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Intakes (Water Supply Engineering)

Intakes (Water Supply Engineering)

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Published by Shuvanjan Dahal
Intakes
Level: B.E.
Civil Engineering
Water Supply Engineering
Intakes
Level: B.E.
Civil Engineering
Water Supply Engineering

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Published by: Shuvanjan Dahal on Jan 08, 2014
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07/03/2014

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CHAPTER - V INTAKES

5.1 Definition Intakes are the structures used for safely withdrawing water from the source over predetermined pool levels and then to discharge this water into the withdrawal conduit, through which it flows up to water treatment plant. 5.2 Site selection of an intake Factors governing location of intake: 1. As far as possible, the site should be near the treatment plant so that the cost of conveying water to the city is less. 2. The intake must be located in the purer zone of the source to draw best quality water from the source, thereby reducing load on the treatment plant. 3. The intake must never be located at the downstream or in the vicinity of the point of disposal of wastewater. 4. The site should be such as to permit greater withdrawal of water, if required at a future date. 5. The intake must be located at a place from where it can draw water even during the driest period of the year. 6. The intake site should remain easily accessible during floods and should not get flooded. Moreover, the flood water should not be concentrated in the vicinity of the intake. 5.3 Classification of Intake 1. According to source types 2. According to its position 3. According to water available in the chamber 1. a. River Intake An intake tower constructed at the bank or inside of the river to withdraw water is called river intake. These intakes consist of circular or rectangular, masonry or RCC intake tower from where water can be withdrawn even in the dry period. Several inlets called penstocks for drawing water are provided at the different levels to permit the withdrawal of water when the water level drops. All inlet ends are provided with a screen (to prevent the entry of floating matters) with valves to control the flow of water operation from the control room. The penstock discharges the water into the intake tower (intake well) from where it is pumped or flow under gravity. In dry river intake, there will be no water inside if the tower inlet valves are closed.

In wet river intake, there is water inside the tower even if the inlet valves of the tower are closed. Since, these types of intakes remain wet, inspection cannot be done easily.

b. Reservoir Intake There is a large variation in the discharge of river during monsoon and summer. When there is no sufficient water in the dry period, the water in monsoon is collected in impounded reservoir by constructing weirs or dams across the river. The intake tower used in such cases is called reservoir intakes. Two types of reservoir intakes are commonly used to suit the type of

dam constructed. One type is at the slope of earthen dams and other type is within the dam itself in case of RCC dams. In case of earthen dam, the intake may consist of an intake tower constructed on the upstream toe at dam from where intake can draw sufficient quantity of water even in the driest period. The water is withdrawn through intake pipes located at different levels with a common vertical pipe so as to draw water in the driest period. The vertical pipe is connected at the bottom to an intake conduit which is taken out through the body of dam. Each inlet of intake pipe is covered with a hemispherical shaped screen to enter relatively clear water. The intake is provided with valves to control flow from control room. Since there is no water inside the tower (only in inlet pipes), this intake is called dry intake tower.

In case of RCC masonry dams, dry intake is constructed inside the dam itself and only porters or intake pipes are provided at various levels with control valves. c. Lake Intake

It is a submersible intake normally constructed at the central portion of the bed of lake for withdrawal of water because maximum depth of water is available at the central portion of natural lake. It consists of an intake conduit laid on the bed of lake with its inlet end placed in the middle of the lake projecting above the bed. The inlet end is then covered by protective

timber or concrete crib. The water enters in the pipe through bell mouth (may be with screen) and flows under the gravity to treatment plant directly or to the sump well from where it can be pumped to treatment plant. More than one intake conduit can be used as per requirement. Since Lake Intake is submersible, there is no obstruction to the navigation, no danger from floating bodies and no trouble due to ice and cheap in construction. It can draw small quantity of water and hence can be sued in small water supply schemes whereas it is not easily accessible for maintenance. d. Canal Intake

When intake is constructed on canal for water supply purpose, the intake is called canal intake. It consists of simple structure constructed on the bank and not necessary to provide porters at various levels because water level in the canal remains more or less constant. It consists of a pipe placed in a brick masonry or RCC chamber constructed partly in the canal bank. On one side of the chamber, an opening is provided with coarse screen to enter water. A bell-mouth with hemispherical fine screen in the inlet end of the inlet pipe inside is provided and the outlet pipe is brought through the canal bank and taken to the treatment plant. One sluice valve operated by a wheel from the top of masonry chamber is provided to control flow in the inlet pipe. e. Spring Intake An intake constructed at the spring source to withdraw water is called spring intake. It is generally constructed in small rural water supply scheme in Nepal. Spring intake should be impervious and provided around the source to prevent the source contamination and physical damage by runoff water. Simply one or more springs can be joined for greater discharge and all sources should be protected from animals, exposure, runoff and bathing etc. Protection work is done by fencing, digging catch drain, bioengineering works, etc.

2. a. Submerged Intake: Constructed entirely under water. It is commonly used to obtain supply from a lake. b. Exposed Intake: It is in the form of a well or tower constructed near the bank of a river, or in some cases even away from the river banks. 3. a. Wet Intake: The water level is practically the same as the water level of the sources of supply. Sometimes known as a jack well and most commonly used. b. Dry Intake: There is no water in the water tower. Water enters through entry port directly into the conveying pipes. The dry tower is simply used for the operation of valves.

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