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&nal'sis on (rance and )un*ar'
+a!le of content# 1. ,ntroduction 2. -iscussin* the concept of populis 3. )un*ar', ideolo*ical spectru 4. (rance, ideolo*ical spectru 5. Conclusion in present .urope
and populis and populis
“Politics, it seems to me, for years, or all too long, has been concerned with right or left instead of right or wrong. “ ~Richard Armour 1
new populism. by and large. icolas !ar"o#y. I will discuss several concepts such as the ideological spectrum. -iscussin* the concept of populis in present . *ften called 'populist e-tremist parties( or the 'new right(. globali#ation diminishes space for wor"ing for national political ma. It can be argues that till now populism has been used in the EU speeches pointing at immigration as a threat while using it to increase a feeling of fear in the population. For instance. I would li"e to begin by tac"ling the issue of populism.orities in terms of economic policies and foreign relations. political ma. In the international conte-t. +hen it comes to economic policy.thefreedictionary. +hen it comes to the domestic front.34.&nal'sis on (rance and )un*ar' In this paper I will deliver an insight into the political systems that are to be found in France and Hungary. political developments. this is mi-ed with 'antiestablishment( rhetoric and language. *ver the last decade.urope Firstly. including latest elections in the two countries.) In nowadays society populism is rising due to big changes in the economy because of the economic crisis from the past year on. That is even why some EU governments want to be able to close their borders to immigration. fear of 'the other( is now not only used in speeches to influence the general population%s mentality. sometimes ma"ing use of the language of human rights and freedom.oreover. these parties do not fit easily into the traditional political conte-t. &ll in all. populist parties have been growing in strength in Europe. two countries which are members of the European Union. new policies. the rise of new parties. but it is also a threat that EU member states are now beginning to feel. &ll in all. independent . this combination of international and domestic factors has led the way to the 1 http/00www. former French $resident stated in last electoral campaign that France%s borders should be closed so as to protect the country%s poor from immigration. .orities are sub. populism is a political ideology according to which populists support the rights and power of the people in their fight against the privileged elite. If we want to thin" about the sources of populism we can put it down as it follows.ect to ever more intense competition from other centers of power/ autonomous central ban"s.53)46 2 .udiciaries and public servants. they are often critical of globali#ation and the effects of international capitalism on wor"ers% rights. I believe it is important to discuss the issue of politics in nowadays terms given the economic crisis and all when every nation is trying its best. these parties are characteri#ed by their opposition to immigration and concern for protecting national and European culture. powerful constitutional courts.com0populism 1accessed in )2.
Thus. either by the introduction of rules violating individual rights and the separation of powers. constitutional courts. which are not sub. &ll of them have the potential to be transformed into menace to the rule of law. and that improvements in the patterns of governance can ma"e a substantial difference in terms of overall social welfare. to the supporting of opening up of new areas of political decision ma"ing. the calls for law and order. It can be said that many populist parties have migrated from the fringes of society to become integral members of coalition governments and important factions. political new comers are inclined to adopt a rather more radical agenda. citi#ens% e-pectations about what their governments could do are not proportionally decreasing. central ban"s. as well as against domestic competitors of political ma. 3 . rough measures against crime and the struggle against corruption are also such topics.diminishing of the powers of politically elected bodies. This guides to the politici#ation of the constitution itself and to the blurring of the distinction between routine and constitutional 9uestions.oying unprecedented electoral success and growing membership. !ocieties 8 from &frica to Eastern Europe 8 have formed the belief that governance does matter. by and large. &n effect which is not desired of populism on the rule of the law is the tendency of mainstream parties to restrict competition by new comers through constitutional mechanisms. Then.orities are a fertile ground for the growth of populist movements. Ta"ing politics beyond the scope of the rule of law refers to the fact that the mainstream parties might themselves turn into a populist threat to the rule of law by adopting some of the policies supported by radical populists and also. li"e independent agencies. +hen it comes to radicali#ing politics. However. I can affirm that populist political parties are en. These ma. From what I have seen and read in the press. about the rule of law. capable of shifting mainstream political debate. but the normative .orities permanently dissatisfied with the performance of political elites. Eventually.ect to the rule of law. Instances showing that mainstream parties adopt policies advocated by populist and e-tremist parties are easy to find. often populist actions mitigate against e-ternal conditionality and engagements of the state. This is the second fundamental source of the populist condition. than they could previously do. They put at 9uestion not only specific policies of the mainstream parties.orities. or merely by the introduction of rules which have no effect or are consistently disregarded. this conducts to the undermining of constitutionalism that is the idea that there is a set of basic rules which are not 9uestioned in the course of normal politics. The combined result of the two sources of populism is the construction of political ma. the entire issue of immigration was first brought on stage by populist parties. 7omestic political.uridical restraints on political will and decision ma"ing. as you might thin". could ma"e less difference in the nowadays society.
now holds 5? out of )23 seats in the 7utch $arliament and received )@ per cent of the vote in 53)3. the political spectrum is divided into several political parties. The group calls itself identitarian. !he does not agree with the 'islamification( of France and she is of the opinion that republican values. ). but rather with the fact that it is an economic problem. . pp.? )un*ar'. it is not a formal member of the current coalition.A7 .4 ¬her e-ample of populism can be observed in the etherlands. which consists of/ a6 Fides# 1Fidesz . p. the 7utch >overnment relies on the support of 'Freedom $arty(. he describes his criti9ue of Islam as a defense for human rights. !ocial liberalism 5. describing herself as a defender of the republic and the welfare state and fiercely denying anti. aimed at e-cluding . ational conservatism 2 Bamie <artlett. a former member of the dissolved Unite =adicale $arty and it campaigns against the islamisation of Europe. characteri#ing it as the 'Islamic . p. feminism and secularism must be protected from .arine :e $en%s statements are resonating in the eyes of the audience.arine :e $en with 54 per cent was with points ahead of $resident !ar"o#y. &n opinion poll from .arine :e $en is restructuring the French Front ational $arty. It is also important to mention the fact that opinion polls show that these messages. Bobbi" . *ne of their ma. because it defends regional and European identity as well as national identity and also they claim their non. Even though. 9uestioning Islam%s attitude on women%s and gay rights and stating that he is only 'intolerant of the intolerant(.electoral political campaigning. The e! Face oF "igiTal PoP#lism. Fides#. !emitism.5D 4 . MSZP6. 53)). Hungarian !ocialist $arty 1Magyar Szocialista Párt.ovement for a <etter Hungary 1Jobbik Magyarországért mozgalom6. 53)) reveals that . . 5@.5 &lso. not nationalist. founded in 533?. Bonathan <irdwell.In France. :ondon/ 7emos. politician .white racism.arch. 5E 4 Ibidem.ar" :ittler.uslim e-tremists. where politician >eert +ilder%s 'Freedom $arty(. France%s <loc Indentitaire emerged in 5334 which was founded by Fabrice =oberts.or initiatives was the initiation of a brand of soupe au cochon 1por" soup6 at a $arisian soup "itchen.ein Aampf(. !he declares her position against immigration in France and states that it has nothing to do with racism. +ilder has advocated against the Aoran.Magyar Polgári Szövetség6 b6 Christian 7emocratic $eople%s $arty 1A7 $6 . ideolo*ical spectru and populis In the Hungarian parliamentary representative democratic republic. ationalism 4.uslims. The . illegal immigration and anti.5D 3 Ibidem.
the party broadened its votes base more successfully than any other opposition party. the Bobbi" party claims to represent the interests of ethnic Hungarians. opposition to capitalism and liberalism and ma"es use of anti. Hungarian 7emocratic Forum. Aris#tina . this mi-ture of virtual and real world political activity is the way many people relate to politics.agyar !#ocialista $Grt or .!emitic and anti. >yori. who Bobbi" supporters believe are more and more oppressed in their own country by national and international forces. >reen liberalism2 2.org0wi"i0:istIofIpoliticalIpartiesIinIHungary 1accessed in )2. by using online communication and messages to amplify its messages.55 9 5 . >abor >yori. The .. the party argue that democracy and freedom are their guiding principles. Are"o. :iberal conservatism *ut of these five. Furthermore.53)46 8 http/00www. 53)5. the party got more than F22.=roma rhetoric. at the same time. the Bobbi" party was a devoted opponent of the government%s draconian media law of 53)3 5 http/00en.34..com0shortIsummaryIaboutI. who is a member of the European $arliament and also front woman of Bobbi"%s European campaing. . <irdwell. it can be said that this form of politics is becoming the norm for a younger. However. It was founded in 5334 and in present it is the third largest political party in Hungary.!emitic and anti. )4 7 http/00www.wi"ipedia. supporter many times re. Po&#lism i' (#ro&e) *#'gary.34.!H$6. anti. p. <enfield. $olitics Can <e 7ifferent 1$ehet Más % Politika.F &s party values.?.orvai.@ The brea"through year of Bobbi" was in 533E when with a percentage of )?. and are often homophobic.obbi" 1accessed in )2. I will tal" about the Bobbi" political party. finishing in the third place. Bac" <enLeld. p. Its ideology is characteri#ed by strong nationalism.34. The Bobbi" party has a strong influence over youngsters. Bobbi" appears to be increasing.333 votes in the Hungarian national election. recruit new members and organi#e.=oma. the Bobbi"s are openly anti. especially the young generation. registering 5) per cent support among active voters with mainstream party preferences. :ondon/ 7emos.obbi".$MP6. Thus.ect the promotion of human rights.53)46 6 Bamie <artlett.53)46 <artlett. with )@.F of the vote in the European parliamentary elections. It is a well "nown fact that the online social media on Faceboo" of Bobbi" is bigger than its official membership list.E +hen it comes to ideology.D <ecause two elections are not enough to guarantee the party%s continued success.oreover.@ per cent behind the previously governing !ocialist party 1. has stated that Hungarians have become '$alestinians in their own country(. only 5.obbi" 1accessed in )2.right party to e-ist in the last two decades.ovement for a <etter Hungary.com0shortIsummaryIaboutI.D per cent of the vote.obbi". In 53)3. Bobbi" is the most successful far. $Jter Are"K. Bonathan <irdwell.liberal. especially those applied to minorities. in 53)). and this seems to me li"e a parado-. digital generation.
oving on. . for e-ample. the established right wing party was relatively successful at appealing to far right voters through rough anti. Bobbi" is rather anti.uslim. =ussia. . Cit. nationalist and law and order rhetoric. even though this might be attributed to the fact that there is not a large . The later. moreover.Israeli. based on the rotation of power between centre. maybe even radical settlement. admitted that continuous lying had been needed by .!H$1!ocial liberalism6 and Fides#.!H$ had to be replaced with a new. China and Tur"ey. In 533@.Hionist attitude.uslim community in Hungary. consistent with its nationalist agenda. fact which differentiates the party from many +estern European far. I believe it is important to mention that Bobbi" has had part of general disillusionment in the post. anti.which was sub. in 53)3 . a secret speech was published in which the .ect to criticism all over Europe. to economic policy.)) &s part of its anti.right Fides# and centre.&merican lobby for the downfall of the Hungarian Florint. &mong these we can thin" of/ disillusionment with actual politics. for instance. loc.!emitic and anti.globali#ation.globali#ation due to the fact that Bobbi" wants to forbid multinational companies from the Hungarian economy. the Bobbi" party can be described as protectionist. European and anti. onetheless.!H$ share of vote dramatically fell and young voters became more found of the idea that the established system. they are in favour of strengthening the connections with regimes li"e those in Iran. loc. Bobbi" is pro. analysed by the $olitical Capital Institute. Hungary encountered its worst riots in decades which energi#ed the e-treme right. &s a conse9uence. Cit.election. capitalist and anti. 11 6 .transitional political establishment. Bobbi"%s great success in such a short amount of time is the conse9uence of several factors. 10 Ibidem. anti.left .$alestinian and pro. Its support for freedom of e-pression.right parties. is a reflection of its young support base and its concern that the liberal supremacy may loo" to e-tinguish radical or e-treme voices. a fact which was revealed by the European !ocial !urvey data. e-ploitation of fears relating to crime and especially =oma criminality. and ma"ing effective use of online media to get to younger voters.!H$ prime minister at that time. freedom of speech and freedom to gather are fre9uently reserved for the ethnic Hungarian community.!H* to secure re. In the ne-t election.)3 <ut. +hen it comes to foreign policy. communist. !everal countries in Europe in the wa"e of post.!H$ which was governing at that time. Ibidem. they blamed the Israeli. Ferenc >yurcsany. the birth of Bobbil was aided by a scandal entailing the . Hungarian politics was dominated by two parties/ .Cold +ar transition especially between )EE@ and 533@.
parlamentul.party political system which means there are several political parties and thus. and that it politici#es prior independent institutions.E$ BGnos Pder.&lso. both within the Hungarian borders and internationally. The !ocialist $arty also submitted a bill to mandate a four. The !ocialist $arty. that it shows the ideology of the ruling party that is rooted in a conservative Christian view. criticilor.ect 9uestioned by the European Union and the European Council. $olitics Can <e 7ifferent and the 7emocratic Coalition agreed about the opposition partiesN guarantees for having a meaningful say in the presidential election.modificarea.fifths ma.53)46 13 http/00www. this is important to bear in mind because Bobbi" supporters come from very different layers of society. the party managed to e-pand its support in orth Eastern Hungary. despite Hungary not being a particularly pious country. &s a response to this.sunt. the government that enacted the charter has dismissed such assertions. the Bobbi" party has reacted to a growing societal sentiment of fear.ect of controversy. the Bobbi" party has many times attac"ed the =roma minority. Fides# announced that will nominate .romanialibera.ro0actualitate0europa0ungaria. who was president before !chmitt but whose candidacy was not supported by the party in 5332.care. which has fre9uently appealed to rural voters.orvai and former . in Hungary.pofida.thirds ma. +ith its anti.ue.html 1accessed in )2. This new constitution has been sub. A7 $Ns ability to unilaterally elect a new president without the opposition.esterhG#y said that his !ocialist $arty will not field a candidate for head of state because the <asic :aw re9uires the support of DF .$s as the party does not have that representation in parliament.transit053)50hungary 1accessed in )2.ority in order to elect a new head of state instead of the current two. *ne day earlier they had suggested former head of state :Gs#lK !Klyom for the nomination. Mery important to "now is that Hungary enacted a new Constitution in 53)) with three following changes until 53)4.53)46 7 .34.freedomhouse. the situation is 9uite different from Hungary. The French state has a multi. The critics pointed at the fact that it was adopted without sufficient input from the opposition and society in general.5E2F35.ority so as to stymie Fides#. In this manner.a. He was criticised for his close relationship with $rime .inister Mi"tor *rbGn on the grounds that he would not serve as a chec" on the power of the prime minister.aprobat.E$ Aris#tina .)4 (rance.principalele. ideolo*ical spectru and populis +hen it comes to France.ve#i. in 12 http/00www.$s rather than the previous re9uirement of 23 . even though it was a very controversial pro. The party said that they would also accept $astor >Gbor IvGnyi.org0report0nations. saying it was enshrined lawfully and that it respects the popular will. Bobbi" nominated . FOr later announced that he would not accept the nomination.)5 In the elections of 53)5. who has been suggested by the 7emocratic Coalition.schimbari.in.crime rherotic.constitutiei.34.os FOr as the partyNs candidates to the presidential position on ? &pril.inister of 7efence :a. &ttila . However.
htm 1accessed in )D.populism1accessed 1in )D.publicserviceeurope.34.right.leads.publicserviceeurope. rather than that.le.)2% Ever since. she wants France to leave not only the euro. she even declared to the press the following statement/ Q:eft and right donNt mean anything anymore 8 both left and right are for the European Union. $ierre Chevenement. *n the centre.com0article0@?D0marine.france. she cannot be compared to >ianfranco Fini 1he led his party away from neo.fascism towards the pro.pen. the French government has alternated between two stable coalitions/ ). &ctually. the !ocialist $arty with minor partners li"e Europe Ecology.leads.)D &ctually. the French political system can fre9uently be difficult to follow because politicians who are supposed to be of right orientation. the veteran anti. If we want compare her strategy.ovement and previously its predecessors =ally for the =epublic and the Union for French 7emocracy.order to ta"e part in the e-ercise of power the parties must be ready to negotiate among them so as to form electoral alliances or coalition agreements. while the Unites !tates and China benefit from being able to 14 http/00en. The >reens.in.53)46 http/00www. The dominant French political parties are described by a significant degree of intra.com0political. the euro.European and former !ocialist minister. free trade and immigration. it can be done by comparing it to the economic platform of Bean.party factionalism. From )EF3s on. we can thin" of the fact that in recent French history. For 43 years. 5.rise. :e $en wants France to leave the euro so that it can devalue and become more competitive. but also adopted hard.arine :e $en has become leader of France%s Front ational.com0article0@?D0marine.parties. !he has not only dropped the overt racism and islamophobia of her father. ma"ing each of them effectively a coalition in itself.Q)@ Even though :e $en changes her party%s brand. . It can be said that her economic platform is one of national economic autarchy.34.European centre of Italian politics6. *n the centre.34. she began to shift her party away from the far right.le.53)46 http/00about. the :eft $arty and the =adical $arty of the :eft.rise.left economic policies.org0wi"i0:istIofIpoliticalIpartiesIinIFrance 1accessed in )D. :e $en%s European policies are still e-treme.)? For outsiders. but also the EU.left.pen.wi"ipedia. a good proportion of the economic liberali#ation that has ta"en place in France has been pushed through by governments of the left.34. with support from the ew Centre. may defend positions more often held by political parties in the left in other countries and an e-ample. &ccording to her.53)46 http/00www. left and right have been the same. The real fracture is now between those who support globali#ation and nationalists.populism 1accessed in )D.53)46 15 16 17 8 . Her desire is to protect France from globali#ation by raising high tariff barriers. one led by the Union for a $opular .in.
&ccording to critics.obs. only the fashionable middle class would complain about devaluation and also stressed upon the sovereignty draining away from <russels and that we live in a Union !ovieti9ue Europeenne. the country would have to raise defense spending enormous amounts of money so as to have a comparable level of security to that provided by &T*.)E !ome might say that :e $en is right when saying that the main political divide in Europe is between nationalists and globalisers. 18 http/00www. occasionally going to forth behind Bean.from. ¬her point made by her was that she is not against immigration. since the C&$ was aiding so much Central Europe.oreover. international bureaucrats and big capitalists.34. opinion polls revealed that .le.arine :e $en had a good chance of getting into the second round of . this should not lead to lower salaries and moreover. .devalue. presidential election. in her opinion the ultra. !he was in favour of reducing legal immigration by E2R abolishing the right to family reunification. !he states in the press the following/ QTo save the euro we are as"ing the >ree"s to ma"e huge sacrifices through austerity. and reinstating the death penalty which was abolished in )EF. The euro will lead to war.elenchon. she has nothing to say about global governance or what to do about transnational threats li"e organi#ed crime. &lso. another important issue on her agenda. as her language resonates with the common man by being on the side of the little people against foreigners. she has advocated national preference for French citi#ens over foreign residents for access to . but remained consistently far behind Hollande and !ar"o#y. critics suggest that France had its benefits from globali#ation.53)46 19 9 .arine :e $en would also advise France to leave &T*. but if France would actually do that.ay 53)5. however. was that the EU represents the interests of big financial groups and encourages immigration so as to put downward pressure on salaries.publicserviceeurope.in.liberals who are in charge of running the EU will not let the French to protect their industries. even in France.34. . but on the other hand she offers way to superficial solutions.france.le.pen. &lso.populism 1accessed in )D.leads. $rior to the elections in &pril 53)5. something that :e $en cannot conceive. :e $en%s theory lac"s some important things.Q )F In her opinion. the euro#one suffers from law economic growth.org0marine. <ut it must also be said that her economic nationalism goes down 9uite well in France.com0article0@?D0marine. rather than a Common &gricultural $olicy.53)46 http/00britishfreedom. French people have priority in . :e $en strongly believes that her country is in need of a French agricultural policy. as well as withdrawing from the euro and the European Union. the held the third place in opinion polls for much of the campaign. proliferation or international terrorism.:uc .will. However. and soon we will as" the same of people elsewhere.nato0 1accesse in )D.pen.rise. in a country which more hostile to globali#ation than any other European country. climate change.secede. In conclusion.obs and social services.
Use of anti. the following concepts are the ones that govern in nowadays politics. *pposition to immigration *pposition to islamification 10 . *pposition to capitalism and liberalism. Hungary and France.!emitic and anti. )/N0&12 !trong nationalism.=roma theroric. my research reveals that in the two countries that I have analysed. 7efending =epublican values. (1&NC.Conclusion Eventually. in a society in which the voices of populist actors are becoming more and more important.
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