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Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard W 011

5 Approved Welding Processes

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

Thermit Welding Stud Welding

Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Submerged Arc Welding

Gas metal Arc welding

Thermit Welding

Stud welding

6 Welding Consumables

7 Welding Procedures Position
The direction of welding for the vertical position shall be essential variable

Welding Vertical Up

Welding Vertical Down

7.4 Welding Procedure Qualification Hardness testing

Vickers Hardness Tester

8 Welder & Welding Operator Qualification


Welding Operator

9 Joint Details
9.1 All pressure containing
welds shall be made with multiple passes

Multiple Pass Weld

9 Joint Detail
misalignment of butt joints shall not exceed 1.5 mm

9 Joint Details
Full penetration
groove joint less than 30 degrees shall not be used without approval

11.2 Welding Environment

Welding shall not be done when
the surfaces are wet or damp

11.3 Joint Preparation

11.3.1. Foreign matter shall be
removed from the weld surface at least 25 mm of the adjacent base metal prior to welding

25 mm

25 mm

11.3 Joint Preparation

11.3.3. Fittings that have been cut shall be
checked for any laminations before welding

Examination for laminations

11.5 Tack Welds

All Tack welds shall be
made with qualified welders

Tack weld

11.6 Arc Strikes

Ark strikes shall be removed by

Arc Strikes

11. 16 Weld Encroachment

Weld encroachment is the
minimum distance between welds

Minimum distance between parallel but welds shall be 20mm or three times the wall thickness whichever is greater

12 Preheat
Preheat shall be in accordance with ASME


12 Preheat
12.4 Temperature indicating crayons,
thermocouples, or contact pyrometers shall be used

Temperature indicating crayon

12 Preheat
12.5 The preheat shall be
established over a minimum distance of 75 mm each side of the weld

75 mm

75 mm

13 Post Weld Heat Treatment

13.1 Postweld heat treatment
(PWHT) shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3

Stress relieving

14 Production Weld Hardness Testing

The maximum hardness for P-1 materials
is 225 BHN for sweet service and 200 BHN for sour service

Equotip hardness tester

15 Inspection Access
15.1 Saudi Aramco representatives
shall have free access to the work at all times

16 Weld Identification
16.1 All weld joints shall be marked
for identification by a weld number and a weld symbol

Weld 01

Welder 123

17 Inspection
17.1.1 Non destructive


17.2 Ultrasonic testing may be

substituted for Radiography if approved by Saudi Aramco Inspection

17.2.3 All field radiographic
exposures shall be performed using at least two people

Magnetic Particle
17.4.1 Permanent
magnetic yokes are not allowed

Liquid Penetrant
17.5.2 The acceptance criteria for
Liquid Penetrant examination shall be ASME SEC VIII

18 Repairs
18.1 Welds may be
repaired twice

18 Repairs
Cracked welds (except crater cracks)
shall be cut out unless a repair is approved by CSD

Weld Cracks

Cracked fillet weld

19 Miscellaneous Requirements
19.1 For field welding ,remote current
controls shall be used if the welding is more than 30m from the welding power source

Remote current control

Low Hydrogen Electrodes 5.1

Drying :
Prior to use all electrodes shall be dried at260 430 C for two hours minimum . The drying step may be deleted if the electrodes are supplied in the dried condition in a hermetically sealed metal can

Low Hydrogen Electrodes 5.1

After drying, the electrodes shall be stored continuously in ovens at 120 C

Electrode oven

Low Hydrogen Electrodes 5.1

Electrodes may not be exposed to the atmosphere more than 4 hrs. The exposure may be extended to 8 hrs if the electrodes are continuously stored is a portable electrode oven heated to 65c minimum

Portable electrode oven