[Sar-i dast o^-o^/*
is

and helpless."
i.e.,

the end of the dast or fore-arm,

the hand.]

Dar ku-yi kharabat magar bi-t(a)van yaft An *umr ki dar sawma^aha gum kardlm?
(O.

K. Rub. 339 Whin.)

In the following, to the definite future

Bar anchi mi guzarad dil ma-nih ki Dajla bas-i Pas az Khalifa bi-khwctfiad guzasht dar Baghdad.
<

Set not thy heart on that which passeth away for the Tigris Will flow on by Baghdad long after the E^iallfas."
;

(Oul.

Book

8,

Maxim,

105.)

Called ba-yi zayid.


' '

The same term

is

applied to the Ai in such words as

bi-

^j*> except and haml (.$+& b< There is no difference in ^signification between ml these can be joined are probably contracted forms of or connected with, hamfoha In poetry this prefix is sometimes, by poeti their verbs or written separately.
;

' 4

also in

^
;

license, written after the verb.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


In the following, to the past participle ^A
A
-o
:

223

y
^2/

d^ hama

asbdb-i jahdn khwdsta gir

Bdgji-i tarab-at bi-sabza drdsta gir

"

Vdngdh bar an sabza shab-i chun shabnam Binshasta l u bdmddd bar-khdsta gir (0. K.)

Oh

soul

lay

up

all

earthly goods in store,


;

Thy mead with pleasure's flowerets spangle o'er And know 'tis all as dew that decks the flowers
For one short night, and then
(2)
)

is

seen no more!

"
hami

(Whin. Trans. Rub. 243.)


It will thus be seen that the prefix

mi <^
in
:

(in

old Persian also

gives

a continuative sense.

It

is,

poetry, even added to the

Imperative with this continuative sense, as

Gar

rahat-i javiddn

fam mi-dari
rd.

Mi-ranj liamisha va ma-ranjan kas


(0.

K. Bub. 15 Whin.)

In yak
(3)

nafas-i 'aziz rd khush mi-ddr.

Tlie prefix

*->

is
:

particle

and a verb,

as

(0. K. Rub. Whin.) omitted in verbs compounded of an indeclinable " " >{Ay bar Ichiz get up from ^^s^j bar-khdstan :
4<

bar gar dam f*J>j*j^\ agar verbs beginning with a b (

if

return/' from bar-gashtan ^ItJ^. Before the prefix is in modern Persian often written
I

separately and not joined to the verb. The verb o^y budan does not take the prefix e>4X& s/mdan.
(4)

AJ,

nor does the Imperative of

Very rarely do both prefixes occur together, as ^U> <^ mi-bi-bdyad. " to be " is (c) The auxiliary verb* ^^ budan slightly irregular, in that '* the Imperative is c/H bdsh^ be thou." The shortened infinitive is bud.
j

TENSES FROM THE IMPERATIVE


THE IMPERATIVE (yf).
I.

(j*\

Bash*

'

'

<j8b

be thou
of

' '

-bdshU

*>^ "be ye."


all

With the exception

the second person singular,

persons of

th'

Imperative are identical with the Aorist q.v.


1

Bi-nishasta Ai*^v>j agrees with W&udra,

I; <$}*>

understood.

^ Fi'l-i

mu'avin

(Dj^** <J**

"
)

auxiliary verb.*'

It is of the Trnperative. >> was another form of the second person singular " found is perhaps," said to exist still in out-of-the-way districts bu j> or bit ki **J

Bu

in

mod. Persian,

in poetry.

224

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.

Remark
haml.
It

I.

The continuous Imperative


usually
affirmative,
coll.),

is

formed by prefixing ml or
it

is

but

Qa'anl uses

negatively

also.

Mi-bash <Jtt&* (vulg. remain/'

or hami-bash

u^

^+*

(obs.)

"continue to be or

Remark
noun
of

11.

The Present
1

Participle (c>ll>

agency bashanda
// (A).

*<xil>

"

bashan "being") and the be-er ") are not in use.

The Aorisf
(I.
2

or Present Subjunctive
l(

j*l>

basham
hashl

may be

[or let

me be "

].

Singular

J 2.

^b
,*j^l>

"

thou mayest be
it

"

^3.

oJb basliad* "he, she or


be, etc.)."

may
let

be (or

let

him,

1.

bfjshlm*

"we mav
ye

be (or

us be)."
'

Plural

^
!

2. 3.

^^iU bnsJild
'Ax^b

"

may

be (or Imperative,

bo ye')."

baihaud "they

may

be (or

let

them be)."
In old Persian

In modern Persian this tense does not take the prefix <.
it

does.

// (B).

The following
>'

is

an

old

form

of this tense

1.

fj

pj>

buwam
biiwi

" I

mav

be.'"

2.
'

-"
5

^j ^
s

"thou mayost be."


' '

^j buu.ad" he, she or it may be buwad or ^tj bad).'

(or '^t

bddaor

&\j*

^>-'
2.

buv^m

A^J 6 M ?rd
tXy
bit

"we may be." "ye may be."

wand "they may be."

Bashanda

$-X*U

(plural
is

bashandagun ^'f^i-wb
in

is

**an inhabitant"; cUt


hastand
fct^x^s),

commoner
jl

modern
<

colloquial,
*>ii**rt>

a substantive signifying as: fe&an aW-i Kirman

&~& &{*>jf (J^> e>^


i

or i^.aw Kir,, aril hasiand

^1*^" e^Jf.
in

BasJmnda

n India
is

bafihinda,

IB

used for "inhabitant"

in Persia

writing, only

when

the author
2
i

avoiding Arabic words. his mlm as a sign of the first person of the verb is called inlm-i mutakallim. Bad or bada or buvad or buvadund buva the Precativeor Optative are still in use

not used as an Optative, &c. ^ Classically (and in Afghanistan and India still) these terminations of the second plural are em, ed majhiil sounds.
(in m.c.
is
;

bad and bnvad).

Bavhad

first

and
like

The Afghans
v.

use

this
6orf

tense

in speaking.

Note that

is

pronunced both

and a
6

In m.c.

and <My buvad

are both used.

To be

distinguished from the third person singular of the Preterite &j* bud.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


///.

225

The Present Tense


f

J^

L
2.

^
*&\j

^n Modern Persian also a Future). " <* mi-baslwm I am (or will be)."
e/^j
)

Singular

-]

^^ ^
f** ^
9

mi-bashi " thou art.

(I.
Plural
.

J 2.
V,3.

<H^IJ (^o mi-bastiid


<3lil-'

"he, ^ mi-bashim "we ^ " you mi-bashand "they ^


mi-bashad
t

etc., is."

are."
are."

are."

The

prefixes

m?

or

hami written separately or joined to the verb,

are used with this tense in writing in

modern as well

as in old Persian.

Remark.

Me-buwam j**

is

an old form of

this tense.

TENSES FROM THE SHORTENED INFINITIVE


iy
/
t

The

Preterite

^ibc

" ty budam I was."

Singular

2.

(3.
C 1.

^^ &
L

budi

li

thou wast."
etc.,

bud "he,

was."

^Jj^

budim

"we

were."

Plural

J 2.

(3.
F,

yj^o budid "you were." &t} budand " they were."


j

T/^e Imperfect, etc.


1.

(*^j <^<*

^ ^*(*> ). mi-budam* " I was or used to be."


(

U3 L

Singular

^ 2.
(.3.

^^ ^y
^y
pjty
>.^>

mi-budi " thou wast or used to be.


he, etc.,

T
Plural
.

1.

was ^ mi-bud " ^ ml-budim "we were."

or used to be."

<

2.

(^3.

^o^J

^^ Tfil-budid "you were." ^^ mi-budand "they were."


mi-budam "if
I

This tense

is

also used as a Past Conditional ayar


*'

had
in

been, etc., etc.," and sometimes as a

Future Conditional."
is

The

Preterite,

budam,

however,

generally

used,

especially

speaking, instead of the Imperfect.


In poetry often contracted into

<X)

bud
te&irad-mand-l guft

Dar khwab budam mara

May
*

fchur ki bi zlr-l {chafe

mi-bayad
(0.

K. Rub. 61 Whin.)

Ml

c/

or

haml ^^>

haml

is

obsolete or poetical with the Imperfect of bildan.

Except

in the

Continuous Imperative, vide


Persian.

68

(6), foot-note,

tw

is

not prefixed to

this tense in

modern

15

226
VI.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


The Past Conditional
or Habitual
(

budame "I would have been


Singular
-{

or used to be."
,,
,,

2.

c5^

bud* thou

,,

bude he,

etc.

,,

,,

,, ,,

budeme we
Plural
..-{2. e*>ty budede ye budande they

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

.Remark.

This tense

is

obsolete in

modern

colloquial, but

is

still

used

even in speaking by the Afghans and Indians. In old Persian, the prefix me or hame is also added. It will be noticed that the majhul sounds of the tense have been retained in transliteration. A modern Persian, however,

would give the vowels the o^*<* ma'ruf sounds. The second person singular and first person plural are very rarely used, and the second person plural
is,

perhaps, not in existence.


?

VII.

The Definite Future


}

d^L-*

).

The verb
t^L Jchwah.

^.y^t^k Wiwastan

"to wish, desire," has for

its

Imperative

khipdham. consequence The Definite Future of all verbs is formed by conjugating the Aorisl of khivastan with the shortened infinitive.
f 1.
J>y

Its Aorist is in

^^

A bud f !>^ Mtfivaham

"I

shall or will be."


,,

Singular

..12.
(^3.

^ cs*!*^
&y*

khwaht bud thou


khivdhad bud he, etc.
,,

*&\JA>

,,

I.

ty

p**^

Jchwahlm bud

we

,,

,,

Plural

. .
-j

2.
(^3.

^ ^ XXAI^
is

**A\J. Tchwahld bud

TchimJiand

you bud they

,,

,,

,,

Remark.

This tense

tense taking its place on

all

seldom used in modern colloquial, the Present occasions it appears to bo dying out. It is,
:

used by the Afghans and Indians, who seldom use the Present tense for the Future. By Persians it is used in correct writing. The people

however,

still

of

Kashan are
VIII.

said to use

it

freely in speech.
*

The Past Participle ( <Jj**> ^\ ) is formed by adding shortened Infinitive: *^ buda " been" or " having been."

to

the

IX.

The following

tenses are derived from the Past Participle


Perfect Tense
ft
(

The
/

^^ ^U
"he,
etc*,

).

1.

^
i&

buda-am " I have been."


buda-i " thou hast been."

Singular

.
<;

2.

3.

e~*i &^j buda-ast

has been."

Note that the j

is silent.

THE VEKB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


/

227

1. 2.

Plural

<

^
&\

p>\

3.

%& *& *j

buda-lm " we have been."


buda-ld " you have been."

buda-and " they have been."

In poetry the final 3 of this tense is sometimes omitted, and the verb contracted into one word, thus; o^^j budast.

Remark

Pish az

man u

iu layl

u nahar-i

bud-ast.

"Days changed
Remark
II.

to nights, ere

you were born, or I." (0. K. Rub. 33 Whin.)

Note that the


,

full

forms of the affixed substantive verb are

written after the silent

vide

66

(a)

and

(6).

Note the form

of the second

person singular;
.

66

(e).

The Pluperfect Tense

<v*j

u
"

bo

not in use.

(Buda budam
XI. The Future Perfect
1.
{

f^

jj^j, etc.)

agar Perfect Subjunctive^. " " or will have been shall ^ib tty buda basham I
(
)

^& ^^U

"

(with

"

Singular

must have been -"

..\

2.

^t> ^j 6^^

fea^M thou

1^3.
/

^b

^j

fcitcZa

bashad he,

etc.

1.

^^b

i$^ buda bashwn

we
you

Plural

2.
\

^b
<xxU
to

j^ 6i*&

65ftid!

*3.

^y 6^a bashand they


Infinitive a

By adding

the

^,

called

by grammarians the

i
:>

ya-yiliyaqatoT

"^

of fitness,"

possibility is formed, thus


:

^j

budam

a future participle or substantive (i what was to be, or to happen ";

plural Ifi^y budani-ha

Bar lawh nishan-i budam-ha buda ast. " 'Twas writ at J> first, whatever was to be.
l

(0.
(d)

K. Rub. 35 Whin.)

Bad

^b,

and

in poetry fab

6ada

is

as

ab 3};^

o^p ^mm^

darazbad "

may thy

an Optative or a Benedictive form, life be long." #wvad jjt^j (old) is

j>b 65d The phrase (modern colloquial and classical) har chi bada bad " signifies happen what will, let happen what may."

another form of

tat

A^A

tions of

Lawh the tablet upon which, according to Mohammadan mankind have been written by God, from all eternity.

belief,

the transac-

228

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


(e)

mabdd) "let it not be; by no means; away; be treated as a conjunction. (Note that, contrary to custom, the prohibitive * ma is retained with the third person Precative). In modern colloquial, the phrase t^U/c '^ ^\^ bardy-i ruz-i mabddd " for a rainy day, for a day God forbid that it should come.' signifies is not and was (/) Nist u nd-bud kardan &&^ j^li ^ cu~J (lit. to make
t^>*>

Mabddd

(or

God

forbid;

lest"

may

'

'

'

'

not

'

* '

signifies

to destroy utterly.

' '

(g) It will be

remarked that there are three forms


In modern Persian there
is

of the

Present tense
in

of the

verb "to be."

no difference

their

signification; thus, "I am always here" nould be rendered equally modern Persian by man hamlsha mjd mi-bdsham, or haslam, or am, &o4&

in

^
"
;

or *1~A or f-**^* t^V'


(h)

Chi bude

(biidi)
fj

(class)
e/f

c^^f (spS *

^LJfdj
l

e^p

<^-j^>
X*
e{

^ means ^ chi
&**

l(

Oh

that! would that!


l

bude

ki

man an
tree

dirakht

rd biddnistame

ki kujd nst (Sa'dl)

Oh

that I

knew where that


is

was to be

found."
(i)

In modern Persian, the Preterite of budan

generally used for the

/*^^^ l?uf cxsj e/f )& jt\ Imperfect and the Past Conditional; thus o^U. mi-budam dardn mard >^U4.> ^fj agar waqt dnjd hdjat-i qabr name-bud (Afghan) " had I been present then, I would have had no need of a grave (for I would have been buried in the ruins) " in modern Persian, budam and bud (without
;

the prefix mi) would ordinarily be used here. modern colloquial, the Imperative (j) In

<j*l'

bash
is

is

used for "halt,

stand
here,
' *

still,"

or
:

"wait." Mi-bash

(J(*^*

(m.c.)

also used for

"stay

Compare

imruz kdmrdn

Vinl,

Digar-l rd dil az mujdhada risk. Euzgdh^ chand bash id bi-khivurad.


*

Khdk mayhz-i sar-i khaydl-andish. One to-day you ma} sec successful,
7

(Sa^di).

Another broken-spirited from striving Wait a short time till the grave Swallows up their fancy-weaving brains."
;

Majhul sounds. In m.c. tj u# **> chi mi-shavad ; chi-mi-vhavad kiln lear ra bi-kunam, "I wish I could," chi *** danistam ^^4 ^! *^
l

khiib

bud agar In ra miAnother, and

pi~^*

\)

jf)

v^
(jO

ft

**

gh

for

Jjif

note that the


is

final * in the

former

is

aspirated.

probably the correct, reading

ruzak-l

dimin.).

ACTIVE VOICE.

229

dast-ash bi-bandad Ruzgar,

Pas bi-kam-i khwlshtan magiz-ash

bar-ar.

(Sa'di).

The Afghans
live."

still

use the present tense of budan in the sense of " to dwell,

Some verbs are both Transitive and Intransitive, as '.arwkhtan'1 e^iu^f "to mix, be mixed"; rlkhtan ^iiu; "to pour away, be poured "to sew"; angikhtan* ^iu&t " to stir up, away, etc."; dukhtan* " to rouse"; amukhtan e^^f "to learn, teach" sukhtan burn";
(y)
1

^^

avikhtan*

" to break"

e>^T
;

4<

to

hang"; gusliadan
ct

payvastan e>**>*J
c<

to join

&^ "
;

^^
4<

afrukMan
tired, etc."

v&^
;

open"; gusistan, ^i-? pusJMan* U*N^J <4 to hide"


;

<(

to

to

kindle,
fc

congeal"; afzudan

\s>*jy\,

afsurdan* to increase"; khastan* ^^U^


to

inflame";

^^\

" to freeze, to wound, be

mandan
?;{(Ze

u*xiLo*

cc

remain"

(in

Afghan Persian

also transitive

"to place,"

81).

69.

Active Voice
6

<*-*)<*

is a conjugation " kandan to dig, root out, etc."


:

The following
(a)

of

the regular

transitive

verb

&<&

Infinitive( j<*z*>

^\

7 )

^^kandan

(the Infinitive can also be used as a

noun)

negative Infinitive,

o*yitfi
Ci

twi-kandan or

(b)
(

Imperative

&*& na-kandan.
bi-kari).

lean

dig thou, etc," (or


)

Past Participle

J^ixs

p)

(active

and passive

x^

kanda"

"dug"

or

"having dug."

Present

Participle (AAJU.

^t

iylir

frawSft

"digging"

(indeclinable).

Noun

2
3

Mushtarik) i.e. "shared, common." In modern colloquial, Transitive only. In modern colloquial, afsurda (with shudan) only used. In modern colloquial, Intransitive only.
of

6 i.e.,
6

which the agent

is

" known.'*
tofr$/

S*ar/

Oj^

"conjugation,"

kardan &&jf

vJtJjWfti

or gardaiidan

eA>!^

to

" In India, gardan (*>\^j is used f or a conjugate." conjugation." T For the Infinitive as a verbal noun, vide $ 115 (ft), and (r) Remark.
j>>

3igha-yi
it

tinguish

ZJ^AJ*] amr-i mniarrad to disfrom t $*'**y amr-i mudami "the Continuous Imperative." The second
also called
f

amr "Imperative mood,"

persons are called

^1^.^*1 amr-i Mzir, while

the third persons of the Aorist or Present


4

Subjunctive bi-kanad "let him dig" <*ii& bi-kanand

*let

them dig," are

v.Ajljc^x{

In such sentences as
is

o-*j
(

*^j^,

which equals

^-^*^

8^
*

;l^

n>.-!f,

this

Parti-

ciple

called

mazi-yi

ma'f.Ufi,
(

^*^k*xs ^-alx)),

the final

being considered the

equivalent of the conjunction

*&

J^

7;a ^.

230
of

ACTIVE VOICE.

l agency (cUl* ^\ ) **& kananda "a digger'' (declinable). Noun of " that is to be dug up, fit to Possibility or Future Participle <^*if kandani " be to are that kandamha be dug up" plural dug up, or are things
;

^^

fit

to be

dug up/'
/.

Aorist or Present Subjunctive

muzari
dig

)L*c
(or

).

prt

or

*&
or

kanam

or

U P")>

J^

c^

kani or bi-kani

bi-kanam " I "

may

up"
etc.

"let

me

dig

mayst thou dig,"

termination ^ of the 1st person of the tenses of transitive or intransitive verbs is styled by grammarians mim-i mutakallim

Remark

/.The

^
fi'l

,*WLc

).

The
(

suffix

am
as in

['vide'

66 (a)]
;

is

termed

mim-i

isbat-i

J*

e>Ui|

p**

),

shadman-am ^

U^U

am

rejoiced."

Remark
end

II.

In old poetry a pleonastic


person singular of this tense.
//. Present

allf is

sometimes found at the

of the third

(zaman-i hoi JU. ^Uj

).

pti**

mi-kanam "I dig up, or am digging up,

etc. (also I will dig

up)."

Remark.

a verbal adjective to the verb

Present tenses can also be formed by prefixing participles or <e to be."

///

-4.

Imperative

siy_ha-yi

amr j*\
f<

e/

or

^^ kan or bikan "dig thou."


dig ye."

*&
The
Remark.
If

or xJXj kanid or bi-kanid

other persons are identical with the Aorist.

the initial letter of the Imperative has


<fc

zamma
:

for its vowel,

the vowel of the prefix may also be changed to zamma, as bu-guzar or Such contractions as bugzar occur in poetry and in modern colbi-guzar.
loquial, vide

72

(a).

III. B.

The Continuous Imperative (amr-i mudami

^AAJ mi-kan (clas.), or t^wfc Jwmi-kan (class.), or O^A hami " continue to on In modern (class.) dig up keep digging." colloquial
;

bi-tcan

^^

hay bi-kan

is

used.

or

&*
^*>f

guished from Adjectives and Compound Adjectives that have the Bonse
Participle.
2

the rea/or regular Active Participle as distinof a Past

In modern Persian the prefix

&
_r*

is

nearly always used with the Imperative.

It

is,

however, generally omitted before

O&

the Imperative of

shaw the Imperative of e><^ , and always before c^>j, and often before kun "do."

ACTIVE VOICE.

231

"Oh that he may dig" is The Precative kanad and confined to the third person singular. In old poetry, however, other persons are found. [Mabada t^U* is both classical and modern
Remark.
classical,

^
'

colloquial.]

///. C.

Prohibitive Imperative
'

vide

sigha-yi amr-i nahl

^ j^

**&*

ma-kan "dig not up (thou)."


i

ma-kamd

t(

dig not

'

up

(ye.)' the

(The remaining persons are identical with

Negative Aorist.)

Remark.

For an example, in

classical Persian, of the

Past Subjunctive

used as a Continuative Imperative, vide

125

(j) (6).

IV.

The
c '

Preterite (mazi-yi
2
' '

mutlaq

f.^ kandam
for eupliony only.

dug up.

This tense, in writing, when affirmative

frequently takes the prefix

A>
,

V. Imperfect* (mazi-yi istimrari


C*** (j+* to dig up."

^7^-'^^).
I

hami-kandam. or ?*&** mi-kandam "I was digging up,


is

used

(This tense

also used in past

and future

conditions.)

VI.

The Past Conditional


^xcxi^

or Habitual, or the Optative*

^jj+*^ \j^ M V

kandame

(class.),

or rarely

me-kandame and hame-kandame, vide

68 VI.

Remark.
is

This tense can take the prefix


,

<?y.

The second person


exist.

singular

rarely used, and the second person plural perhaps, does not
is

The first
68

person plural
VI, Remark.

rare and, perhaps, should not exist

vide

Remark,

&S fAi^
The
tense.
vide also

VII. Future Definite (mustaqbil cU^^c). khwaham kand " I will

prefix

&

is

dig up." sometimes added to the auxiliary


full

^>^

khwaham

in this
;

In poetry, the
80.

and not the shortened form

of the Infinitive occurs

In

modern
classical

colloquial

k>

is

preferred, being less peremptory.

form of the third person singular


Sa'dl frequently uses
is

alif-f
8

tahsin as rafta (for raft).

is

formed by adding
gufta,

which
mazi-yi
is

is

also m.c.

When When

preceded by agar this tense

called

c5^r^ C5^
to

shartj,.

preceded by o2(

leash

^/^K

kashki, etc., this tense

called

<J&3

mazi-t/i

same term appears PI uperfect when preceded by kash, etc.


tammana'i.

The

be applied to

the Imperfect and

232
VIII.
(*(

ACTIVE VOICE.

The
<%

Perfect

(mazi-yi qarib

*xtf

kanda

am

have dug."
is

In the third person singular the o^t ast

often omitted, thus

%^

for

Remark.
(for Itxxf

An

old form of the second person singular

is

^X-a^

kandasti

kanda-l) and a contracted form of the third person singular is **+& kandast [vide 66 (d)} the other persons occur, but if perhaps
;

so they are rare.


of the Perfect.

In a rarer form

still,

a c5

is

found affixed to the auxiliary

This form seems to be always Conditional.

IX.

Pluperfect (mazi-yi ba'id


I

kanda budam "


This tense
is

had dug up."

also used in past conditions, in modern Persian only.


little-used

Remark.
Optative a verb, the
Preterite,
is

form

of the Pluperfect, used in Conditional

and

clauses, is:

kanda budami, i.e., to the Past Participle of Past Conditional or Habitual of budan, instead of its added. Example: '^ Jjf j' e/^ ^-^J j ay kadi az

^*zy t^

^^

^**y

awal Khuda ra
X.

paristida budami.
*

Future Perfect or Past Subjunctive

(mazi.yi shakkt

^ ^*

).

^ib*^

kanda bash am "I

will

have dug up; must have dug up; may

have dug up."


This tense
(c)

is

also used as a Past Subjunctive.

The following

tenses are rarely used

(1) Continuative Perfect o~~f> ;>JAX mi-kanda ast (m.c.) "he has been " tho ; digging up Imperfect is ordinarily used for this tense, vide 125 (t)
(2)

f^M*

xi<

(J\)

the Imperfect or Pluperfect

doubtful accuracy and

is

(old) "(if) I bad dug'* used instead of this tense, which is of generally not used by Persians.

(agar)
is

kanda me-budam

The second person


This tense
is

is

written X<^

>

and

also (but rarely)

^\
t4

also called
/0

^Ui^.!

<^*k* mazi-yi ihtimutt, and


t

waznwn, and
1

L5^^c maziryi mashkuk (or tashkik) from haml lt thinking, suspecting" and fthalek doubting."
8

-^^

imputing," zann
rare in old

Or (^*i^ W*f kanda budame (not used


:

in

modern Persian, and

Persian)

me-kanda budam

is

another form

Qazl-l tariha shab-l ml-rajta bud.

Su-yi bustan did duzd-i hamchu dud.

" One night a Qazi was going alone towards a garden. When he saw a thief (pass him) like smoke."

ACTIVE VOICE.

233

Remark.

In the following example ***+*


' '

agar nishista budid /car sakhta nami-shud "it

&LJ^j1 (m.c.) you had remained sitting still,


\

&i>L*

^ ix^y

the Past Participle of the intransitive verb nothing would have been found is considered an adjective and not part of the verb; both verbs are, therefore,
correctly in the ordinary Imperfect to express a supposition.

According to Forbes, "Let him continue digging." unable to find any examples of such a tense. Such an expression " % in modern Persian would be taken to mean "it is kanda (engraving),
(3)

ixU*x>

aaif.

am

just as X&UA>O
(4)

dug."

nuqra mi-bashad signifies "it is silver." ty <tofj:k *&, a Future Perfect, "ho will have dug, he must have This tense is used by the Afghans and sometimes by the Persians.
*jftj

It is of doubtful accuracy.
(5)
pl

toy

JJcxi*'

For example, vide 125 (;') (3). " I must have kanda buda am dug." This
is

tense,

which
vide

is

also of doubtful accuracy,


(j) (5).

used in modern Persian.

For example,

125
(/)

The

third person singular of the Aorist

may

be made Optative or
,?

Benedict! ve, by lengthening the fafha of the final syllable; thus

ay bitvad

becomes

may
"

^ "
:

buvad or

" bad; *X kanad becomes z\& kanad,


'

Oh

that he
*^j$

dig

They say
(g)

'

Guy and mar a hi Izad-at tauba dihad J*z *y <^^f ** " (0. K. 172, Whin.) may Allah aid thee to repent
!

Paraphrases of some of the tenses can be made by prefixing Parti-

ciples, Persian or Arabic, and Verbal Adjectives, to the verb "to be," as: "> khwahan-i an bud Id &f &\A\*&> (m.c.) "he was desirous of

^^

--

j*I~a c^-k) raftani

liastam

(m.c.)

"I am

about to go";

ow*t a^yc

miirda

ast (m.c.)

<c

it is

dead"

(also

"he

has died");

^~t JU ^iLt j\ u
:

asl

(or

f&jj (^) J^^*i


colloquial

seeks after knowledge"; cW f^*^ malum ast" it To be about to do a thing, can be expressed as follows khayal-i) rajtan budam (*ay ^&j (J^ or) a<>-oja, or darsharaf-i raftanbudam " also in modern " I was 011 the eve

"he
(h)

Him is known." Dar sadad-i


talib-i

point,

of,

by,

mi-khwahad bi-ravad

ki

"he

is

departure on the

point
X$

of
c^T

going

when
*$

u dar kar-i murdan

ast (m.c.)

u heis

dying";

f^y

^^
;

f)<& )^^> j\j (*;!^ eAjt^f v lu^ "I was on the point of approaching her and jumping over the wall when " (Trans, of Haji Baba, Chap. XXII 1) (dar kar also means to be actually engaged in) y &****> ^skf* ; lj f^J
:

tf

"

)^

was about to leap over the wall." (Tr. H. B. Chap. XXIII). && y c**o ;l^ (i) The Imperative can also be expressed as follows: zinhar dast-i tu takan na-khwumd "don't let your hand shake",
*$

y&i* ma-guzar
"

ki bi-yuftad
' ' ;

biyayad

permit (him) to come

"don't let it fall" *jl v^b ;!*& bu-guzar bashad


;

;!^

bu-guzar
'

' *

let it alone.'

This

alif is called alif-i da* a or alif-i

tamanna.

234

VERBAL ADJECTIVES.
(

" " Gu say, suppose, let much the same signification as


Gu-ki
*$
I.

Imperative of guftan) occurs in writing with

bi-guzdr.

(conjunction)

"

although."

Remark

The

Preterite Potential

^ ,JLJy
o^
(

(vide

77)

is

called the
*>

mdzi-yi imkdni or mdzl

ma

'l-qudrat

^^
)

^^,

or

e^^l

cr^-*

Remark II. Sarf-i sagh/ir ( ^-^^ o/^ is an Indian term applied to running through the moods and tenses of a verb, giving the Infinitive, the third person singular of the Preterite, Imperfect, Pluperfect, Future, Aorist, and Present, the second person singular of the Imperative and the Negative
Imperative, and the Present and the Past Participles.
Sarf-i kabir
(

jtf

o^

and Tenses,

in both voices.

is conjugating a verb in all This term, too, is Indian.

its

Persons,

Moods

70.

Verbal Adjectives.

(a) From the Imperative stem of some verbs a Verbal Adjective (or Substantive) with the termination a is formed, which differs little in signification from a Present Participle, thus: e*>^ dldan "to see," Imperative
<^x>

verbal adjective ti# bind " seeing, clear-sighted " or " a blind man <c blind "; &#\* nd-bind (plural <^&w bindydn (classical) ) lvw bind shudan " to sjet sight, recover sight."
bin
;

" see thou,"

"

oSj^

fy

)/

Dar kargatiri kuza~gar-i raftam dush, Dldam du hazdr kuza guyd u khamush.
" Once in a potter's shop, a company Of cups in converse, did I chance to
(0.

see.

K. 283 Whin.)

Vide also examples in

43

(r).

" holding fast; Similarly, from ^^-^ ddshtan andy<i ddr, comes \j^ddrd " or a possessor, a lord, rich and from j*> ju c^^ justan juy. comes (m.c.)
:

comes, IJ^A. juya seeking"; from c;^J** sazldan [saz] "to be worthy !>* sazd : and from ^fi? guftan and guyd gu or ^$ guy, comes tl For an example of Lify tavdnd and cJfyG nd-tavdn^ vide' speaking, etc." 77 (e) and Remark.

**

"

Panrd ^AJ has a Passive

as well as an Active sense.

Some

of these

Verbal Adjectives are not declinable, and are equivalent to Participles. from <^ pahn (b) A few nouns have a similar termination; thus "broad" comes U^ pahnd "breadth"; from &*)) rawshan " clear,

Poetical for

NEGATIVE VERBS.
1

235

also "Roxana" the Greek bright" rawshana (*$ (old) "brightness," form of the name of the wife of Alexander the Great, who was a daughter of the

king of Persia:

U>

tarsa a

f<

Christian."

71.
(a)

Negative Verbs.
Fi'l-i

Fi'l-i nafi

J*i negative verb and

nahi

^
<**

J** prohibitive

The Negative prefixes are: (1) 4u or or 3 & na; and /ma*; (2) * The prefix f' is always omitted when the verb is negative, as: (3) b na. " let me see " bi-binam na-Unam, f*& "let me not see." fHtf
verb.
<*'
;

used with the second person singular and plural only of the Imperative, and with the Negative Precative, as: u^* ma-purs "don't ask"; **&*> ma-kunid "don't do" and (with the Precative Aorist) d*&*
(6)

I/a

is

ma-binad

tl

may

he not see."

It is

always joined to

its

verb in writing,

compound verbs immediately precedes the verb itself, as: CL>^ o**a (last ma-zan &yo o^- ''don't touch"; *nde also Remark to (0). The benedictive forms ma-manad ^liU* ma-kunad *M*> etc., are sometimes used
,

and

in

in

m.c.

in the conjunction mabad or mabada (the Optative of e^y); as also in the adverb mayar "but, perhaps," which is

Remark.

The ma occurs

compounded
(c)

of

ma and

agar.

In

modern
AJ is

colloquial,

however,
it is less

ma

&*

is

falling into disuse;

and

na

AJ is

generally used instead, as

(d)

Na

correctly prefixed to all

imperative and therefore civil. the tenses with the exceptions of the

second person singular and plural of the Imperative [vide (b) ], and in modern It is also prefixed to the Past colloquial it is even prefixed to these also. Participle, and to the Shortened Infinitive as well as to its full form, as:
,^&AA:
cX> n^jXj [^ cbJjiO i; )\4 ^\ In bar ra na-kunid Khuda na-karda bad tm-shavad (m.c.) "don't do this (God forbid it), it may not turn out well." It can, in writing, be joined to the verb or be written separately.

(ej

na-yuft
If,

say however, the prefix be

The & immediately precedes the verb " he did not


t(
;

^^

or its prefix mi.

Example

a *A

nami-guyam hami and not mi, the negative

"

do not say."

is

prefixed to the verb, as:


1

hami na-guyam.
are pahna'l

The usual forms, however,


is

^^tv

rawshana'i

colloquial panha*i

used

for pahnu-l.

In India roshna-l geaerally means

modern ^^*>;. In "ink," and

roslmi ''brightness."
Called ^fc* ft* mlm i nafy. Nun i nafy A * &)* but with the Imperative mln-i nahy. For this nun is Interrogation, vide 73.
*
8

it

is,

or should bo, called

&}*

In

y^#

<^+> the

negative

is

called

&j& Ojr^, or u^-^


used as an

but when written

*> it is

But the negative

of the Past Participle

adjective takes

na & only.

236
Similarly, in

NEGATIVE VERBS.

compound

verbs, the

to the verb itself, as: ^|j> ^j remove your hand ? " or " won't

gardam "if I don't return";


vide

85

^ o^

" you cease doing ? f*j&j*\ agar bar naik I did not speak," harf na-zadam
:

follows the prefix, being joined o,*o dast bar nami-dari "won't you
*i

(c).

Remark.
standstill"
(/)

The same

rule holds

good for

**, as

o^U

(j

va ma-ist "don't

This rule
:

is

sometimes broken in poetry, and by the Afghans

in

speaking, as

Chun

riist

dar In zamana sud-l

zi-]chirad

Juz bi-khirad az zamana bar mi na-khurad.

"Small gains

to learning

on

this earth accrue,

They pluck

life's fruitage,

learning
(0.

who eschew."

K. Rub. 224 Whin.)

(g)

(local

Nati occurs only in compounds, as: ^^na-dlda (adj.) "unseen"; blind"; o*vot ^Uj^k U wJJao ^\ y j\ u az in matlab na-khwa/tan a>st and incorrect) :c he does not want to do it."
Infinitive

The

being considered a

noun, the

often treated like a

compound, and formed with modern Persian, however, na *j is preferred to na U.


In

Negative Infinitive is In k, seldom with &>.

&djtykj OV^M

riist

u na-bud kardan the ^y


t

is

probably considered

a shortened Infinitive, or a verbal noun.


(h)

only

is

correct, vide

In Persian, two negatives arc sometimes used where in English one 123 (6) (5) and (e) also for the negative verb with
;

hilch, vide

39

(d)

(1),

(2),

(3)

arid

Remark.

For the

negative

after a verb of prohibition, vide


(i)

122

(n).

With the
^x&
tf

auxiliaries

to the auxiliary

bayad <\>k, etc., the negative is sometimes added and sometimes to the principal verb, as bayad ki na:

kunad

^l, or na-bayad bi-kunad && ^U); na-bayad raft^*)&>^] chira bayad bi-hukm-i shar' rdzi na-shavand? (Tr. &*j& ^1) ^ j*Ca=u *& " there is a H. B., Chap. VI) why shouldn't the dispute be legally settled (as " Mulla present) ?

(j)

Kam ft
:

and andak

^^

usually in poetry, can give the idea of a

Negative, as

Not e^~Jt

Ax.

EUPHONICAL RULES AND ACCENTS IN THE VERBS.


G/tandan
lei

237

justand kamtar yaftand (Gul.) "in spite of their diligent search they couldn't find him," or "the mo re they searched, the less they

found him."

Vide also

121

(b).

72.

Euphonical Rules and Accents in the Verbs.

differs in

the Imperative of a verb ends in j, this letter sometimes pronunciation in the Imperative and in the other tenses. If the ^ of " bethe Imperative is pronounced w it becomes a v before #, as _>& shaw
(a)
1

When

come, go"

"go"
If

(Imperative (Imperative of <ji; rajtan),


j>

of shudan),
pj)

ravam, Aorist;

shavam, Aorist;^; raw (or ro) cA^ davidan "to

run" (Imperative
the^

daw), Aorist davam f*.


is

of the Imperative

pronounced u, a

is

inserted for euphony,

" as: u*5& guftan "to say," Imperative^ bigu say," Aorist +>* bi-guyam. The latter rule also holds good when the Imperative ends in a, as c^+j u to show," Present /*jl*> ^* mi-namayam. Such verbs ncumudaUy U^ nama
:

have two forms of the Imperative, one with and one without the <^, as: M~OW justan "to seek," Imperative ju or juy\ guftan "to namudan speak," Imperative ^ gu or <^ ^?l?y (classically go or #o,e)

^
&

^^

c^>^> nama
(b)

U>"z or

nanmy ^+>
in

As stated

G8

(6) (3),

the prefix

is

omitted in verbs compound-

ed of an indeclinable particle and a verb. (c) If the verb begins with alif without madda, this letter is generally after the prefixes &>, <*J, or*^, for the sake of euphony, as changed into

o;k!t>J|

andakht

"he

threw./'
)
:

^i^'txx^

*'

nayandakht,

he

did not

throw,"
;KJ| anj;ar

(also written

o.|yiUi

^I>j

uftam

" I

may
afo'/

fall,"

fiiw bi-yujtam:
f

3 "consider," mayangat\ ^H^. (^) If the verb begins with an

marked by a madda
(
'

the

a/*'/

madda of course being rejected: trf arad "he may bring "; " do not bring." ^U> biyarad let him bring" ;U* mayar *J often unites with the In the verb, as: <xU namad (for (e) poetry, " he came not." This license is often taken nayamad) by *Umar-i Khayyam. The contraction occurs in modern colloquial also. (/) The accent of the verb falls on the last syllable of either stem, except
remains, the
;

there be one of the prefixes

<t>,

AJ,

or

&*>

or the verb be a compound with

less

In the modern language, both j common.


1

shaw and

bi-shaw are used, but the latter


9
:

is

Indians, especially Punjabis, have a passion for using

they intrude

it

after every

alif or ya.
s

In

o~jU

tj

va ma-iat thia euphonic


t

45- is

always omitted.

238

INTERROGATIVE VERBS.
1

a preposition or an adverb;

in the

latter cases,

the accent
(6), (1)

falls

on the

prefix or the prefixed preposition, vide

21

(a)

and

to

(4).

73.
is

Interrogative Verbs.

2 It is usually expressed by the tone of the voice.' " " whether? or j*> also expressed by prefixing to the question Ijf dyd " " or " ^ Examples by suffixing the words & U yd na or not ? magar but ?

(a)

Interrogation

has he left the place or u**)^ yd na? nami-ddmd " what, don't you know Persian ? ": eu-*>j *jyc yix " is he dead that tiJj ^+J vJ^x <tf magar murda ast ki liarf nami-zanad " " are he doesn't speak ? &t^ j*> magar dlvdna-i ? you mad? ", or I fancy you must be mad." In modern colloquial, bf aya is seldom used,^^ magar usually taking its place. Interrogation magar is both positive and negative, and is used
<*j
(j

ow

Ai*j

rafta ast

lt

" not ?

*&\& aya Fdrsi

tk

idiomatically at

the

beginning
9

and

end

of

short
?
<:

Examples

^^jj** vir*
lit.
*'

^"
"
'\

magar shardb khhwurdi


'*

drinking,"

but have you been drinking


(a sly question).

"

_>^
<f

^'j

exclamative phrases. I think you have been "


raftl

magar

'I

you

went there, didn't you


(6)

7H

A^"

followed by

ya na
3
' '

&^, also

signifies

aJ
(

cxvof

js^/c is

whether he

i^fo^^ dead or not

naml-danam ki murda ast the yd na at the end cannot be omitted.


;

whether or not," as: ya na"I don't know

Remark /. Interrogation is of course also expressed by the interrogau how much ? " or tive pronouns or adjectives, as: chand *>J^ by the inter,

rogative adverbs, as

kujf

or kujd
>7
?

lJ

*'

where

"

bardy-i chi sabab &*

^ji

v*^

*'

for

what reason, why


II.

Remark
answer
is

simple question with the object of obtaining a direct


^l^ii^i

called

^U^l^t

istifhdm-i istikhbari.

If

the question indi-

cates negation, as in, ki mt-guyad ki khaydl-i safar daradl JU^ li who says he is thinking of going on a journey?", *}\*^&*
istifhdm-i inkdri.
is

&

&.**

**

it is

called
it

If the question

expects the answer "yes,"

called

as in: ^)\j*\ ^t^Av^f istifhdm-i iqrdrt,

p^t

ovWf

'*

Am

not youc

Lord?"

Examples:

eA^^

bardashtan, eH^*0^ &


^ji;
pl^Ai^f
<^-*^

gashtan.
* 4

In negative interrogation as

nami-ravl
w'ste

won't you go

J>
?

the
3).

nun

is

styled

nnri

istifham-i nafy

(^

c^*),
:

71 (a) foot-notes (2

and

This

negative interrogation can imply assertion, as


(;

*a vJ^I?

+A jjjl

AJ

jt}

ciie^ ^^(f
is

^i^

^4.>

(Gul.)

Indians for ki might substitute

aj/a,

which, however,

incorrect.

ROOTS. OB STEMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.

239

74.
(a)

Roots or Stems of Simple Verbs.

The number

the

Infinitive
(

As already stated, of simple verbs in Persian is small. ends in dan or tan. Such Infinitives are called masdar-i
)

munsarif

<Jyaxx> ^*a/o
e>:>

Infinitives in
fatha, or else

85. as opposed to the Compound Infinitives, vide dan are preceded by the lon^ vowels a, I and u, or by by the consonants r and n.

<J* tan are preceded by kh> s, $b or /. In the so-called irregular verbs the irregularity consists, only in the :( to Imperative differing from the root of the Infinitive. Thus &**& dtdan

Infinitives in
(b)

see

' '

has an Imperative

bin

" see thou

' ' ;

&&jf /cardan

' '

to do

"

^/ kun

cjab

dadan "to give,"


(c)

^ dih, etc.

The following

are the rules for forming the Imperative or stem,

together with lists of the exceptions. Verbs marked by an asterisk are obsolete in m.c., while those marked with a dagger are regular:
(I)

Infinitives

in

adan or idan* and'

^nfinitives in tan

preceded by

,s,

reject these letters to form the root; in the reject this termination,
Infinitive.
i.e.,

same way,

infinitives in

adan

dan and the fatha preceding, as:


Root or Stem.
.

firist

cu^y

purs
z*

<^3

tavan

dzh jf

EXGErTIONS. s
Infinitive.

Root or Stem.
to bring forth

zddan
m.c. zd*ida

young

to

zd

Ij

or zd,y ^(j

(trans.

be born.
B

and
.

intr.)

m.c. dfridan
m.vC.

f to create to

dfrin &Jjtf

dmadan
6

come

ay

^f

or

m.c. guzidan

$ to choose

guzin

Verbs wliose Imperative stems are formed according


**
)

to rules are called qiyasl

L5*^4^

analogical, presumptive, regular

"
;

those that arc not so formed are called


(

{,<F\&
*
3

j&
' *

ghayr-i qiyasl, or shazz (rare, irregular), or samafl

i^+*>

" traditiona

irregular.

The greater part of the simple Persian verbs end Verbs marked f are regular.
used in m.c.
m.c. (regular) " to bite, sting."

in Idan.

* Infin.
6

In m.c. afaridan.

But gazldan

240
m.c. (vulg.) gddan

BOOTS OR STEMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.


c^lf
}

copulate (of
only)
.

men

gd tforgdy^tf
dih

m.c. (vulg.) gd*idan f

o^lf j

m.c. dddan &&\& to give m.c. shariidan \

8<3

shanudan
m.c. shinuftan

&ty

to hear

shunaw

or shinaw

^&
c^U^

)
\

m.c. gushadan
m.c. kushddan
m.c. kushudan'f

^(M
c^y^

to lo 8e

kushd

or kushdy

m.c. didan

(j*xa to see

bin

^
c>j

m.c. zadan &&) to strike to stitcJi *bakhldan

zan

bakhya
(m.c.).

kun

The only verb


from the

in

which the Imperative appears to be derived from a verb totally


joint,

different
*

Infinitive.

signifies

Payvand also "

subs.

" a

connection

mark

of

a join":

payvasta

(Participle)

always, continually."

BOOTS OR STEMS OF SIMPLE VEBBS.


*jistan

241

m.c. jastan

>

to

^jJkMM^.

jump

jah

fa*

m.c. justan

<^-^
e)-^
L
*

to search

(in

m.c.

also

/#

^a.

or

jtty

=
m.c. chldan

to find).
.
.

to pluck, cull

c^m

^
>^j
and
intrans.

m.c. bar khastan m.c. khwastan m.c. rastan

e^t^

^.i^U^j to rise up, get to wish, desire

up

barkhlz

khiuah *i^

^^;

to be liberated, to escape; to let go.

rah

trans,

m.c. ru^idan^
m.c. r us tan
*rlsian

o<H$^)*| 9 >to

grow

(intrans.

vl. adjective).

*ristan

to spin
thread).

(nsman

m.c. ristdan'f m.c. rishtan


8

m.c. n^a/i
>

to gtool

_ A

in m.c.

crude word, only used by the vulgar.*

m.c.

m.c. sUkastan

to break (trans,
trans.).

and

in-

trans,

and

intrans.

m.c.
to lessen

kah ^

tr.

and

intr.

m.c. kastan
*qirislan
6
,

to

weep

m.c.).

m.c.
m.c. gusistan

to break off, to

snap

gusil

J~>
;

trans,

arid

*gusustan
m.c. gusikhtan
l

tr.

and

intr.

intrs.

in m.c. trans.

Note that
*Ruahtan

e^l^
4<

and e^^f>*
grow
;

^oa.'j; r u* Idan to
(old),

&*?.j)

rawldan or ravldan

though spelt differently are pronounced the same. " to travel, walk/'
(old)

go,

to colour, dye."
(to

In polite speech sar-i qadam raftan &*') f&3j*

squat), or birkinar-i ab raftan

In modern Persian

or value:

&
16

&bf j~$
^*AJ
)f

kasr kardan

is

preferred for

tr.

for lowering of price


ts

AA^t^ ^JUJ

az qimat-i qall kasta shud m.c.

carpets have gone

down.

' '

Niganst

" he looked " and

na-girist

" he did not weep."

242
*manistan
m.c.
l

BOOTS OB STEMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.


resemble
>l*>

intr.

mdnd

vl-

adjective.

mandan

to remain,

fluous;

be superto be fa-

<.

The
is
' *

participle
J>

mdnda

used as an
fatigued
,

tigued; to resemble.

adjective,
especially

by the

Af-

ghans.

In India it also

means "poor, worn out" (of animals).]


m.c. nishastan ^
to sit
i

nishln'1

*nigaristan

~\

m.c. nigaristan
*m"0rartefcmf

<^-^y& Vto look


e;*lr^ J

at,

view

nigar j&
rare).

(nigaridan very

*yaristan*

e^;b }to
^

be able;
other

(in

dictionary
also

yar ){->.

meanings

*yarastan
m.c. bastan

^-^

to bind

band *w

[6a^a

shudan

pass. m.c.].

*nishastan
to place
rn.c.

nishdn

^Jfo

[nishdsta

nishdndan'f

in m.c.
*

= starch].
;

shu*idan
m.c. shustan m.c. shuridan* c

'

to

wash

5/ii//

^^-^ or sAur
is

;^-

(shur
in

the stem most


in

use

m.c.,

but

both are used).

Remark.

It will be noticed that

some verbs have two forms

of the
:

and one in a vowel without as a f or Imperative stem, one ending in In both forms are but used in is modern ^/f ay. writing, colloquial the " " as nearly always discarded, bi-gu (not bi-guy <^* ). say
;
:

^
<4

Manand

**&*> adv.

(misl)

alike, resembling."

also as a transitive,
2

" to put, place."


is

The Afghans use

these verbs

Nishasta aat

Present tense:

both Perfect Tense and Past Participle with aat for the English " he is an/a niahctata aat sitting (seated) there," but " that is where he always sits." l;*uf gnyg me-nMmod ** -he looked " or else no-giriat '* he did not weep." nigrar^ o*Jjx>
*-^~*{

*i-*^> Mp-M

The Gabrs use

this

word

in writing, *^\)<i

^^

^^

\)

ra kas-l naryarad daryajt


6

none can perceive the greatness


signifies
'*

of

f^- yj3^ buzurgi-yi God."

Shurldan &*>)j* (m.c.) also

to

grow mad, be distracted."

BOOTS OR STEMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.


(2) Infinitives in

243

reject

udan &&) dan and change u into a or


!

of

which there are not a large number


:

ay, as

m.c. situdan

m.c.

namudan

to praise to do, to

sita

Uu

or siidy

11

^Uuo.

show

nama

U> or

namay ^Ui,
intrans.

trans,

and

Exceptions.

m.c. budan

to be
>

6w

j>

or (jwU 6a5^.

m.c. shudan
, '

shudan

to become, to go
}

5^a^
to twist,

j.

*tanudan
*tanidan-f

to

draw tight,
be twisted.

tan

ti>5.

shanudan
m.c.

shamdan
iii^

fto hear
j

shanaw
zinaw

j*S.

m.c. shanujtan

*zinudan

to neigh

^
))&.

(shayha kashicollo-

dan in modern
quial).

*darudan
m.c. darawdan^

to reap

daraw
the

(In

mod. Pers.
daraw

infinitive
is

kardan
m.c.
to slumber, doze
.

preferred).

ghunaw

ghunavidan^
Remark.
to

The
;

prove"

(tr.)

m.c. azmudan cJ^^jT '* to try, following are regular " to rest, be satisfied, be at ease" (intr.) asudan e^>~>f
:

cf to increase" (tr. and intr.): m.c. fuzudan cJj^ aludan c;^f "to stain, pollute; to be polluted" (tr. and intr.); (in m.c. intransitive is aluda shudan c;* *pT ) m.c. andudan 8 e)^*ii " to plaster,

m.c. ajzudan o>^>i

or

smear,

twist": m.c. paludan* &&jik ll to strain, filter; become pure" (tr. and intr.) m.c. bakhsJmdan eJ^Aiu (also m.c. bakhshldan ^jxlsiu " to " m.c. rubudan " give, bestow, forgive e^^; or *rubudan &wj) to rob, carry off; withdraw oneself from sight" (trans.): m.c. zadudan &wj
gild, to
:
)
:

"to

polish, .scour;

sdbtdan

^*>^

wipe sadness from the mind": *sudan eJ^ (also m.c. and m.c. sa^idan &*$l> ) " to rub, wear, anoint" (tr.) 6
:

Sita f ish kardan

is

also in use.

* 3

Fide

72

(a).
is

In modern colloquial andud kardan In m.c. iJ^^ faluda-yi (or

preferred.

v^

paluda-yi

S^b

.n&

'

sharbat of minced

The Afghans use this verb and c>-H^ palldan for "to apple, rose-water and sugar.' search.*' Paluda in m.c. is also a sweetmeat made of starch and sugar. In m.c. this
verb
is tr.
6
;

the intrans. form

is

paluda shudan.

Intransitive eJ<^

J$^U* sa 9 lda shudan.

44

BOOTS OB STEMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.

iraudan ^byj* "to rub, wear; to be worn, old (tr.) " kushudan &&j*f (also kushadan \&j*j* "to order
:

"

*
:

m.o. farmudan :*
)

c^^

"to open "

i.e.

gushudan oj^^
(3) Infinitives in

or gushadan e*>Uf.

tan preceded

by kh

reject tan
.

and change

into J

pukhtan u-*^ to cook anddkhtan to throw


Exceptions.

anddz

*akhtan
*akhtan
3

to

draw a sword
geld.

to

dkh

m.c. shinakhtan
ni .c gusikhtan
.

to recognize

shinas

m.c. gusastan

^to break
I

off,

snap

gusil

d~S

tr.

and

intr.

*gu8ustan

*sukhtan
m.c. sanytdanj
.. ,
.

to weigh G
,
.

sanj ^i-. }

*pikhtan
na.c.

to twist, to coil

pich -r^,
'

tr.

and

intr.

plchldan f

Remark.
frdshtdn
*'

The following

are regular:

m.c. afrakhtan (^i^^i, (or m.c.


:

Q.C.)
*

*'to raise (-ji&fyf) to set on fire"


(tr.

on high; to exalt" (tr.) afrukhtan ey^j/f m.c. amukhtan ^.^^of 4 "to lear'nf (tr.)
:

and intr.): m.c. amlkhtan ^.litxof ** to mix, mingle; be intermixed" (tr. and intr.): rn.c. anglkhtan ^^^J! (also angidan JJ\ ) "to excite, rouse": m.c. avikhtan ^Iscu^f "to hang, suspend" " to m.c. bakhtan r.) play, to lose at play" (tr.): m.c. pardakhb n (^^&jJ "to finish; bring to perfection; to be busily engaged" " r. and intr.) m.c. parhikhtan u*k*H^ 6 (^) ** to educate (but parhizidan)

teach"

^^

Imper.

jjjA^j,

" restrain oneself, abstain" (intr.): m.c. bikhtan u-

2 3

Usually the participle t&f>j* with an auxiliary verb is used. Also in compound verbs used as a substitute for kardan, to indicate respect. But akhta kardan &&j$ <^^' " to geld " only.

In m.c. to learn only: amuzandan &^jjy*>\

or

amuzanidan cJ'H^j^'

'

(me.

to teach.'*
5

Man

bi-ln kar

naml-pardazam fj'^i $+> ft (^& er* (m.c.)

an in

fear

&* ^^'^ j* \) ft " nam&z his prayers he finished parda&ht (m.c.) j( ^abstinence" and kardan pahrlz ^tAj* &<^JrtPj
ra pardab&tam

4< I cannot do this " I (m.c.) completed this"

"

az

"=

farigh ahud.

only,

are

common

in

odern Persian.

BOOTS OB STEMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.


1

245

"to sift" (in diet, also " to enslave; become weak") (tr.): takhtan "to hasten; to assault: to make to gallop " (tr. and intr.) tojchtan u-^y (old "to pay a debt; to wish, to want"; m.c. dukhtan eH&ja "to sew"(tr. and
:

intr.): rikhtan

^^ "

to pour, diffuse; cast, melt; scatter,

disperse*"

(tr.

" to (tr.) *supukhtan &,****> ' ' thrust one thing with force into another : m.c. sukhtan prick, pierce <ji^ " to burn, to be inflamed, to set on fire" (tr. and intr.) ; m.c. gudaTchtan

and

intr.): m.c.
;

sakhtan

^X^U 3 "to make"

(^\^
flee

"to melt,
:

to be

melted"

(tr.

away"

m.c. navakhtan*

^i^y

and intr.) m.c. gurlkhtan ^iu/ "to " to soothe caress etc.' to play upon
: ,
,

an instrument; to sing"; (and with an instrument of punishment) "to


chastise."
(4)

Infinitives in tan preceded


:

by

sh, reject

^ tan
dar

and change c4 sh

into

r, as

m.c. dashtan

to have
Exceptions.

..

)\*.

m.c. gashtan
m.c. gardidan*]

to become, to saunter; .. to return; be inverted

gard

*ag]iusliidan-\

embrace

_
.

ayiush

m.c. kushtan
m.c. hisfitan
m.c. hiKdan-f

^&f

to kill
*\

kush

> to

let

down

to quiet,

hil

JA
"

or hish <Ju*.
'

m.c. sirishtan*
*sarisliidan

^
)
7

to

mix;
to mix.

to create;

..

sirish

m.c. kdshtan^

to
^

plough;

sow;

till

inm.c. " tosow.

m.c. kishtan
Takht u
taz

the land; to plant


to make an inroad" takkttan Icardan c^^Jjf^^^ "to attack": tak&t u faraj Hence from this verb, tazi came to mean "Arabic an
-9

kardan

cJ.i^'j

vi*i>t

<4

to
*A.lj

attack":

tak&t avardan

"

plundering."

Arab horse, an (Arab) greyhound."


a

Bar

sar-i kas-l riWtfan

(^^)

^^ fj>.
"

"

to fall
;

upon

"
:

firil

rikhtan

" to pour out


3

"
:

az

ham

rikhtan (m.c.)

to go to pieces

also rlkhta shudan.

&

4
*

In compound verbs, can take place of kardan, etc. In modern colloquial, only to sing or play an instrument or chastise.

Dar aghfoh
Sirisht

girt ffan
*

<^y

<jw j.cf

^
9

in m.c.
sirishta

c**j*

mixed; nature, etc.";


of."

Ax^*>
'

**

mixed, kneaded," but

tar rishta
7

"a knowledge
A-w^ton

uJ&r

to

sow," but

(&&

kushtan " to kill/

246

BOOTS OB STEMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.

m.c. rtsidan f a****^


m.c. rishtan
*ristan
*ristan

only in m.c.
]

m.c. navishtan
m.c.

to write

..

rams
kun

a&ashtan
*

to

m.c. aghishtan

mix; fco mois ten; be moistened to


;

agiushtan

pf J

defile.

Remark.
or

The

following

anbashtan ^^l^t

(tr.)

"to

fill,

angarldan
to

*angardan

are m.c. ambashtan ^^U^f and regular etc."; m.c angashtan ^^>\ (or m.c. e^;&! "to think, imagine": *awbashtan (intr.)
:

"to devour, swallow": m.c.


think, consider;

pindashtan ^^iifolj (or *pindaridan be proud" (intr.); m.c. ddshtan v&*^ "to
<f

have,
(tr.)
:

hold,

keep"
guzashtan

(tr.)

m.c. guzashtan ^J^fi^f


(l

to place, put on,


z

leave"

m.c.

v*tf

to pass, pass
8

by"

(intr.

m.c. gumdshtan

m.c. nigashtan ^.y^^i (or " to (Dtytyi paint, portray; embroider, to write."
:

^(3

"to appoint

for a purpose

"

m c. nigandan
dan ^^, as:

(5)

Infinitives in

cw dan preceded byj

r,

or

&

n, reject

m.c. kandan &**? to dig, root kan e/.


Exceptions.

m.c. avardan

to bring

avar f ;jf or ar ;f

m.c. shumurdan
m.c. burdan

$j+* to count to carry, to bear


to

shumar
bar j*.

;^.
.

m.c. kardan
m.c.

do

kun

murdan

to die
to
/
I

wr ^y.
resign,

m.c. sipurdan

commit,

deposit, travel.
^
;fjl
,

*supardan
m.c. azurdan

*azardan f
m.c. afshurdan

__

to offend, to injure

azar

<

jfjf (m.c.).

to squeeze
to

to express

afshar ;lAt.

*farkandan

dig a

canal,

bring
fields.

farkan u^j*, and farkand

water into the

" to drink*' nushtan (gen. nuahidan or nu/i kardan)

bufc

(jJ^y naviahtan,

etc.
1

* 4

to write."

to pass by (a person, etc.)." m.c. c^y ^^ ^wsar kardan In India the past participle, *>U? gumashta, is a common term missary, or agent, especially in the Commissariat Department,

Also

for a

com-

ROOTS OR STEMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.


(6)

247

Infinitives in tan

^ preceded by
/:

<J /. reject tan,

^ and, by a law
<->b.

of

permutation common verbs, however, retain the

to several languages, change the /<J into b ^>:

many

m.c. ydftan eP^^ to get, obtain m.c. baf tan c^^ to weave
Exceptions.
m.c. paziruftan u*ty*j to accept, approve m.c. suftan &.'&*> to bore, pierce
l

yab
..

baf ob.

pazlr j.*J.

sumb

v^
:

"

sufta

kun <uiu

(^
(D

sufta

kardan

in m.c.

6fw/to

^^

Past Participle, but ^/fa *ii-

(in m.o.

^*

/0

4<

thick, coarse,

from an obsolete
*

Infinitive.

Guftan

e^J

" to think " sometimes means to say to oneself, hence

^Toft^am bi-namaz

9 u ruza chun ma il shud

Ouf tarn ki muradri kulH-yam Tiasil shud. *To prayer and fasting when my heart inclined,
All

my

desire I surely

hoped to

find:

"

(O.

180 Whin.)

248
m.c. khuftan

THE AUXILIARY VERBS.

&&
]

(-khuft
f

(m.c.)

m.c. khwabidan

-\

c>H*!^

*o sleep, crouch,
etc.

khwab

(m.c.)

m.c. khusbldan^
m.c. khuspidan f
*taftan-f

e)Hf~^

1
(

khusb (m.c.) *-*~^

c>^>^^
>

Wimp

(m.c.)

*taftan

&&
The

to twist

tab wl

m.c.

Remark.
root shtiab

following

is

regular:

m.c.

shitaftan

^*Xw

to

hurry,

v^"75.

Hybrid Verbs.

In addition to the pure Persian verbs, a certain number of hybrids are formed by affixing the termination Idan cA> to an Arabic root. Example

m.c. e^+t* fahmidan "to understand"; &**&*) raqsidan (m.c.) (and raqs <{ and a few to dance"; c****^ talabidan "to summon" (m.c.) kardan)
;

others.

Ghaltldan

^^Mi

(m.c.)

" to

roll,

to wallow

"

was

originally Persian

and then given an Arabic form by the Persians. Challdan &**b (m.c.) is derived from the Urdu chalna
This hybrid Infinitive Persian Infinitive.
is

IxU.

" to go."
a true

called

^^^^ax,

as opposed to

tx^ax: ) ^^JL^f ;

76.

The Auxiliary Verbs


^
lt

^U*

jUil

).

Shudnu o>^
(a)

to

become "

root shaw

j&

The verb

&<*

The Imperative is^ The noun of agency shavanda


is

shudan "to become, to go " is conjugated regularly. shaw: in the other tenses, j before a vowel becomes v.
is

shavam

obsolete or else extremely rare.*

The

Aorist
s

or bi-shavam ^AJ, both forms are used.


&*
.

The Imperative
is

seldom takes the prefix


(b)

The

third person singular of the Present

and Preterite tenses

also

used impersonally, especially in modem colloquial; ml>shavad &**> and namishavad *j&*& " is it possible ?" and "is it not possible?" mi-shud <xlx*;*

nami-shud *&*+>
(c)

"was
&**>
is

it

possible;

was

it

not possible? "

vide

77

(d).

Shudan

also used for conjugating the


or fehwabandan

grammatical passive
to

cj^
is
fi

<

to lull to sleep;

mak

(a

camel)
*
8

lie

down

to lower (a flag or anything that

raised on high).
literally

Shavanda

**>y** is fS,

sometimes used when translating


or

from Arabic.

Gum

show j~

gum

bi-shaw

^. f

be

off

with you," are both used

in m.c.
*

Compare ahmaq I agar


(m.c.J^J^f^f
?
'*

bi-tu tarsu *t
\)

mirguftand chi mi-shud ki fehud-at ra bi mahlaka

andal&hfi ?

even

if

they did call

&tj*> ** >A^o you a funk what was there

*&{

^ jiii^c ^y >M^f
in that to

'* 3 (j?* ^ make you go and

ass

cast

yourself into danger

TAVANISTAN.
voice.

249

its place can be taken by either of its synonyms, gashtan ey&? or gardldan e>*JJ>/, Imperative gard ^. (d) Note the following idioms
3
:

In other cases

(1)

far as I

was able "

f&9)

\&xx>

^i*; *
;

;^3 cyf

an qadr

Jci

raftan ml-shud raftam

"

went as

an qadr

ki karda mi-shud

kardam

" I did as
(2)

ft>jf

*>Ax*

*j>y

&f

e/f

much

as I could."

Churiin na-khwdhad shud

"it

will

not happen that

"
;

shud &

^Afysu &t,j **> j to make a search for food."


(3)

^h^

*A^=EU ^x*. (Afghan and m.c.) khurdk jihat-i just u ju kardan na-khwdhad " it will not be ^t*- (Afghan) necessary

kitf *>

Guftam
said

chi mi-shavad agar in kdr rd

kum
?

(m.c.)

"I

why

should you not do this

"
:

^
j(
<c

\)

$6

&j.\ j>\

*?** *^

^^
u

guft agar dar mufavaza-yi

f shab-t ta khir kardi chi shudi

^^

A=W

^^^i^^ ^^

&+e^&o )t> j$\ oJi? (Sa'dl)

''he said,

would

it

he had delayed having connection with her one night what have mattered."
if

(4)

Tajir bi-khanda shud *


I

a*x=faj

^aA3 ''n.c.)

the merchant began to

laugh/' vide
(e)

79

(c).

Bafd ma'lum mi-shavad


^l*/o (m.c.)

65-^x5
<c

ma'lum shudan &*


Remark.

^1** *> (m.c.) to appear."

" we

shall see

";

also

want" (used in the Future tenses of verbs); hastan ^-^A " to be, exist" (used in Perfect ** to be" (used in the Pluperfect tenses); tavdnistan tenses); budan &^>
The

" to auxiliary verbs are Tchwastan ^.^My^

^^y " to be able"


(used in the

(used in the
) t

^^ <jr^,
^.jcjfU.

etc.)

bdsMdan &***{> "

to be

"

^C^

^^Ix*

and shudan &*> " to become."

defective verb

is

called ^-a^u^f

Some

of the auxiliary verbs are

also defective.

jUi are shud ^, bud ^, gardld X}^? and gasht^J^ etc., and sometimes dmad **>f and bar-dmad ^f y They are called ndqis o^.^U because though in appearance intransitive verbs, they yield no sense with a subject
AAAsfli
1

The

alone, thus

Ahmad bud
of

^ ^*^t

by

itself is really

meaningless.
:

fi'l-i ndqis are Examples " it turned out (was) very useless" *xf^j ~jj
:

dmadan eA^T as a

khayll puch bar-dmad

77.
(a)

Ta van f stan
is

^x-Jry^

to be able*': root tavan


as

This verb

regular, except that certain tenses, etc., such

the

Imperative, noun of agency, are not used. an (1) In classical Persian, this verb is usually either preceded by

An qadr

ki

ml-shud bi-ravam ra/tam (m.c.) f**) fjj*

Tavftnldan vii^ty obsolete.

250
Infinitive or followed

TAVANISTAN.
:

tanha by the shortened Infinitive, as ^viy ^+> &z>j$ kardan nami-tavdnam (Afghan and Indian coll.) "alone I am not able to do
;
(

it"

I;

j!

c*i

y i*^
sa&afc

c^ty

*&|ysu az

^*jyL

f;

^o

/f tf

avm/

chirdijh rd kushtam ki agar ru-yi pisar rd


:

^ ^
f;

J|

*.****

urfljl

khivdham did az shafaqat* u ra kushtan na-khwdham tavdnist (Afghan) leas na-tavdnad girift ddman-i dawlat bi-zur (Sa'dl) )& cJj^ <j.*t,i o**/ *Jty3

"none can compel fortune."


and Indians
Remark.
quently occurs
e)**f cJji^ p*lj&
in talking. 8

This construction

is still

used by the Afghans


fre-

In the Gulistaa, however, the


after the auxiliary, as
:

full
**

form of the Infinitive


l

v^r
l

&*j* e.^*^

<yt^ *^ oJ^*4.jyt
f

c^ty^ l^ jf j+z &$& ^b^JbU. oo*4A. agar bi-ma' unat-i shuma umr jihat-l mu'ayyan gar dad ki mujih-i jam iyyat-i khdtir bashad baqiyya-yi az 'uhda-yi shukr-i an na-tavdnam birun dmadan (Sa'dl) "if, through your influence, some means be settled that would release me from this burden,
I will be grateful to

<j^J c^> ji ^\j* you for the whole of my life va *-flkV-A) AS' .ify ^Iwl? ^Ui' ^fjv^l^ o,3\-?j guftam bardy-i nuzkat-i ndzirdn ^j^ <( I replied (Sa'dl) fusha<t-i hdzirdn kitdb-i Oulistdn tavdnam tasnif kardan ki
;

' '

that I would perhaps compose


tion
6

the Gulistan as

a delight and a satisfac-

to its readers

so that
is

."

(2)

Or the auxiliary
is

verbal prefixes
is

the apocopated, i.e. the stem with or without verb followed by the shortened Infinitive in this case the
:

a present impersonal. This construction is modern as well as Afghan and o-*.*j Indian: U^bU ^ja*3 JuU> ufojbj ^.yjU. ^jj CA**J b;^J ^=^ 7 bi-hukm-i dn-ki parvdrda-yi ni'mat-i In khdnddn-am va ^fyj

^ j>y

^T

^'^^J
<fc

bi-andak mdya-yi taghyir-i'

khdtir bd vali-ni' mat-i

khud bi~wafd*i na-tavdn

kard ki

because I have been nurtured by the bounty of this House, be faithless cannot one and merely on account of a slight change in the regard
(Sa'dl)
of one's

patron towards one

' ' ;

Dam
(
' l

Id chi gujt Zdl bd

Rustam-i gurd?
'

Dushman na-tavdn haqir u bichdra shumurd Knowest thou what said Zal to the hero Rustam ?
One ought not
to

(Sa'dl).

'

count any enemy as despicable and impotent.'

"

In modern Persian /**?

&

bi-bmam (Subjunctive) would be more

usual.

Also pronounced shafqat. instead of the Infinitive Colloquially, the Afghans often use the Past Participle
;

before the auxiliary, thus

dlda nami-fawBnam

^ty
in

m.
4

41 am
6

f^

^ *^
i*

<

fo r

d * dan naml-tawanam

&*?.*

able to
* '

Lit.

and D.V. "

will

note direct narration in Persian.


a play
the

amplitude.

andakhtv The book being called the " Rose Garden," there even if tto* spectator."
6

upon

word j&&

i5&2/r

j&

"

change," but tag&ayyur

j&

"

anger."

TAVANISTAN.

251

Imruz bi-kush

ki mi-tavan kusht

K'atash chu buland shud jahan sukht (Sa'di). " Kill to-day while it is possible to kill, For a small fire, if it becomes great, burns
l

the whole world."


:

*t ^ ^^ ^-j;^- maldmat-ash kardand ki chunin sayd z dar dam-at uftad va na-tavanisti nigah dashtan? Guft " ay baradaran chi tavan kard? (Sa'dl) They upbraided him saying, 'such a
c>'y
'

Both constructions occur together

in

the

following

*>

^^ ? c^*'^ cjf;*y ^
to thy lot
8

&*J

jfcjUiU

t^LJtyo j oUit *ju*f^

fine fish

fell

and thou coulds't not keep


'

it

'?

He

brethren, what can one do

"

said,

my

Remark
1

I.

Sometimes the auxiliary


*>

is
:

not apocopated but


*J[yojx>

is
J

used
3
!

impersonally in the third person singular, as


&\Lm*j )$
txj^

<J)j)j& <*&T

<j?[/

guft az bara-yi
if

an

ki liar ruz-ash

ml-tavanad did magar


(the Sun)

dar zamistan ki

(Sa'dl)

because one can

see

him

every day,

except in winter,

when--."

Remark
form

II.

The apocopated
:

auxiliary

is

rarely

followed by the

full

of the Infinitive

^**J C*S

^43 3

<^t*^

u*

^^3

^s\*^
(

v'^3' e^^;

*^y

)***.

Bi-'uzr-i tauba tavan rastan az

azab-i

Khuday
rast

Va-llk mi-na-tavan az zaban-i

mardum

(Sadi).

"

the atonement of repentance one can escape the wrath of God, But escape from the tongue of men one can never."

By

In this example rastan &>*) is used for rast <^~>j in the in the second line for nami-tavan ofy ml-na-tavan o|y3

first line
is

also

a poetical

license only.
(3)

A
:

third construction

is

the Aorist (or Subjunctive) after the auxi-

liary, as

Warna saza-var-i khudavandi-yash Kas na-tavanad ki bi-ja avarad (Sa'di).


11

Otherwise

fitting

His Glory,

None

is

able to perform

what

is

worthy

of it."

(This construction

is

used in modern Persian.)

Note the

Preterites for the Aorist

and

1'resent tenses in a condition, after

chun

Sayd *<* Ar.

is
:

applied to any game, or quarry, or prey

anything in fact from a


y&*>.

mouse to an elephant the Persian (and Indian) equivalent is shikar & Dam ff*> 'snare" is applied to any kind of net, snare, or
figuratively.

trap, literally

and

By

trappers

it is

specially applied to a noose or set of nooses.

252

TAVANISTAN.

Remark.
ejj^J is

Tavan

&&

also takes the prefix

<*J

said to be sometimes contracted into tan

^
.

(bi-tavan
.

<j^
*>r|U

SJiayad

Tavan and bayad


'

*&

are sometimes used as


(6)

synonyms

for tavan e>iy

(1)

In modern Persian, the

last construction is the usual one,

but

in

speaking the conjunction

&

is

tavanam bi-yayam "I can't come," or tavanam ki bi-yayam 1 f>k* ** f>^+*


&#$ J>*> kunid (modern
agar mayl ddshta
bashid

generally omitted, as: p.^ <*>W (j+* I will not be able to come" for namlf '
:

nami-

** [iL

u^*** )*

*&[&* **&* *^'> d*

rnl-tavanid

dar mihman-khana manzil

up

in the hotel
(2)

"
:

Rozen's grammar) "if you like, colloquial; ki *t is understood after mlrtavamd *#\

you can put


still

^.

The shortened

Infinitive after the tenses of this auxiliary is

used

this by the Afghans and Indians, but in the modern colloquial of Persia in third it is used when construction is not common person generally
:

singular, as

*ity

kard (m.c.)
(3) *

ct

!;

^ ^ u***
is

^1

shakhs In kar ra naml-tavanad

this

man

can't (or won't he able to) do this."


also used in m.c., as:

The Impersonal construction

^(

ijjykc

^>^
"
:

*j*

$jS

c< J^ chignna rni-tavan In kar ra kard? (m.c.) liow is one to do this ? bavar kard (m.c.) "one jjO fc;fjw or) e)iy u+* naml-tavan (or na-tavan)
L)

cannot believe this": na-tavanist kard


kard

c*~jry

^
The

(me.)

'*

o^Jtyi (m.c.) or namltavanist one could not (past) do this,"

Remark.

Perfect of tavanistan

e^ujy
aLJiy

is

subject to the

that govern the Perfects of other verbs, vide


tavdnista

125: vaqt-idar

same rules Landan budand


;

and anja bi-ravand &jj* l?uf the shows speaker was not present.
(4)

t>Jf

^^

m*>y

^ J&)

tlie

Perfect

as

OMJJ^

The auxiliary need not be repeated before the second of two verbs, shuma mi-tavamd anja bi-yayld va asp-davarii kuriid? *tt& t^6f (Hifyu^c i+ ^'^ WMI j (m.c.) "can you come there and (can you) gallop your
Occasionally, a transitive verb
is

horse"?"

understood, or tavanistan ^^SLofy

is

considered transitive, as: ammd kas-i ki kucha va bazar-i Isfahan ra mk bi-danad va dar shab rahnuma*i bi-tavanad, gh&yr az man na bud **>jZ &*~t Uf
itself

^M

Chap who could

j*i ^f^j ^5Uo l; v^ j> ^ <M*J *-^ b ^l^fl^f ;fjlj j (Tr. H. B. V), "but there was none but me who knew the streets of Isfahan, and
jf
5

act as guide

in

them."

Guftam

'

anki kuk kardan-i sa'at ra


'

na-danad idara-yi mamlakat ra chiguna tavdnad ? \) o^U " I said, Aif^j AJ^ ; osJl*x> Sjf^f j>jf jj (Tr. H. B. Chap. VII)
f

&^ u^y *^f fs$


l

how can

a
?

man
'

who does

not even
Lr

know how

to

v*

^^

wind up a watch, manage a kingdom


31

"
:

^t

^
U

(Tr.
(Tr.

Chap. XXXVIII): H. B. Chap. XL).


B.

H.

Man

or

---- ^Lr**^^

qadir naml-basham ki In kar ra bi-kunam

f&

fyf eH' ** f**^

<jt+"

)*

Either a simple question cr in the sense of

it is

impossible to do

this.*

TAVANISTAN.

(c)

An

Indian use of this verb

is

illustrated in the following

U 6a Mwd guftam ty osuly <jy**> j &tf) JJ o^Ua. *ac^~.x> u j| JAI JLx A+J j*Ia? va In hdl ahl-i bi-hama ma'drif tavdnad bud masjid jamd'at-i buzurgdn " I said to myself perhaps the people of this mosque are a congre(classical)

example

gation of big and well-known persons."


sense would be

If j^j *x*tyL

"must be": mi-bdshand *^b

^/o

would mean

was substituted, the "are."

Shdyad bdshand ^iAk ^\> could also be used. 76 (6), the third person singular of the (d) As already mentioned in Present and Preterite of shudan ox is used impersonally. It is followed either
by the Subjunctive or by the shortened
i

Infinitive, as

<x

f^

^^

&uf^

p#) \S>j> j**> jjj eA* bi-vdsita-yi badi-yi rah nami-shud hamdn ruz td bi-sar-i kutal bi-rasim (m.c. Roz. Gr.) c< on account of the badness of the road it was
t

" &$ * !j o^su^J ^\ impossible to reach the top of the pass that day ^.4,; 1 " was it not oJ\j nami-shud ki In rd naslhai bizanat bi-kuni ^^iC(m.c.)
:

you to give this piece of advice to your wife (and not to me) ? " '* *> na <HC y fj*^ *} khayr naml-shavad (m.c.) ao, it is impossible (j+*j*^ cc az 'id* we can't nami-shavad the before :>>* ^) pish raft (m.c.) go
possible for
:
:

"

Id

"

j^x^j

(^

^>^A3(

^j

nami-shavad

td

imshab pas bi-giram


*

(m.c.)

*&$ J> \agar ^U> qasd* cu^f^^j ^ >J&* ^^xx^Js <ju^. na-bashad chi tawr mi-shud sang.rd barddsht anddkht (m.c.) ^were there no

can't I possibly have it back in the following: c^x|*x>|

by to-night?

"

Note the shortened

Infinitives

bow was it possible (how did it happen) to have picked up a stone and thrown it ? " 5 ^(e) To be able, can also be expressed by the Passive, as: <**~ ^5Uj ;^b A^
intention,

o^ ^3 AJ^t^ U

o-^^'j

nd-tavan gashtim va qadamhd-yi* md bar-ddshta nami-shavad (m.c.) how can we come? we are worn out by fatigue, and cannot even lift our feet (our feet

p^

(j[p^

^^

chi tawr bi-ydyim>khasta

shuda

"

cannot be lifted)."
Ddnista nami-shavad bi-mi'ydr-i uqul Sanjida nami-shavad bi-miqyds-i qiyds.
l

"

No man

of science ever

Nor made

with scales, " assay with touch-stone, no, not one! (0. K. 279 Whin.)

weighed

(it)

Generally pronounced kutal. chi mi-shud agar in nasihat ra bi-zanat ml-kardl (m.c.). Colloquially and vulused for confused idea that the the is a from often Present, Imperfect apparently garly the Imperfect is a Subjunctive or Conditional, An English writer sometimes says>
1

Or

* *

What
3

were you pleased to order


*o2/rf.

* '

Vulgar

*
&'

For qasd-at ^*A*. This use of shudan v!)^

is classical

as well as

modern

colloquial.

Or singular qadam f*3, as a

collective noun.

254

GIRIFTAN.

iary

and verb, the auxih often 'can,' colloquial, immediately precedes the verbal member of the compound, as dvdza mi-tavdnl bi-khwdrii (^[y&* ^iy

Remark.

Before a

compound
:

of substantive, etc.

in

modern

(m.c.)

"can you sing?


?

", or ml-tavdnl (ki) avaza bi-khwdrii

jtyf

J>lr*u (m.c.)
(/)

Tawana Ufy

is

an adjective " powerful/' audits negative form


tify

is

na-tavan ^|y &, and also nd-tavdnd

U (old).

Tavan-gar ^fiiy is an adjective, signifying "powerful, rich." Tavdn ^y is a substantive " strength."
(g)

Jdrastan

<&*~*)k

or

ydristan

stretch

out the

hand," and

drastan

&**& (rt. ydr ;lj "to u^tf (rt. a/;T) "to


)
.

be able; to be able; to

adorn

' '

Yard
(h)

occur frequently in poetry for tavanistan ^-Jfy " boldness; power." l;U (subs.) Ddnistan <j~jf^ "to know" is in classical and modern
is

Persian

used for "to be able": the construction

the

same

as with

tavanistan

Pa<s

2i

maldmat u shun

at gundh-i dukhtar chist


)

Turd
<4

ki dast bi*larzad guhar chi ddni suft ?


'

After reproving and abusing [the husband] Sa'dl said,


girl's fault
'

What
(Sa'dl).

is

the

?
[

How

can you whose hand trembles, string a pearl


?

'

"
lines.)

U
how ?
(i)

ml-ddnad bi-kunad
l

*&* ^ot^'

^f

(GuL, Chap. VI, last " can he do it does ho (vulg.)


;

know

' '

To be

able

da$t-at

bi-ydyad <^Uj
(

Id

&g

^ ^o

or )
j>

can also be paraphrased by such expressions, as agar az az ru-yi man nami-dyad (or nami-xliavad) ^S\ " ic 2 ^jf
:

'

cuw^ jf

^ ^x ^^
^^
I;
:

jf

am ashamed to
^^o ^^
J<*>\

(i.e.,

I can't

qddir budanbar

&ty

qdbil-i or qdbil bar


L
)

budan, &&y
1$$ )*:

cLlf

or cLUI

m kdr rd bi-kunam p&


^yoj
lj

dar quvva-yi khud dldan or budan (&*#


;tf

tavdnd nlstain ki

(^1 *'

^^^

U)y, or tavdnd*t-yi %n kdr rd

na-ddram
(d)

j!

^l ^Ufy
<(

iwfca?i

ddshtan

^\t

Vide also

76

and

77

(e)

for

to be able."
78.

Giriftan

(a)

Girijtan

^J*,

root gir

^ "to

seize,

etc."; transitive and intran-

sitive.

The Imperative form


l

g\r j4 is not used colloquially

always bi-gw
jg

j*

There

is,

of course, a double

meaning: guhar-i na-sufta &&*UykjJ

a poetical

expression for a virgin.


5

Kbayli pur-ru haati

(m.c.) you're very shameless <^~A )) j* ru az pish bardasht (m.c.) (t he hid himself."

^^

"

"
:

GIRIFTAN.

255

In
seize,"

classical Persian, in addition to its

" to ordinary signification of take,

this

verb, preceded

<+9jS (jJ&?
<jii?

y u

guftan girift

by an " he began
lei

Infinitive,

means
;

to speak

"
f

Ua

|;

&

"to begin," as: c^JU> c*fa * ^jt


girift

^ *ju^? ,jd|j> bi-zaban-i

ddshtmalik rd dushndm dddan

va saqat

guftan (Sadl)

"he began

to abuse the king


girift

native-tongue: zabdn-dardzi kardan began to scold."

and use bad language in his ^* &$ is)b* &ty (Sa'di) " she

nearly obsolete in

used colloquially by the Afghans and Indians, but is modern Persian. In a few cases only, in modern Persian, does giriftan && mean " to begin"; dil-am tapidan girift oui/ &*\L barf girift oj^ o^, bdrdn girift cu*/ e>l)k (m.c.) "my heart began to beat" " it (m.c.) began to snow; it began to rain." For "to begin'' in modern
is still

This idiom

Persian, vide
(6)

79.

Giriftan

(^^
is

also

means

<c

to suppose,

admit."

(In poetry the

Im:

perative glr j
5

frequently used interjectionally in this sense).

Examples

c^~v f&
&*$
#>

Uo

pi

cu^>>

o^e

&t

pjj&

giram ki yj^amat

nist gjiam-i

ma ham

nist?

(Sa'di)

let

me
(c)

anxiety. ( ^ or), va giriftam (or glram) ki suppose) that they came":


f

"I admit you have no


jjj

Have we then none?": fi* amadand (m.c.) 4< and admitted


)

5
(or
1

mi-girtm (or

gmm}
u^Jte

(m.c.)

"we

p>j3 or will suppose (or


(

^j&j* ^acuA
is

(vulg.) Jiamchi

let

Colloquially

and vulgarJy

giriftan

(^^

us suppose) so." used pleonastic ally, as

(d)

dallak girift khwdbld (m.c.) "the barber fell asleep"; bi-khwab (m.c ) " go to sleep." Note the following intransitive or reflexive uses of this verb
bi-gir
:

Ta chand kunam arza-yi nd-ddni-yi khmsh, Bi-girift dil-i man az parisharii-yi Jchwlsh ?
(

*'

Oft times I plead my foolishness to Thee, My heart contracted with perplexity."

(0. K. 281 Whin.) " I saw ** nafas-am dar narm-girad bj^** (Sa*'dl) p~& that my speech (breath) did not sink in made no impression" o^^;^ vf oJs? db dar gulu-yash girift ^ the water stuck in his throat; he choked"

Didam

ki

p^
li

5yA> cu^AJ nafas-at

c<

bi-glrad

hold your tongue

"
(m.c.)

lit.

may your

breath

be caught, may you choke"; *^j> ^*)\ f*^ tukhm az garml dar girift ** the the sun" <^y ^A^j zaban-ash ml-glrad seeds were scorched (m.c.) by
:

(m.c.)

bi-divar girift (m.c.)

"he stammers" (lit. his tongue sticks) od^f^y^ "he suddenly struck his head against
:

<jj*

j u

sar-ash
:

the wall"
s

nab$-

am

tstada ast,

chashm-am nami-bmad, gusJi-am

girift,

dh-ah-hay

raftim (m.c.)

Hamchu
"

j-*1

is

* i.e.,

may you
'

die

pronounced hamchi. " ='* hold your noise, d


;

n you."
is

Do

not say nafa, which

generally
8

means penis.'* The conventional way

of writing this exclamation

^^ ^

Jif .

266
"

THE VERBS, ETC.


has stopped,
(the last

my pulse

my

eyes don't see,

my

ears too don't hear


;

am gone"
gulu-yash
(e)

girift (m.c.)

words of a dying man) ^j1 "sobs choked his utterance."

^^ ^ ^
is

ah! I

girya dar
1

A/tab girifta ast

o^t *&

wli*f

(m.c.)

"the sun

"

eclipsed.

Girifta *i*/ is also


(/)

an adjective, "dark," applied to colouring.

j>jfju

In sarud) glraniagi na-ddrad ( &)^** e*^ ^ ) o;^ ^f " this picture (or this song) has no attractiveness in it." ^^jd (m.c.) (g) U tamdm-i shab az harf zadan vd-gw nami-kard (or dram nami-girift)
surat
(or

In

cJ^

^
all

ff,>T

^*J j$

\)

c^j
~
' '

o^

jt

v* f +*
l

jt

(m.c.)

" he ceased not to

chatter

the night through.

o**>f AX^&^XA ^)j* &* (m.c.) (h) Ghilla-yi buzurg hanuz na-girifta ast " the have nob yet commenced." heat of (or greatest cold) greatest forty days sitdndan &&(* (vulg. istdndan (i) In modern colloquial giriftan e^*/ &nd
!

are used for

(t

to

buy."

79.
(a)

The Verbs "to begin,


^*<f in

etc/'

For the use

of giriftan

classical Persian for

" to begin," vide

78

(a).
(6)

The verbs 'Ho begin" are ij^lij 8 bind kardan ; 4 c>^r^J^T *IAXJ| ibtidd* kardan dgj&z namudan; (of a <^^ shuru,' kardan; UU+i? f*j* & ^ work). They are followed by the Infinitive, as follows " 1 5 began to look l^>^ va bind hardam bi-tamdshd kardan-i dukdnhd (m.c.)
(1)

^^

^^

^y

at

the shops";

/*iuif^
:

"

^^ ^

^lu

bind-yi rdh raftan

guzdshtam (m.c.)

began to walk"

run": " eat


:

^ c^^
:

p)*> f*s*

&! bind

kardam bi-davam

(vulg.)

"I began

to

to cry
4 '

"

^^ &j&
f>^

<f he began to ?j?* shuru' bi-ktiwurdan namud (m.c.) " she *&*'** shuru' ml-kunadbi-girya kardan (m.c.) begins r^* !&! ibtida* mi-kunam bi-ndm-i Khudd* (mod. writing)

" " to Dast bi-kdr shudan &*& j& ^-^> also means (of a work begin ** iX>b o^^ bi-kdr shud we dasl must (m.c.) begin only) tXo*^> |^ fardd bdyad the business to-morrow."
(2)
:

1 begin in the

name

of

God.

' '

1 Kusuf Oy*^* and khueuf o^-^- may signify an eclipse either of the sun or of the moon, but the former is specially used for the sun and the latter for the moon. These words are only used in talking by the learned.

" yi shab

Va hama shab n&-yaramid az aufehanha-yipariahanguftan " and hama shab *' every night." all the night
'*

(Sa*di)

Mod.

Pers.

hama-

8 Biria* signifies is

building
bar

" and

biria*

kardan &&j? f&* "to build

"
;

^ banna

*+>

** *

mason ": bina


Agkazldan
Bp. Ar.
pi.

jAv "because
is

of*';

and bina bar-an &\j*

'*

" therefore

the

not written in Persian.

*
6

c^J^T
arifk*

obsolete.
is also

dakakm
is

In

this

phrase the izafat

sometimes

used in modern colloquial. classically omitted.

KHWASTAN, ETC.
(c)

257
:

The following

are

Afghan idioms
< e

j^ ^JU&^y

(J&

kishti
:

nishastan
tjS

namud (Afghan

i^kl*
:

the ship began to sink ji ^ju " sang az kuh yhaltidan kard the rock began to roll down the hillcolloquial)

"

faro

j# er^J ^j ^ <for waqt-i peshin roz tayyar ^^ Uj t;jx* &*j+> namudan-i mez ra bina kardami 1 (Afghan colloquial) "at midday I began to make the table " p&J g^ &*\f r> A*^ ^a$ 'aqah-i khema ra kandan shuru kardam (Af. col.) " I began to dig (the ground) behind the tent "
1

side"

^^^ ^
vazldan
bi-kJ^nda

&f+> &**)i bad-i

lchawf-nak~i

wazidan namud (Afg.


5
:

col.) [bad-i sakht-i

yinft m.c.]

e<

a terrible wind began to blow'

aaiiu

shud (Afghan, and modern colloquial) " the merchant began to laugh (went
off into
(d)
(e)

^13

tajir

a laugh)." Man bi-khanda uftadam ^Us'i jitxiiu (1^c (m.c.) There are in Persian no continuative verbs.
prefix

(<

began to laugh."
in

The continuative

ml <y

or Tiami ^+&

is

added to the Imperative

classical Persian, or in

poetry only.

In modern Persian, however, there is a curious continuative particle or which can be prefixed to several tenses to form particle of excess, hay continuatives. This usage is at present considered vulgar, though used by Qa'am, Hay shikar ml-kardim ^J^A/O ^K ^A "we kept on shooting";

hay bi-khur, hay

keep on with connected hamisha this eating, Possibly ^^>, particle is probthe from derived of the camel- men, ably immediately cry hay! hay! hay!
bi-Jchur jj*u
-

)^.

(to

a greedy boy)

"

do."

used to keep a string of slowly-moving camels in motion it is to camels, what a swung lantern is to a shunting train. That this particle is connected with hami <^+*> and consequently with hamisha &.$+&, seems probable from the fact that haml ^^ is sometimes substituted, as ^ ^ J^ &jk i^**
:

jj>

j*l*jj

j j>

^U^i cxU/c OA^^


it
*

won

the hearts of two

other

who bore
**

"

(Haji Baba, Chap. XXIX) by this means he persons the one who received the present and the
; :

^t

*'

ura didam hami

mi-khurad
(i.e.

(m.c. or local)

" saw him eating and eating


KJiwiistan-

tj}^*

^5**

f*?.

\)

$\

a great deal).

80.
(a)

j^]^

"to wish, etc/'


of

khipdstan (^.f^x followed


Definite

As already shown in the paradigm of the verb, the Aorist by the apocopated Infinitive is used in forming both in classical Persian and in modern colloquial. Future,
of the

the

Note the 'majhul sound

vowels and the Infinitive without a preposition

Nimaz-i peshin ert**^ )^ is an Afghan and Indian *' " is a common word in *' Urdu." ready j^Jo ^ The Shah as a mark of favour sent special portions of his meal to his host, and had to the servants who brought the tid-bits. to certain courtiers they tip heavily Every one was pleased, including the Shah, who could thus pay his servants out of other
preceding the verbs "to begin." expression for the midday prayer
:

people's pockets.

In the original

^L*A,|

Jg

slip for^j?

17

258
(6)

KHWASTAN.
In the Gulistan the unapocopated Infinitive frequently follows the
:

Infinitive in the sense of a definite future, as

y f**
ki
J

**5f j*

^ ^^ *^A
to

^^

<J*ap.*j

c/f

ejox*^7#

e)*^

tXAi^sL

"har

chi ddnl

har a*ina ma'lum-i

tu
to

khwahad shudan

bi-pursidan-i an
'

enquire about anything that

" be not in haste (Sa'dl) ta'jil makun you know will of a surety become revealed

you (without asking)."


*jy
f^/o

tf

jj^*

oju

i^JtJ

t/

Yar-i dirm-i

mara gu bi-zaban pand ma-dih


bi-shamshir na-khwahad bwdan
(Sa'di).

Ki mara tawba
''Tell

my
I'll

For

ancient friend to proffer me no advice, ne'er repent even at the point of the sword."

&-

m zisJit-khu*~i dad dushnam


*

Tahammul kard u guft ay nik-farjam Batar-z-anam ki khwahi guftan an-i Ki danam ayb-i man, chun man na-dant.
' e

'

A bad-tempered person abused some one. With resignation he replied, Oh thou, maycst thou be blessed Worse am I than anything thou wilt say I am For thou dost not know my faults as I know them myself.' "
'

Khist-i ki zi qalib-i tu khipahand zadan

Ayvan-i sara-yl dlgaran khwahad bud.


"

And
To

see 2 your ashes moulded into bricks, build another's house and turrets high."
(0.

K. 162 Whin.)
signifies

The same construction

is
:

used in the Gulistan when khivastan

" to (< to desire," as wish,*' anja khwahad rajtan (Sa'dl) there"


:

^;
C

^Afyx Usuf ^lalxi Jii, ^ va tifl ba-nadani and the boy tJhrough ignorance wished to ^o

x-p 35;

2
S

Note this meaning " Stars "


All one adjective.
Tot,

of har chi
is

<*<^

* *

whatever.

* '

(understood)

the subject in the English.

'*

it is

not known "

la-yi tajahul.

&HWASTAN.

259

Ay

hunar-hd nihdda bar kaf-i dast

'Ayb-hd bar girifta zir-i bagkaV Td chi khwdbi kharidan, ay maghrurl


Ruz~i darmdndagi ba-sim-i daghal.
(Sa'dl).

" Oh thou who display est abroad thy virtues, But hidest away thy vices from sight,

Shame^! what wishes t thou to purchase, deluded being, With thy base coin on the day of distress (the day of judgment)

"
?

Remark
as
:

I,

In the Gulistan the auxiliary sometimes takes the prefix


&.
as'

Chi salha-yi jaravan va 'umrJia-yi daraz

Ki khalq bar sar-i ma bar zamm bi-khivahad raft Chunan ki dast bi-dast dmadast mulk bi-ma (Sa'di). Bi-dastha-yi digar hamchunm bi-lchwdhad raft
The verb following the auxiliary is in classical Persian also put in the Subjunctive [vide end of (c) and Remark to (c)]. Ex. f; jt e^ ^> A man n rd nami-khwaham ki bmam (Sa*di) he said, ^ix ^Afj.a. ^A guft
II.
:
'

Remark

do not wish to see him.'


(c)

"

The Afghans in speaking sometimes use a similar construction, but the Infinitive before the auxiliary place )& )jk* t&te^ c^ ^*>^ e>*/ man Gluz-e ba-tawr-i nazr pesfi 3 kardan khiyastam (Afghan coll.) ** I wished
:

^^

?)

to

give

him some small present";


zj&. ^jli ty

turd ndiib-itkhud* kardan


1

mi-khwdham
deputy."
ki kishtl rd

^I^SRJU* o^

(Afghan

coll.)

"

wish to make you

my

They, however,
as
:

also

employ the Aorist or Subjunctive after the auxiliary,


jj^^f jl^;^

ly^i?

f^

bi-girad

" he followed and


This last

^J&S'

&>

^^sxx*
is

dumbdl dmada mt-khipdst

tried (wished) to seize hold of the boat."

Remark.

the ordinary construction in


is

except that the conjunction


A f !>*H^
(d)

usually omitted, as

" I want to ask you

modern colloquial mi-khwdham bi-pursam

."

Khivdstan

^.w^
(2)

for or to

summon,"

a transitive verb signifying: (I) " to send "to desire (a thing)" and (3) to love, to be
is

also

<

fond of."

All

one adjective. Ta '3 ~ " it is not known "

ta-yi tajahul.

?i

Majhul J^t^* vowels; pish-kash

tj**$

(ra.c.)

a present from an inferior to a

superior (used politely). 4 Note that ra is omitted after khud (the second of two substantives in apposition in the accusative case).

260
(1)

KHWASTAN.

(m.c.)

"

J*M^
it

f;

e>*+

A
,

c*$j

bi-jihat-i

hanwn bud shuma ra Ichwastam


:

was

for this reason that I sent for

*i**|^ bi-ishara-e dast o

" *jS* ty |; y 0*0 I; Uib you ra nazd-i khud khwastam (m.c. and Afghan colloquial)

" I called him to

me by
2

a signal with

my

hand.

J '

(2) o>^ c^l* *-*" *-^/ 7^ agrcw mart; mi-khivahl bi-raw Oilan (proverb) "if you desire death go to Gllan 1 "; xlxj mi-khwastam bi-yayad ^JLof^ivx/o " I wish he would come." for Present tense) (m.c.) (vulgar, Imperfect

(3) ^&fysxyo^U~j f;j! ^x> man ura bisyar mi-khwaham (m.c.) "I am very fond of him, love him very much/' (e) In modern colloquial, and in Kabuli Persian too, this verb also signi" as: fies "to intend," or "to be on the point of doing, c^+j cx^iu/o 2 "he was about to die (not wished to die)"; mi-lchwast bi-mtrad (m.c.)

*'. J$*>^. <3^*> ^

*^

AAf^iu-o

Uf agka mi-Jchwahad
threatens the

chand-ta shalaq bi-ashpaz

cook with his whip (Roz. Gr.) Uf *r tjjj *>A!j.2cuuc mi-khwahad bi-ravad lei ag&a (m.c.) "he is about to go his t when master ": *j j5l^ o^^ij* e^^ oi3\x>^.l*J3 tamam-i mihnat-i man ml-khipast ki za*i' sliavad (Afghan coll.) " the whole of my labour was
bi-zanad (m.c.)
;

"the master

"

4 nearly being wasted. " re(/) This verb is also colloquially used in an impersonal sense meaning b &>t^ in khana ta'mlr mi-khivahad (m.c.) "this : tx&t^iuAO ^x*-*^ quires, "as
:

' '

house needs repairing

"

:i

6
:

j.Atj.2cu/o

cu^jjtj^j UjAa.

^^ ci& ^^^uba-jihat-i naql


"much
time
is

kardan-i chizha bisyar waqt mi-khwahad (Afghan)

remove the things"

*af>^

" the rug is too light in colour rang ast qadr-i bishtar rang mi-khwahad (m.c.) To the remark " I have forgotten to bring it wants a little more colour."
;

^ -&;_y&w
such

requisite to

^s)*$

o^f

^;

^ *^U>

qaltcha

kam

any money," or
might be matter."
1

"do you want

and such a thing?" the answer


"it
is

*&\j^

^w

nami-khwaliad (m.c.)

not necessary,

it

doesn't

The following are Afghan idioms:


fdqa kardan me-khwahad* (Af.) "it imruz bayad ruza bi-daram (*;I^J tjj)
is

x imroz* ra &&jf &l-M;Jjtr to fast necessary to-day" (for m.c.


oAf^fcuj*
f

j^/

'

o^!^^ ^^
"it was
^jJJ

c^tJ )^

)\*

\j*

mara bar
to

bar birun raftan me-khivast*


(for

go out frequently"

m.c.

^y

&y ^

(Af.)

necessary
\*.

for

me

A*i^

chand daf'a

Gilan

is

said to be the

most unhealthy part of

Persia.

Or u nazdlk bud bi-mirad


%

&j& &#

+J**&

shavad (or bi-hadar ravad) * Compare the m.c. use of raftan in 82 (h).

Nazdlk

"bud za*i'

&j) )&^*

^^ fSU^j^J

*Jj.t>y (m.c.).

In India

o*|

u^iJa

cu^o
>
.

marammat-talab

ast

in

modern Persian

in

writing

ta'mlr lazim darad


*
1
8

^fi pj* j^*-*cu

Modern

colloquial lazim ast


riist

Or lazim

Majhul vowels.

GUzASHTAN, ETC.
Idzim shud
birun bi-ravam):

261

man u
(g)

tu liar

both of us

du nafar khwurdk me-khipdhad'1 both for you and me."

(Af.)

"food

is

necessary for

In modern colloquial, the Imperfect


as:

is

also used in the sense of

"should,"

(^)^

t>

ufc. etf+* Jjt

L5

^b iu^

mi-khwdsti az avval

hamm

yak-i rd bi-ydvari (m.c.) "you should have brought this one at first": iWf jjjjxf ^Af j cxU> Jjja cL/-*.fj.=sx.yo mi-khwdst diruz bi-ydyad va likin imruz dmad " he (m.c.) ought to have come yesterday and n