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PART B :DESIGN ASPECTS
DESIGN CRITERIA
PROJECT SPECIFIC DESIGN BASIS.
LOCAL CONDITION AND SITE SPECIFIC DATA SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
STANDARD GUIDES AND SPECIFICATIONS.
DESIGN CONSIDERATION
SAFETY AND SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENT LIMIT STATE DESIGN AS PER IS 4562000 STRUCTURES ARE DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND SAFELY ALL LOADS LIABLE TO ACT ON THE STRUCTURE AND IN ADDITION SATISFY THE SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS OF DEFLECTION AND CRACKING.
DESIGN CONSIDERATION
LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE THE STRUCTURE SHALL BE DESIGNED AND CHECKED AT EVERY SECTION FOR ITS RESISTANCE TO BENDING, SHEAR, TORSION AND AXIAL CAPACITY AGAINST ALL THE LOAD COMBINATIONS USING APPROPRIATE PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR. SEISMIC AND WIND ARE NOT COMBINED. LOADS ARE FACTORED USING PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS
DESIGN CONSIDERATION
LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILITY THE STRUCTURE ARE CHECKED TO ENSURE THAT ITS DEFORMATION UNDER WORST LOAD COMBINATION ARE COMPATIBLE WITH THE DEGREE OF MOVEMENT ACCEPTABLE FOR VARIOUS SUPPORTING COMPONENTS LIKE PIPING JOINTS ,SAFE OPERATION OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT AND FINISHES, GLAZING OF BUILDING ETC. SPECIFIC CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH FOR LIQUID RETAINING STRUCTURE.
LOADS & LOAD COMBINATIONS
DEAD LOADS EQUIPMENT WEIGHT
ERECTION/EMPTY OPERATING HYDROTESTING PUSH/PULL EFFECTS DYNAMIC LOADS
LIVE /IMPOSED LOADS PIPING LOADS/ANCHOR/FRICTION ELECTRICAL/INSTRUMENT CABLE TRAYS
LOADS & LOAD COMBINATIONS
CRANE GANRTY/MONORAILS LOADS. WIND LOADS(AS PER IS 875 PART 3)
ON STRUCTURE (using factor k1,k2,k3) SHIELDING EFFECTS ON EQUIPMENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS refer Cl. 7 (Height/width ratio >5)
SEISMIC LOADS (IS 1893Part 1 &4)
SEISMIC COEFFIENT RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS IS 1893 SPECTRA SITE SPECIFIC SPECTRUM
PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR LOADS Limit state of collapse
˘ DL IL WL
Load combination
DL+IL DL ± WL / EL DL + IL ± WL/EL
1.5 1.5 or 0 .9 1.2
1.5 1.2
1.5 1.2
ILIMPOSED LOADS
VALUES OF PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR ΓF FOR LOADS Limit states of serviceability
DL Load combination DL + IL DL ± WL/EL DL+ IL ± WL/EL 1.0 1.0 1.0
IL
WL
1.0 0.8
1.0 0.8
LOAD COMBINATIONS
WIND
EACH DIRECTION WIND (Unidirectional) DIAGONAL WIND FOR SQUARE SHAPES.
SEISMIC
CALCULATE RESPONSE FROM EACH DIRECTION . COMBINED WITH MULTICOMPONENTS AS PER COMBINES AS SRSS (SQUARE ROOT OF THE SUM OF THE
SQUARES)
LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE
BEAMS COLUMN SLABS
FLEXURAL BEAMS DESIGN
*FOR DUCTILE FAILURE STRAIN IN STEEL
BEAM DESIGN TABLE
CALCULATE Mu/bd2 & Select steel grade to get ’ p’. Table 1 to 4 for singly reinforced beams .
TABLE 4 FOR f ck=30
and f y =415/500 etc.→ Table 45 to 59 for doubly reinforced beams.
SHEAR STIRRUP
Nominal Shear Stress for beams of uniform depth
τv = VU/ b. d
where, VU = shear force due to design loads; b = breadth of the member, which for flanged section shall be taken as the breadth of the web ; and d = effective depth.
Design of Shear Reinforcement
When τv exceeds τc ,shear reinforcement shall be provided in following forms: a) Vertical stirrups, b) Bentup bars along with the stirrups, and c) Inclined stirrups. For vertical stirrups: strength of shear reinforcement Vus = 0.87 fy Asv d
sv
fy = characteristic strength of stirrups, Asv= total crosssectional area of stirrup legs, d = effective depth, sv = spacing of the stirrups along the length of the member.
Design for stirrups
Table 62 of SP16 Provides The value of’ Vus /d ‘in KN/cm for FE 415 for different diameter & spacing . The Table for Fe500 can be developed.
TORSION
SHEAR AND TORSION(cl.41.3) Equivalent Shear , V e V e =Vu + 1.6 T u /b Where, V e = Equivalent Shear, Vu = Shear, T u = Torsional Moment, b = Breadth of beam.
Equivalent Nominal Shear Stress ,
τve
τve = Ve /b.d Values of τve shall not exceed the values of τcmax .
If τve does not exceed τc (Table 19) , minimum shear reinforcement shall be provided as per 26.5.1.6. If τve exceeds τc (Table 19) , both longitudinal and transverse reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with 41.4
Reinforcement in Members Subjected to Torsion(Cl. 41.4)
Torsional reinforcement consists of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Longitudinal Reinforcement Designed to resist an equivalent bending moment , Me1 = Mu +Mt Where Mu = bending moment at the crosssection, & Mt = Tu ((1+D/b)/1.7). Tu = Torsional moment, D = Overall depth& b = Beam breadth.
• Transverse Reinforcement Two legged closed hoops enclosing the corner longitudinal bars shall have an crosssection Asv, Asv = Tu Sv b1 d1 (0.87 fy) + Vu Sv 2.5 d1 (0.87 fy)
But total transverse reinforcement shall not be less than (τv e  τC) b. Sv 0.87 fy
Where, Tu Vu Sv b1
= Torsional moment, = shear force, = spacing of the stirrup reinforcement, = centretocentre distance between corner bars in the direction of the width, d1 = centretocentre distance between corner bars, b = breadth of the member, fy = characteristic strength of the stirrup rebars
τve = equivalent shear stress, τc = shear strength of the concrete (see Table 19).
CONTROL OF DEFLECTION
BEAMS
Chart23 of SP16
Basic values of Span to depth up to 10m span:Continuous Beams...26 Simply supported....20 Cantilever.................7
COLUMN DESIGN
1) All COLUMN MUST BE DESIGNED FOR A MINM. ECCENTRICITY OF
e min = l/500+D/30 Where l is the unsupported column length & D column size
Design charts in SP 16 for different concrete & Steel grade
Comp +uni axial bending ( chart 27 to 38) Comp +bia axial Bending ( chart 39 to 50) Tension +Bending ( chart 68 to 85)
COLUMN DESIGN COMPRESSION
1) Short Axially Loaded Members in Compression Pu = 0.4 fck .AC + 0.67 f y .A sc
Where,
Pu = axial load on the member, fck = characteristic compressive strength of the concrete,
AC = Area of concrete, f y = characteristic strength of the compression reinforcement, and A sc = area of longitudinal reinforcement for
INTERACTION DIAGRAM FOR A
Interaction diagrams in SP 16 in the forms of charts with Pu /b D f ck & Mu/ b D2 are Plotted for different values of p/fck. Dotted lines for fyd
Above fyd=0 NA at end of Tension face §ion in comp. Below fyd=1.outer most bar reaches design yield strength.
Members Subjected to Combined Axial Load and Biaxial Bending
[Mux /Mux1]^α + [Muy /Muy1]^α ≤ 1.0
where, about x and y axes due to design loads, Mux1, Muy1 = maximum uniaxial moment capacity for an axial load of Pu, bending about x and y axes respectively, and α is related to Pu / Puz. where, Puz = 0.45 fck .AC + 0.75 fy .Asc
Mux, Muy
= moments
RELATION BETWEEN Pu / Puz AND
(Refer Chart 64 IN SP16) Pu / Puz`
α
α
1.0 1.0 to 2.0 (linear variation) 2.0
< 0.2 0.2 to 0.8 >0.8
Design chart for biaxial bending
ADDITIONAL MOMENTS due to Slenderness
Additional moment shall be taken into account. M = Pu D{l ex/D}^2 2000 M = Pu b{l ey/b}^2 2000
ax ay
Where,
l ex = effective length in respect of major axis, l ey = effective length in respect of minor axis, D = depth of the crosssection at right angles to the major axis, and b = width of the member. NOTE : Column are slender when L/d>12.
Strain distribution in interaction curve
SLAB DESIGN
SLAB IS DESIGN AS ONE WAY OR TWO WAY SPAN DEPENDING UPON THE RATIO OF THE TWO SIDES. TABLE 26 OF ANNEX .D PROVIDES B.M. COEFFICIENT FOR SLAB DESIGN. SPAN TO DEPTH RATIO FOR DEFLECTION CHECK:
S.S SLAB =0.8*35=28 CONTINOUS SLAB=0.8*40=32
(Factor of 0.8 for FE 415/500 )
SLAB DESIGN
Table 5 to 44 provided the moment of resistance of slab/m in KN/m for given concrete & steel grade& depth it provides the bar dia. and spacing. Note:1)All values are with 15mm cover. 2) concrete Grade limited to M20
SLAB Moment in KN/M
Enhanced Shear Strength of Sections Close to Supports
Shear Failure At A Beam/Cantilever Occurs At An Angle Of 30°. Strength may be enhanced near support where the loads are closure and make an angle of 30°. Design of sections near a support is done by increasing design shear strength of concrete to
τc* = 2 d τc / av provided that τc* at the face of the support less than τc max.
remains
SHEAR FAILURE NEAR SUPPORTS
SECTION FOR ENHENCED SHEAR
DESIGN AIDS
ESTIMATE PRELIMANARY SIZES MANUALLY/ PAST JOB EXPERIENCES ALL ANALYSIS ARE PERFORMED USING STAAD INHOUSE CALCULATION SHEETS AND DESIGN AIDS IN LOTUS/EXCEL AVAILABLE FOR DESIGN OF COLUMN/BEAMS SLABS & FOOTING. INVARIABLY TRY TO MAINTAIN SYSTEMATICALLY ,DESIGN FILES & BACK UP OF ALL DESIGN CALCULATIONS.
ATTACHMENTS
IS 875:DESIGN LOADS FOR BLDGS.& STR. (OTHER THAN SEISMIC)
PART 1 DEAD LOADS PART 2 IMPOSED LOADS PART 3 WIND LOADS PART 4 SNOW LOADS PART 5 SPECIAL LOADS & LOAD COMBINATIONS.
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS HYDROSTATIC & SOIL PRESSURE. STRUCTURE SAFETY DURING CONSTRCUTION ACCIDENTAL LOADS.
LOAD COMBINATIONS
1893 :CRITERIA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
PART 1(2002) fifth Revision GENERAL PROVISION IN BUILDINGS. PART 2* LIQUID RETAINING TANKS(GROUND & ELEVATED). PART 3* BRIDGES & RETAINING WALLS PART 4(2005) INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE INCLUDING CHIMNEY PART 5* DAMS & EMBANKMENTS * to be issued?
STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM FOR DIFERRENT STEEL GRADES
TABLE 26 :BENDING MOMENT COEFF. FOR RECTANGULAR SLAB
SHEAR STRESS τ
c IN N/mm2
MAXM. SHEAR STRESS τ
c MAX IN N/mm2
AXIAL + BENDING CASE SH 1/2
STRAIN DIAGRAM Stress Block With NA Outside The Section
FORMULA FOR DESIGN CHARTS SH 2/2
IMPOSED LOADS AS PER IS875PART 2
IMPOSED LOADS AS PER EIL DESIGN BASIS
Process Building/Technological Structure (Open/Enclosed type)
Operating area Maintenance area

5.0 kN/m2 7.5 kN/m2 7.5 kN/m2 7.5 kN/m2
Compressor House/TG house
Operating area Maintenance area
Substation/Control Room
Panel floor
10.0 kN/m2
* FOR OTHER AREA REFER DESIGN BASIS
FIGURE 1 OF IS875 PART 3
SPEED VARIES FROM 33 TO 55M/S
SEISMIC ZONE OF INDIA
Sa/g vs TIME PERIOD
HORIZONTAL SEISMIC COEFF.
DESIGN HORIZONTAL SEISMIC COEFF. ZONE FACTOR
EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE
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