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mitchells

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Unit #1

Introduction & Company Information

T

he story of Mitchell’s began in 1920 in Renala Khurd, a small town in Punjab province, 100 Km south of the city of Lahore. It was here that Mr. Francis j. Mitchell’s was allotted 720 acres of

land which, by 1930, had been turned into a profitable citrus plantation. In 1933, a joint stock company was incorporated with Mr. F.J. Mitchell’s two sons as directors. In the same year, Mitchell’s took the first step towards becoming the household name it is today – introducing fruit squashes under the brand name Mitchell’s “Kissan”.

In 1947 as a result of the emergence of Pakistan, Mitchell’s lost three-fourths of its market to India; however the company readjusted to the change and carved out a substantial niche in the new country. The Mitchell’s family sold the majority of its shares to Pakistani investors in 1957. Sophisticated food processing machinery was installed and additional products were added to a growing range of preserves, fruit drinks, juices, canned fruits, vegetables, sauces and vinegar. 1980 was the “sweetest” era of all, with diversification into the confectionery industry, soon Mitchell's confectionery products, comprising toffee, eclairs, and hard candy and fruit bon bons found favor with consumers nationwide. In 1983 Mitchell’s Golden Jubilee was celebrated wit fan fare and a chocolate bar, appropriately named jubilee, was launched to commemorate the event. The Mitchell’s story continues to unfold and the process starts in the Research & Development Department. It is here that product concepts are formulated and development and testing is done by a team of qualified professionals, in line with consumer preferences. Along with R&D, quality control ensures that the variety of products live up to consumer expectations. From the selection of the finest fruits, grown on its own orchards, to processing packing, quality control plays a key role in the company’s operations. A modern well-equipped laboratory keeps a meticulous check on all goods going into the market. With over 50 years of experience in food processing & manufacturing, Mitchell’s has rapidly expanded the market for its high-quality food products internationally.

FARM FRESH FOOD PRODUCTS SQUASHES
Pure fruit juices and pulp go into Mitchell's squashes. Extracted from fruits carefully selected from the farm in Renala, these squashes come in a range of rich natural flavors: Mange, Orange, Lemon and Lemon Barley. Rose’s Lime juice Cordial, a proprietary brand acquired in 1946, is also a world-famous refreshing summer drink.

PRESERVES
The original exquisite flavors of the finest fruits are preserved in Mitchell's jams, jellies and Marmalades, made according to recipes developed by experts over decades of experience.

PICKLES
Mitchell's Pickles are made in the true traditional way. Fruits and vegetables are matured through natural processes and care fully selected spices are added to give all varieties of Pickles and authentic homemade flavor. Mango Pickle, Mango Kasaundi and Mixed Pickle are the most popular in the range.

TOMATO KETCHUP AND PASTE
Made from ripe red tomatoes, Mitchell's Tomato ketchup adds zest to snacks be they burgers or sandwiches, kebabs or samosas; and in a ready-to-use form, Mitchell's Tomato Paste is available throughout the year for cooking a variety of meat and vegetable dishes.

SUGAR CONFECTIONERY MILK TOFFEE
MILE Toffee, containing pure butter and creamy milk, is a favorite with children and the best selling product in the confectionery range.

BUTTER SCOTCH
The pure, smooth taste of golden butter gives Butter Scotch and irresistible flavor.

FRUIT BON BONS
In an assortment of four fruit flavors – the unique shape, delicious taste and a soft center of pure jam, has made Fruit Bon Bons immensely popular with children.

MILK CHOCOLATE ÉCLAIR
Delectable caramel nuggets with soft milk chocolate filling - the two-in-one treat.

CHOCOLATES JUBILEE
A thick chocolate bar with a center of caramel and nougatine, Mitchell's jubilee has been a best seller since its launch in 1983. A mini bar was recently added to the Jubilee range to meet the growing demand.

HAT–TRIK
With a rich chocolate coating on a crunchy wafer, containing layers of crème, Hat-Trik introduced discerning consumers to new delights In1986.

SIXER
A taste that was bound to be a winner! Sixer – a chocolate bares with roasted peanuts and a center – was added to the range in 1988.

COMPETITION STRATEGY
The all around expression of our business can only be attributed to the good value we offer to our consumers both in terms of quality and price globalization and according competition from imported products always remain challenge able but we have taken steps to protect our position as a leading manufacturer of processed-food products by confirming to high standard of quality combined with a persistent effort to contain costs.

COMPANY INFORMATION

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
S. M. Mohsin Mohdi Hahsim Syed Babar Ali Sayed Faisal Imam (Chairman & Chief Executive) (Executive Director)

Sitwat Mohsin Begum Kishwar Abid Hussain Riaz-ur-Rehman Khan Nit Nominee. Aamir Sattar (Company Secretary)

Head office:
3-B LDA Complex, main Mohammad Shafi Road Lahore.

Registered Office:
Renala Khurd, District Okara.

Sales office
Thokar Niaz Baig, Lahore.

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

MITCHELL’S

Personnel & Administration Department

Research & Development Department

Finance & Accounts Department

Marketing Department

Purchase Department

Unit #2

Theoretical Back Ground of Personality
WORK RELATED ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY
 Emotional Stability  Agreeableness  Extrovert  Introvert  Openness to Experience  Conscientiousness

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
 Roll Of Heredity  Contribution from Family  Birth Order  Cultural Contribution  Socialization Process

PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS
 Locus of Control  External  Internal  Mach.  Self-Monitoring  Achievement Attribution  Self Esteem The meaning of “personality” is a controversial matter. Much of the controversy can be attributed to the fact that people define “personality” from different perspectives. The word “personality” has an interesting deviation. It can be traced to the Latin words Persona, which are translated as “to speak through”. The Latin term was used to denote the masks worn by actors in ancient Greeks and Rome. Some personality theorists emphasize on the social learning aspects of personality, which include the need to recognize the person-situation interaction. It means that how people affect others and how they understand and view themselves. How people affect others depends primarily upon their external appearance, which may include color, height, facial features and physical aspects.

Personality is unique and is relatively stable but it is dependent on situation also. So the definition of “personality” according to organizational behavior can be as follows “Personality is another name for stability, which insist and lead people to behave differently and consistently across time and in different situation.”

WORK RELATED ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY
The most important to organizational behavior are the personality traits. Because in organization behavior, we do not need to see each and every trait of the person only we try to analyze those personality traits, which are related to his work in the organization. There are five personality traits, which have recently emerged from the research and are especially related to job performance. 1. Extroversion 2. Conscientiousness 3. Openness to Experience 4. Agreeableness 5. Emotional Stability

Extroversion
Extrovert people are social, talkative and assertive. They are fit for those jobs where human interaction in more like sales managers. These people can maintain good relation with other people and this personality trait leads to job success in these types of jobs.

Agreeableness
The people having these personality traits are good-natured, cooperative and trusting. They are successful due to their good nature and co-operation. If a person is at least good-natured can not be quit from job.

Conscientiousness
The people having this personality trait are responsible, dependable, persistent and achievement-oriented and successful in their jobs. They are fit for those jobs where responsibility is more like job of managers and moreover where there is room for achieving something. They are successful and good in their jobs due to these traits.

Emotional stability
If we see on negative stand point than we can say the person who are tense, insecure, and nervous are emotionally unstable. And these types of people quit from the job very easily. Because they are tense and depressed so they can not perform their task in a good manner. Moderately stable in emotions are the people who are successful in their jobs. If someone is high on emotional stable on the positive side can do better jobs than the person who is depressed and irritated. Researchers say that if they feel secure and feel happiness in their jobs than they can retain on their jobs.

Openness to experience
This type of people has traits like imaginative, artistical, sensitive, and intellectual. And because of these traits they are successful on their jobs. Although some of these construct such as conscientiousness, holding better than others, and although they depend on the type and nature of the job being performed, the identification of these “big fives” traits that relate to performance indicates the importance role that personality plays in organizational behavior.

MAJOR DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Cognitive and psychological processes plus many other variables, all contributes to personality. However, the determinants of personality can be grouped in five broad categories. 1. Biological 2. Cultural 3. Family 4. Social 5. Situational

Biological contributions
Biological contributions to personality can be divided into two major approaches. 1. Heredity 2. Physical Characteristics

ROLE

OF HEREDITY

Heredity have a strong impact on personality but still on settled area of understanding through research on animals it has been clearly shown that both physical and psychological characteristics can be transmitted through heredity, but in the case of human beings, the evidence is much less conclusive. Heredity is what you get from your parents in inheritance and in nature. But human behavior can not be controlled by some parameters. One can not control human behavior. Personality is composed by inherited gift but sometimes these inherited gifts can be changed due to situational factors. So we can say that in human personality the role of heredity is not as strong as in animals because here our enviournment plays a very important role.

CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS
Learning plays an important role in personality. The prevailing culture dictates what a person will learn. A person who is biologically of eastern descent but is brought up in a western culture then he will be a western type of personality. But we can not make a linear relationship between personality and given culture. The problem is that in a culture there are numerous sub cultures, which insists just because of region, language, customs, areas, youth etc. sub cultures also effects in shaping up the personality and play and important role.

CONTRIBUTION

OF FAMILY

Contribution from family also put a pressure on our personality. Your friends, parents have a great impact on your personality. Your parents effects in your early stages of your life to shape up the base of your personality like if there is a dominating father then the child will be shy, and emotionally unstable and less talkative.

The birth order also effects the personality of the person. Studies have found that first-born and only child has a stronger need to affiliation than the children born later. The first-born children, at least in our society is probably more anxious, more dependent upon others, serious, less care free and more likely to be a problem creator than the later-born children. And youngest child is always spoil bread. But the middle-picture is mostly seem to be normal child, which suppress their younger. One child is totally jealous and dominating. But the birth order is not the best answer it also depends upon the situation.

SOCIAL

CONTRIBUTIONS

Besides the Biological, cultural and family contributions influence personality. There is increasing recognition given to the role of other relevant persons, groups and especially organizations, which greatly influence on an individual personality. This is called “socialization process”. Influence of relevant persons, the effect of the organization itself, colleagues, boss and sub ordinates also effects the personality of a person. When you enter in an organization, the socialization process starts and it has an effect on your personality for lifetime.

Situation contributions
The socialization process is obviously concerned with situational impact on personality and thus falls in line with a social learning perspective. It should also recognized that the immediate situation may in the final analysis predominate. Sometimes a person is very shy but due to situation he becomes confident. Take the example of a student who is very shy in his college life because he do not have opportunities to speak in front of people there but when he comes to university and here he had to do this then due to this situational factor he performs

well. So it is clear that the basic instinct of a person can be changed due to a situational factor.

Personality dimensions
There are 5 dimensions of personality.  Locus of Control  External  Internal  Mach.  Self-Monitoring  Self Esteem  Achievement Attribution

LOCUS

OF CONTROL

There are two types of persons in the dimension i.e. 1. Internal Locus of Control 2. External Locus of Control This dimension covers the extent to which a person behavior that he is the master of his own fate. This belief has a direct or an indirect impact on the consequences of that behavior. Internals believe that they can control whatever happens to them. They think that they make their own fate so they work hard and mostly succeeded. These are the people who want to do something and they starts it without waiting for luck that is why in order to get promotion they work hard and their involvement in the job is high and they get promotion due to these attributes. They are more satisfied with their job and they care for themselves. Another important thing regarding these people is that they learn from their mistakes because they think that this mistake is due to their own fault so the try to overcome it in the future. On the other hand

the externals beliefs that the mistake is due to fate and they do not take pain to overcome it in the future. The externals try to do that thing which is creative, innovative and less structured. Externals believe that what so ever is happening is the result of their fate. They are not hard working so they do not succeed that is why, they are less involved in their jobs and have less job satisfaction. They do not care for themselves.

MACHIAVELLIANISM
These are the people who always think for the ways that how they gain the power and then how to manipulate the power for their own use. Their motto is “if ends justify means, use them”. They never show humility. They never take care of others. They are proud and think that ethics are only for weak persons. They think that if someone is powerful then he is all-free, which means that there in not limitations on powerful man. They can cheat others and tell a lie. They can deceive others to fulfil their own purposes. They always try to fear the people. They are successful when organization is less structured and it means that rules and regulations work as boundaries for machs. Such leaders are successful leaders only if we want to take the organization from worst condition to the best one. In order to protect the organization from the bad activities of machs. The organization has to make strict rules and regulations for these types of people. The organization must restrict the enviournment where the machs can work upon their plans. These people work with rumors and are more successful in uncertainty because in this situation they can use their dirty tricks easily.

SELF

MONITORING

In this dimension of personality, the behavior of people is different in different situations so as to make a match between the personality and the situation. As they make match so they are good communicators and they can handle the situation better. They see world through the eyes of others and they walk in the shoes of others. They make more friendship.

SELF

EFFICACY

It is the individual perception whether you are successfully performs the task or not. The person who is high in self-efficacy is more confident. And they are suitable for creative jobs. Because they have strong trust on their abilities and they want to take initiative. They take moderate risk so that the chances of their success would be high. These people feel capable and confident of performing well in each and every type of situation. Self-efficacy tends to be situation specific.

SELF ESTEEM
The self-esteem of people has to do with their self-perceived competence and self-image. Self-esteem plays at least an important moderating role in areas such as emotional and behavioral responses and stress of organizational members. It means the individual degree of liking and disliking of his own-self. They are highly self centered. They are suitable for unconventional jobs. They are more satisfied with their jobs. They always rely on themselves. They have their own values. They got personal liking for themselves.

ACHIEVEMENT

ATTRIBUTION

They always try to achieve the goals. They try to do the task that is highly task-oriented. They try to do the task better than others. High achievers are those who are highly task-oriented. They want to get

things done in a better way. They always go for challenging tasks. They prefer easy tasks on which success is 100% guaranteed. They are best where feed back is very good because through feed back they judge their own behavior and success.

Unit #3

Personality Analysis of Mitchell’s

T

PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT
he head of personnel department is called “Personnel Manager”. The Personnel Department of Mitchell’s is not in Lahore but it is situated along with the production unit i.e. in

Renala Khurd. The personnel manager has a direct link with the heads of other departments. Personnel department of Mitchell’s consists of 7 employees. The detail can be explained with the help of a chart.

MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY OF PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT

Personnel manager

ASSISTANT PERSONAL MANAGER

officer

officer

officer

Grade 3

Grade 3

Grade 3

staff

ROLE OF PERSONNEL MANAGER

PERSONNEL MANAGER Assistant Manager Production Assistant Manager Finance Assistant Manager Marketing Assistant Manager Administration Assistant Manager Purcahse Note There is a unique grading system in Mitchell’s. There are grades ranging from 1-5. The manager is grade 5.

FUNCTIONS OF PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT
The personnel department of Mitchell’s performs the following function:  Recruiting Of Personnel  Training Of Employees  Administrative Role

First of all we will discuss the recruiting of personnel.

RECRUITMENT POLICY
The recruitment policy of Mitchell’s has proper rules and regulations regarding recruitment. The personnel manager together with board of directors forms the recruitment policy, which is strictly followed. An important feature of their recruitment policy is that if they are in need to employee 10 employees than they will go for 7. Here we mean to say that they do not want more employees. They like to give multiple work to a single employee for the purpose of cost reduction. It is also the root cause of very less ratio of females in the organization.

RECRUITMENT PROCEDURE
For the selection of employees they have their own standards:  Education standard  Interpersonal skills  Communication ability  Leadership qualities  Persuasion skills  Adaptability When there is a seat vacant in any department the Assistant manager of that particular department informs the personnel manager to place a proper person for the particular job. After the approval of board of directors, the personnel department starts its functions. The recruitment process is different for different levels in the organization.

RECRUITMENT (GRADE I)

OF

LOWER

STAFF

When there is any seat of lower staff is vacant in any department, the Assistant manager of that particular department recruits new staff after the approval of personnel department. There is no proper advertisement for the selection of lower staff. The personal influence counts more for selection. Here on there personal judgement they can employ a person.

RECRUITMENT OF MIDDLE STAFF
The recruitment of middle level staff is somewhat different from lower staff. The personnel department along with Assistant manager of other departments is involved. First of all, the directors form the recruitment committee. The recruitment committee may comprise of personnel as well as member of other departments. After the green signal from the directors, the recruitment committee starts it work. The recruitment process can be explained as follows.

STEP 1
First of all, there is an advertisement through print media by personnel manager that he wanted such and such person for this job.

STEP 2
There is a screening of applications. The unnecessary applications are omitted from the list. This point can be explained as follows:

Suppose that there is a job for intermediate or graduated persons. The post-graduated students apply for the job of an intermediate person. Hence they are not included for further process. The reason, they have given, for the selection of lower staff is that when a person with better education is placed on low position then he does not like work involving physical efforts because he is more prone to do mental work. So it will create problem.

STEP 3
After screening the applications, the applicants are called for interviews.

STEP 4
After taking through interviews, again the do screening in order to take decision that who is the most suitable person for this job.

STEP 5
The passing candidates are appointed for a probation period. As such this probation period is a training period. The person who satisfies their supervisors during this period is offered permanent position. The main features of recruitment process of Mitchell’s are to match the personality trait of the person with the job. Hence an employee of grade 5 is always included in the recruitment committee.

RECRUITMENT OF EXECUTIVES
Directors appoint executives. The personnel manager has not provided detailed information about the recruitment process of executives.

TRAINING OF EMPLOYEES
Personnel department of Mitchell’s provides opportunities of training to its employees. The employees go for training periodically on domestic as well as international level. They attend courses held in Pakistan Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore Institute of Management Sciences etc. Basically Mitchell’s has an dynamic structure. When there is a change in the enviournment. Mitchell’s at once adopts that particular change. That is the reason that Mitchell’s is a leading company in Pakistan and their profit margins are increasing day by day.

ADMINISTRATIVE ROLE
There is no separate administrative department in Mitchell’s. Personnel department also performs the administrative roles. The personnel department is mainly entitled with the responsibility of transfers, promotions and disciplinary actions. Personnel manager himself directly administrates the functions and all affairs concerned with administration of all department. The head of each department prepares annually confidential reports of staff. Personnel manager prepares the performance report of the heads of all departments, which reflects their performance and provide basis for the evaluation of promotion of these personnel. Similarly all the complaints regarding employees are referred to personnel department and personnel manager after the approval of directors takes on disciplinary action if required.

EFFECT

OF

CULTURE

ON

RECRUITMENT POLICY
Here it is important to mention the effect of culture on recruitment policy and procedures. As we have mentioned before that Mitchell’s has proper rules and regulations regarding recruitment. All these rules are strictly followed because Management of Mitchell’s has the view that rules and regulations direct the organization. Similarly the culture of Mitchell’s is adoptive one. It is changed the change in enviournment. The decision is made by the board of directors. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 1 - 09 )

PERSONALITY OF ORGANIZATION
Since personality composed of person’s inner and outer measurable traits and various social situational and cultural factors influence and shape in personality. In every organization, executives are the representatives of the organization. They exhibit such behavior which reflects their own personality and as well as the personality of the organization. An important aspect of personality is the personality of the organization. We have judged the personality through physical enviournment of the organization.

APPARENT PERSONALITY OF THE ORGANIZATION
We have judged the apparent personality on the following basis:  Facilities Provided  Communication Methods  Area Covered  Number Of Employees  Working Enviournment The outlook of the building and offices of Mitchell’s is excellent. One can easily make inferences about Mitchell’s by seeing the building. The physical environment including light system, furniture provided and other technical facilities were given to employees according to the requirements of each job. Their future plans are to further wide their covered areas of offices so that employees can feel better and more satisfied with their jobs and can perform well.

So just by observing all this, we evaluated Mitchell’s to have a formal and peaceful personality. Where every body was working with devotion and motivation. So it left us with good feelings and we became more confident and eager to know the personalities of different person in such a well-groomed organization. In order to judge the personalities of various positions we divided the positions in two parts. This analysis based upon questionnaire for management and employees.  Executive View Of Personality  Employee View Of Personality

PERSONALITY & JOB SELECTION
In this organization, we have found a definite relation between job selection and personality of their employees. They have said they give importance to personality in the selection of employee because they want to have a person who can be the best match with the organization culture, values and norms. They described that the matching of personality with job is a very difficult task but they try their best to overcome this problem. Similarly with reference to job selection criteria when they were asked that if a person has all the capabilities except personality than what will be their criteria. They replied that it depends upon hierarchy level. As we move upward the importance of matching personality increases. And at the lower level they do not give so much importance to this factor. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 10,11,13,16 )

REQUIREMENT FOR DIFFERENT JOBS
Following are the requirement for different jobs at different levels.

TOP & MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT
 Education  Intellectual And Mental Abilities  Spiritual Power  Dominant  Active And Creative  Leadership Qualities  Physical Characteristics ]  Communication Skills

LOWER LEVEL EMPLOYEES
 Normal Education  Physical Abilities  Hard Worker  Punctual Another thing is important that there is very less importance of matching the personality of lower level employee to job if he can work hard then they easily employee him. (REFERENCE QUESTION # 12,19,20,21)

METHOD OF JUDGING THE PERSONALITY
Two different techniques are available for judging the personality of person. For example:  TAT test  Depth interviews But in Mitchell’s unique method is applied. They have their own rules and regulation and standard regarding recruitment. They make

frequent changes in recruitment policy with the changing pace of enviournment.

JUDGING PERSONALITY

OF

EXECUTIVE

For judging the personality of executive, it entirely depends upon the judgement of directors. They chose the executive by their own choice and the employees have no more information regarding this factor.

JUDGING PERSONNEL

OF

MIDDLE

LEVEL

On this level we decided to judge the personalities of the following positions.  Sales Persons  Supervisors  Managers of Specific Sections We have already described the recruitment process for judging the personality of these personnel. It also depends upon the personal experience of different department heads that they know what type of person is suitable for these job positions. (REFERENCE QUESTION # 17,22)

KINDS OF JOBS & PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS
Though each job requires a unique personality dimension so in order to study the jobs and personality dimensions we studied the personality on the departmental levels.

Marketing Department
We have studied in books that for job in marketing and sales department, extrovert people are required. Because marketing personnel have to interact with their surroundings. Similarly the physical characteristics also counts most for these jobs. We have found the exact results in the marketing department of Mitchell’s though some little variations were there in sales personnel. On the whole we find educated, physically attractive and emotionally stable personnel in marketing and sales department. The behavior of personnel has influenced us the most.

Finance Department
Continuing to the previous department, The job requirements here are different one. Here introvert and genius person is required but practically we have found the 50% relation between these dimensions and job positions in the organization.

Personnel & Administration Department
Through discussion we have found that the personnel people are very formal and disciplined. They keep us on certain limits so that we do not

have opportunity of having depth interviews with these disciplineoriented people. Again the results are that some variation exist on some job positions with respect to personality dimensions. (REFERENCE QUESTION # 24,25,26)

Job Performance W.R.T. Personality Dimensions & Attributes
There is a strong relation between job performance and personality dimensions and attributes. Practically, during our visits, we have found that the relation exists between these two factors but variations are also there. Now we will make relation with each personality dimension and attribute with job performance. (REFERENCE QUESTION # 27,28)

EMOTIONAL STABILITY & JOB PERFORMANCE
We have found that there is positive relation between these two factors. In the organization sales personnel and finance manager and executive are of calm personality and their productivity is also very high. And there are some cases, where emotional Un-stability leads to disasters. (REFERENCE QUESTION # 29)

LOCUS

OF

CONTROL & JOB PERFORMANCE

We have observed that extrovert people like personnel managers are more productive, more value adoptive and more responsible than introvert people. (REFERENCE QUESTION # 30)

CREATIVITY & JOB PERFORMANCE
In the field of marketing this relation is very strong because they have to seek now ideas and innovative ways to promote their product and to catch customers. We have observed that there are creative people in the field of marketing but variations are there. (REFERENCE QUESTION # 31)

SELF MONITORING & JOB PERFORMANCE
Almost 90% of employees agreed that they alter their behavior while having conversation on different levels. They have said that high in self-monitoring leads to smooth relation and promotion in the organization.

SELF EFFICACY & JOB PERFORMANCE
They replied that this is a very important factor which leads to job performance because when a person have firm belief on his abilities than he will be more productive than the person who do not have this personality attribute.

RISK TAKING, SELF ESTEEM & JOB PERFORMANCE
Both of these factors, In the organization, have an impact on job performance but variations are there.

CONCLUSION
At the end, we can say there is no single answer in the field of personality. It varies and depends upon situation factors.

ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE OF EMPLOYEES
Job Position & Job Satisfaction
Job position and job satisfaction relation can be measured on various scales. Those employees who are more loyal to their organization, receiving a satisfactory salary and are growing are the most satisfied employees. In personal interviews, it is observed that job satisfaction depends upon so many factors. We also analyzed the job satisfaction behavior of employees on the following basis: Salary Age Gender Marital Status No. Of Dependence Job Tenure Self Concept Personality Attributes & Dimensions For analysis of all these variable we adopted various methods which are as follows:

Observation method
This method is used to see the changes in expression when asked various job-related questions because it is the most valuable method if we want to take insight in the personality of other persons. Moreover it is used to see the behavior of different people at work in the organization.

Depth interview
Usually people hesitate to tell others about their personality. Depth interview are important in the sense that they help us to lower down the conscious level of a person by making frank relation and to know what we want to ask. We have also conducted several interviews to know the truth behind spoken word.

Open-ended questionnaires
Open-ended questions are more relevant to our research then direct questions because in these type of question the person is more responsive to tell his or her own view regarding different matters of his personality. With the help of all these above mentioned techniques we have tried our best to get more view points of employees about their job positions and job satisfaction and many more.

Age factor
AGE & %AGE OF TURN OVER
Employees say that job performance and age are inter-related with each other but this viewpoints differs from person to person. Those person who have more job duration in the organization and who are getting8 satisfactory salary have less chances for turn over, more over the employees who have diversified jobs also have less chances for turn over. Contrary to this, those who are not satisfied with their jobs although they are not aged but there are more chances of their turn over. So similarly when asked from an accountant he said that he will leave the job because he was not satisfied. So although the age factor

counts a lot but its relation with turn over ration depends of the following factors.  Job position  Nature of work  Job satisfaction  Working Conditions

AGE & LOYALTY
Those employees who have spend more time with in the organization they are more loyal people to the organization, they want to grow more and to increase the productivity of the organization.

AGE & EXPERIENCE
Age and experience is another factor comes up, employees showed positive attitude towards this aspect, they said that as their age increases, they spend more time with the organization they learn more on work-related aspects and their experience enhances. They become more value adoptive and also get positive response from the organization in the form of various incentives on the basis of seniority. So it seems that there is a positive relationship between age and productivity and satisfactions.

AGE & JOB POSITION
Further more employees told that too much extent this job satisfaction and age relationship varies from job to job. It is positive for those who grow and learn but negative for those who are doing routine tasks and with no chances of growth. For example, we observed their finance manager was satisfied because he has more job experience and is more cultural adjusted behavior, having more decision making power. But at the same time the accountant is not satisfied with his job

although he is a senior person but he is doing a routine work and he is not having so much chances of growth. So briefly, age, experience, job satisfaction, turn over and loyalty are inter-related any miss fitness comes due to difference in concepts. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 1,2,3,4)

GENDER
In the organization employees give positive response for the jobs creation for the women. They said that in our society and culture, the concept of working women is the most controversial. In service organizations there is a room for woman to show their abilities but in manufacturing organization like Mitchell’s they have very limited number of departments for working women. In this organization women are working only in the production department and working as receptionist. Where they have to perform the routine job. They said that it is the culture of our organization that it does not encourage women because of their recruitment policy. But personally they belief that they also have talent and creativity and on many job positions e.g. marketing they can perform well so they should given this facility. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 5)

MARITAL STATUS
Employees responded positively toward this aspect. They said that those of us who are married have more responsibility and this factor works as motivation towards work and to be more productive for the organization and more supportive to his family as well. They are usually more satisfied than unmarried co-workers although they have more absenteeism. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 6)

NUMBER OF DEPENDENCE
Employees argue that as many dependence they have, they will be more motivated. They have to feed and clothe many mouths and bodies. So, a huge responsibility comes on their shoulders, that is, to provide financial security to his family. They are trying to secure their jobs by more cultural and value adoptive. More productivity and more regularity and less absenteeism because people always remain under tension and to reduce that tension they try to work harder and harder to cope with their own and organizational needs. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 7)

Job tenure
The more the employee remains in the boundaries of the organization, the more he will be loyal, productive and will learn more and more. But all this depends upon the nature of the job on which he is putting his efforts. If he is working on a routine, less interesting and noncreative job then he will not be motivated to remain in the organization. So he will be always trying to find some diversified job where he can utilize his abilities and potential. This phenomenon is somewhat different if we see practically. We have observed in the organization that there are some people who want to do routine job for their whole life because they have got a particular style and attitude in their personality and we can have so many examples on this attitude. But on the whole we can say that those employees who are on diversified nature of job are more satisfied with their work and long job tenure. These people show strong affiliation with the organization if organization give them diversified knowledge.

It is clear when observed that a person performing a routine task can have long job tenure but less productivity because they do not have space to increase their productivity. With the passage of time they will be more efficient rather than productive because now they can do more work in less time. On the other hand the employees working on diversified jobs have long job tenure and more productivity to learn more and more on different aspects of work and to more forward with the change in enviournment. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 8)

VIEWS ABOUT ABILITIES
Employees view about their abilities on two grounds.  Physical  Intellectual Those employees, who were doing more standardized and less skilled job, usually the employees working in the field of production, have given more weight to their physical abilities rather the mental. But employees working on those jobs requiring more:  Intellectual Work  Mental Abilities  Creativity  Thinking & Reasoning are highly confident on their mental abilities. They said that mental abilities are more powerful now because with the help of these they can have job at the upper level and more power over others and more creative work to perform. Employees said the some of us have more intellectual abilities then physical but we are doing physical oriented jobs. So we see that it is the situation in many organizations. The organization should take

Interest to employee creativity and intellectual abilities. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 9)

PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES AND DIMENSIONS “PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS”
Since “Personality” is a very sensitive subject to study and requires a keen observation and deep in sight into one’s personality. The five dimensions of personality are very important for the real analysis of one’s personality, which are as follows:  Extroversion  Agreeableness  Conscientiousness  Emotional Stability  Openness to Experience All these personality dimensions effect in one way or the other of a person attitude, behavior, job performance and job involvement etc. since each job position requires a different type of personality dimensions so it becomes very difficult to analyze each and every dimension for each and every person on different jobs. But for the particular research work and to get confirm and see the gap between what theoretically we have studied and what are the actual and real requirements on different jobs with respect to personality dimensions. We observed the personality of sales manager he has all the required dimensions which research has already proved because he has to face

so many people and also to achieve his sale targets. So he was extrovert, emotionally stable and experience. And there are also some people who do not match with their job position. So we can conclude that these personality dimensions are present in their job requirement but their intensity of accuracy differs from job to job. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 10)

PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES
Employees believe that their personality attributes have also some effect on their job performance and job satisfaction.

LOCUS OF CONTROL
This personality attribute is apparent from the job a person is doing and his satisfaction towards this job.

INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL
If an employee believes that I will get that much effort I will put and I have to perform all the jobs in a very excellent manner then he is and internal locus of control because of his belief. And he also belief that his promotion and growth all depends upon his performance and his loyalty towards job. While those persons or employees who were external locus of control have said that not only our own efforts and performance will lead you to success but also situational factors count a lot in this regard. They belief that you will get more from your relation with other and through your performance. Because, when asked from many employees that after you have committed a mistake, do you consider it as your own fault or that is due to fate. They replied that it depends upon situation that when I am right and when I am wrong. They said that it has a direct effect on their confidence before the top manager and boss. Because when they do not commit fault than they

can convince their boss that it is not my fault and when they have committed a fault then they will accept their fault and agrees with the boss and try to overcome the discrepancy. These people are more loyal to organization and try to overcome the mistakes they have committed and they learn a lot from this experience. The employees having this personality attribute in Mitchell’s have more feeling of affiliation with the organization because they feel that what so ever they have committed a mistake it may harm and cause disaster for the organization so they try to remain at the lowest level of errors.

EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL
On the opposite side of this fact extrovert people who have a strong belief that the mistake is due to fate so they do not want to correct and do not learn from mistakes. They can be more harmful for the organization. In the organization the people having this trait are less loyal and less satisfied with their job position. They make lame excuses and try to satisfy others with their logical and illogical arguments.

LOCUS

OF

CONTROL

AND

JOB

SATISFACTION
When we have asked the relation of both of this factor with job satisfaction they replied that it does not matter that we are internal or external locus of control. If we get job according to our education and our approach of willing to do the job where we get the more opportunity to make money than we will be satisfied. So briefly we can conclude that relationship between job satisfaction and internal and external locus of control exists but the intensity varies with respect to jobs and persons.

(REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 11,12)

MECHAVELANISM
These are those who believe that “Ends can justify Means, if it works, use it”. Employees had also some attribution of mach in them, usually it is in the middle management employees because they have to put a strong control over the low level workers, and they adopt this technique, when they have to complete some work from them. So, while treating subordinates this effect is more. For this purpose they use such logical arguments which satisfy them and they are convinced with such arguments.

MACH & MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT
This attribute is common at that level because here people want to move upward and also have control over their sub-ordinates. In the organization we have also observed the same phenomenon. Employees said that they use these forces to complete work from sub-ordinates, because unless they are forced to some extent to do that task they do not work. In this case it will be best method to handle the people. Otherwise we have observed that educated and conscious people always go for +ive reinforcement to motivate the people. So in order to meet those bluffers, who want to get salary without doing any thing, it is the best method to use but it is not practiced here. Because now people are more educated and they want prestigious and honor they do not want to be suppressed by others. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 13,14)

SELF ESTEEM
When asked from various employees about self-esteem they replied that we count it as a situational factor, sometime we feel happy

which leads to likeness for ourselves particularly in a situation where our work is appreciated. We are recognized in the organization, we get feed back, reward, and chances of growth. If all these abilities are evaluated and they feel prestigious and that time other also like us. So employees who are satisfied with their job they replied that since we are conscious of what we do and what we should do in order to get recognition in the eyes of others. So that is why we feel great proud for ourselves. But those employees who were under tension and were frustrated they said they do not like themselves because we are helpless, other also do not like our work. We do not get recognition in the eyes of people so we do not like ourselves in this situation. So we can conclude that self-esteem also depends on the job satisfaction. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 15)

SELF MONITORING
It refers to an individual ability to adopt or change his behavior according to situation, employees said that they can easily change their behavior according to situations but some said that they can not. Usually employees who were confident and satisfied. They are highly self-monitoring because they said that our long job duration has told us how to adopt the culture of the organization, its norms, values and rules. They walk in the shoes of others. The sales person replied that because we have to interact with so many people and also to convince them. That is why we are highly self-monitoring person. It is the common view of the employees that if we want to grow in the organization we have to realize the situational factors.

For example, some employees said that if the mood of boss is not good through our gestures and postures, communication and facial expressions, we make him realize that at this particular moment you are right even if he is at fault. But at some other time we go for the correction of this phenomenon. But they said it is very difficult to alter behavior in different situations but it is necessary because otherwise it will create problems. They said, “Practice makes a man perfect”. So in the organization we have learned now that how to adjust our behavior in accordance with situation. (REFERENCE QUESTIONS # 16)

RISK TAKING (ACHIEVEMENT)
Here also lies great controversy, those employers who doing creative and diversified jobs they are more risk takers. They say that they feel good to do mark risky jobs because, ”high risk, high returns” and they learn a lot from this also. And those who were frustrated through routine jobs and other factors, they replied that we do not need to take risk because there is nothing to take risk so it also depends on job and nature and satisfaction in the organization. (NO REFERENCE “DISCUSSION”)

Unit #4

Theoretical V/s Practical

A
follows:

fter having a deep study and practical view of personality of number of employees there, we came to know some interesting results after making comparison

between theoretical versus practical views. Our findings are as We have studied in our organizational behavior course that there exists a strong positive relationship between age and job experience. As the employee gets older, his experience increase and that experienced person play a vital role in the organization.

But we find a different situation in Mitchell’s. Their policy is to introduce young blood on different job positions because they have a strong argument that as employee gets older and older his contribution towards output decreases. That is why they have reduced the maximum age limits to 55 year. The reason a mentioned above is to introduce young intellectual, well equipped with modern education in order to have edge over competitors. With respect to gender we have studied that there is no discrimination of sex for job positions. Women can perform most of the tasks. But there in Mitchell’s the situation is quite contrary. Women are avoided to appoint in general. Only they are appointed on specific jobs such as ladysecretary, production unit, and where they have to perform simple task. The reason they have given is that they want the work of more people to be completed by less number of employees by assigning them diversified jobs. And they rely on males in this regard. Mitchell’s is a middle to large organization its culture is an adoptive one. The recruitment policy changes with the changing pace of the enviournment. Currently the recruitment policy is very tight in a sense they want to take productivity of 10 employees from 7 workers. Decision making in Mitchell’s is top down. Decision is imposed by the directors. There is low involvement of middle and lower staff in decision making. Employees are motivated through positive reinforcement although in some case punishment is the only way to treat the employees.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Unit # 1
Introduction and company information
 FARM FRESH FOOD PRODUCTS....................................................................3
SQUASHES..........................................................................................................................................3 PRESERVES.........................................................................................................................................3 PICKLES..............................................................................................................................................3 TOMATO KETCHUP AND PASTE....................................................................................................3

 SUGAR CONFECTIONERY...............................................................................4
MILK TOFFEE.....................................................................................................................................4 BUTTER SCOTCH..............................................................................................................................4 FRUIT BON BONS..............................................................................................................................4 MILK CHOCOLATE ÉCLAIR............................................................................................................4

 CHOCOLATES......................................................................................................4
JUBILEE...............................................................................................................................................4 HAT–TRIK...........................................................................................................................................5 SIXER...................................................................................................................................................5

 COMPETITION STRATEGY..............................................................................5
BOARD OF DIRECTORS..................................................................................................................5 HEAD OFFICE:...........................................................................................................................................6 REGISTERED OFFICE: ................................................................................................................................6 SALES OFFICE...........................................................................................................................................6

 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE........................................................................7  WORK RELATED ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY..........................................8  DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY.............................................................9

 PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS..........................................................................9  WORK RELATED ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY........................................10
EXTROVERSION.......................................................................................................................................10 AGREEABLENESS.....................................................................................................................................11 CONSCIENTIOUSNESS................................................................................................................................11 EMOTIONAL STABILITY..............................................................................................................................11 OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE........................................................................................................................12

 MAJOR DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY...........................................12
BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS.....................................................................................................................12

Role of heredity.......................................................................................... ...................13 Cultural Contributions..................................................................................... .............13 Contribution of family...................................................................................... .............13 Social contributions ............................................................................. ........................14
SITUATION CONTRIBUTIONS .......................................................................................................................14 PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS.......................................................................................................................15

Locus of control............................................................................................................. 15 Machiavellianism............................................................................................. .............16 Self monitoring...................................................................................................... ........17 Self efficacy.................................................................................................... ...............17 Self Esteem......................................................................................................... ...........17 Achievement attribution........................................................................... .....................17

 PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT...........................................................................19
MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY OF PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT............................................19 ROLE OF PERSONNEL MANAGER...............................................................................................20 FUNCTIONS OF PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT.............................................................................20

Recruitment Policy............................................................................................. ...........21 Training Of Employees............................................................................................. .....24 Administrative Role............................................................................................... ........24

 PERSONALITY OF ORGANIZATION............................................................26
APPARENT PERSONALITY OF THE ORGANIZATION ............................................................26 PERSONALITY & JOB SELECTION..............................................................................................27

Requirement For Different Jobs................................................................... .................27

Method Of Judging The Personality............................................................................ ..28

 KINDS OF JOBS & PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS.....................................30
MARKETING DEPARTMENT........................................................................................................................30 FINANCE DEPARTMENT.............................................................................................................................30 PERSONNEL & ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................30 JOB PERFORMANCE W.R.T. PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS & ATTRIBUTES..........................................................31

Emotional Stability & Job Performance............................................ ...........................31 Locus of Control & Job Performance................................................. ..........................31 Creativity & Job Performance.............................................................. ........................32 Self Monitoring & Job Performance........................................................... ..................32 Self Efficacy & Job Performance............................................................... ...................32 Risk Taking, Self Esteem & Job Performance..................................... ..........................32

 CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................32  ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE ..................................................................34  OF EMPLOYEES................................................................................................34
JOB POSITION & JOB SATISFACTION...........................................................................................................34 OBSERVATION METHOD.............................................................................................................................34 DEPTH INTERVIEW...................................................................................................................................35 OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONNAIRES ..................................................................................................................35 AGE FACTOR ..........................................................................................................................................35

AGE & %Age OF TURN OVER........................................................................... .........35 Age & Loyalty........................................................................................... ....................36 Age & Experience.................................................................................. .......................36 Age & Job Position.................................................................................. .....................36
GENDER............................................................................................................................................37 MARITAL STATUS...........................................................................................................................37 NUMBER OF DEPENDENCE .........................................................................................................38 JOB TENURE ..........................................................................................................................................38 VIEWS ABOUT ABILITIES.............................................................................................................39

 PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES AND DIMENSIONS.....................................40
“PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS”....................................................................................................40

PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES ......................................................................................................41

Locus Of Control.................................................................................................... .......41 Mechavelanism ................................................................................. ...........................43 Self Esteem....................................................................................................... ............43 Self Monitoring ................................................................................... ........................44 Risk Taking (Achievement).......................................................................... ..................45

TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................49
INTRODUCTION AND COMPANY INFORMATION ...............................................................................................49 THEORETICAL VERSUS PRACTICAL ..............................................................................................................52

Unit # 4
Theoretical versus practical

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