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Ayurveda

Ayurveda

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FUNDAMENTOS DEL AYURVEDA La Conciencia Trascendental es la fuente de armonía perfecta y equilibrio con la naturaleza.

La totalidad moviéndose dentro de sí misma crea un equilibrio dinámico que es eterno continuum de la vida. Para el Ayurveda los rasgos características de cada erso!a revela! su ti o sico"isiol#gico co!stitucio!al $ ra%riti&' es decir (ue a)arca ta!to *e!te co*o cuer o+ así' al descu)rir la !aturale,a )-sica de !uestro cuer o.*e!te' /e*os dado el ri*er aso /acia la salud er"ecta el cual es e!te!der!os a !osotros *is*os+ cua!do co* re!de*os lo (ue esta ocurrie!do e! !uestro i!terior ya !o !os de0a*os i!"luir or lo (ue la sociedad crea (ue de)ería*os decir' /acer' e!sar o se!tir1 El Ayurveda dice (ue e! el u!to do!de la *e!te y el cuer o se e!cue!tra!' el e!sa*ie!to se tra!s"or*a e! *ateria+ e! ese u!to se e!cue!tra! los tres ri!ci ios go)er!a!tes lla*ados dos/as' res o!sa)les de todas las actividades "ísicas y *e!tales del cuer o+ u! "u!cio!a*ie!to coordi!ado y e(uili)rado de los tres dos/as suste!ta la vida y ayuda a *a!te!er la salud' su dese(uili)rio rovoca la decade!cia e! el cuer o y lo trastor!os de la erso!alidad1

Los tres dos/as se lla*a! Vata, Pitta y Kapha (ue est-! "or*ados or sus res ectivos ele*e!tos+ Vata deriva del 2ter y del aire' Pitta del "uego y agua y 3a /a de la tierra y el agua1 Au!(ue los dos/as regula! *iles de "u!cio!es di"ere!tes e! el siste*a *e!te.cuer o' cu* le! co! tres "u!cio!es )-sicas4

5 5 5

Vata es res o!sa)le del *ovi*ie!to1 Pitta es res o!sa)le de la digesti#! y *eta)olis*o1 3a /a es res o!sa)le de la estructura1

Si u! dos/a es *uc/o *-s alto (ue los otros' usted es u! ti o de dos/a si* le1 El u!ta0e *-s re rese!tativo es a(uel e! el (ue el dos/a ri*ario tie!e el do)le de u!tos (ue el siguie!te $ or e0e* lo Vata 6 78' Pitta 69:' 3a /a 6 ;:&' ero los *-rge!es *as reducidos ta*)i2! cue!ta!1 U! verdadero ti o de dos/a si* le rese!ta los rasgos de Vata' Pitta o 3a /a de *a!era *uy ro*i!e!te1 El dos/a siguie!te te!dr- i!cluso cierta i!"lue!cia e! sus te!de!cias !aturales' ero e! u! grado *uc/o *e!or1

Si !o /ay u! dos/a (ue redo*i!e' usted es u! ti o de dos dos/as1 Esto sig!i"ica (ue usted *uestra cualidades de sus dos dos/as ri!ci ales' ya sea 0u!tas o de *a!era alter!ada1 El *-s alto redo*i!a e! su ti o sico"isiol#gico' ero a*)os cue!ta!1

Lo más importante no es el quedar catalogado sino, el aprender algo acerca de uno mismo. Si comprendemos el sistema del Ayurveda, y el tipo único de nuestro cuerpo, podemos mejorar nuestra salud.

The 36 tattvas
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Chart of the 36 tattvas in Kashmir Shaivism n Ka!mir "aivism, the 36 tattvas descri#e the $#solute, its internal aspects and the creation including living #eings, do%n to the physical reality& 'he addition of (( supplemental tattvas compared to the S)ṃkhya allo%s for a richer, fuller vision of the $#solute& *oing from !iva to pṛithv+ tattva %e find the process of manifestation, the creation of the universe, going the opposite %ay %e find the process of spiritual evolution culminating %ith the dissolution in "iva& 'attvas divide into three groups: Ashuddha, or impure -material, sensorial, the organs of action, the mind and the ego., Shuddhashuddha, or pure-impure -the soul and its limitations. and Shudda, or pure -internal aspects of the $#solute.& 'he impure tattvas are the domain of o#/ectivity and duality, the pure0impure tattvas are the domain of kno%ledge and the pure tattvas are the domain of transcendental unity and non0differentiation&

The five mahābhūtas 'he five mah)#h1tas are the ingredients of the physical %orld& 'hey represent the final point of .

yet.& t is also the a#ode of Kuṇḍalin+ "akti. the mahābhūtas remain identical %ith "iva&3(4 pṛithvī . 0 !jas -soma. sta#ility.& 6ven on a larger scale. or %e can say it contains all the possi#le forms& 'hat is %hy it has #een a sym#ol of the non0manifested. passion. salamander. ine7hausti#le creativity and sustenance& Pṛithvī's specific shape is s8uare.4 tejas . regenerate. a#undance. the #irthplace of life on our planet -primeval ocean. the su#conscious mind. at the same time. 0 an idealist monistic %orld vie% %here transcendence is present right in the middle of physical& 'hus. there is no dualism #et%een spirit and matter& Pṛithvī tattva signifies concreteness. in a star.earth Pṛithvī tattva is produced #y gandha tattva -medium for olfactory sensations. reincorporation into the undifferentiated&3. restless and e7troverted& ejas is associated %ith the digestive fire.& Jala can assume any form. unlimited potentialities and the transcendence& ts #asic state is passive and it can #ecome the receptacle of various impressions and energies -for e7ample.manifestation. horse. is associated %ith the concept of soma -nectar. masculine. patience. phoeni7 and dragon& 'he tattvic form of ejas is the up%ards pointing triangle and the tattvic color is red& 'he concept of agni -fire. a#undance. empathy.fire tejas tattva is produced #y Rūpa tattva. and vice versa. and s!ma is %hatever is the o#/ect of that desire or %ill& . po%er to dissolve. right into the lo%est principle -Pṛithvī tattva. 5anipura Chakra& Some of the 8ualities of fire are: solar. #oth real and mythical: lion.& :ther sym#ols associated %ith Jala tattva are: the po%er of purification. fo7. the atomic fire is agni and the hydrogen fuel is s!ma& When one looks carefully %e can find a s!ma for any agni& n the human psyche.water Jala tattva -also kno%n as apas tattva. agni acts as desire and intentional %ill. there is the pair tejas -agni. forming a complementary pair& S!ma is fuel to agni and it 8uenches its continuous thirst& From their union a ne% creation is #orn. and the mythical chaos and formlessness that precedes creation& Waters e7ist #efore and after any cycle of creation& 'he linear flo% of %ater as a river signifies the flo% of time& Water immersion signifies the ritual regression to the original principle. nurturing and protection& Pṛithvī is sym#olised #y the 5other 6arth 0 a universal sym#ol for fecundity. the medium for visual sensations and corresponds to the third chakra.& 'raditionally it has #een associated %ith a num#er of animals. uncreated light. refers to the li8uid state& t is produced #y Rasa tattva -the medium for taste sensations.. strength. dynamic. %here light -2rak)!a. the specific color is yello%0#ro%n& ts corresponding force center is 5uladhara Chakra& jala . passion is agni and the loved one is s!ma& n the human #ody. the 9oly %ater is sanctified #y the descent of the 9oly Spirit. se7uality.& Ka!mir "aivism descri#es the reflection of the top principle -Śiva tattva. the pair agni 0 s!ma appears every%here there is a creative process& For e7ample in a loving couple. the medium %here the human life appears -amniotic fluid. digestion is agni and food is s!ma& n the tantric se7ual alchemy. intuition and the uncreated light of consciousness -2rakasa. the energy that resides in potentiality at the #ase of the spinal column& Kuṇḍalinī Śakti is identical to Para Śakti %hen it emerges and rises to the top chakra& $ccording to ṣaḍ)dhv)n the material %orld is created #y 2rak)!a -spiritual light. is condensed into matter.

& For one %ho has gone #eyond mā#ā. =psyche= means #oth #reath and life.vāyu . that forms the etheric #ody -Pranama#a K!sa. intellect.the transit medium for the olfa tive sensations • smell in itself • creates pṛithvī tattva . in a state of diversity in unity and unity in diversity& $nother %ay to put it is that he then recogniBes -Prat#abhij&a.& $ether is associated to the sky.& ts form is the ovoid& 'he ovoid is the form of <rahm)ṇḍa.ether %kā$a tattva is produced #y Śabda..& <reath sym#olises life. yang.& 'he sym#olism of air contains among other: masculine. the a#ility to fly. all %e can access are limited =#ands= of information that form a description of reality& 'his restriction ho%ever applies only to the limited #eings -jiva. in any o#/ect& 'hese #ands of information are the five tanmātras& <eing closer to the su#/ect than the physical reality. #ecause as oneAs self is $tman. unlike them. the space. there can #e direct perception of reality. mo#ile. prana is the vital energy -etheric energy. dry. tanmātras are more elevated than mahābhūtas and are descri#ed as their source of creation& gandha . and is unchangea#le& %kā$a is the support of the cosmic memory -the )k)!ic records. himself -Atman. su#tle and elevated& t is a sym#ol for freedom. so are the e7ternal o#/ects& n such a state an enlightened #eing can perceive the %orld #eyond the five senses -direct perception. the primordial %orld0egg. origin of the creation& The five tanmātras . the color is #lue& ākāśa . untoucha#le and unseen& %kā$a tattva is also called the aether or =fifth element=& t is invisi#le. mind. open spaces. @i!uddha& %kā$a is fundamentally different from the other four mahābhūtas as it is non manifested in the physical %orld 0 it is the void. =anima= means #oth #reath and soul in ?omanian. in no %ay a#le to fully descri#e it& We cannot actually perceive the reality. %et or dry. the medium for auditive sensations and is associated %ith the fifth chakra.air "ā#u tattva is produced #y Spar$a tattva -the medium for the tactile sensations.& ts tattvic shape is the circle. soul in >atin.subtle mediums of the sensations While mahābhūtas are the #asis for the material %orld. no odor. all pervading 0 a sym#ol of the spirit& t appears empty yet it contains huge energies -the energy of the void. penetrate any%here -like air does. or aṇu. support of the other four tattvas yet. intangi#le and elusive -like the %ind.. has no 8ualities -hot or cold. the %ord =suflet= means soul. =atman= means #reath. to #reathe is to assimilate spiritual po%er& n many languages #reath is associated to the notion of soul: • • • • • in $ra#ic and 9e#re% the %ord =ruh= signifies #oth =#reath= and =spirit= in Sanskrit. in the realm of the pure tattvas. and comes from the %ord =suflu= %hich means #reath "ā#u tattva is considered to #e the vehicle of prana. sensations and perceptions are #ut limited aspects and vie%s of it. soul or vital principle in *reek.

is the first karmendri#a. karmendri#as are karman indriyas. organs of action.organs of a tion Karmendri#as represent #oth the physical organs and the corresponding su#tle -astral.the transit medium for the visual sensations • form -and color. and gandha -smell. an important asana %here the heel is pressing the perineum or anus . it is associated %ith 5uladhara chakra. passive function of manas& pāyu . that is internal organs that create karma& 'hey are connected directly to the manas tattva and represent its solar.the e! retion organ Pā#u tattva. almost ine7hausti#le po%er that lies at the lo%er part of the trunk& Correct control of this lo%er energy leads to a huge increase in spiritual po%er& 'he harmonious activation of pā#u tattva is essential for o#taining control of such an energy& 'his is %hy many techni8ues involving pā#u tattva are methods of a%akening of Kundalini: • • • • • 3C4 a$vini mudrā 0 the horse gesture mulā bandha 0 the root lock $akti(alana mudrā 0 moving the shakti mahamudra 0 the great seal -from hatha yoga. represent the lunar.rasa . having as inferior octaves the pṛithvī -earth. 0 a regenerative.the transit medium for the taste sensations • taste in itself • creates jala tattva rūpa .the transit medium for the auditive sensations • sound in itself • creates ākā$a tattva The five karmendriyas . tattvas' "ts role in the awakening of #undalini Pā#u tattva is the medium of Kundalini334 and the se7ual energy -o/as. in itself • creates tejas tattva • it contains forms and colors sparśa . the e7cretion organ. siddhasana. active function& 'he j&ānendri#as -sense organs.the transit medium for the tou h sensations • touch in itself • creates vā#u tattva śabda . specific to activity in the astral plane& $s their name says.

When pā#u is in harmony. or the generative organ&364 $ifferentiation and omplementarity related to the se!ual organs )pasta tattva is the most differentiated organ in the #ody. #et%een man and %oman& 6ven the 6nglish %ord se7. the t%o most elevated aspects of the $#solute& 'he se7ual union depicted in the Ea#0Eum posture represents not only the creative act on the human level. the andr!g#ne is completed in the tantric sadhana #y a%akening the spiritual force of the #ody -Kundalini. %hich is the source of creation& :n a tangent note. half female. Athe part %hich is underA or lap& )pastha tattva means the po%er of procreation and se7ual en/oyment. is related to the original meaning of divisi!n& 2erhaps the most defining element of a humanAs #ody is its se7& We care to kno% a #a#yAs se7 #efore anything else& 'hus se7 divides humanity in t%o and defines our most fundamental psychological traits& 'he other fundamental characteristic of upasta tattva is its complementarity& 'he male se7ual organ -lingam.the se!ual organs 'he term upastha means in Sanskrit se7ual organs. and the female se7ual organ -yoni. many conditions my occur such as: stu##ornness. #ut also on a cosmic level& 'he union of Śiva and Śakti is eternal and supremely #lissful. there is a feeling of immense force. there are a series of e7ercises meant to develop and control the se7ual energies& :ne such e7ercise is #!ni mudra& pāda . the duality0complementarity principle also appears in physics: the %ave0particle duality and the space0time couple are /ust the most prominent& 2hysicists talk a#out symmetry and symmetry #reaking as fundamental in the structure of the universe& %ymbolism of the androgyne 9aving #oth the male and female se7ual organs. fear and an7iety&3D4 upastha . and uniting it %ith the principle of consciousness& n this state there is perfect harmony of the yin and yang and a#sorption into the $#solute& Tantri pra ti es related to the se!ual organs <esides maithuna and the tantric se7ual union. and #etter control& When it is distur#ed. Śiva and Śakti united into one #eing& 6ven if not on a physical level. generating in its pulsating rhythm the fundamental movement of consciousness -spanda.the lo omotion organ 5ain article: 2ada -9indu mythology. coming from the >atin se*us. the androgyne represents perfect e8uili#rium and completeness& $rdhanarishvara is represented as half male. Pada attva represents #oth the physical organ of locomotion and the su#tle energetic structures associated %ith it& <et%een the seven force centers it is associated %ith 5anipura Chakra3F4 and in the hierarchy of 36 tattvas it is a superior octave of tejas tattva& %ubtle anatomy of the feet Feet acting as grounding conduits: the continuous contact of feet %ith the ground is a sym#ol of relying onto and #eing a part of the sphere of earth& n 9induism some rites are re8uired to #e officiated #are . lingam has come to sym#olise "iva and yoni to sym#oliBe "akti. greed. are complete only in se7ual union& n tantra..

%hich is tattvically associated %ith the pada tattva -feet.. it is associated %ith the concept of vira 0 the heroic #eing& %ymbol of devotion 'he foot is seen in 9induism as a sym#ol of devotion& 'he custom of venerating guruAs feet is a clear message of acceptance and su#mission 0 #y placing the foot of the master -lo%est part of his #ody.& %ymbol of domination 'he feet are also a sym#ol of domination& n the legend of @amana.. self0esteem and human dignity& Walking represents an action of domination over space& 'he feet contain the largest muscles and #ones of the #ody. monks not only knee. #ecause its sym#olism is very comple7.4 face do%n during prayer -not using their feet at all. the devotional pilgrimage on foot. forming a mystical map&3H4 <y massaging the sole of the foot. the participants seek purification through sacrifice& Sacrifice is considered to #e a form of tejas -fire. is considered impure -#ut only in some conte7ts. #eing in contact %ith the ground. uprightness and domination. Jatara/a Shiva is crushing %ith his foot the demon $pasmara -a . -!rship the auspi(i!us l!tus +eet !+ the .:&3(I43((4 %ymbol of humility Kneeling -half0using the feet. the disciple assumes a totally receptive position. the e7pression l!tus +eet is a negation of impurity.& 'hus. and the third %as placed on the head of king <ali of asuras& 'he three strides represent domination over the physical. #ut lay flat do%n on the floor3(. 0 signifying the total su#mission of the individual %ill in front of the divine& %ymbol of purity 'he e7pression l!tus +eet appears in many religious te7ts in a devotional conte7t& 67: . 0 one covered the earth -human %orld.. dignity. reuniting the sym#ols of force. the healer intends to pro/ect his action on the %hole #ody or on the diseased organ& 'his practice is called padabh#anga in ayurveda and in modern times appears as refle7ology& %ymbol of for e 'he sym#olism of the foot derives from that of its main functions: standing and %alking& Standing upright is a poise of strength.ternit# (alled /hagamalini&3(34 'he lotus is a sym#ol of #eauty and purity& 'he foot. a declaration of divinity& %piritual sa rifi e n pada-#atra. an incarnation of @ishnu. celestial and human %orlds& n another sym#olic representation. for e7ample Shiva. develop the most po%erful physical force and support the %hole %eight of the #ody& 'hus. sym#oliBes su#mission and humility& n some monasteries. @ishnu or <uddha -buddhapada.foot&3G4 'ouching the ground permits a #etter contact %ith the earth energies& 'he sole of the foot is seen as a microcosm of the #ody& $ll the organs and aspects are pro/ected on the surface of the sole. the second covered the sky -the %orld of the deities. the %orld is completely covered in three steps -trivikrama. on the head of the disciple -highest part of the #ody. %hich is essential for the process of initiation& $ variant of this practice is venerating the feet of a deity.

0 feet form a triangle %ith the earth. a triangle #ase for the #ody and along %ith the hands. are thus united %ith the center of se7ual energy -!jas.. the goddess of time and transformation is represented as standing on the inactive #ody of Shiva& 'his image sym#oliBes the active role of Shakti. this posture activates te/as and 5anipura Chakra %hich are associated %ith 2ada 'attva as stated #efore 'eet positions in meditation n the traditional meditation postures feet act as physical support and are instrumental in the activation of the vital energies: • 2admasana -lotus pose. the triangle #eing the tattvic shape of tejas. activating Kundalini3(C4 (alking meditation n %alking meditation -also called Kinhin in Ken. associated %ith tejas. 0 the crossed legged position often used for meditation • "irasana -heroAs pose. 0 here the feet form a closed circuit. 0 feet are crossed. • /hadrasana -position of the throne. one uses his feet to impose a structured rhythm to the mind& 'he aim here is to e7pand consciousness #y stopping the fluctuations of the mind #y this simple physical device& . 0 thus affirming himself as the supreme force that dissolves illusion through his divine grace& n a related conte7t. the feet. thus activating the su#limation of the se7ual potential.& 'heir union is the #asis for the creative alchemical act of reverting se7ual energy to ananda. feet also act as a conduit of the energies of earth -prithivi. a pyramid shape for the %hole #ody • Siddhasana -perfect pose. 0 forming a closed circuit through the hands the and feet. a closed circuit appears. forming a complementary pair tejas0!jas -an instance of the agni0s!ma couple. feet are also tattvically associated %ith the concept of @ira -spiritual hero. 0 hands stretched up%ards connect to the energies of the sky %hile the feet connect to the energies of the earth • 'rikonasana -triangle pose. its ultimate source&3(itati!n needed4 • Sukhasana -pleasant position. 0 feet are used as antennas for receiving the energies descending from the sky • alasana -tree pose 0 do%n0up circuit. its reliance on Shiva in as support and the fact that Shiva needs Shakti in order to manifest& %ymbol of trans enden e 'he imprint of the feet on the ground is a sym#ol of transcendence& 'here are such sacred places of pilgrimage associated %ith various divine figures -see <uddha footprint and 2etrosomatoglyph.& The foot in &atha yoga n 9atha Eoga. 0 uniting the soles -and the chakras in the soles. 0 the heel e7erts pressure on the perineum -see pa#u tattva for more conte7t. the feet can #e a sym#ol of dependence& Kali. • Sirsasana -headstand 0 up0do%n circuit. the feet are considered conduits of the energies of earth& 'hey present a num#er of secondary chakras and nadi& n many asana they act as a grounding path%ay& • Padahastasana -foot to hand circuit.demon representing ignorance.

it is related to $nahata chakra& %ubtle anatomy of the hand $ series of minor force centers -chakras. e7ist in the palm of the hand. etc& the hand as an instrument of memory 0 %riting. it immediately reacts to. 0 sym#ol of the mysterious and irresisti#le po%er of *od. forces outside the human control . signature. pāni tattva is a superior octave of spar$a tattva -touch. in its role of e7ternal memory. little 0 %ater& $lmost all people develop a strong polarity #et%een the hands. is the most comple7 action organ& $cting as a mirror of consciousness. and v)yu tattva -air. one can tune in a specific resonance& :neAs handprint is his sym#ol. are often represented %ith multiple hands. domination and protection& t is used for imposing a specific resonance. mark of possession and domination& 9indu *ods -deva. the hand of the king. luck3(64 and Aclairvoyant actionA& 'un tions and symbols of the hand 5ore functions and sym#ols: • • • • • the hand that talks 0 hand language the hand e7presses emotions 0 fidgeting. is associated %ith ākā$a& 'he hand is a sym#ol of action. 0 miracle %orker the hand of providence -0and !+ 1!d. united #y a series of force channels -nadi. el#o% and shoulder. giving a #lessing and spiritually investing another person& 'he =eye in the hand= is associated %ith protection. mudra.%a red dan e Sacred dance is another comple7 spiritual tradition %here the feet play a ma/or role& 9ere too every gesture is infused %ith consciousness and sym#olism& $s a form of art. suggesting their multidimensionality& $ strong arm is the mark of the hero -vira. it #rings a#out the e7pansion of the consciousness for #oth the artists and the audience& 'he dynamic pose of Jatara/a is a sym#ol of universal movement %hich is identical to the universal creative energy #ecause everything in the %orld is movement and energy& pāni .& 'he invisi#le hand of *od is a sym#ol of *odAs mysterious po%er& *orresponden e of the five fingers with the five elements 'here are various %ays fingers are associated to the five elements& For e7ample: thum# 0 fire. the hand is a conduit of su#tle energy& <y performing a scared hand gesture -or a magical action. and e7presses the %ill& t has a comple7 sym#olism and multiple functions& 'he hand can e7press emotions and speech& :ne can see through touch and speak in hand language& Pāni tattva is not e8ual to the physical hand itself #ut it is a structure in consciousness associated %ith the hand& 'attvically.&3(D4 'hus. dra%ing the hand as an instrument of healing -sometimes. strength.& From the seven force centers.hand) the organ of apprehension Pāni tattva -the hand. middle 0 Sky. inde7 0 air. ring 0 earth. forming a preference for either the right hand or the left hand& 'he dominating hand is associated %ith yang and the other %ith yin& 'he hand and the #ody #oth have five e7tremities thus the hand has #een put in correspondence %ith the #ody& Pāni tattva is sometimes called the organ of apprehension and is the main e7ternal tool of the mind& Writing. energy transfer.

and thirdly. renunciation • namaskara mudra 0 #oth palms folded together 0 prayer. au7iliary communication Sym#olism of the hand gestures • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • #oth hands raised 0 victory. fraternity.I4 vāk . a discipline %ith the purpose of li#eration from the #ondage of karma& +elationship with other tattvas $ num#er of other tattvas take part in the process of creation of sound: as support for the propagation of sound and for its cyclical oscillating nature is the time0space tattva.& 'he role of the mudra is to impose a specific resonance& Some of the mudras are: • abha#a mudra 0 the right hand slightly elevated. forming a circle 0 concentration • dh#ana mudra 0 #oth hands resting on the lap.& n the se8uence of tattvas. prayer.• the elo8uent hand gesture 0 nonver#al communication.the spee h organ "ak tattva is the organ of speech. the palm turned out%ards 0 fearlessness.. it also needs a physical support %hich is provided #y va#u tattva -air. vak tattva is the most elevated karmendri#a and its corresponding sense . investiture. praising the Livine one raised hand 0 sym#ol of the voice. palms up%ards&3(H43. the articulation of sounds is related to the tongue -rasana tattva. laid on each other 0 meditation palms together 0 prayer clenching fist 0 anger raising the right hand 0 threatening placed in the hands of another 0 su#mission and trust clasping 0 praising the >ord -original sym#olism. akasa& <ecause sound is a mechanical vi#ration. %elcome. purity. friendship many people /oining hands 0 to unite palm placed on the top of the head of another 0 #lessing.. sacrality • jnana mudra 0 the tip of the inde7 finger touches the tip of the thum#. vak tattva is an instrument for the creation of karma and also an instrument for the practice of karma #!ga. agreement handshake sym#ol 0 sincerity. including the mouth and the su#tle structures of consciousness associated %ith it& $s all the other karmendri#as. sym#ol of song hand on the heart 0 attitude of the sage hand on the neck 0 sacrifice covered or concealed 0 respect folded 0 tran8uility palms up%ard. relaying energy raising a priBed o#/ect %ith #oth hands 0 victory 3(F4 3(G4 +ole of the hand in &atha yoga n hatha yoga are descri#ed a series of hand gestures -mudra.

a man %e donAt say much 0 %hat kind of man.. cere#ral. duplicating everything that e7ists outside into the mind& 'he %ord is the vehicle of the limited ego. the energy of transmuted se7ual fluids and ascending kuṇḍalin+. #oth mouth and #!ni are some%hat similar in form and role and sometimes their use is reversed -see the so0called 34 se7ual position.& 6ach phoneme represents a stage in the process of evolution. ahamkara& 'he %ord as such is an imperfect tool though. aham.C4 "āk -speech.(4 . is the first out%ard e7pansion of the mind -manas tattva. %hen %e say . %hat impressions did he give us.34 'he full se8uence of phonematic energies is called mātṛkā and contains DI sounds.& Kissing it #egins a prelude to the se7ual union and serves as a sym#ol of it& 'he mouth is the source of the e7terior speech.. is also the first part of the #ody that comes in contact %ith the food and plays a role of subtle assimilation of energies. there are a num#er of classes of sounds: velar. etc& 'he %ord is /ust an a#straction from reality& 'hus language is at the same time a tool and an o#stacle in kno%ledge&3. su#strate and center for all the activities of consciousness& 2!ni. dental and la#ial& n Kashmir Shaivism each class of phonemes is correlated %ith specific mantric energies of the sound&3. yin and yang& 'here is al%ays such a fusion of yin and yang at the #asis of any creative process& %pee h as a reative power "ak tattva plays a ma/or creative role in the human #eing as the instrument of speech and as such.. a complementary union of the opposites. a descending process originating from the level of logos -pārāvak.outh and assimilation of food "ak indri#a -mouth.& 'he force centers primarily associated %ith speech are @ishuddha chakra 0 center placed in the region of vak indri#a and 5uladhara chakra as the seat of pārāvak&3. a %orld in itself& Sounds are associated %ith energies and ultimately %ith aspects of consciousness& 'he magical po%er of sounds and %ords is derived from this association %ith energy -!akti. and consciousness -!iva. #ecause %hile it can reflect the e7terior reality it al%ays appro7imates& For e7ample. plants are taken and held under the tongue for a fe% minutes /ust for this same purpose& -rti ulation of spee h Lepending on the position %here the tongue articulates speech. directly from the food& 'he mouth is descri#ed to #e lined up %ith thousands of fine force channels -nadi. heart and mouth represent three levels of the void and three centers of creative po%er& n relation to se7ual activity. associated %ith the letters of the Sanskrit alpha#et& :n a cosmic scale. is seen as the result of the dynamic union of t%o parts that form the mouth -upper and lo%er. is a matri7 of energies centered around the Self -ātman. and the 9eart -hṛda#a. #ut on the . the instrument of eating. the origin of the interior %orld of thought& Speech acts as a mirror of the e7terior reality.4 n the practice of ayurvedic medicine.& 'he heart -hṛda#a. palatal.. that have the role of a#sor#ing prana from food&3.& 2!ni creates #oth human life and of the energy of spiritual evolution -that is. sa. the creation of the universe is descri#ed in Kashmir Shaivism as an evolution of sound.organ 0 $r!ta tattva -the ear.. a tattva.. as defined in Kashmir Shaivism.D4 Three reative voids 'ogether %ith the mouth -the v!id that creates speech. t%o other creative aspects of the human #ody are the vulva -#!ni.& 'he study of these energies is an essential part of Kashmir Shaivism& 3.

atemporal vi#ration -spanda. limited tools&33(4 'hus in Kashmir Shaivism as in many other oriental spiritual schools. sym#ols and non0se8uential instant kno%ledge -intuition. the language of mantric sylla#les. compact mass of consciousness and #eatitude -(id-ananda-1hana. a se7ual reference to its role as a creative po%er. ruptured from direct e7perience.4 / ult power of the word 'he %ord has spiritual. the %estern philosophy is limited to an edifice of mental speculation&33I4 While philosophy relies solely on %ords it cannot #e a true path to the a#solute 'ruth. mystical and even demoniac po%ers. that of the ego and vaikharī vāk& . so is speech e7pressed in three different %ays: • at the level of the ego -ahaṃkāra. is a fundamental tool in tantra and .& 'hus at this level there is a#solutely no difference #et%een the %ord and its significance& :n this scale vāk tattva corresponds to the first level of speech. it includes madh#amā vāk and vaikharī vāk. soul and spirit. all appro7imative. and the spontaneous flash of conscious light that pro/ects o#/ects into reality -abhāsa. ego. as conscious light -prakāsavimarṣa.G4 $s the self is e7pressed in three levels. accent falls on direct e7perience and realiBation through the means of the various disciplines of yoga and meditation& n Shaivism.3. e7terior madh#amā vāk 0 mental speech. some of %hich are descri#ed in the follo%ing concepts: • mantra 0 the sacred sylla#le. magical. it is represents silence. %ords play as references. interior pa$#antī vāk 0 pure intentionality.& • at the level of the spirit -atman. a %orld of the mind& Words act as sym#ols of e7ternal reality. pre0speech parāvāk 0 identical to the nature of the Spirit 3.H4 here there is only one single reality and one single meaning and it is descri#ed in a multitude of concepts.. is also named >ogos Spermatikos in *reek 0 -spermatikosMseed.evels of spee h Speech is considered in Kashmir Shaivism to e7ist on multiple levels.F43. #ut only the e7terior -or spoken. yet their very act of indicating -or reflecting the e7terior reality.. speech is fully differentiated. it can #e descri#ed as pa$iantī vāk. #oth sound and spiritual energy. thus the vehicle of speech is the %ord itself • at the level of the soul -jivātman. parāvak -supreme %ord.highest level.&3. or puruṣa in Kashmir Shaivism.. supreme freedom -svātantr#a. language is not ruptured from its real signification any more. matrices of creation present in the human #ody& .. mere guide marks or pointers for the consciousness in its endeavor of rediscovering its true nature&33.. in term of sound. is imprecise& <eing trapped into the prison of %ords. speech is e7pressed through vāk tattva& 'he full scale of speech is as follo%s: • • • • vaikharī vāk 0 spoken %ord. language is e7pressed as supreme %ord 0 parāvak. #ecause %ords are imprecise.64 'hus %e can see the multiple parallels and connections #et%een mouth and #!ni as #oth are e7pressions of the creative void.imiting power of words 'he po%er of %ords is that of creating a ne% %orld.

in Kashmir Shaivism -see the practice of /apa and u((ara. 0 produces the accumulation of a large energy in vak tattva • bhavana -contemplation. comes true 0 such a po%er is said to #e the result of the practice of satya 0 truthfulness n#āsa 0 a magical ritual of imposing mantras %ith the hand on specific parts of the human #ody. pointing to the various mistaken assumptions that need to #e surpassed • devotional speech 0 kno%n under various names in other spiritual traditions as nem#utsu. or replace it %ith sacred speech -laya yoga. through intense visualisation • koan 0 a kind of parado7ical contemplation e7pressed in %ords %ith the purpose of pro/ecting the mind #eyond %ords • neti neti 0 a kind of contemplation %here negation is used instead of affirmation. uccara.tongue This se tion is empty1 Eou can help #y adding to it& 56ebruar# 7899: . incantation 0 speech is the principal magical instrument scriptures 0 sacred %ords considered to #e originated from *od 9imself.sense organs ghrāṇa . in Kashmir Shaivism too there are a num#er of remarka#le devotional %orks The five j0ānendriyas . $tman is not that=. /apa.nose This se tion is empty1 Eou can help #y adding to it& 56ebruar# 7899: rasanā . to #ecome a spiritual foundation&3334 (ords in meditation 'he practice of meditation aims to stop the mental chatter altogether -the concept of =citta0vritti0 nirodha= of 2atan/ali. #ut the most secret initiations are traditionally transmitted =from mouth to ear=& :ral teachings are usually reinforced through repetition -ritual. the reasoning #ehind this techni8ue is that the a#solute cannot #e captured in any affirmative affirmation as it lies #eyond the sphere of speech. #ut it can #e discovered through meditation %ith the help of various negations -=$tman -the spirit. such as agamas in Kashmir Shaivism. prayer and religious chanting 0 are essential instrument in religious rituals casting a spell. speech is the preferred medium of spiritual initiation& Sometimes %ritten %ord is used. is not this. not /ust the mere %ords of Shiva degraded speech 0 curses and profanities 0 associated %ith demoniac resonances satya siddhi 0 the po%er of efficient speech 0 %hatever one says. in the form of %ord. a nota#le difference #et%een the occidental scriptures and the Kashmir Shaivism agamas is that the agamas are considered to #e Shiva 9imself. dhikr. that act only as guide marks along the %ay. thus a%akening the latent occult po%ers %ithin it (ord as a medium for spiritual initiation n most spiritual schools.• • • • • • conse8uently.& ?egular speech must #e put aside in order for consciousness to reach that level %hich goes #eyond the mental& • mauna -self0imposed silence. 0 speech charged %ith spiritual energy -Sakti.

its needs and desires& n ahaṃkāra predominates rajas guna -agitation.ear This se tion is empty1 Eou can help #y adding to it& 56ebruar# 7899: -ntaḥkaraṇa . the universal consciousness& ts operating mode is assuming authorship of all the actions of buddhi.& <ecause it identifies only %ith a small . fraught %ith contradictions: dou#t. manas can act either as a cause of conditioning and #ondage or as a path to%ards freedom& 'he latter is possi#le for poets. also called the internal organ. #ut also filters and assem#les them into a coherent vision& 5anas operates #ased on learned #ehavior.& ts state is descri#ed as al%ays agitated& 5anas is the hu# connecting the ten organs of action and senses to the upper tattvas -intellect. lack of steadfastness& . faith. #eyond mā#ā. prakṛti and puruṣa tattva& manas . buddhi.akṣu .the empiri al ego Ahaṃkāra tattva is the first seat of su#/ectivity& Ahaṃ means = = and k)ra means =to do=. the principle of individuation. shame.& ahaṃkāra . can understand and assume a moral code. ha#its and automatisms. the senses and organs of action& Ahaṃkāra lives in the sphere of duality.anas interprets everything in terms of attra(ti!n and repulsi!n& While the ego -ahaṃkāra tattva. ahaṃkāra 0 the instrument of Ahaṃ -the Spirit.eye This se tion is empty1 Eou can help #y adding to it& 56ebruar# 7899: tvak . thus.anas is the instrument for the creation of vikalpa -dual thoughts.& 5anas is the center of logical reasoning %hile buddhi is the center of intuition.& t does not simply transit the sensations. manas is termed =the undisciplined mind=. instincts.the lower mind 'he manas name comes from the ver#al root man 0 to think& . and transmitting commands& <ecause of its agitated nature. ahaṃkāra.the inner instrument Antaḥkaraṇa. lack of faith. manas. its consciousness is #ut a small spark from <it. desire. ego and soul. like a comple7 computer processing data -from the senses. in a state of identification %ith the physical #ody. the notions of good and evil. artists and those %ho are illuminated -can operate %ithin the pure tattvas. steadfastness..skin This se tion is empty1 Eou can help #y adding to it& 56ebruar# 7899: śrotra . discrimination and %ill& Lepending on the state of consciousness. is part of the pure0impure tattvas& $ctivity in these tattvas is su#/ective cum o#/ective& Antaḥkaraṇa contains five tattvas: manas. it does not have consciousness of its o%n& ahaṃkāra is a receptacle of <it $akti. acting only on the desires that arise& ts program is Repeat pleasure and av!id pain&33C4 5anas operates #oth in the su#tle and the physical plane -#rain. fear. manas is limited to the complementary pair of pleasure and pain. acting as an independent conscious entity %ithin the impure reality 0 yet.

buddhi is a superior tattva.& :ne of the prescri#ed %ays of developing buddhi is the study of sacred te7ts& n Kashmiri Shaivism. or. as defined in Ka!mir "aivism. in other %ords. as the principle of = 0ness=. #ased on the information presented from the lo%er tattvas& n buddhi tattva there is a predominance of sattva guna -purity. and re/ects everything else as =not me=.the intelle t /uddhi tattva represents the intuitive understanding. en/oying -maintenance. puruṣa0prakṛti do on a personal scale& 'hey have the same energies of %ill. it #ecomes su#/ect to a series of afflictions such as: pride. Paurusha J&āna -to kno% through direct e7perience. competitiveness. %hich can rise a#ove ego and the sensorial& t does value /udgments. ahaṃkāra is allo%ed control over the manas -sensorial mind. the superior mind. individual %ill.& Eet. every puruṣa has his individual prakṛti& Prakṛti and Puruṣa are closely interdependent& 'hey are the reflection of $iva and $akti tattva in the sphere of mā#ā& 'he difference is that 0 %hile $iva and $akti tattva are infinite and nondual. occultation and grace& n *& @& 'agareAs he Prat#abhij&ā Phil!s!ph#. intuition. something is al%ays accessi#le. and ahaṃkāra is only allo%ed from a functional point of vie% a superior position to buddhi& From an a#solute point of vie%. hate and /ealousy& :n the other hand. ahaṃkāra is created #y buddhi and thus su#ordinated to it& buddhi . sustenance. and dhyana -meditation. it is impossi#le to e7ert the level of effort re8uired to accede to a higher spiritual level& 'he position of ahaṃkāra and buddhi are sometimes presented in reversed order #ecause. a sense of morality and ethics and it is thus the first step on the spiritual path& Without a sufficiently harmonious and po%erful ahaṃkāra -personality. puruṣa and prakṛti are limited and su#/ect to duality& :ther than that. is limited only to the moments of inspiration& prakṛti tattva Prakṛti tattva is the fundamental operative energy of the soul -jivatman. is considered the foundation of illumination #ecause once profoundly understood. %hile here it means an energy of the individual. and buddhi -superior intellect. discriminates #et%een possi#ilities.. determination.part of the creation -the #ody. intuitive penetration and higher a%areness& :ther nota#le terms containing dhi are sam)dhi -yogic ecstasy. %hile the second type of kno%ledge. it creates the %orld of puruṣa& n Ka!mir "aivism prakṛti has a different meaning than in S)ṃkhya. "ivaAs level sṛṣṭi sthiti >evel of the limited #eing ābhāsana rakti . dissolution. decides and determines. for the first time. egoism. these five actions and their correlates are given as follo%s:33D4 ?ole appearance -creation. /auddha J&āna -the intuitive and conceptual understanding. kno%ledge and action and perform the five actions of creation. %hat $iva0$akti do on a universal scale. in S)ṃkhya it refers to the fundamental energy of the manifestation& 'hus. %ith ahaṃkāra tattva appears. meaning reflection. and the energy of /N)na $akti 0 the energy of kno%ledge& 'he name buddhi contains the Sanskrit radical dhi.

the master. in perfect e8uili#rium: Sattva -purity.. ego. a restrictive force creating a =prison= for the consciousness inside the dual creation& . so%ing seeds -occultation. from another perspective.((hā. is the author of the action.e7periencing %ithin oneself -resorption. or.: ānava mala. the limited #eing -jiva. the one %ho is #ound -pa$u.& 'hey derive from the triad . separatedness 33F4 Puruṣa acts as the su#/ect in all the limited -dual... $tman& Ṣat ka0 ukas KaNcukas means armour& 9ere it is used in the sense of limiting filter. %hich resides at the level of $iva and $akti tattva& Puruṣa is the o%ner of prakṛti.((hā $akti Kri#ā $akti 2roduces /uddhi tattva Ahaṃkara tattva . instead of recogniBing $tman as the real agent • . sensorial mind. finite and small in comparison to the %orld • Kārma . mental and sensorial states of consciousness& n fact the real author of all the actions is $tman. nonduality saṃhāra vila#a vimar$ana bījāvasthapāna anugraha vilāpana Prakṛti tattva has three tendencies -guna. #ut he doesnAt need any intermediary to reconnect to his source.anas tattva Prakṛti is the source of all tattvas from #uddhi do%n to pṛithvī -earth. J&āna and Kri#ā as follo%s: *una Sattva Rajas amas Lerives from J&āna $akti .ala 0 the #elief that he -the limited self. and 'amas -inertia..33F4 the spiritual atom -aṇu.. %hich creates the intellect..ala 0 the #elief that he is limited. and the cosmic illusion -mā#ā tattva. the supreme Self. 0 the creator of #oth the individual and of the e7ternal reality&3364 puruṣa Puruṣa tattva is defined as the living soul -jivatman.& Śiva is also kno%n as Pati.& t is not only the human #eing. saṃsk)ra. the effect of the three impurities or poisons -malas. #ut every sentient #eing& Puruṣa appears as the result of the process of contraction or occultation Śiva assumes %illingly& 'his feat is achieved #y the five limitations -ka&(uka tattvas. senses and organs of action& Puruṣa needs prakṛti in order to act as an individual in relation to the e7ternal reality. ?a/as -agitation.& <et%een Pati and Pa$u is Pā$a 0 the limitation itself& Pā$a is the cumulative effect of m)y) and the five kaNcukas. grace. reduction of kno%ledge to a su#conscious impression.ā#ī#a .ala 0 the #elief in duality. dissolution of residual impressions-saṃsk)ras. kārma mala and mā#ī#a mala& • %nava . %hile Puruṣa is the Pa$u -the #onded one.

2o%ers that maintain the individual soul resting in the middle like 'rishanku, %hich other%ise %ould fall into the condition of complete inertia like a rock, etc, or %ould ascend into the sky of Consciousness like the Supreme >ord& $#hinavagupta 33G4 'he theory of the D sheaths e7isted long #efore& Shankara %rites in his A$tma <odhaA33H4 a#out the +ive sheaths the ,mma(ulate Atman appears t! have b!rr!-ed& 'rishanku is a mythical character %ho %anted to ascend to heaven in his physical #ody& While the sage @is%amitra %as helping him ascend, the *ods %ere in opposition, thus he #ecame suspended half %ay through& $#hinavagupta descri#es the ka&(ukas as five forces that create a middle ground #et%een the realm of the pure tattvas and o#/ectivity, the purpose of this middle ground is to reunite #oth the spiritual and the material, the su#/ective and the o#/ective 0 a playground of spiritual evolution that is needed if such entities as jiva -the limited #eing. are to e7ist& 'hus ka&(ukas have a triple role: they act as an entry #arrier to%ards the realm of the pure tattvas for the limited #eings -/iva., they also act as a gate%ay for the illuminated, %ho can pass %ithout impediment #et%een the pure and impure realities, and finally, they create a middle ground of su#/ective0cum0o#/ective activity, %here spiritual evolution can take place& 'he five kaNcukas present #oth a limited aspect and a universal aspect& 'hey are like intervals, %ith one end in the infinite and the other end in the finite& 'hey are: omnipotence 0 sarvakartṛtva omniscience 0 sarva/Natva fullness, perfection 0 p1rṇatva eternity 0 nityatva omnipresence 0 vy)pakatva 3CI4 'he com#ined effect of the five limitations -ka&(ukas., is descri#ed as follo%s, #y $#hinavagupta, in /ust one phrase: 'hus, the su#/ect, #eing limited or intert%ined %ith kāla, vid#ā, kalā, rāga and ni#ati and #eing deprived of divine glory #y mā#ā, shines as limited, feeling Athat %hich kno%s something no%, does this and is attached to this, am A 0 O!varapratya#hi/N) @imar!in+ of $#hinavagupta&3C(4 limited po%er 0 kal) limited kno%ledge 0 vidy) limitation of desire 0 r)ga limitation of time or life 0 k)la limitation of space 0 niyati

niyati - spatial limitation
=i#ati tattva reduces the state of omnipresence to the level of finitude& 'he su#/ect can #e only in one place, his #ody is limited and outside his #ody is the domain of =not myself=& 'his is the fundamental duality of the e7istence in the impure domain -meaning tattvas from puruṣa to pṛithvī.& <ased on the duality #et%een the limited su#/ect and the %orld, a series of physical limitations arise, like: hunger, fatigue, sickness and the need to protect oneself& <y constant identification %ith these

limitations the ego -ahaṃkāra. is formed& Ahaṃkāra e7erts itself tirelessly in its pursuit of happiness, yet it understands happiness in a very limited and dual fashion, %hich can never #e a sta#le fulfillment&

kāla - limitation in time
Kāla tattva reduces the e7perience of eternity to that of time and limited life span& Pnder kāla tattva time takes three aspects: past, present and future& <ut %hile the past is /ust a memory and the future is a pro#a#ility, only the present is actually e7perienced& 'ime limitation has to do %ith death, re#irth and #ecoming su#/ect to the cosmic cycles of life& 'ime is relative to the o#server& :#/ective time is sometimes faster, other times slo%er than the su#/ective -interior. time& $s the consciousness e7pands, time flo% is perceived as #eing slo%er& When a state of enlightenment -the revelation of the Self, $tman. is achieved, kāla ka&(ukas -limitation. #ecomes transparent and eternity shines as the present moment&

rāga - in ompleteness) the limitation of desire
Rāga tattva is the limitation of the =perfect fullness of the $#solute=& While in the realm of the pure tattvas -from $iva tattva to !uddha vid#ā tattva. every possi#ility is simultaneously fulfilled, under the effects of this limitation, there is e7perience of incompleteness, and so, desire for various o#/ects appears& 'he source of perfect #liss is a %nanda& %nanda is the reflection of a#solute consciousness -<it. on itself& n an analogy, the %hite light of <it is said to #ecome the rain#o% of %nanda, e7pressing every possi#le color at the same time& Eet, in the dual %orld, the infinite nuances of %nanda cannot #e e7perienced at once, and appear as various distinct forms of emotion or rasa -aesthetic flavours.& 'his is the %ork of the rāga ka&(uka&

vidyā - the limitation of knowledge
"id#ā tattva is the constriction of infinite kno%ledge to limited and imperfect kno%ledge& n the realm of pure tattvas, Śiva has direct access to any information a#out anything as the %hole creation rests inside 9im, like oneAs thoughts rest inside oneAs mind& Eet, to kno% everything at once is to kno% that %hich is inside everything and #eyond& $cting as its source and the %itness, <it is said to #e the #asis for the %hole creation, the ultimate 'ruth, %hich is the only truth one needs to kno%& 6verything else is derived from it& 'he limited #eing, una#le to recollect his essence of <it -infinite consciousness., operates in the realm of dual kno%ledge& 9is o#/ects of kno%ledge are distinctQdifferentiated& 'his type of kno%ledge may #ecome more and more su#tle %ith study and practice, yet it is never a#le to descri#e <it& 'he only %ay to rise to the level of non dual kno%ledge is through the act of *race of Śiva& 'his point is specific to Ka!mir "aivism& :ne can prepare for the descent of grace #y studying the sacred te7ts and purifying his #ody -physical and su#tle.& 6ven so, the *race of Śiva %ill come only at Śiva's a#solutely free %ill&

kalā - limitation in power
Kalā tattva 0 the limitation in po%er, is %hat makes one forget his original status of omnipotent #eing and assume the #elief in the limitation of his po%er& 'his %rong #elief acts as a chain limiting his spiritual progress& n this state, he identifies %ith his limited actions and #ears the fruits of the karma they generate& n order to recollect his true nature, of infinite consciousness and #liss 0 (it-ānanda, he needs a level of po%er unavaila#le to limited #eings& :nly #y understanding this and accepting that it is Śiva that is acting, not his ego, %ill he #ecome open to the *race of Śiva, %hich is identical to a huge impulse of po%er that shatters duality and transports him directly into the realm of the pure tattvas& <y opening his heart to Śiva, thinking of himself as a channel of Śiva's energy, he creates a special status of =spiritual son=& $ spiritual sonAs actions are endo%ed %ith efficiency #y virtue of a direct link #et%een his heart and the infinite heart of Śiva&

māyā - the origin of illusion and duality
;ā#ā tattva is a very important stage in the process of manifestation& ;ā means =to measure=, measura#le means finite& From the infinite #eing that is Śiva, it creates the finite: the illusion of multiplicity, differentiation in multiple o#/ects and limitation of o#/ects& 'his process of manifestation is #ased on a series of multi0levelled reflections -pratibimba., creating a series of octaves or intervals& From pure consciousness and #liss Śiva-Śakti #ecomes vital and mental energy, and then matter& 'hus the process of creation is a process of descent and ;ā#ā is the tool #y %hich this descent starts& :n the other hand, mā#ā is the portal to%ards the rediscovery of Śiva 0 %hen it is seen in the conte7t of the spiritual evolution& n Ka!mir "aivism mā#ā is not separated from <it -supreme consciousness.& 'his is a ma/or difference #et%een Ka$mir Śaivism and $dvaita @ed)nta& 'hus, mā#ā is created #y %nanda Śakti, the operative energy of Śiva& n turn, mā#ā is the instrument of creation for the dual %orld&3C;4 6ven though Śiva assumes limitations in his role as a limited #eing jiva, Śiva never #ecomes a su#/ect to any e7ternal limitations& Svātantr#a, the a#solute free %ill Śiva, is the sole cause for the apparition of duality 3C34 :ne cannot possi#ly understand at the level of dual e7istence, the motive %hy Śiva creates duality and the %orld %ith all its individual #eings& t remains a profound mystery 3CC4 *od, Consciousness in essence, like a magician, makes the %hole ensem#le of things %hich reside in 9im appear outside 9imself %ithout any e7ternal cause, solely #y the po%er of 9is %ill& Ptpaladeva 3CD4 'he effect of mā#ā is the sensation of division into interior and e7terior, su#/ect and o#/ect& n Ka!mir "aivism it is considered that e7terior o#/ects and limited #eings -jiva. are never separated from oneAs consciousness, or Śiva's consciousness&3CD4

2uddha tattvas
'his group of five tattvas descri#e the Livine Consciousness& 'hey appear #y the pro/ection of the five prin(ipal energies of the $#solute: • <it $akti 0 divine consciousness 0 creates $iva tattva • %nanda $akti 0 supreme #liss 0 creates $akti tattva • ,((hā $akti 0 divine %ill 0 creates sadā$iva tattva

• J&āna $akti 0 divine po%er of kno%ledge 0 creates ī$vara tattva • Kri#ā $akti 0 po%er to manifest 0 creates $uddha vid#ā tattva 3C64 'hese five tattvas are called =pure= #ecause they are the domain of pure su#/ectivity. the limitations of mā#ā are ine7istent and the pure non0dual kno%ledge shines& When puruṣa.& 9ere the %orld is e7plicitly detailed yet the creation hasnAt yet #egun& 'hus. the universe is real=& . through the grace of Śiva reveals his essence of Atman. Śiva is a per+e(t mirr!r and Śakti is the image inside the mirr!r& $ll .-ness and his-ness are e8ually #alanced and the e7perience of the universe gets more distinct&3CF4 t is a state of unity in diversity& Śuddha vid#ā acts as the instrumental function of sadā$iva tattva and ī$vara tattva& īśvara 'he affirmation at the level of ī$vara tattva is: ='his universe is my e7pansion. 3CG4 śakti 'he term Śakti comes from the root shak 0 to #e capa#le of& Śakti is the operative -or kinetic.& :n sadā$iva tattva o#/ectivity e7ists only in a very incipient form& 9ere the universe is said to #e vague -asphuṭa. aspect of consciousness. #efore creating it in reality& 'he ī$vara and sadā$iva tattvas are associated to the flu7 and reflu7 of the divine consciousness. the divine po%er of kno%ledge& <eings residing on this level are called mantre$vara -lords of the mantra. he gets first into the realm of $uddha vid#ā tattva& <ut the realisation of identity %ith Śiva is not perfectly sta#le yet and his access to this state comes and goes& 9ere. non duality. there are no five separate entities here& śuddha vidyā Śuddha vid#ā means pure kno%ledge& From here on. they are al%ays one. not an illusion=& t is associated to j&ānana $akti. <it ->$vara is unmeṣa 0 the e7pansion of the universe. it is a state of divine e7istence %here Śiva first pro/ects the %orld in his mind. its po%er to act and the cause of all motion in the universe&3CH4 <ecause "akti #rings everything into e7istence She is the feminine aspect of the universe in the cosmic couple "iva0"akti& Śiva and Śakti tattva are insepara#le and interdependent. #eyond any duality& Śiva remains al%ays one. Śiva is the interior aspect of consciousness and Śakti is the e7terior 3DI4 0 they are united like +ire and its (apa(it# t! burn& $ny difference #et%een them is /ust a matter of semantics& n another metaphor. and dominated #y the e7perience of = 0 ness= -Kṣemara/a. the su#/ects thinks: = am "iva. Śiva is an in+inite !(ean and Śakti a -ave !n its sur+a(e& n a third metaphor.& sadāśiva 'he affirmation at this level is = am this Pniverse=& 'he accent here falls on = =& 'he focus is on the su#/ect& 9ere Śiva manifests as sovereign %ill 0 i(hhā $akti& <eings residing on this level are called mantra-mahe$vara -great lords of the mantras. %here Śiva is clearly manifested and there is no impediment or limitation& 6ven though there are five aspects of Śiva.

ni#ati. non manifested. from the @edic e7pression Sat0cit0ananda. the passive aspect of pure consciousness. kalā. Sat -pure e7istence.& :n account of it #eing dynamic and ever vi#rating. it relies in turn on Śakti for its po%er& śiva Śiva tattva is the transcendental consciousness. inactive in report %ith creation. $uddha vid#ā. as nothing that e7ists is different from it and there is nothing outside it& n Ka!mir "aivism. Śakti tattva is associated to ānanda 0 infinite #liss& Where "akti is predominant.these analogies try to e7press the unity of "iva and "akti& >ike the image cannot #e separate from the mirror in %hich it e7ists. so "iva and "akti are #ut one reality& :n the level of Śakti tattva the e7perience of . thus the e7pression #ecomes /ust <it-%nanda& Śiva tattva is the supreme su#/ect& 9is nature is that of pure . e7ists& <eyond Śiva tattva there is only the 'ranscendence -Parama Śiva. there is e7perience of #liss& n the pair Prakasa-"imarsa. $tman. the static center and su#stratum of all change&3CH4 $nother %ay to descri#e Śiva tattva is Prakasa 0 the uncreated light& t is the po%er of consciousness to shine %ithout any e7ternal support& Prakasa is e7istence. the four spheres of reality • 'rika • 'urya .-ness is pure and universal and there is no trace of the e7perience of his-ness& 'he top t%o tattvas -Śiva and Śakti.& $ifferen es from %āṃkhya 'he uni8ue point of vie% of Kashmir Shaivism is e7pressed in the e7position of supplementary (( tattvas compared to "eda or Sāṃkh#a& 'hey are mā#ā. is omitted on account that <it -pure consciousness. A!akti and !iva tattva' he rest !+ 7? tattva@ -hi(h are (!mm!n t! Sāṃkh#a@ have in Kashmir Shaivism a slightl# lesser p!siti!n@ as the (ateg!ries !+ matter spe(i+i( t! the impure (reati!n 5dual (reati!n:' %ee also • $ṇḍa.-ness %ithout any his-ness& 9is e7istence cannot #e detected #y an act of perception& :nly on account of his effects can %e postulate his e7istence&3CH4 Śiva and Śakti tattvas are the plane %here the supreme Self. vid#ā. Śakti is also kno%n as spanda& Spanda is the fundamental vi#ration of consciousness that permeates the %hole universe& 'he %ill to create the universe appears first in Śakti tattva& 6ven though mā#ā is the actual instrument of creation. kāla. ī$vara. the canvas on %hich the %hole creation is pro/ected& Śiva tattva appears as <it. Śakti tattva is "imarsa 0 the refle7ive aspect of Śiva 0 that is 0 Śiva perceiving 9imself -reflecting on his o%n nature. are said to #e non manifested #ecause they donAt participate to the cycle of creation& 'hey act only as a #ackdrop or canvas for the creation& n the triad sat0cit0ananda. contains it implicitly. sadā$iva. rāga.

pag& (3.&4 2rostration. Knut $& Jaco#sen.. Kundalini 'antra. $ugust . *&@&'agare. >eiden.i!g t/e /eali!g syste*s o" t/e <est1 =o>ever' t/e co!ce t o" t/e t/ree ri!ci les a!d t/e Sa!s%rit >ords' vata. pag& DG G& 4 2ada -9indu mythology.. http:QQ%%%&sym#olism&orgQ%ritingQ#ooksQspQhome&html. http:QQ%%%&shivashakti&comQsu#ha&htm (C&4 S%ami Satyananda Saras%ati. 2osture (D&4 9ealing With the Chakra 6nergy System: $cupressure. pag& . @an James. http:QQen&%iktionary&orgQ%ikiQprostration (3&4 Su#hagodya. Johannes <ronkhorst. pag& . pag& . pag& (3F (H&4 Spirit and $rt: 2ictures of the 'ransformation of Consciousness.%a /a' are very di""icult to tra!slate i!to <ester! ter*s1 .D . free online version at http:QQ%%%&dlsh8&orgQdo%nloadQkundalini&htm D& 4 5uladhara Chakra 6& 4 ntroduction to Kashmir Shaivism. *aneshpuri.F C& 4 Kundalini Eoga. H& 4 5odern nstitute of ?efle7ology (I&4 ?elics of the <uddha.. . >ilian Sil#urn.3H (. <ody%ork.3R.H. pag (CD (6&4 9amsa (F&4 'he Complete Lictionary of Sym#ols. John Strong. itta. John Fraim.3otes (& 4 'he 2ratya#hi/N) 2hilosophy. $nd ?efle7ology for 'otal 9ealth. (G&4 $ Lictionary of Sym#ols.. Accordi!g to Ayurveda t/e "irst re(uire*e!t "or /eali!g o!esel" a!d ot/ers is a clear u!dersta!di!g o" t/e t/ree dosha1 T/e co!ce t o" vata-pitta-kapha is u!i(ue to Ayurveda a!d it /olds t/e ote!tial "or revolutio!i.& 4 Sym#olism of 2lace.II. pag& UNDERSTANDING TRIDOSHA. Christy 'urlington. Juan06duardo Cirlot. (HFD. pag& 33 F& 4 2anels of the @ th World Sanskrit Conference: Kern nstitute. Chapter . S%ami Sivananda. (HGG. pag& GD ((&4 'heory $nd 2ractice of Eoga: 6ssays in 9onor of *erald James >arson. . Jack 'residder. pag& . 'he 6nergy of the Lepths. cap& F 3& 4 Kundalini.I&4 For some mudra illustrations 0 >iving Eoga: Creating a >ife 2ractice. *urudev Siddha 2eeth. John ?& Cross. (HGF.

)olis*1 Vata is "or*ed "ro* t/e t>o ele*e!ts Et/er a!d Air1 Vata gover!s )reat/i!g' )li!%i!g o" t/e eyelids' *ove*e!ts i! t/e *uscles a!d tissues' ulsatio!s i! t/e /eart' all e? a!sio! . ata is a ri!ci le o" *ove*e!t1 T/at >/ic/ *oves is called vata1 T/ere"ore' vata *ay )e tra!slated as t/e )odily air ri!ci le1 =o>ever' t/e ele*e!t o" Air i! t/e e?ter!al at*os /ere is !ot t/e sa*e as t/e air i! t/e )ody1 @odily air' or vata' *ay )e c/aracteri.Common Elements of the ridosha. VATA.ed as t/e su)tle e!ergy t/at gover!s )iological *ove*e!t1 T/is )iological ri!ci le o" *ove*e!t e!ge!ders all su)tle c/a!ges i! t/e *eta.

e!ergy' t/e itta dos/a' >/ic/ *a!i"ests as *eta)olis* is !ot visi)le i! t/is >ay1 Pitta gover!s digestio!' a)sor tio!' assi*ilatio!1 !utritio!' *eta)olis*' )ody te* erature' s%i! coloratio!' t/e luster o" t/e eyes4 a!d also i!tellige!ce a!d u!dersta!di!g1 Psyc/ologically' itta arouses a!ger' /ate a!d 0ealousy1 T/e s*all i!testi!e' sto*ac/' s>eat gla!ds' )lood' "at' eyes a!d s%i! are t/e seats o" itta1 Pitta is "or*ed "ro* t/e t>o ele*e!ts Fire a!d <ater1 KAPHA. T/e tra!slatio! o" %a /a is )iological >ater1 a!d t/is )odily ri!ci le is "or*ed "ro* t/e t>o ele*e!ts' Eart/ a!d <ater1 3a /a ce*e!ts t/e ele*e!ts i! t/e )ody rovidi!g t/e *aterial "or /ysical structure1 T/is dos/a *ai!tai!s )ody resista!ce1 <ater is t/e *ai! co!stitue!t o" %a /a' a!d t/is )odily >ater is res o!si)le /ysiologically "or )iolog/al stre!gt/ a!d !atural tissue resista!ce i! t/e )ody1 3a /a lu)ricates t/e 0oi!ts+ rovides *oisture to t/e s%i!+ /el s to .a!d co!tractio!' t/e *ove*e!ts o" cyto las* a!d t/e cell *e*)ra!es' a!d t/e *ove*e!t o" t/e si!gle i* ulses i! !erve cells1 Vata also gover!s suc/ "eeli!gs a!d e*otio!s as "res/!ess' !ervous!ess' "ear' a!?iety' ai!' tre*ors a!d s as*s1 T/e large i!testi!e' elvic cavity' )o!es' s%i!' ears a!d t/ig/s are t/e seats o" vata1 A" t/e )ody develo s a! e?cess o" vata' it >ill accu*ulate i! t/ese areas1 PITTA. !itta is tra!slated as "ire' alt/oug/ t/e ter* does !ot literally *ea! B"ire1B T/e "ire o" a ca!dle or t/e "ire i! a "ire lace *ay )e see!+ /o>ever' t/e )odily /eat.

sta!di!g e!vy+ it is also e? ressed i! te!de!cies to>ard cal*!ess' "orgive!ess a!d love1 T/e c/est is t/e seat o" %a /a1 A TABLE OF THE FUNCTIONS OF TRI-DOSHA./eal >ou!ds' "ills t/e s aces i! t/e )ody4 gives )iological stre!gt/1 vigor a!d sta)ility+ su orts *e*ory rete!tio!+ gives e!ergy to t/e /eart a!d lu!gs a!d *ai!tai!s i**u!ity1 3a /a is rese!t i! t/e c/est' t/roat' /ead' si!uses' !ose' *out/' sto*ac/1 0oi!ts' cyto las*' las*a a!d li(uid secretio!s o" t/e )ody suc/ as *ucus1 Psyc/ologically' %a /a is res o!si)le "or e*otio!s o" attac/*e!t' greed a!d lo!g. VATA (Air + Space) PITTA (Fire + a!er) KAPHA ( a!er + Ear!") Move*e!t @reat/i!g Natural Urges Tra!s"or*atio! o" Tissues Motor Fu!ctio!s U!grou!ded!ess Secretio!s E?cretio!s Fear @ody =eat Te* erature Digestio! Perce tio! U!dersta!di!g T/irst A!tellige!ce A!ger =ate Sta)ility E!ergy Lu)ricatio! U!ctuous!ess Forgive!ess Creed Attac/*e!t Accu*ulatio! =oldi!g Possessive!ess Se!sory Fu!ctio!s =u!ger .

E* i!ess A!?iety Dealousy A BALANCE A#ONG THE TRIDOSHA IS NECESSAR$ FOR HEALTH. For e?a* le' t/e air ri!ci le %i!dles t/e )odily "ire' )ut >ater is !ecessary to co!trol "ire' ot/er>ise t/e )odily "ire >ould )ur! t/e tissues1 Vata *oves %a /a a!d itta' si!ce %a /a a!d itta are i**o)ile1 Toget/er t/e tridos/a gover!s all *eta)olic activities4 a!a)olis* $%a /a&' cata)olis* $vata&' a!d *eta)olis* $ itta&1 </e! vata is out o" )ala!ce' t/e *eta)olis* >ill )e distur)ed' resulti!g i! e?cess cata)olis* >/ic/ is t/e )rea%do>! or deterioratio! rocess i! t/e )ody1 </e! a!a)olis* is greater t/a! cata)olis*' t/ere is a! i!creased rate o" gro>t/ a!d re air o" t/e orga!s a!d tissues1 E?cess itta distur)s *eta)olis*' e?cess %a /a i!creases t/e rate o" a!a)olis* a!d e?cess vata creates e*aciatio! $cata)olis*&1 A! c/ild/ood a!a)olis* a!d t/e %a /a ele*e!ts are redo*i!a!t' si!ce t/is is t/e ti*e o" greatest /ysical gro>t/1 A! adult/ood *eta)olis* a!d t/e ele*e!t o" itta are *ost a are!t )ecause at t/is stage t/e )ody is *atured a!d sta)le1 A! old age cata)olis* a!d vatta are *ost i! evide!ce as t/e )ody )egi!s to deteriorate .

DETER#INING THE INDIVIDUAL CONSTITUTION.e!ds )ecause o" oor *uscle develo *e!t T/e /air is curly a!d sca!ty t/e eyelas/es are t/i! a!d t/e eyes lusterless1 T/e eyes *ay )e su!%e!' s*all' dry' active a!d t/e co!0u!ctiva is dry a!d *uddy1 T/e !ails are roug/ a!d )rittle1 T/e s/a e o" t/e !ose is )e!t a!d tur!ed u 1 P/ysiologically' t/e a etite a!d digestio! are varia)le1 Vata eo le crave s>eet' sour a!d salty tastes a!d li%e /ot dri!%s1 T/e roductio! o" uri!e is sca!ty a!d t/e "eces are dry' /ard a!d s*all i! (ua!tity1 T/ey /ave a te!de!cy to ers ire less t/a! ot/er co!stitutio!al ty es1 T/eir slee *ay )e distur)ed a!d t/ey >ill slee less t/a! t/e ot/er ty es1 T/eir /a!ds a!d "eet are o"te! cold1 . Peo le o" vata co!stitutio! are ge!erally /ysically u!derdevelo ed1 T/eir c/ests are "lat a!d t/eir vei!s a!d *uscle te!do!s are visi)le1 T/e co* le?io! is )ro>!' t/e s%i! is cold' roug/' dry a!d crac%ed1 T/ere usually are a "e> *oles rese!t' >/ic/ te!d to )e dar%1 Vata eo le ge!erally are eit/er too tall or too s/ort' >it/ t/i! "ra*es >/ic/ reveal ro*i!e!t 0oi!ts a!d )o!e. T/e reader is t/ere"ore cautio!ed !ot to dra> stro!g or de"i!ite co!clusio!s a)out /i*sel" or /ersel" )ased o! t/ese "u!da*e!tal descri tio!s1 T/e deter*i!atio! o" o!eEs articular co!stitutio!al ty e s/ould serve o!ly to dra> ge!eral a>are!ess to various areas o" li"e' suc/ as diet' i! order to e!courage a regi*e! t/at >ill ro*ote good /ealt/1 VATA CONSTITUTION.

)ro>! a!d s/ar + t/e eye)alls >ill )e o" *ediu* ro*i!e!ce1 T/e co!0u!ctiva is *oist a!d co er. T/ese eo le are o" *ediu* /eig/t' are sle!der a!d )ody "ra*e *ay )e delicate1 T/eir c/ests are !ot as "lat as t/ose o" vata eo le a!d t/ey s/o> a *ediu* ro*i!e!ce o" vei!s a!d *uscle te!do!s1 T/ey /ave *a!y *oles or "rec%les >/ic/ are )luis/ or )ro>!is/.red1 T/e )o!es are !ot as ro*i!e!t as i! t/e vata i!dividual1 Muscle develo *e!t is *oderate1 T/e itta co* le?io! *ay )e co ery' yello>is/' reddis/ or "air1 T/e s%i! is so"t' >ar* a!d less >ri!%led t/a! vata s%i!1 T/e /air is t/i!' sil%y' red or )ro>!is/ a!d t/ere is a te!de!cy to>ard re*ature grayi!g o" /air a!d /air loss1 T/e eyes *ay )e gray1 gree! or co er.T/ese eo le are creative' active' alert a!d restless1 T/ey tal% "ast a!d >al% "ast )ut t/ey are easily "atigued1 Psyc/ologically' t/ey are c/aracteri. colored1 T/e !ails are so"t1 T/e s/a e o" t/e !ose is s/ar a!d t/e ti te!ds to )e reddis/1 P/ysiologically' t/ese eo le /ave a stro!g *eta)olis*' good .ed )y s/ort *e*ory )ut (uic% *e!tal u!dersta!di!g1 T/ey >ill u!dersta!d so*et/i!g i**ediately' )ut >ill soo! "orget it1 T/ey /ave little >ill o>er' te!d to>ard *e!tal i!sta)ility a!d ossess little tolera!ce' co!"ide!ce or )old!ess1 T/eir reaso!i!g o>er is >ea% a!d t/ese eo le are !ervous' "ear"ul a!d a""licted )y *uc/ a!?iety1 Eac/ co!stitutio!al ty e also e?/i)its certai! atter!s i! i!teractio!s >it/ t/e e?ter!al e!viro!*e!t1 Vata eo le te!d to ear! *o!ey (uic%ly a!d also to s e!d it (uic%ly1 T/us' t/ey te!d to re*ai! oor1 PITTA CONSTITUTION.

digestio! a!d resulti!g stro!g a etites1 T/e erso! o" itta co!stitutio! usually ta%es large (ua!tities o" "ood a!d li(uid1 Pitta ty es /ave a !atural cravi!g "or s>eet' )itter a!d astri!ge!t tastes a!d e!0oy cold dri!%s1 T/eir slee is o" *ediu* duratio! )ut u!i!terru ted1 T/ey roduce a large volu*e o" uri!e a!d t/e "eces are yello>is/' li(uid' so"t a!d le!ti"ul1 T/ere is a te!de!cy to>ard e?cessive ers iri!g1 T/e )ody te* erature *ay ru! slig/tly /ig/ a!d /a!ds a!d "eet >ill te!d to )e >ar*1 Pitta eo le do !ot tolerate su!lig/t' /eat or /ard >or% >ell1 Psyc/ologically' itta eo le /ave a good o>er o" co* re/e!sio!+ t/ey are very i!tellige!t a!d s/ar a!d te!d to )e good orators1 T/ey /ave e*otio!al te!de!cies to>ard /ate' a!ger a!d 0ealousy1 T/ey are a*)itious eo le >/o ge!erally li%e to )e leaders1 Pitta eo le a reciate *aterial ros erity a!d t/ey te!d to )e *oderately >ell. Peo le o" %a /a co!stitutio! /ave >ell develo ed )odies1 T/ere is' /o>ever' a stro!g te!de!cy "or t/ese i!dividuals to carry e?cess >eig/t1 T/eir c/ests are e? a!ded a!d )road1 T/e vei!s a!d te!do!s o" %a /a eo le are !ot o)vious )ecause o" t/eir t/ic% s%i! a!d t/eir *uscle develo *e!t is good1 T/e )o!es are !ot ro*i!e!t1 T/eir co* le?io!s are "air a!d )rig/t1 T/e s%i! is so"t' lustrous a!d oily+ it is also cold a!d ale1 T/e /air is t/ic%' dar%' so"t a!d >avy1 T/e eyes are de!se a!d )lac% or )lue+ t/e >/ite o" t/e eye is ge!erally very >/ite' large a!d attractive1 T/e co!0u!ctiva does !ot te!d to red!ess1 .o"" "i!a!cially1 T/ey e!0oy e?/i)iti!g t/eir >ealt/ a!d lu?urious ossessio!s1 KAPHA CONSTITUTION.

%ie Lu durch entsprechende 6rnUhrung und >e#ens%eise dein *leichge%icht finden kannst& Lu kannst mehr fSr dich tun #ei einer $n%endung in der $yurveda :ase oder #ei einem $yurveda Seminar& 5ata schlank. trocken. %ie deine individuelle Konstitution #eschaffen ist& Lu kannst den $yurveda 'est direkt am <ildschirm ausfSllen und aus%erten lassen& n unserer $yurveda 'ypen T#ersicht kannst du mehr S#er @ata. 2itta und Kapha erfahren& n einem fundierten und umfangreichen <eratungsgesprUch kannst du JUheres Bu deiner individuellen Konstitution erfahren& Lu erhUltst dort 9in%eise. krUftig. gut gepolstert krUftig #is pummelig KVrper#au Knochen#au *elenke als Kind&&& . kalt eher schlank 6itta mittelgroWer KVrper. a#gerundet sch%ere Knochenstruktur groW. feingliedrig hervorstehend. ggf& ?ei#egerUusche.P/ysiologically' %a /a eo le /ave regular a etites1 t/e digestio! "u!ctio!s relatively slo>ly a!d t/ere is less i!ta%e o" "ood1 T/ey te!d to *ove slo>ly1 T/ey crave u!ge!t' )itter a!d astri!ge!t "oods1 Stools are so"t a!d *ay )e ale i! color+ evacuatio! is slo>1 T/eir ers iratio! is *oderate1 Slee is sou!d a!d rolo!ged1 T/ere is a stro!g vital ca acity evide!ced )y good sta*i!a a!d %a /a eo le are ge!erally /ealt/y' /a y a!d eace"ul1 Psyc/ologically' t/ey te!d to )e tolera!t' cal*' "orgivi!g a!d lovi!g+ /o>ever' t/ey also e?/i)it traits o" greed' attac/*e!t' e!vy a!d ossessive!ess1 T/eir co* re/e!sio! is slo> )ut de"i!ite4 o!ce t/ey u!dersta!d so*et/i!g' t/at %!o>ledge is retai!ed1 3a /a eo le te!d to )e >ealt/y T/ey ear! *o!ey a!d are good at /oldi!g o! to it1 yurveda Test m $yurveda dreht sich alles um die 9armonie der Loshas& 5it unserem $yurveda 'est #ekommst du erste 9in%eise. dynamisch mittelstarke Knochenstruktur mittelgroW. locker mittlerer KVrper#au #apha korpulent. gleitfUhig. unge%Vhnlich groW oder klein leicht.

kalt. feine <rauen fein. ge%ellt dunkles. rosige Far#e scharfkantige KSge. ggf& leichte *el#fUr#ung impulsiv. leuchtend. ggf& trocken. organisiert dick. fle7i#el. krUftige <rauen fSlliges krUftiges 9aar. ideenreich. glasig. ggf& grUulich sanft. dicht. klar generell Yguten 9ungerZ mittelstark. leise. glatt. feurig kritisch. lie#t Wettkampf mUWig viele. ggf& rau schon immer unregelmUWig. fleischig #reite Form. kalt. seidig. aktiv. %arm. >esen. #reit. Vlig. angenehm. un#estUndig kreative 'Utigkeiten. Sammeln.9aut 9Unde JUgel *esicht $ugen Kopfhaar als Kind&&& KVrperhaar KUhne Stimme 9unger mmunitUt Sportlichkeit Freundschaft 9o##ies ntellekt ?eaktion *eist dSnnes *e%e#e. klangvoll regelmUWig X mUWig generell stark X BuverlUssig langsam a#er stark. %Ugt grSndlich a# sel#st#e%usst. neugierig. rational. fliegende. durchdringend hell. generell %enig schon immer relativ sch%ach gute KurBkraft. einfShlsam gelassen. dunkel. gut S#erlegt. fein mittelgroW. ggf& faltige Stirn mittelgroW. raue :#erflUche. groWe X glatte Stirn groW. ?eisen schnelle $uffassungsga#e. gelocktes 9aar #uschig. dickes. gleichmUWiger 'eint krUftig. ggf& Sommersprossen eher runde Form rund. dSnn. ausdauernd %enig <eBiehungen a#er langle#ige ruhige 'Utigkeiten. entschlossen. Kuscheln langsam. @ereinstUtigkeit. durchdringend. krUftig groW. generell rau lUngliche. traditions#e%usst gleichmStig. dSnn #esiedelt dSnnes ge%elltes 9aar gekrUuselt. eher trocken. dick. glatt. regelmUWig. hell tief. ggf& trocken. sta#il. unsymmetrisch. #londe 9aare hell. seidig. nicht glUnBend klein. ggf& gefurcht klein. anfUllig fSr nfektionen dynamisch. leuchtend. a#er nStBliche Freunde Sport. ggf& *latBe feine. schmale Form lUnglich. %eich. ggf& #rSchig lUngliche Form. geduldig -yurveda Typen7 6itta v!n Parvati Ruth /urba(h . fSllig. :rganisieren prUBise. flauschig. 'anBen. fest rund. unregelmUWig. prUgnant. klar spontan. still. manchmal ohne $#schluss tolerant. gemUchlich. verstreut Vlig. kein $usdauertyp viele Freunde.

Wissen und 5otivation erfSllt den 5enschen. <estimmen und <e%egen& 6ine innere Kraft. lUsst 9indernisse klein %erden und Pnangenehmes #e%Ultigen& 2itta05enschen sind sehr ehrgeiBig und %ollen immer perfekt sein& Ler innere >eistungsdruck ist so stark. kritisiert und %enig geschUtBt& 2itta ist eine feurige Kraft. im K%Vlffingerdarm und im LSnndarm& Seine $ttri#ute sind: heiW. PnmVgliches %ahr Bu machen und keine 5She Bu scheuen& Lie 2itta 6nergie verleiht eine starke $usstrahlung. feucht. und sie #raucht das richtige 5aW an Y<rennmaterialZ. kVrperlicher $ktivitUt und typgerechter 6rnUhrung& Wenn der KVrper sch%itBt. flSssig. ist ein immer%Uhrender KitBel auf allen >e#ens#ereichen& . der <este Bu sein. cholerischen $nfUllen und Fanatismus& 5enschen mit viel 2itta sind mit einer $rt YKritik0FingerZ ge#oren: hr #rillanter @erstand spSrt sofort Fehler auf und sieht PnBulUnglichkeiten& Ladurch entseht der 6indruck. #itter.ist verantwortli h f8r folgende -spekte7 • • • • • • den Stoff%echsel die 'Utigkeit der @erdauung den WUrmehaushalt im KVrper den ntellekt den 9ormonhaushalt den emotionalen $usdruck Weiteres Wissen Bu den Loshas kannst du dir in einem $yurveda Seminar aneignen& Las 6lement Feuer steht hier fSr 9itBe& hm Bugeordnet sind der Sehsinn. das ge%Snschte Kiel Bu erreichen& 2itta0 5enschen verlieren ihr Kiel niemals aus den $ugen und %erden durch Stress und $nforderungen nur noch schneller. #reitet sich ein %ohliges *efShl von StUrke. a#er auch die FUhigkeiten. somit die $ugen. um sich nicht sel#st Bu verBehren& Lieses <rennmaterial #esteht aus geistigen $nforderungen. die eigenen >eistungen immer %ieder Bu S#ertreffen und andere ausBustechen. im *egenteil[ 6s dient dem $ntrie#.$er 6itta-Typ 2 ''$ %ird mit dem 6nergieprinBip identifiBiert und hat das 6lement YFeuerZ als *rundlage& 6"TT. Kufriedenheit und @italitUt aus& $uch negative 6motionen kVnnen durch kVrperliche $ktivitUt sehr gut a#ge#aut %erden& Sport ist fSr 2 ''$0'ypen dann interessant. sauer. %enn es auch et%as Bu ge%innen gi#t& Ler Wunsch. effiBienter und genauer& Lie $ngst vor Fehlern lUsst sie auch #ei Keitdruck immer perfekter und pingeliger %erden& FSr andere 5enschen ist der Pmgang mit einer ausgeprUgten 2itta02ersVnlichkeit oft nicht einfach& Lurch ihr einnehmendes Wesen und der 9ang Bur ntoleranB fShlt man sich leicht #edrUngt. so%ie die *eschlechtsorgane& 2 ''$ hat seinen SitB im 5agen. scharf. sich gut verteilend und plVtBlich auftretend& 6in 2itta0'yp ist vor allem an seiner ausgeprUgten FShrungspersVnlichkeit Bu spSren& 2itta schafft >ust am $r#eiten. leicht. niemals gut genug Bu sein& 'atsUchlich #ringt 2itta einen sehr hohen 6rfolgsanspruch mit sich. so ist der ?aum YvollZ& Jeder spSrt die Lynamik und das Charisma& >eider ist die 2itta0Kraft nicht immer leicht Bu BSgeln& :ft schieWt sie S#er ihr Kiel hinaus und UuWert sich in $ggressionen. dass sie selten Bufrieden sind& Loch das ist fSr sie kein *rund Bur @erB%eiflung. #rillante ntelligenB und groWe Willenskraft& Wenn ein 2itta0'yp einen ?aum #etritt.

Kardamom. Sod#rennen. mit dem %ir innere ?uhe. $lkohol. Kartoffeln. Frieden und 9armonie erfahren und genieWen mVchten& 5it Kapha ha#en %ir Keit. %irken auf andere manchmal et%as sch%erfUllig und #ehU#ig. das >ymph0 und mmunsystem aus& $uf der psychischen 6#ene ist K$29$ der 'eil in uns. Kaffee und Kucker& Scharfe Speisen regen e#enfalls die SUure#ildung an und ha#en eine ver#rennende und anheiBende Wirkung auf unsere 2 ''$0Kraft& Kum $usgleich eignen sich alle kShlenden Speisen und *e%SrBe %ie 5elone. 5inBe und Koriander am #esten& Positiv viel . trUge und %eiW& K$29$ ist die erhaltende. die von der K$29$06nergie geprUgt sind. so #rennt die @erdauungsenergie sehr stark& 5an hat stUndig 9unger und ist sehr ungeduldig. kalt. somit die Jase so%ie die 9Unde& Seine 6igenschaften sind: sSW. WeiWmehlprodukten. ?auheit und Form& hm Bugeordnet ist der *eruchssinn. #estUndig.ntspannung und be-usste Atmung a(hten@ mehr S(hla+@ BurA(kBiehen $er #-6&--T96 K$29$ reprUsentiert das erhaltende und sta#ilisierende 2rinBip des KVrpers und setBt sich aus den 6lementen Wasser und 6rde Busammen& Kapha hat seinen SitB im o#eren . %eich. scharf und flSssig& Lies macht sich vor allem in S#ermUWigem Sch%itBen. Fenchel. 5agenschmerBen. ?ohkost und grSnes *emSse #ieten dann den idealen $usgleich& Pnreine 9aut. T#ersUuerung und starkem $ppetit #emerk#ar& st das 2 ''$ Bu hoch.ist verantwortli h f8r folgende -spekte7 • • • • die KVrperstruktur den FlSssigkeitshaushalt den Kusammenhalt und die Sta#ilitUt der Strukturen unseres KVrpers die FVrderung der natSrlichen $#%ehrkrUfte Weiteres Wissen Bu den Loshas kannst du dir in einem $yurveda Seminar aneignen& Las 6lement Wasser steht hier fSr FlSssigkeit und reprUsentiert den *eschmackssinn. so%ie die FSWe& Las 6lement 6rde steht hier fSr Festigkeit. sch%er. Vlig. #e%ahrende und auf#auende Struktur in uns& KVrperlich drSckt sie sich durch die feste KVrperstruktur. ins#esondre #ei @erBehr von sUuernden Speisen %ie Fleisch.Q3 des 5agens und in der <rust& #-6&. somit die Kunge und den *aumen. so %ird sie nicht mSde. Urgerlich und gereiBt.nergie@ begeisterungs+Chig' Negativ Aggressi!nen@ =eid@ 0ass@ . dies #is Bum erfolgreichen $#schluss in *eduld und KUhigkeit Bu verfolgen& $us diesem *rund hUlt man in der indischen Kultur K$29$ fSr die erfolgsversprechende Kraft im 5enschen& . die kleinen SchVnheiten des >e#ens Bu genieWen.?ein kVrperlich #etrachtet UuWert sich 2 ''$ in den 6igenschaften sauer.nergie@ <harisma@ Ausstrahlung@ glAhende Augen@ Bielgeri(htete . fettig. sind Bufrieden und lie#en das $lt#e%Uhrte& 5enschen. Lurchfall und 6ntBSndungen sind oft auftretende 2 ''$02ro#leme: Lurch S#ermUWige SUure#ildung und psychische $nspannung erhVht sich das 2 ''$ in uns. %enn nicht sofort et%as 6ss#ares Bur @erfSgung steht& $lle natSrlich sSWen Speisen. dafSr sind sie sehr ausdauernd und stark& 9at eine K$29$02ersVnlichkeit erst einmal ein neues Kiel gefasst.i+ersu(ht@ St!lB Hilfreich bei zuviel Pitta: au+ ausrei(hende .

Busammen mit anderen 5enschen et%as Bu unternehmen& SoBiales 6ngagement so%ie nteresse fSr Sprachen.r ist geistig +estge+ahren und unbe-egli(h Hilfreich bei zuviel Kapha: viel /e-egung@ au(h mit kDrperli(her Anstrengung@ Aktivurlaub la teor]a de los D elementos : los 2anchamaha#oots • Aakash R ^ter: es el espacio donde e7iste la materia& • Vayu : -ire7 es el estado gaseoso de la materia& • Agni : 'uego7 es el poder de transformaci_n de la materia& • Jala : -gua7 es el estado l]8uido de la materia& . Chili. kapselt sich a# und isoliert sich emotional und geistig von seiner Pmge#ung& 9eiWhunger und unkontrollierte *elSste nach 6ssen. KUse. Konfliktsituationen erst einmal in sich sel#st ausBusitBen& Steigert sich diese natSrliche ?egenerationsphase in eine typische K$29$0Lepression.K$29$0'ypen agieren eher %ohlS#erlegt. fetten Speisen. Kurkuma. und die 2rioritUt des >e#ens ist primUr auf die Familie ausgerichtet& 2rivates *lSck in einer #estUndigen 2artnerschaft. ist ein regelmUWiges <e%egungsprogramm auf kVrperlicher und geistiger 6#ene sehr Bu empfehlen& 9ilfreich ist ein #e%usst aktiv gestaltetes >e#en& 6inmal in der Woche Bu %alken. mit den verdauungsfVrdernden *e%SrBen KreuBkSmmel -Cumin. 5angold. gleichmUWigen >e#ens0 und $r#eitsstil& T#erstSrBte 6ntscheidungen. so %ird man leicht unfle7i#el und schrUnkt seinen >e#ensradius immer mehr ein& Las aktive >e#en %ird dann durch seine intensive <e%egung und @erUnderung Bu anstrengend& Ladurch nimmt der K$29$0'yp immer %eniger am >e#en teil. so fShlt man sich vom >e#en S#erfordert und taucht vollstUndig in eine 'raum%elt a#& <e%egung und $ktivitUt %Srden dann nur Pn#estUndigkeit in das auf Sicherheit ausgerichtete Welt#ild #ringen& Ler K$29$0 'yp lehnt in solchen Situationen /eglichen *efShlsaustausch mit anderen a#. igelt sich ein und stumpft gleichBeitig a#& Pm das K$29$ %ieder in seine gesunde Form BurSckBu#ringen. Spinat. hektische $ktivitUten und spontane 6rneuerungen %erden mit 5isstrauen und $#neigung #egutachtet und das 2raktische und 'raditionelle %ird immer den @orrang ha#en& Ler 6influss von K$29$ macht hUuslich. $rtischocken. glSckliche Kinder und treue Freundschaften sind dann das Wichtigste und schenken innere Kufriedenheit. ng%er und SenfkVrnern& Positiv: ruhige bestCndige PersDnli(hkeit@ 1eduld@ . FaulenBen und das <edSrfnis. Kultur und 2sychologie sind fSr kaphageprUgte 5enschen eine natSrliche 5otivation Bum vitalen und erfSllten >e#ens%andel& Ler *enuss von %armen und mit leichter SchUrfe ge%SrBten Speisen ist eine hervorragende $nregung fSr den Stoff%echsel und die @erdauungskraft& <esonders empfehlens%ert sind #ittere *emSse -%ie B&<& Chicor\e. Wurst us%& aus >ust und >ange%eile #e%irken eine *e%ichtsBunahme und T#erfettung des *e%e#es& Jede K$29$0Konstitution kennt 2hasen des inneren ?SckBuges. ins#esondere nach sSWen. 5eerrettich. Bu sch%immen oder in die Sauna Bu gehen ist ein 5inimalprogramm fSr kVrperliche @italitUt& $uf geistiger 6#ene ist es fSr K$29$0'ypen sehr anregend. gesunde.gn!ranB@ rCgheit' ..itleid@ ECrtli(hkeit@ Stand+estigkeit Negativ: +ehlende Antriebskra+t@ Fethargie@ . 2feffer. grSndlich und #evorBugen einen ruhigen. Sicherheit und >e#ensglSck& st K$29$ Bu stark. den Wunsch nach $lleinsein.

en las c`lulas& • $udici_n. en las v]as respiratorias. en los vasos. fluidos corporales vitales. del est_mago y los intestinos& • 'acto. ligereBa. ni vac]o ni llenob • $cciones: tiene una capacidad deshidratante y participa en la a#sorci_n de edemas /untamente con el aire& 5ayu) aire • 'odo lo 8ue es m_vil participa del movimiento& • 6n el cuerpo lo encontramos en la actividad del sistema nervioso& • $ctividades de los mcsculos. claridad. movimiento hacia a#a/o. discontinuidad. sangu]neos. agudeBa. en el o]do. su _rgano de percepci_n es la piel y su _rgano de acci_n es la mano& • $tri#utos: ligereBa. e7pansi_n ilimitada. las mucosidades y las secreciones se7uales& • *usto. su _rgano de percepci_n es la lengua& • $tri#utos: fluideB. convergencia y divergencia. deshidratante y por ello favorece la a#sorci_n de edemas& -gni) fuego 6lemento 8ue permite transformar gracias a su energ]a& 6n el cuerpo hace posi#le las funciones del meta#olismo& Su principal funci_n es el sistema digestivo& 6sta presente en la materia gris del cere#ro. se8uedad. discontinuidad& • $cciones: calmante. ni caliente ni fr]o. humedad. estimulante. la sangre. _rgano de percepci_n es el o]do. pulsaciones del coraB_n. luminosidad. su _rgano de percepci_n son los o/os& *o#ierna la acci_n de caminar y esta relacionado con los pies& $tri#utos: ligereBa. viscosidad • $cciones: depende de la proporci_n como se com#ina con los demas elementos si se meBcla . aspereBa. en la nariB. integraci_n y segregaci_n. m_vil. el semen. cicatriBante. calor. en el movimiento pulmonar. manifestado a trav`s del ha#la& • $tri#utos: sonido. en el a#domen. claridad. tales como grasa. claridad. impalpa#ilidad.ala) agua • Juestro cuerpo esta formado el FId por agua& • 6n el cuerpo la encontramos en las materias l]8uidas y viscosas. manifestandose como inteligencia& Controla la temperatura corporal y la percepci_n& @isi_n.• Pritvi : Tierra7 es el estado s_lido de la materia& -akash) `ter • 'odos los espacios por donde pasan cosas estan formadas por `ter& • 6n el cuerpo los encontramos en: la cavidad #ucal. la linfa. difusi_n • $cciones: actca en los /ugos gastricos y en la digesti_n& • • • • • • • • . minuciosidad.

lentitud. fie#res y clceras& 6n disminuci_n: alteraciones como la hiperpigmentaci_n y la anemia& 6n e7ceso: 'rastornos como edemas. esta#ilidad. %habda7 sonido -"3 -aire0movimiento. dureBa. . ascitis& 6n disminuci_n: deshidrataci_n& 6n e7ceso: tumores s_lidos y o#esidad& --#-%&-`ter0espacio. piel& • La esta#ilidad& • :lfato. tendones.-. volumen& • $cciones: depende de su proporci_n con/unta con los otros elementos& Si e7iste en demasiada proporci_n puede tender a crear por e/emplo o#esidad& 000000000000000000000000000000 . firmeBa. +asa7 sa#or 6+"T&5" -tierra0s_lido.n el (!nte*t! del tratamient! del (uerp!@ l! semejante (ausa un aument! # l! distint! una disminu(iHn de l!s (!nstitu#entes del (uerp!' F! semejante (!mbina # l! distint! di+eren(iaI l! semejante es l! Jue (!n(uerda@ mientras l! distint! es l! Jue dis(repaK' Charaka& 6n e7ceso: deformidades como la osteoporosis o cavidades en los pulmones& 6n disminuci_n: cuando se presentan tumores s_lidos e hipertrofia de _rganos& 6n e7ceso: alteraciones en el cuerpo como tem#loresy ta8uicardias& 6n disminuci_n: puede aparecer paralisis y pro#lemas de movimiento& 6n e7ceso: todo tipo de inflamaciones. uNas. pleuritis. densidad.. +upa7 vista . su _rgano de percepci_n es la nariB& ?elacionada con la actividad del ano& • $tri#utos: solideB. mcsculos.-agua0l]8uido.con mas proporci_n de tierra 8ue de agua tiene la acci_n de nutrir& 6rithvi) tierra • >a tierra es la 8ue sostiene todas las sustancias vivas e inanimadas& • 6n el cuerpo representa las estructuras s_lidas: huesos. %parsha7 tacto -<3" -fuego0energ]a. cart]lagos.a ley de lo semejante y lo distinto GF! semejante es la (ausa del aument! de t!das las (!sas en t!d! m!ment!@ # l! distint! es la (ausa de su disminu(iHn' . inactividad.

nuestra constituci_n 2rakruti es la constituci_n f]sica y mental caracter]stica de una persona& 'am#i`n se define como el universo manifestado en su totalidad& 6l Prakuti 8ueda definido en el momento de nuestra concepci_n.*oBo. el estado funcional o energ`tico del cuerpo&5del GFibr! de .l Jue s!# h!# depende del Jue era a#er # el Jue llegue a ser ma&ana depende del pr!gres! Jue haga h!#K' 2or lo tanto podemos decir 8ue incluso esta formado antes de la concepci_n& 6l predominio de elementos -pan(hamahab!!tas. disfrute de la vida& Satisfacci_n& 6+"T&5" FirmeBa y esta#ilidad 6n e7ceso: agotamiento& 6n disminuci_n: sensaci_n de estancamiento& 6n e7ceso: c_lera.<andha7 olfato 6n disminuci_n: deformaciones como la p`rdida de peso& 6n e7ceso: sensaci_n de estar perdido& --#-%& luminaci_n 6n disminuci_n: el dolor del vac]o 5-9= @igor y elevaci_n -<3" Claridad.-. agudeBa de conciencia& . el calor. ra#ia& 6n disminuci_n: incapacidad para transformar y transformarse& 6n e7ceso: demasiada fluideB. decide la constituci_n f]sica. el . de falta de sost`n& L:S9$: 6l 2rakruti. el pelo.asajeG pLgina MM: 6l prakruti se decide con la ayuda de muchos aspectos tales como la estructura. y tienen 8ue ver las condiciones e7istentes en el cuerpo y en la mente de los padres en el momento del coito. el predominio de gunas decide la constituci_n psicol_gica y el predominio de los hum!res@ d!shas. de no avanBar& 6n e7ceso: petrificaci_n de los pensamientos e ideas& 'er8uedad& 6n disminuci_n: sensaci_n de dese8uili#rio. es decir en el momento de fertiliBaci_n y se determina por la permutaci_n y com#inaci_n de l!s ? pan(hamahab!!ts& 'am#i`n depende de nuestro Karma: Z. sensaci_n 8ue las cosas se escapan de las manos& 6n disminuci_n: sensaci_n de estancamiento. determina el prakruti d_shico.

la mente y el esp]ritu unido e integrandolos en el individuo& 5as el o/as es tam#i`n el sistema inmunol_gico del cuerpo.asajeG pLgina MN: 6l prakruti se puede e7aminar en cual8uier estaci_n pero para o#tener el prakruti ideal. mental y espiritual& • :/as se puede definir como la esencia sutil 8ue mantiene el cuerpo. mas el efecto 8ue producen en cada individuo es diferente.os atributos o gunas 6n $yurveda se descri#en . aire. aun8ue este es su veh]culo& • 'e/as lo podr]amos definir como la esencia 8ue permite a#rir y conectar con los tres niveles cuerpo. el sueNo.I atri#utos 8ue son a la veB pares de ontrarios y son llamados gunas& ^stos tienen sus acciones en la naturaleBa y en el cuerpo. el invierno y la temporada de las lluvias& 5del GFibr! de . la #ilis y la flema son los veh]culos de los tres doshas y es por medio de ellos 8ue el cuerpo realiBa sus funciones& >a esencia de los doshas: >a esencia de los doshas son 2rana 8ue se relaciona con @ata. pues cada uno de nosotros tiene su propias caracter]sticas y su propia constituci_n& 2or lo tanto en $yurveda el individuo es el punto de referencia y cada uno tiene su propia forma de e8uili#rarse& . pues es a partir de conocer y comprender nuestro prakruti. lo 8ue nos permitira escoger lo 8ue es mas adecuado para nosotros y por lo tanto para mantener o resta#lecer nuestro e8uili#rio& @ata regula el movimiento. lo 8ue podr]amos decir 8ue mantiene el cuerpo sano& Le ello ha#laremos mas adelante& . la fuerBa de las actividades se7uales. sino la energ]a vital 8ue nos permite vivir. el poder digestivo. 2itta y Kapha& ^ter e $ire M @ata Fuego M 2itta 'ierra e agua M Kapha 2or lo tanto las caracter]sticas del elemento `ter y de aire estaran presentes en @ata. el em#araBo. tampoco es el o7]geno.apetito. fuego. esta es una comparaci_n con la medicina hip_crita pero en realidad el aire. 2itta el meta#olismo y Kapha la esta#ilidad& 'am#i`n podemos encontrar como sin_nimos 8ue @ata es aire. sa#remos nuestra tendencia a la enfermedad. las capacidades mentales. el estado de las articulaciones. 2itta la #ilis y Kapha la flema. el efecto de una dieta concreta. agua y tierra se manifiestan en el cuerpo como tres principios #asicos o humores conocidos como '? L:S9$S y son conocidos como @ata. 'e/as 8ue se relaciona con 2itta y :/as 8ue se relaciona con Kapha& • 6l prana no es e7actamente el aire. los ha#itos relativos a la defecaci_n y la orina. la menstruaci_n.asajeG pLgina M4: ^ter. se de#e o#servar detenidamente el estado del paciente durante el verano. la conducta de la persona&&& 5del GFibr! de . las de fuego en 2itta y las de tierra y agua en Kapha& 6n $yurveda el conocimiento y comprensi_n de los tridoshas es la #ase.

R fspero Lenso R >]8uido Suave R Luro 6statico R 5_vil Sutil R *rueso 'ur#io R Claro 5as adelante cuando ha#lemos de los dese8uili#rios de los doshas vamos a ver como afectan las gunas en nuestro cuerpo. 2itta y Kapha tiene cada uno sus atri#utos propios.$un8ue son pares de contrarios los de#emos entender como un todo. funcionan de forma interactiva. conocerlos y refle7ionar so#re ellos es una e7periencia 8ue re8uiere una constante atenci_n. agudo Fr]o R Caliente $ceitoso R Seco @iscoso -suave. mas es imprescindi#le para comprender el funcionamiento de nuestro cuerpo. en $yurveda los pensamientos y acciones tienen tam#i`n atri#utos definidos& @ata. mas ahora ya nos podemos tener una idea de su efecto en los doshas& $tri#utos de cada dosha: 5ata Fr]o Seco >igero Sutil 5_vil 6itta Caliente $ceitoso >igero Sutil 5_vil #apha Fr]o $ceitoso 2esado *rueso 6statico06sta#le . como lo hacen la parte masculina y femenina en cada uno de nosotros& Charaka sistematiB_ los atri#utos de todas las sustancias organicas e inorganicas. nuestra mente y tam#i`n de la l_gica de la ciencia ayurv`dica& 6s a trav`s del principio de lo seme/ante y lo distinto 8ue vamos a conocer c_mo se produce nuestro dese8uili#rio y la manera de e8uili#rarlo& 2esado R >igero >ento R ?apido.

.huesudo -@. 5ediana -2. pero si crees 8ue tu pro#lema es grave por favor consulta tu m`dico de confianBa& '6S' : CP$> 6S 'P L:S9$g (&0C:J'6h'P?$: Lelgado. recomendamos la consulta de un especialista. esta %e# s_lo te puede ayudar de manera ortientativa e informarte. . para procurar tener una calidad de vida me/or. por lo 8ue si tienes un dosha muy alto 8uiere decir 8ue de#es reforBar los otros doshas con alimentos 8ue los favoreBcan para conseguir el mayor e8uili#rio posi#le& 6n caso de enfermedad importante. 5oderada -2. ?o#usto. o Kapha -K. es solamente orientativo pero te puede ayudar a sa#er cual es tu dosha dominate y 8u` dosha de#es compensar& 6l e8uili#rio de los tres doshas es el 8ue te dara el #ienestar& 'omate el cuestionario en serio pero sin ago#ios. los datos son (IId confidenciales y el resultado te saldra al final del test& >as respuestas indican si es @atta -@. 2itta -2. #ien desarollado -K.Claro fspero Claro Suave 'ur#io Suave 6ntre los tres doshas tam#i`n e7isten cualidades en comcn: • 6l fr]o es comcn entre @ata y Kapha • >a ligereBa es comcn entre 2itta y @ata • >o aceitoso es comcn entre 2itta y Kapha Cual es tu doshag 9emos preparado un cuestionario de 3D preguntas para 8ue puedas sa#er cual es tu Prakriti o constituci_n. *rande.pero pueden ser altos y grandes -K. *eneralmente pe8ueNos.& 6l resultado te da 8u` proporci_n de los tridoshas tiene tu Praktiri Pna veB sepas el resultado puedes navegar por nuestra pagina y empeBar a comprender un poco mas tu cuerpo y #uscar 8u` alimentos te pueden favorecer o no& 'e recomendamos 8ue antes de hacer ninguna valoraci_n te informes #i`n acerca de los doshas y de la ciencia ayurveda& <asicamente el #ienestar nos viene por el e8uili#rio de los tres doshas.&06S'$'P?$: 5uy alto o muy pe8ueNo -@. .

aspera. rugosa.crespo -@. canoso -2. grasosa. fino. ?o/o. mal formados -@.pueden ganar o perder peso con facilidad -2. (I&0L 6J'6S: rregulares pe8ueNos. *ruesa. atractivos. 6&0'6526?$'P?$ L6> CP6?2:: 5anos y pies fr]os -@. nerviosos -@. pecas. Caliente. dificultad para perderlo -K. lustroso -K. D&0'6h'P?$ L6 >$ 2 6>: Seca.3&026S:: Lificultad para ganar peso -@. hcmeda. H&0:J:S: 2e8ueNos. *eneralmente con so#repeso. *randes. enc]as sangran con facilidad -2. palido -K. 5ediano. penetrantes. calvicie prematura. surcos -2. #ien lu#ricada -K. se irritan facilmente -2. G&0F?6J'6: 6strecha -@. pestaNas grandes -K. F&026>:: Seco. Caliente -2. Fuerte. Fr]o o normal -K. #ien formados -K. venas prominentes -@. :leoso. fr]a. 5oderada. ondulado. . acn` -2. C&0<? >>: L6 >$ 2 6>: :paco -@. lustroso -2. $ncha -K. fr]a. <lanco. ?egulares. *randes.

@aria#le -2. Suave. asperas -@. articulaciones flo/as -2. e7cesivo -K. Su#stancias y atmosfera caliente -2.arrugada. Lelicada. 2rofundo. (. rosadas-2. *ruesa -K. 5edianos. atm_sfera humeda -K. rosada -2. Suaves. seca -@. *rande.((&0>6J*P$: fspera -@. 5oderado pero constante -K. (F&0>6 L S*PS'$: 6l fr]o. (D&0Pi$S: jue#radiBas. la se8uedad -@. *ruesos. con interrupciones -@. articulaciones cru/ientes -@. *rande. (C&09P6S:S: Lelgados. . (G&0$26' ':: @aria#le. agrada#le. perfil agudo-2. (6&0SP6i:: >igero. irrita#le si de#e saltar la comida -2. articulaciones fuertes -K. (3&0':?$h: 6strecho -@. ro/iBa. nervioso -@. $ncho. Sustancias fr]as y aceitosas. perfil suave -K. Lesarollado moderado -2.&0C$?$: 2e8ueNa. #ien desarollado -K. $ncha -K.

.(H&0S6L: 6scasa -@. 9eces suaves.&0SPL:?$C kJ: 6scasa sin olor -@. 2romedio -2. $guda. 5ediana. amarilla intensa -2. . olor intenso -2.I&09$< ':S J'6S' J$>6S: 9eces duras. *eneralmente sediento -2. sueltas. . 5oderada. 5oderada -K.. $#undante.(&0:? J$: 6scasa -@. tendencia a olvidar -@. . sistema inmunologico fuerte -K. .3&0565:? $: ?apida. Frustraci_n. lenta pero constante -K. clara -2. . . <uena.6&0?6S S'6JC $ $ >$ 6JF6?56L$L: 2o#re. 5ane/a #i`n el estr`s -K. costipac-@. consistente. heces normales -K. clara -K. ?e8uiere tiempo para comprender -K. irrita#ilidad. tendencia a las infecciones -2. sistema inmunol_gico varia#le-@. ?egular. secas. tendencia a la diarrea -2. eno/o #a/o estr`s -2.C&0C:52?6JS kJ: 6spontanea -@. 2rofunda. 5oderada -K. .D&0?6$CC kJ $> 6S'?^S: 5iedo y ansiedad #a/o estr`s -@.

dolores neuralgicos y de las articulaciones -@. nter`s e impulso se7ual constante -K. 3I&0 2?6F6?6JC $S C> 5$' C$S: Climas calientes. . nter`s e impulso se7ual alto -2. 3D&0 F6: @aria#le. .. fantas]a se7ual activa -@. lento para cam#iar ideas -K. cora/e -2. 3. . Fuerte. Climas fr]os #ien ventilados -2.G&0S6hP$> L$L: nter`s se7ual varia#le. 5otivado. erratica -@. Se mueve lentamente -K. 6sta#le. @alor. humedad -@. sol. $pego -K. cam#ia#le -@. Conservador -K.F&06JF6?56L$L6S F?6CP6J'6S: $lteraciones nerviosas y mentales. 6nfermedades sist`micas y respiratorias.&0 '6526?$56J':: Jervioso. 3(&0 $C' @ L$L: n8uieto -@. C_lera -2. mucosidades. Cual8uier clima siempre 8ue no sea humedo -K. confia#le. 6nfermedades infecciosas e inflamatorias. Sostenida.H&0 6S'$L: L6 $J 5:: deas y estado de animo cam#ia#les -@. inflamavci_n articular -K. determinado -2. edema. intenso -2. $mor -K. 5oderado -2. 3C&0 65:C :J6S J6*$' @$S: 5iedo -@. ntenso al e7presar ideas y sentimientos-2. trastornos sangu]neos -2. lenta en cam#iar -K. 33&0 65:C :J6S 2:S ' @$S: $dapta#ilidad -@.

acido. 2anchamaha#oots7 `tereaire %entidos7 el o]do y el tacto& 6structura corporal: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • %ue0o7 • 9ay d]as 8ue duermen #ien. activos. vivaces& PNas:fsperas y 8ue#radiBas& JariB:Suele ser del tipo aguileNo& >a#ios:2e8ueNos. aire& @l habla7 • Suelen ha#lar mucho y rapidamente& $ltos o #a/os& @enas y tendones prominentes& 2eso:Lif]cil de ganar. salado& *ustan de los alimentos calientes mas 8ue de los fr]os& $igesti?n7 . 8ue#radiBos. relacionados con el elemento 8ue le rige. secos. hundidos.?esultado del '6S' @atta&&&&: 2itta&&&&&&: Kapha&&: *ara ter>sti as de los doshas7 5-TComo tienen `ter y aire estan go#ernados por el cam#io y la inesta#ilidad. as] su cuerpo tiende a cam#iar deprisa& -6/emplo de aire como #risa o de huracan M inesta#ilidad. otros no& Suelen padecer de insomnio& Sus sueNos pueden ser 8ue vuelan. de piel fr]a. secos. facil de perder& 2iel:Suelen ser morenos. tienden a sangrar si se secan con el aire y el fr]o& Lientes: rregulares& 'emperatura corporal:Suelen tener las manos y los pies fr]os& Sudor:6scaso& 5enstruaci_n:Suelen ser irregular y frecuentemente su ciclo dura mas de un mes& @aria#le. irregular& : comen mucho o no comen nada& Sed irregular& >as heces suelen ser duras. seca y aspera y suele agrietarse con facilidad& 2elo:Suele ser riBado. escasas y secas& 'endencia al estreNimiento& Sa#ores: dulce. escaso& :/os:2e8ueNos.

ental y emo ionalmente7 • • • • • • 6ntienden rapidamente. ventiladoresb pues agrava @ata& • Se agrava @ata en los meses fr]os y ventosos de otoNo y principios de invierno& ara ter>sti as de los $oshas7 6"TT2itta esta regida por el fuego& 6l fuego puede dar un calor calido y agrada#le. co#riBos y tienen una mirada profunda& • • • • . creativos. ru#io&'ienden a tener canas prematuras&'ienden a la calvicie& • :/os:Suelen ser grises.%u aminar7 • Suelen caminar con rapideB. l]deres espirituales& ?elaciones amorosas: • @aria#les. fr]os. no tienen una #uena memoria& >es cuesta tomar decisiones& $ctivos. pues desgasta rapidamente su energ]a y precisa de tiempo para resta#lecerla& ?elaciones: • 9ace amistades con facilidad. artistas. efecto de su inesta#ilidad& $m#ientes. via/eros y aventureros. facil de ganar y facil de perder& 2iel:?o/iBa. suave y tierno. mas por poco tiempo& >os tipo @ata suelen derrochar mucha energ]a. granitos&2ecas& • 2elo:Lelgado. sedoso. ansiosos& nesta#les emocional y mentalmente& *ustan de los cam#ios& 2ueden ser grandes pensadores. con ligereBa& . amarillenta& Sensi#le&Suave y ti#ia& Suele tener pro#lemas de eccemas. pues tienden a tener e7ceso de actividad. son muy activos. mas para mantenerse saluda#les precisan de reposo& 6s la constituci_n mas propensa a contraer enfermedades. clima: • 2refieren el clima soleado 8ue calienta& • 6s muy malo para ellos tra#a/ar con aires acondicionados. por ello tienen una mayor dificultad para mantenerse sanos. miedosos. maestros por naturaleBa. mas tam#i`n se olvidan pronto. su ra#ia& 6an hamahaboots7 fuego %entidos7 vista @stru tura orporal7 6statura mediana& @enas y tendones menos prominentes 8ue @ata& 2eso:5oderado. mas tam#i`n puede ser arrollador y 8uemarlo todo con su mal humor. para ellos es mas importante el proceso 8ue el fin& Son dif]ciles de satisfacer y por ello tienen varias relaciones& Jo de#er]a tener mas de un orgasmo a la semana. verdes. in8uietos& Jerviosos.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

PNas:Suaves& JariB:Suele ser aguda y la punta suele enro/ecer& >a#ios:Suaves, largos y estrechos y de color muy ro/o& Lientes:?egulares, medianos, mas #ien d`#iles& 'emperatura corporal:Junca suelen tener fr]o& Sudor:Sudan mucho y el olor suele ser fuerte& 5enstruaci_n:Suele ser regular, pero suele durar mas de lo normal& <uen apetito y #uen sistema digestivo& Comen y #e#en en grandes cantidades& Cuando tienen ham#re tienen 8ue comer sino se eno/an& 5ucha sed& 9eces y orina en a#undancia& >as heces suelen ser mas #ien l]8uidas, suaves&

$igesti?n7

%abores7 • dulce, amargo y astringente %ue0o7 • 5oderado& &abla7 • Suelen ha#lar menos 8ue los tipo @ata& • Su lengua/e puede llegar a ser hiriente, incisivo& %u aminar7 • Caminan de un modo decidido& ,ental y emo ionalmente7 • Son eficientes, precisas y ordenadas tanto en lo mental como en lo f]sico& • Comprenden facilmente& Son inteligentes por naturaleBa& • 2ueden ser personas 8ue tienden al odio, al enfado, a los celos y a la ra#ia cuando estan #a/o presi_n, mas cuando estan e8uili#rados pueden ser adapta#les, calidos, compasivos, sensi#les, inteligentes& • rritantes& • Lecididas& • 2ueden ser #uenos oradores, #uenos negociantes, administradores, directores, pioneros& ?elaciones amorosas: • Suelen ser fogosas, hacen el amor cuando tienen ganas, intensas, mas tam#i`n con poca paciencia& 2ara mantenerse en #uen estado de salud no de#er]an hacer el amor mas de dos veces por semana, pues si no consumen su energ]a 8ue precisan para hacer otras actividades& ?elaciones con los otros: • Suelen tener relaciones segcn sus intereses& -mbientes) lima7

• Jo soportan el calor& • Se agrava 2itta durante los meses de verano, calidos& Caracter]sticas de los doshas: K$29$ Kapha esta regido por el agua y la tierra& 2uede aportar esta#ilidad, confianBa, fertilidad, mas tam#i`n puede a#orrecer por su letargia su estancamiento, su lentitud& 6an hamahaboots7 aguaetierra& %entidos7 olfato y gusto& @stru tura orporal7 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cuerpo #ien desarrollado con tendencia a la o#esidad& Sus venas y tendones no son visi#les& 9uesos grandes, articulaciones #ien lu#rificadas& 2eso:Suelen aumentar de peso con facilidad y les cuesta perderlo& 2iel:Suave, grasa, lustrosa, fr]a, palida& 2elo:*rueso, en cantidad, suave, ondulado&Suele ser oscuro& :/os:Jegros o aBules& $tractivos, sensuales&2estaNas largas y aceitosas& PNas:*ranes y fuertes, de forma regular& JariB:?ecta, #ien formada& >a#ios:*ruesos y palidos& Lientes:<lancos, regulares, fuertes& 'emperatura corporal:Suelen tener las manos y los pies fr]os& Sudor:5oderado y con olor dulce& 5enstruaci_n:?egular y moderada& Suelen tener una digesti_n regular pero mas #ien lenta& Suelen ser golosos& $petito constante& 9eces suaves y gruesas& 2oca sed&

$igesti?n7

%abores7 • picante, amargo y astringente& %ue0o7 • Luermen placida, profundamente y muchas horas& &abla7 • Su voB es suave y dulce& %u aminar7 • $ndan de forma lenta y pesada&

,ental y emo ionalmente7 • 'ienden a comprender las cosas lentamente, mas cuando comprenden tienen muy #uena memoria& • Suelen ser saluda#les, felices, romanticos y pac]ficos& • 'ienen tendencia a ser avaros, apegados, introvertidos, envidiosos y posesivos& • Suelen ser introspectivos& • *astan mucha energ]a en su parte emocional y pueden caer a la depresi_n y a la letargia& • 2ueden ser esta#les, dignos de confianBa, administradores, #uenos padres& ?elaciones amorosas: • Suelen ser romanticos, #uenos amantes y suelen tener relaciones largas& 2ueden hacer el amor tres veces a la semana, pues haciendo el amor hacen e/ercicio y esto les ayuda a eliminar la pereBa& ?elaciones con los otros: • Jo son personas con muchas amistades, mas conservan las amistades de la infancia y sa#en mantener sus relaciones& -mbientes y lima7 • Jo se encuentran #ien en climas hcmedos y fr]os& • Se agrava en los meses fr]os y hcmedos de finales de invierno y principios de primavera& 68uili#rioQdese8uili#rio -,-) las to!inas1 Sa#emos 8ue la energ]a de transformaci_n es regulada por $gni, por 2itta y 8ue es la llave para mantener el e8uili#rio, la armon]a, el #ienestar& $s] pues la o#servaci_n del estado de nuestro $gni es de vital importancia para prevenir cual8uier trastorno sea del tipo 8ue sea& O.l eJuilibri! # el agravamient! de l!s d!shas se debe en t!d! m!ment! a la +uerBa ! la debilidad relativa del +ueg! digestiv!' P!r (!nsiguiente@ un! debe pr!teger siempre su +ueg! digestiv!@ e impedir t!das las a(tividades Jue pudieran debilitarl!K5<harka: 6l deterioro o dese8uili#rio de los humores #iol_gicos, vata, pitta, kapha crea to!inas, llamadas $ma en sanscrito, 8ue circulan por todo el cuerpo, y a trav`s de la circulaci_n se acumulan a las areas mas d`#iles del cuerpo& >a ra]B de todas las dolencias es $ma, #lo8uea los intestinos, con lo cual `stos no hacen su funci_n de asimilaci_n y a#sorci_n de los alimentos correctamente, #lo8uea los vasos capilares, las venas y las arterias, y la sangre a#sor#e las to7inas 8ue entran en circulaci_n por todo el cuerpo, acumulandose en los sitios mas d`#iles, de#ilitando los _rganos y reduciendo nuestro sistema inmunol_gico y finalmente manifestandose como dolencias de diversas formas -dia#etes, artritisb.& -ma puede tener diferentes ausas) mas todas podr]an ser denominadas como originarias de la mala digestión) sea de tipo alimentario o de tipo emocional) reprimiendo las emo iones o bien no digiriAndolas&

por lo tanto siempre de#emos tener @ata en la mayor armon]a posi#le& Segcn Svo#oda @ata es la causa principal de desarrollo de . la angustia. clceras y suele afectar a la mem#rana del est_mago& 6l miedo o la ansiedad reprimidos pueden alterar la flora del intestino grueso. lo cual provoca 8ue @ata se mueva en direcciones inapropiadas& • 'rastornos del sueNo& • Consumo de alimentos a los 8ue no se esta ha#ituado o en un momento inadecuado segcn las estaciones. y frecuentemente antes de las comidas& • Comer demasiado o muy poco& • 67ceso de alimentos pesados& • Comer antes de 8ue la comida anterior se haya digerido& • Com#inaciones inadecuadas de los alimentos • Supresi_n de los impulsos naturales refle/os. la edad. acideB. &&& • $ctividad e7cesiva -especialmente se7ual.Juestro fuego digestivo var]a. la codicia. la c_lera. el sufrimiento y la tristeBa& 9ay (3 impulsos 8ue /amas de#en ser restringidos: (& >a e7pulsi_n de la orina& . la ira reprimida puede provocar dolor de est_mago. se puede de#ilitar por las siguientes raBones: • 67ceso de fr]o y de sustancias l]8uidas. especialmente agua helada so#re todo en invierno. provocando gases. el clima. el miedo. o insuficiente& • Causas mentales como la envidia. dolor o estreNimiento& @ata de#ido a su inesta#ilidad es el primer dosha 8ue se dese8uili#ra.& >a e7pulsi_n de las heces& 3& >a e7pulsi_n de los gases& C& 6l v_mito& D& 6l estornudo& 6& 6l eructo& F& 6l #osteBo& G& Jo comer cuando se tiene ham#re& H& Jo #e#er cuando se tiene sed& (I&Jo dormir cuando se tiene sueNo& ((&Jo llorar cuando se esta triste& (. gastritis.&Jo /adear despu`s de un e/ercicio (3&Jo eyacular cuando la e7citaci_n es irresisti#le& >a restricci_n de estos impulsos hace 8ue @ata se mueva en una direcci_n anormal por los srtoas& >as emociones reprimidas tam#i`n pueden provocar to7inas en el cuerpo.

las heces y mutra. o#servar el color y despu`s poner una gota de aceite de s`samo& 'am#i`n se dice 8ue si la gota se esparce inmediatamente. nos daran informaci_n. si la gota se sumerge a la mitad de la muestra indica 8ue la enfermedad es dif]cil de curar y si se hunde hasta el fondo el pro#lema sera muy dif]cil de curar& $osha *olor @!amen de la gota >a gota se propaga en la superficie con movimientos ondulados Si aparece la superficie con muchos colores. nos puede ayudar a discernir so#re cual dosha esta afectado& Le#e ser la primera orina del d]a. de manera 8ue se puede perci#ir el inicio del dese8uili#rio y remediarlo antes de 8ue se manifieste como desarreglo& 2urisha.todas los desarreglos sean del tipo 8ue sean. la orina. parecido a un arco iris& Cuando la gota forma como perlas. as] como nuestra lengua& • Si las heces se hunden es 8ue hay $ma en el cuerpo& • Si la orina tiene especialmente mal olor tam#i`n& • Si la lengua tiene una capa #lanca encima. como si se desdo#lara en mas gotitas& @ata Color caf` 2itta $marillo oscuro Kapha Si la orina es tur#ia @!amen de la lengua 6l color de la lengua nos puede indicar si los doshas estan alterados: >a o#servaci_n de la lengua nos aporta informaci_n so#re los diferentes _rganos ademas de informarnos so#re si hay to7inas en el cuerpo& • Si hay $ma. y $ma ser]a el alimento del desarreglo& C_mo reconocer las to7inas B*?mo re ono er si hay -ma en el uerpoC >a o#servaci_n y conciencia so#re nuestro cuerpo nos da las llaves para sa#er como esta funcionando nuestro cuerpo. se dice 8ue hay $ma& @!amen de la orina7 67amen de orina. la lengua estara cu#ierta por una capa #lan8uecina& . el desorden f]sico es facil de curar.

decoloraci_n o malestar en algunas areas la lengua indica algcn desorden en el _rgano correspondiente& • Pna lengua deshidratada es s]ntoma de la disminuci_n de rasa dhatu.• Si hay sensi#ilidad. mientras 8ue una lengua palida indica disminuci_n de rakta dhatu& 6l color de la lengua nos puede indicar si los doshas estan alterados Tratamiento general para los doshas O''' Alimentam!s a l!s delgad!s # dPbiles@ # a l!s g!rd!s # (!rpulent!s les ha(em!s pasar hambre' ratam!s a Juien tiene demasiad! (al!r (!n medidas Jue l! re+resJuen@ # (!n (!sas (alientes a Juien tiene demasiad! +rQ!' Rep!nem!s l!s element!s (!rp!rales Jue han disminuid!s # redu(im!s l!s Jue han aumentad!' Al tratar l!s trast!rn!s ade(uadamente@ (!n medidas antagHni(as de l!s +a(t!res Jue l!s han (ausad!@ restable(em!s la n!rmalidad del pa(iente' '''K 5<haraka: • @ata: .

%"%T@. hier#a frescab >os masa/es seran convenientes usando menos aceite 8ue en el caso vata y templado& >os tratamientos de purificaci_n adecuados suelen ser la purgaci_n& 2uede hacer uso tam#i`n de meditaciones. dulce y astringente& 2recisa de alimentos crudos 8ue le refres8uen. mas le/os de pretender entenderlo en su totalidad simplemente considero 8ue nos hace refle7ionar y comprender me/or el funcionamiento de 6itta en el cuerpo& . mcsica para mantener sus fuegos internos e8uili#rados& • Kapha: 'eniendo en cuenta las caracter]sticas de kapha dosha comprendemos 8ue precisa de acci_n y actividad para e8uili#rar su tendencia de letargo y pasividad& 6l sa#or mas importante 8ue controla kapha es el picante. despu`s el amargo y el astringente& >os alimentos de#en ser secos y calientes& >os masa/es de#en ser vigorosos y no usar aceite o muy poca cantidad& Jormalmente se usan polvos& <aNos calientes& 5uy #eneficioso realiBar algcn tipo de e/ercicio& C_mo terapia de purificaci_n para Kapha puede ser usada la purgaci_n& ?ecuerda: en caso de enfermedad consulta tu m`dico o tu especialista sanitario de confianBa& 6sta %e# s_lo intenta orientar e informar y no puede hacer diagn_sticos m`dicos& Pna visita personal es fundamental para tu correcta sanaci_n& @. produci`ndole calma y paB mental& 6l tratamiento de purificaci_n me/or es el enema& • 2itta: 2itta precisa generalmente de fr]o y tran8uiliBar sus emociones e7acer#adas& 6l sa#or mas importante es el amargo. ansiedad. #os8ues. nutritivos e hidratantes& 'oda clase de masa/es es conveniente pues se de#en apaciguar las emociones de miedo. cerca de r]os. acido y dulce& 2recisara de alimentos calientes..@3$/*+"3/ Sa#emos 8ue 2itta regula en nuestro cuerpo el sistema enBimatico y hormonal& 6ste documento pretende dar una visi_n general del %istema @ndo rino& 6ste sistema es muy comple/o. as] como estar en lugares frescos y templados 8ue no le ago#ien.Sa#iendo cuales son las caracter]sticas de @ata dosha entendemos 8ue los me/ores remedios para e8uili#rar vata y devolverle el e8uili#rio es con calor y aceite. mantras. tanto en aplicaci_n interna como e7terna& Sa#emos tam#i`n 8ue los sa#ores 8ue e8uili#ran a vata son: salado. preocupaci_n de vata.

el sistema hormonal es el encargado de la coordinaci_n de todos los demas sistemas y aparatos del cuerpo humano& 6ste control lo realiBa a distancia por medio de la secreci_n de sustancias llamadas hormonas& Controlan procesos tan importantes como el crecimiento. el con/unto de glandulas endocrinas. c`lulas glandulares 8ue segregan hormonas& Son: • • • • • • • • • • • 9ipotalamo: factores de li#eraci_n y inhi#ici_n& 2ancreas: insulina. >as hormonas son sustancias 8u]micas 8ue producen un efecto. tras llegar a su _rgano provocan una respuesta inhi#itoria o estimulante en dicho _rgano& Junto con el sistema nervioso. glucagon. sustancias 8ue. pero podemos decir 8ue funciona como tal y es .>as glandulas endocrinas son los _rganos donde se producen y li#eran a la sangre las hormonas. digestivas& :varios: estr_genos. incluso en concentraciones muy #a/as& 6n el cuerpo e7isten unas DI hormonas& >a regulaci_n de la secreci_n hormonal se produce gracias a diferentes factores: Sistema nervioso. cam#ios 8u]micos perif`ricos de la sangre o por la acci_n de la propia hormona u otras hormonas& 6J6 9 2:'k>$5:09 2kF S S 6l hipotalamo no es una glandula endocrina. la alimentaci_n o la reproducci_n& 'am#i`n regulan procesos tan dispares como el control de la presi_n arterial o la respuesta del organismo ante una agresi_n& $s]. _rganos y te/idos 8ue poseen componentes. progestagenos& 'est]culos: tetosterona& ?iNones: eritripeytina 9]gado: somatostatina& 2lacenta: 'e/ido adiposo& 2iel ntestino delgado CoraB_n: atriopeptina -hipotensora0volumen sangre. hormonas y sus _rganos diana integra un gran sistema de regulaci_n y control de los principales sistemas del organismo humano& 6l Sistema endocrino esta formado por diferentes glandulas de secreci_n interna& 6sta regulado principalmente por el eje hipotDlamo-hip?fisis& >as glandulas endocrinas 8ue forman este sistema son: • • • • 9ip_fisis 'iroides 2aratiroides Suprarrenales 67isten asimismo.

pueden actuar localmente o actuar en otros te/idos a distancia al ser transportados por el torrente sangu]neo& 6stimulan el crecimiento celular& Lisminuye la destrucci_n proteica y por lo tanto se acelera el crecimiento. so#re todo en los niNos. desarrollara los caracteres se7uales t]picos del var_n& • 2rolactina 2?>: ntervendr]a so#re la glandula mamaria. pero si las almacena y li#era cuando es preciso& • /!ito ina E/TF: Lurante el parto au7ilia en producir la contracci_n uterina. mcsculo es8uel`tico. entre otras& 6l hipotalamo es el _rgano principal 8ue unifica y coordina la funci_n nerviosa y endocrina& 6ntre la hip_fisis y el hipotalamo regulan: crecimiento. control de la tensi_n arterial y del sistema vegetativo. huesos y otros te/idos. corteBa cere#ral.necesariapara 8ue funcione la hip_fisis& 2osee diferentes funciones en relaci_n al control de la temperatura. sistema reticular y de _rganos perif`ricos. reacci_n de defensa -miedo. de a#sorci_n.: $ctcan en las g_nadas para producir estr_genos y progest_genos& $ctcan en la maduraci_n del _vulo. proceso menstrual y aumento en la secreci_n de estr_genos& 6n el hom#re estimula la secreci_n de espermatoBoide& >9: es una hormona ovulatoria 8ue actca para la li#eraci_n de `sta por los ovarios& $ctca tam#i`n en la formaci_n del ctero para 8ue el _vulo pueda anidar e implantarse en `l& $ctca so#re la glandula mamaria para 8ue esta fa#ri8ue leche& 6n el hom#re estimula la s]ntesis de la testosterona 8ue interviene en la espermatog`nesis y. control del apetito y la saciedad -ham#re. y ->9. meta#olismo y homeostasis& $ su veB el hipotalamo reci#e impulsos nerviosos e informaci_n de otras regiones cere#rales -sistema l]m#ico.. los _rganos sensoriales y la retina& >a hip_fisis esta situada en la silla turca. no sintetiBa las hormonas. en el adulto nos ayuda a mantener la masa _sea y muscular& • *onadotrofinas -FS9.. cart]lagos. en la secreci_n de la testosterona y producci_n de espermatoBoides en los test]culos& FS9: en el ovario estimula la formaci_n del fol]culo ovarico. desarrollo. control de la sed. :pera so#re la corteBa suprarrenal& 6sta s]ntesis hormonal se ve incrementada por el estr`s& 9ormonas neurohipofisarias: Se encuentran en el l_#ulo posterior de la hip_fisis. ira. a nivel fenot]pico. generando la s]ntesis de factores de crecimiento de tipo de las insulinas& ^stos son sintetiBados en el h]gado. tam#i`n llamada neurohip_fisis. estimulando la producci_n de leche& 67isten otras hormonas 8ue actcan a este nivel& • $denocorticotropa -$C'9. talamo. comportamiento se7ual. cavidad del hueso esfenoides& >as hormonas mas importantes 8ue segrega la hip_fisis son: • %omatotropina E%T&F u hormona del re imiento7 $ctca en diferentes te/idos perif`ricos. para 8ue el #e#` pueda descender por el canal del parto&$ctca so#re las glandulas mamarias estimulando la e7pulsi_n de leche por los .

ya 8ue disminuye la producci_n de sudor& *landulas perif`ricas • 'iroides: *landula endocrina situada en la parte anterior del cuello en relaci_n con la laringe y tra8uea& 6sta formada por unas c`lulas llamadas foliculares 8ue al ser estimuladas producen dos hormonas 'ryodotirosina -'3. esto es as] por8ue en los tc#ulos renales estimula la a#sorci_n de agua& 'am#i`n genera un aumento de la presi_n arterial por vasoconstricci_n arterial& Sus _rganos diana son riNones.: $ctca a nivel renal disminuyendo la producci_n de orina. este efecto se ve potenciado por la succi_n del reci`n nacido& Fuera del em#araBo. es decir. ya 8ue ella disminuye la a#sorci_n _sea. e aumenta la temperatura corporal& 0?eguladora del meta#olismo celular: a nivel celular reduce los niveles de colesterol en la sangre& 0?eguladora del crecimiento y el desarrollo: acelera el crecimiento celular y en especial el del te/ido nervioso& Si se produce unaausencia o disminuci_n de estas hormonas en fase fetal. instinto materno0paterno y la sensaci_n de placer se7ual durante el coito o despu`s de este& • 9ormona antidiur`tica -$L9.conductos mamarios. los pe8ueNos padecen de retraso mental y enanismo& • Calcitonina: Su funci_n es disminuir los valores de calcio y f_sforo en sangre. vasos arteriales y glandulas sudor]paras. es decir. su funci_n es poco conocida.& 'am#i`n producen otra hormona llamada Calcitonina 8ue actcan en el meta#olismo _seo del f_sforo y el calcio& >as hormonas '3 y 'C regulan: 06l consumo de o7]geno y meta#olismo #asal& 6ntendemos por meta#olismo #asal el consumo de o7]geno en reposo despu`s del ayuno nocturno& 6ste proceso genera calor. y 'iro7ina -'C. la constancia del medio interno para 8ue sea compati#le la vida y estado de e8uili#rio dinamico& $lgunas hormonas 8ue segregan las glandulas suprarrenales son: . podr]a ser 8ue tuviera 8ue ver con las conductos de protecci_n de los adultos para con los reci`n nacidos. calcio y magnesio& *landulas suprarrenales: Situadas so#re los riNones& Son indispensa#les para la vida& 5antiene la homeostasis. el paso del calcio a los huesos a la sangre& • 2aratohormona: 6s una hormona antag_nica a la Calcitonina& Sus funciones son: $umenta el calcio en sangre& Lisminuye el f_sforo en sangre& $ nivel renal actca en el intestino aumentando la a#sorci_n de f_sforo.

en el o]do. la producci_n de leche y la preservaci_n del em#araBo& 'am#i`n conservan y mantienen los caracteres se7uales secundarios. aumenta la tensi_n arterial. insulina. en las v]as . de las mamas o de la voB& • 'est]culos: 2roducen los andr_genos -testosterona.• <lu o orti oides: Son hormonas 8ue se encargan del meta#olismo y nuestra adaptaci_n a situaciones l]mites o stress& • $ndrogenos: Segregados en pe8ueNas cantidades tanto en hom#res como en mu/eres& ?egulan la apetencia se7ual o li#ido& 5`dula suprarrenal: SintetiBa dos hormonas: $drenalina y Joradrenalina& 2oseen un efecto similar al sistema nervioso vegetativo simpatico& Jos preparan para la huida o el enfrentamiento y nos ayudan a soportar el estr`s& $umentan la frecuencia y la fuerBa de contracci_n cardiaca. te/ido adiposo& Son #roncodilatadoras y aumentan el contenido de aBccar y acidos grasos en los te/idos& • 2ancreas: *landula endocrina y e7ocrina a la veB& Se relaciona ]ntimamente con el duodeno. aumenta el flu/o de sangre en los te/idos: coraB_n. entre otras& :varios y test]culos: 'am#i`n se las conoce con el nom#re de g_nadas& • :varios: produce estr_genos y progestagenos principalmente& ?egulan el ciclo menstrual. somatostatina. como la distri#uci_n del vello. en la nariB. mcsculo es8uel`tico. h]gado.. hormona del crecimiento. reguladora del proceso de espaermatog`nesis y mantenimiento de los caracteres secundarios& la teor]a de los D elementos : los 2anchamaha#oots • Aakash R ^ter: es el espacio donde e7iste la materia& • Vayu : -ire7 es el estado gaseoso de la materia& • Agni : 'uego7 es el poder de transformaci_n de la materia& • Jala : -gua7 es el estado l]8uido de la materia& • Pritvi : Tierra7 es el estado s_lido de la materia& -akash) `ter • 'odos los espacios por donde pasan cosas estan formadas por `ter& • 6n el cuerpo los encontramos en: la cavidad #ucal. el ciclo de reproducci_n femenino. lugar donde vierte las enBimas digestivas& Secretor de hormonas como el glucag_n.

en el movimiento pulmonar. integraci_n y segregaci_n. tales como grasa. su _rgano de percepci_n es la lengua& • $tri#utos: fluideB. fluidos corporales vitales. la linfa. cicatriBante. claridad. minuciosidad. luminosidad. la sangre. .ala) agua • Juestro cuerpo esta formado el FId por agua& • 6n el cuerpo la encontramos en las materias l]8uidas y viscosas. discontinuidad. del est_mago y los intestinos& • 'acto. en las c`lulas& • $udici_n. en el a#domen. m_vil. e7pansi_n ilimitada. cart]lagos. el semen. sangu]neos. uNas. mcsculos. convergencia y divergencia. su _rgano de percepci_n son los o/os& *o#ierna la acci_n de caminar y esta relacionado con los pies& $tri#utos: ligereBa. su _rgano de percepci_n es la piel y su _rgano de acci_n es la mano& • $tri#utos: ligereBa. discontinuidad& • $cciones: calmante. tendones. claridad. las mucosidades y las secreciones se7uales& • *usto. difusi_n • $cciones: actca en los /ugos gastricos y en la digesti_n& • • • • • • • • . se8uedad. en los vasos. ni vac]o ni llenob • $cciones: tiene una capacidad deshidratante y participa en la a#sorci_n de edemas /untamente con el aire& 5ayu) aire • 'odo lo 8ue es m_vil participa del movimiento& • 6n el cuerpo lo encontramos en la actividad del sistema nervioso& • $ctividades de los mcsculos. ni caliente ni fr]o. movimiento hacia a#a/o. claridad. pulsaciones del coraB_n. viscosidad • $cciones: depende de la proporci_n como se com#ina con los demas elementos si se meBcla con mas proporci_n de tierra 8ue de agua tiene la acci_n de nutrir& 6rithvi) tierra • >a tierra es la 8ue sostiene todas las sustancias vivas e inanimadas& • 6n el cuerpo representa las estructuras s_lidas: huesos. _rgano de percepci_n es el o]do. ligereBa. aspereBa. manifestandose como inteligencia& Controla la temperatura corporal y la percepci_n& @isi_n. manifestado a trav`s del ha#la& • $tri#utos: sonido. calor. deshidratante y por ello favorece la a#sorci_n de edemas& -gni) fuego 6lemento 8ue permite transformar gracias a su energ]a& 6n el cuerpo hace posi#le las funciones del meta#olismo& Su principal funci_n es el sistema digestivo& 6sta presente en la materia gris del cere#ro. humedad. agudeBa.respiratorias. estimulante. impalpa#ilidad.

• • • •

piel& La esta#ilidad& :lfato, su _rgano de percepci_n es la nariB& ?elacionada con la actividad del ano& $tri#utos: solideB, dureBa, lentitud, inactividad, esta#ilidad, firmeBa, densidad, volumen& $cciones: depende de su proporci_n con/unta con los otros elementos& Si e7iste en demasiada proporci_n puede tender a crear por e/emplo o#esidad&

000000000000000000000000000000 .a ley de lo semejante y lo distinto GF! semejante es la (ausa del aument! de t!das las (!sas en t!d! m!ment!@ # l! distint! es la (ausa de su disminu(iHn' .n el (!nte*t! del tratamient! del (uerp!@ l! semejante (ausa un aument! # l! distint! una disminu(iHn de l!s (!nstitu#entes del (uerp!' F! semejante (!mbina # l! distint! di+eren(iaI l! semejante es l! Jue (!n(uerda@ mientras l! distint! es l! Jue dis(repaK' Charaka& 6n e7ceso: deformidades como la osteoporosis o cavidades en los pulmones& 6n disminuci_n: cuando se presentan tumores s_lidos e hipertrofia de _rganos& 6n e7ceso: alteraciones en el cuerpo como tem#loresy ta8uicardias& 6n disminuci_n: puede aparecer paralisis y pro#lemas de movimiento& 6n e7ceso: todo tipo de inflamaciones, fie#res y clceras& 6n disminuci_n: alteraciones como la hiperpigmentaci_n y la anemia& 6n e7ceso: 'rastornos como edemas, pleuritis, ascitis& 6n disminuci_n: deshidrataci_n& 6n e7ceso: tumores s_lidos y o#esidad& 6n disminuci_n: deformaciones como la p`rdida de peso&

--#-%&-`ter0espacio. %habda7 sonido

-"3 -aire0movimiento. %parsha7 tacto

-<3" -fuego0energ]a. +upa7 vista

;-.- -agua0l]8uido. +asa7 sa#or 6+"T&5" -tierra0s_lido. <andha7 olfato

--#-%& luminaci_n 6n e7ceso: sensaci_n de estar perdido&

6n disminuci_n: el dolor del vac]o 5-9= @igor y elevaci_n -<3" Claridad, agudeBa de conciencia& ;-.*oBo, disfrute de la vida& Satisfacci_n& 6+"T&5" FirmeBa y esta#ilidad 6n e7ceso: agotamiento& 6n disminuci_n: sensaci_n de estancamiento& 6n e7ceso: c_lera, ra#ia& 6n disminuci_n: incapacidad para transformar y transformarse& 6n e7ceso: demasiada fluideB, sensaci_n 8ue las cosas se escapan de las manos& 6n disminuci_n: sensaci_n de estancamiento, de no avanBar& 6n e7ceso: petrificaci_n de los pensamientos e ideas& 'er8uedad& 6n disminuci_n: sensaci_n de dese8uili#rio, de falta de sost`n&

5an is also composed of these D #asic elements& @ther @lement in &uman Gody7 n human #ody there are many spaces %hich are manifestations of the ether element& 'here are, for e7ample, spaces in the mouth, nose, gastronomical 'ract, respiratory tract, a#domen, thora7, capillaries, tissues, cells etc& -ir @lement in &uman Gody7 Space in movement is called $ir& $ir is the element of movement& n human #ody it manifests in the larger movements of the muscles, the pulsations of the heart, the e7pansion and contractions of the lungs and the movement of the stomach %alls and intestines& f %e o#serve under the microscope then %e %ill find that every minute cell and nerve in the human #ody is on the move& 'he entire movement is governed #y the #odily air& 'ire @lement in the &uman Gody7 'he source of fire and light in the solar system is the sun& n the human #ody, the source of fire is the meta#olism& Fire %orks in the digestive system& n the gray matter of the #rain cells& Fire manifests as intelligence& Fire also activates the retina %hich perceives light& 'hus, #ody temperature, digestion, the thinking process and vision are all the function is #odily fire& $ll meta#olism and enByme systems are controlled #y this element& (ater @lement in the &uman Gody7 t manifests in the secretions of the digestive /uices and the salivary glands& n the mucus mem#rane and in plasma and cytoplasm& Water is a#solutely vital for the functioning of the tissues, organs and various #odily systems& For e7ample& dehydration resulting from diarrhea and vomiting must #e treated immediately to protect the patientls life #ecause the element important& @arth @lement in the &uman Gody7 'he solid structures0#ones, cartilage, nails, muscles, tendons, skin and hair0are derived from earth element&

The five elements of onstitution of human body are related to its H %enses 'he five elements manifest in the functioning of the five senses of man& 'hus, the five elements are directly related to manls a#ility to perceive the e7ternal environment&

6ther0 9earing $ir R 'ouch Fire R @ision Water0 'aste 6arth0 Smell Some inferences #ased on this relationships (& Water is related to the organ of taste: %ithout %ater the tongue cannot taste& 'he tongue is closely related in function to the action of the genitals-penis and clitoris.& n $yurveda, the penis or clitoris is called the lo%er tongue& While the tongue in the mouth is the upper tongue& 'he person %ho controls the upper tongue can control the lo%er tongue ;& 'he earth element is related to the sense of smell& 'he nose, the sensory organ of smell is related in function to the action of the anus, e7cretion& 'his relationship is clearly evident on a constipated person& 'hose %ho have constipation e7perience #ad #reath, and their sense of smell #ecomes dull&& Eou can o#serve from your e7perience

los dhatus son los te/idos y sus componentes y van de los mas densos a los mas sutiles. ?aktha Lhatu y as] sucesivamente y en este orden hasta la formaci_n de Shukra Lhatu& >os siete Lhatus son de gran importancia tanto para nuestro sistema #iol_gico como para el sistema inmunitario& 6l cltimo dhatu. as] pues la mayor]a de los te/idos estaran regulados por este dosha& Sin em#argo ?aktha Lhatu esta regulado por 2itta y $sthi Lhatu por @ata& >a formaci_n de los siete dhatus depende de la digesti_n& 2ues es gracias a ella 8ue tomamos la energ]a necesaria para su correcta formaci_n y sano funcionamiento& >a sustancia 8ue se produce despu`s de la digesti_n de una alimentaci_n acorde con nuestro 2rakruti. la sangre.>et me kno% ho% do you like this first post of ayurveda series and %ould you %ant me to go ahead %ith itg For no%. 8ue se traduce como Zplasma nutrientem y es el primer elemento a partir del cual se formaran el siguiente te/ido. Shukra dhatu es el 8ue nutre Rjas& :/as se define como sustancia vital y esta estrechamente relacionado con nuestro sistema inmunitario. semen y ovarios. mantenimientom y se traduce como Za8uello 8ue construyem& Son los responsa#les de toda la estructura fisiol_gica del cuerpo& Se ocupan de las funciones de los distintos _rganos. es llamado $hara ?asa. :/as& Lhatus significa literalmente ZSost`n. have planned my ne7t post for tomorro% on vatta0pitta0kapha& Lhatus: 6n $yurveda se sostiene 8ue e7isten F dhatus o te/idos& $s] como los doshas son los controles energ`ticos del cuerpo. as] en $yurveda se reconocen F tipos de agni 8ue corresponden a . pues sa#emos 8ue es 2itta la 8ue gracias a su fuego la hace posi#le. decimos pues 8ue lostridoshas @ata. pues cuando hay una deficiencia de :/as nuestro sistema de defensas decae y contraemos enfermedad& 2ara la transformaci_n de un dhatu a otro es necesaria la acci_n de 2itta. sa#emos 8ue el dosha relacionado con este elemento es Kapha. 2itta y Kapha actcan a trav`s de los te/idos& Se reconocen F dhatus: • • • • • • • ?asa: plasma nutriente& ?akhta: sangre& 5amsa: te/ido muscular& 5edas: te/ido adiposo& $sthi: te/ido _seo& 5a//a: te/ido medular& Shukra: sustancia vital. sistemas y Bonas vitales del cuerpo& 6l agua es la sustancia #asica del cuerpo y la 8ue esta en mayor cantidad.

e/ercicio. programa de re/uvenecimiento y paB mental& >os siete dhatus +-%. se produce a gracias a tres acciones: • rrigaci_n: los nutrientes son transportados a los siete dhatus a trav`s de los vasos sangu]neos& • Selectividad: en la 8ue cada dhatu e7trae los nutrientes necesarios para poder realiBar sus funciones& • 'ransformaci_n: en la 8ue de forma gradual las sustancias nutritivas pasan por cada dhatu.$&-T=7 6s el plasma o linfa 8ue contiene todos los nutrientes de los alimentos digeridos gracias al dhatu Agni& Jutre el cuerpo y la mente& ?esponsa#le tam#i`n de la hidrataci_n& . los dhatus se ven directamente afectados& 2odemos decir pues 8ue el dosha alterado y el dhatu defectuosos siempre se hallan relacionados de forma directa con el proceso de la enfermedad& 6l #uen funcionamiento y estado de los doshas puede lograrse si se toman las medidas necesarias para mantener e8uili#rados los doshas con una dieta adecuada.cada uno de los doshas mas 6 8ue conoceremos cuando ha#lemos propiamente de los tipos de $gni& >a transformaci_n de un dhatu a otro en el orden comentado. produciendo el alimento para la formaci_n del siguiente dhatu& Cuando hay un dese8uili#rio de @ata. 2itta o Kapha.

erupciones cutaneas. anore7ia. de#ilidad. cu#ren las estructuras internas y dan fuerBa a nuestra estructura corporal& ?epresenta la fuerBa f]sica y es el responsa#le de los movimientos de las articulaciones& .-. satisfacci_n y produce la sustancia primera para tener un _ptimo :/os& Su esencia nutre el siguiente dhatu. impotenciab Cuando esta en armon]a en nuestro cuerpo nos da sensaci_n de placer.2anchamaha#oot : Jala.$&-T=: 6s la sangre. fragilidad y tam#i`n alteraciones de Kapha como alteraciones card]acas. palpitaciones y palideBa en la piel y las mucosidades& • . celos& 'am#i`n anemia y hemorragias. #uena energ]a. estimulaci_n. 2rithvi Cuando Rasa dhatu esta dese8uili#rado puede provocar pesadeB.%. nauseas. permitiendo la o7igenaci_n a todos los te/idos y _rganos vitales y a la mente& Su caracter]stica es la hemoglo#ina. ira. odio. importante para la respiraci_ tisular& • 0emat!(rit!: es la fracci_n de volumen de eritrocitos en sangre& Su esencia nutre el siguiente dhatu . mcsculos o te/ido muscular& .amsa Shatu.$&-T=: >os mcsculos dan cohesi_n a nuestro cuerpo.. felicidad. eccemas& Cuando esta sano nos aporta sensaci_n de #ien estar. Rakhta Shatu.ritr!(it!s: c`lula ro/a de los animales de sangre ro/a& Se forma en la m`dula _sea y son destruidos en el sistema reticuloendotelial y en la melsa& $ctca como rector del :. disminuci_n de hierro en la sangre& 6s de#ida al dese8uili#rio entre la producci_n de hemat]es y su distri#uci_n o p`rdida& Se manifiesta cl]nicamente por fatiga. encargado de dicho transporte& 2anchamaha#oot y dosha: $gni. y el C:. alegr]a. emoci_n y una correcta am#ici_n para conseguir nuestras metas en la vida& L6F J C :J6S P' >6S • 0em!gl!binaT part]culas ferrot]picas 8ue se encargan #asicamente del transporte del o7]geno a los te/idos& • Anemia: disminuci_n de eritrocitos y hematocritos. la sangre& +-#&T. Jala 2itta Cuando Rathka dhatu esta en dese8uili#rio sentimos la p`rdida del gusto por la vida. de#ilidad. sensi#ilidad. la 8ue mantiene la vida.

. de#ilidad& 2uede causar tam#i`n o#esidad& Cuando funciona correctamente nos aporta fle7i#ilidad. ya 8ue `sta les proporciona un sustituto 8u]mico del amor. seguridad. . rigideB. Asthi Shatu. creatividad.eda Shatu. $kash Cuando . es el responsa#le de sostener nuestro cuerpo& 2anchamaha#oot: @ayu. Jala Cuando . desamor. valent]a. de la misma manera 8ue el chocolate proporciona la misma sustancia& 2anchamaha#oot : 2rithvi. miedo& Cuando esta en armon]a nos da fortalecimiento.$&-T=: 6s el te/ido adiposo. amor..-. inseguridad. ya 8ue los huesos estan llenos de pe8ueNos espacios& Cuando esta en dese8uili#rio podemos sentir rigideB. cariNo y perd_n& Su esencia nutre y hace posi#le la formaci_n de . una pala#ra 8ue significa lu#ricaci_n y amor& >o 8ue sugiere 8ue 8uienes sufren de amores consuman en e7ceso grasa. actividad& Su esencia nutre el siguiente dhatu.eda Shatu esta en dese8uili#rio en nuestro cuerpo sentimos soledad. el te/ido medular& . te/ido _seo& -%T&" $&-T=: 6s el te/ido _seo. sensaci_n de Zenve/ecerm. falta de sost`n& Cuando funciona correctamente nos aporta apoyo. este te/ido incluye tam#i`n el cere#ro y la m`dula espinal& 2anchamaha#oot: 2rithvi. apego. de#ilidad. compromiso& Jutre el siguiente dhatu.. indecisi_n.$&-T=: 6s el te/ido medular o nervioso. el te/ido adiposo& . su funci_n es dar sensaci_n de unidad y satisfacci_n al cuerpo y a la mente& Se encarga de los impulsos sensoriales y motrices& Se considera m`dula a la sustancia 8ue e7iste en el interior del hueso. vayu Cuando . 2rithvi.ajja dhatu esta en dese8uili#rio nos da p`rdida de confianBa. valent]a. pereBa.2anchamaha#oot : 2rithvi. se ocupa de la lu#ricaci_n& >a tarea de la grasa es OsnehanaK.@$.ajja dhatu.amsa dhatu no funciona correctamente puede causar. Jala. vayu 6s el cnico te/ido con predominio de @ata& 6l te/ido _seo se compone principalmente del elemento aire.

inesta#ilidad. te/ido reproductor& %&=#+. agotamiento. sentimos ausencia de alegr]a por la vida. la vida se siente Zmarchitam. 8ue se definen como te/idos secundarios.$&-T=7 6s el sistema reproductor. enamoramiento. mucosidad de la nariB& Sudor& PNas y pelo . mas en $yurveda se la da un significado mas amplio& >a sustancia vital de Shukra dhatu son el semen y los _vulos& Shukra se puede traducir como Zsemillam. saliva. creatividad. procreaci_n. sudor& bbbbbbbb Cera en los o]dos.apego al pasado& 2uede tam#i`n causar trastornos como el v`rtigo& Cuando esta en e8uili#rio nos aporta plenitud y seguridad con uno mismo& >a esencia de 5a//a Lhatu nutre el siguiente dhatu. 8ue son llamados . ausencia de :/as& Cuando esta en armon]a. producto de los dhatus. decisi_n& 6ste cltimo dhatu nutre el Rjas de nuestro cuerpo& .ala ?asa dhatu Stanya: leche materna& Kandara: tendones& ?akhta dhatu Shira: vasos sangu]neos& @asa: grasa& 5amsa dhatu '%ak: piel& 5eda dhatu $sthi dhatu Snayu: mcsculos y tendones Lientes >agrimas. mas la funci_n de este te/ido es dar vida y tam#i`n regular el deseo y la actividad se7ual& $demas nos aporta fuerBa y energ]a& 2anchamaha#oot: 'odos los elementos. necesarios para mantener nuestro cuerpo& 'am#i`n cada uno de los dhatus produce sus propios productos de deshecho.alas& $hatu =padhatu $rtava: sangre menstrual& . nos aporta vigor.os upadhatus y malas de los dhatus Cada uno de los dhatus crea a su veB upadathus. Shukra dhatu. predominando 2rithvi and Jala Cuando Shukra dhatu esta en dese8uili#rio. impotencia.

5a//a dhatu Shukra dhatu bbbbbbbbbbb& bbbbbbbbbbb& bbbbbbbb bbbbbbbb *9G@+3@T"* @9@% I1 6reamble7 -bout this introdu tory hapter 'his chapter contains a #rief introduction to the fundamental .

to give you an overvie%. then itAs done its /o#& Consider this chapter as a 8uick /ourney through a country you may decide to visit and study at a later date& n some %ays this is the most difficult task& 'he @S5 is very different from anything else Ave come across. often hierarchical. most of modern physics and many aspects of 6astern religions& 'he trou#le is that most of us see the %orld in different terms %hich have their perspectives set #y the %orld0vie% of Je%ton and Lescartes& So the /o# is to provide you %ith a ne% %ay of thinking a#out organisations %hich is radically different from traditional. and therefore miss the essence of %hatAs really going on& 'hey forget that $. you have to learn to see the %orld through cy#ernetic eyes& J1 The -pproa h Luring the (HDIs Stafford <eer %as %orking as a manager in <ritish Steel and had #ecome dissatisfied %ith traditional methods of organisation& ?ather than attempt to modify %hat seemed to #e a system of fundamentally fla%ed ideas he took a dramatically fresh approach& 9e #egan to study organisations %hich %ere o#viously several light years ahead in the %ay they functioned& 5ore specifically.ideas on %hich the @ia#le Systems 5odel -or @S5. to sketch out the outline& So donAt try and thoroughly understand it all& f you get an idea of ho% it developed. and actually to #e a#le to do something a#out pro#lems %hich may #e concerning you& For this to happen. models &&& 'he re%ard of this leap to ne% %ays of thinking is the a#ility to think a#out organisations using a rich ne% language. and that for any model to %ork it must take all of this comple7ity into account& 'he @S5 is more in tune %ith other %hole systems ideas like acupuncture. the *aia hypothesis. %hat itAs a#out and %hy itAs different from most other models.the brain itsel+'G (e an study the e!traordinary beauty of the human form) and base an organisational model on the methods used by the entral and autonomi nervous systems to manage the workings of the organs and mus les1 <eerAs studies of the human form. and the tendency is to miss the %hole point and re0interpret it as /ust another %ay of looking at the same old ideas of ho% organisations %ork& 'he difference is that the @S5 is a =%hole systems= theory& $lmost all other theories of organisation think in the #illiard0#alls mode of $ leads to < leads to C. < and C are ine7trica#ly linked %ith a myriad other factors. he looked at the %ay the human #rain organises the operation of the muscles and organs& GUe -ill seek the s!ur(e !+ e++e(tive !rganisati!n in the (#berneti(s !+ natural pr!(esses . is #ased& 'he intention is to set the scene. the muscles and organs and all the various nervous systems %ere the inspiration for the @ia#le Systems 5odel& t may #e considered as a generalisation of the %ay that %e all =manage= ourselves in response to a changing environment& .

The 'ive %ystems <eerAs studies led him to vie% the human form as five interacting systems& • %9%T@.etasystem are dra%n as an ellipse and diamond respectively& -'his is taken from <eerAs conventions. and the e7ternal environment& :r a little more crudely.etasystem is to hold the %hole thing together& 'he @nvironment& $ll those parts of the outside %orld %hich are of direct relevance to the system in focus& 'hird &ere is a basi 5%. although have stretched his /perational circle into an ellipse&. movement of trucks. people.etasystem <eerAs first insight %as to consider the human organism as three main interacting parts: the muscles X organs. H: 9igher #rain functions& Formulation of 2olicy decisions& dentity& 31 The Three @lements @nvironment) /peration) and . #ody.etasystem& 'he #rain and nervous systems& 'he parts %hich ensure that the various /perational units %ork together in an integrated.. 3: 'he <ase <rain %hich oversees the entire comple7 of muscles and organs and optimises the internal environment& • %9%T@. K: 'he 5id <rain& 'he connection to the outside %orld through the senses& Future planning& 2ro/ections& Forecasting& • %9%T@. computer. conversation. the nervous systems. harmonious fashion& 'he /o# of the .<eneralisation . diagram 'he @nvironment is dra%n as an amoe#oid shape& 'he /peration and . J: 'he sympathetic nervous system %hich monitors the muscles and organs and ensures that their interaction are kept sta#le& • %9%T@. 'he arro%s indicate some of the many and various %ays the three elements interact& 6ach arro% may have several aspects: information -#y phone. #rain and environment& 'hese are generalised in the @ia#le Systems 5odel as follo%s: First Second 'he /peration& 'he muscles and organs& 'he #its %hich do all the #asic %ork& 'he primary activities& 'he . money or goods& 3Jote the appro7imation involved in dra%ing these three elements as separate& 'he @nvironment should really go all the . I: $ll the muscles and organs& 'he parts that actually L: something& 'he #asic activities of the system& 'he /peration& • %9%T@.

the emphasis %ill al%ays #e on the ecology of an organisation interacting %ith its environment& 'his #alanced %hole0system approach resolves many of the dilemmas %ith %hich traditional models struggle& Should %e centralise or decentralisegg Should %e devolve po%er or appoint authoritarian managersgg $ll these 8uestions %ill #e dealt %ith as %e #uild up the model& 'he design of the . although it may #e useful to take a limited vie% of some part of the @S5 for a particular purpose.etasystem& $nd the .%ay around #oth the /peration and its . L and .etasystem depends upon the particular conditions %ithin the /peration& 'hey must #e in #alance& $s the environment changes. and discussion is done in this %ay& 'he approach relies heavily on dra%ings and sketches %hich seem to #e the appropriate %ay to represent a %hole system& juite often a fe% rough sketches %ill illuminate a pro#lem %hich seems intracta#le %hen %ritten as an essay& H1 The 'ive %ystems E6hysiologi al modelF 'he @ia#le Systems 5odel is composed of the three elements: @. four muscles and organs& . #its further su#0divide into five interacting systems& 'hey %ere originally derived from <eerAs thinking a#out the =management= of the muscles #y the #rain and nervous systems& Consider the follo%ing diagram of the central and autonomic nervous systems. the organisation must respond& 'his %ill usually re8uire a change in the /peration to #alance the environmental changes and then itAs inevita#le that the .etasystem should really #e em#edded in the /peration& 'he teasing apart is necessary to sho% the %ay the three elements interact && 4 K1 The Three @lements as a Galan ed (hole %ystem 'hroughout the discussions %hich follo% it is crucial to #ear in mind that the @S5 considers an organisation as a %hole system %hich must #e in #alance %ith its environment& 'his #alance is the essence of @S5 diagnosis& tAs compara#le to the approach taken #y acupuncture %hich considers illness as an im#alance in the #odily functions diagnosed #y an im#alance in the (.etasystem %ill also have to adapt as it has to #e in #alance %ith its /peration& $ll @S5 diagnosis. analysis.& 'he L and . sho%n interacting %ith #oth an e7ternal environment and -for this e7ample. so the @S5 considers as fundamental the study of an organisation in its environment& So. pulses& ?estore the #alance 0 the illness goes a%ay& $nd /ust as acupuncture %ill look at any im#alance #et%een a patient and that patientAs environment.

%ystem H 'he Corte7& 9igher #rain functions& %ystem K Liencephalon nput from senses. identity& $daptation. strategy& nternal regulation. for%ard planning& %ystem 3 <ase #rain& 2ons and medulla& nternal regulation& :ptimisation& %ystem J 'he sympathetic nervous system& ts function is to sta#ilise the activity of muscles and organs& %ystem I 5uscles.simplified form the five systems are as follo%s: %ystem H %ystem K %ystem 3 %ystem J 2olicy. organs& 2rimary activities& n their -possi#ly over0. synergy& Conflict resolution. ultimate authority. for%ard planning. optimisation. sta#ility& 'hese five systems form the #asis of the @ia#le Systems 5odel& 'heir functions are general enough to make the model applica#le to any and all systems %hich are via#le in that they can maintain a separate e7istence& 5uch of %hat follo%s %ill #e discussed in terms of these five systems& .

the machines. the engine room. the producers& .%ystem I 2rimary activities& 61 The 'ive %ystems . optimised set of /perational units. %hich has previously #een called the /peration& S( is the #it %hich actually does something& tAs the muscles. then the %hole thing %ill %ork more effectively&= 'he e7tra efficiency is called synergy& System 3 is there to regulate System ( 0 its function is optimisation& C& :nce you have a sta#le. it #ecomes essential to look at %ays of !ptimising these interactions& 'his is the /o# of System 3& System 3 %orks %ith an overvie% of the entire comple7 of interacting System ( units and thinks = f this one does this and that one does that. is also given the /o# of ensuring sta#ility& 3& :nce the interactions of the System ( units are rendered sta#le.*reating a (hole from the 6arts like to think of the five Systems in terms of %hatAs needed in order to ensure that a num#er of parts come together to form an integrated %hole system& 'he argument goes like this: (& First of all you need the %orking #its& 'his is System ( -S(.& Secondly you must ensure that there are %ays of dealing %ith conflicting interests %hich are inevita#le in the interactions %hich occur as the parts of S( interact& Conflict resolution is the /o# of System .& System . considers %hat it sees. looks for threats and opportunities. and schemes& SC is there to produce plans to ensure long term via#ility& D& $nd finally. the %hole thing must function %ithin some sort of overall conte7t& 6veryone must #e pulling in the same direction& 'his is System DAs /o#& t provides the ground rules and the means of enforcing them to ensure that the system in complete& System D provides the ultimate authority& The five systems develop into an e!traordinarily powerful model of the way things work1 The ne!t step is to turn these ideas into a diagram1 . then you must ensure that it can survive in a changing environment& 'his is the /o# of System C& System C looks at the outside %orld.

etasystem consists of Systems .. / and .& • 'he five systems& • 'he various interactions& Eou %ill notice • the /peration is the same thing as System ( • the . C and D • System C interacts %ith the e7ternal environment .M1 The 'ive %ystems .<raphi al +epresentation 'he five systems have their origins in the functioning of the Central Jervous System. 3. and #oth their arrangement in space and their interconnections are firmly #ased on the physiology of the #rainQ#ody comple7& The result is shown below7 'he comparisons %ith the physiological diagram are clear& $ couple of minutes reflection comparing the t%o diagrams should give you a good grounding in the #asic form of the model: • 'he three elements 0 @.

etasystem is there to ans%er the 8uestion =What rules are needed to decide ho% to design a system %hich takes a num#er of interacting su#0 units and integrates them into a harmonious. "n 5%. together& "ts job is ohesion1 'he .etasystem7 a little more detail 'he /o# of the metasystem is to provide a service to the /perational units& t ensures they %ork together in an integrated. future planning to ensure adaptation to a changing environment. X 3 interact %ith the internal environment -the /peration. harmonious fashion& t holds the /perational units -System (.• Systems . and plan accordingly& System D oversees the %hole process and only steps in if policy guidelines are flaunted& .etasystem interact& 'he essence of the interaction is to #alance the data coming in from the e7ternal environment -into SC. diagnosis you will re-think your organisation in terms of these five systems) and the most powerful approa h is to visualise your understanding as a diagram something like the pi tures on this page1 N1 The . efficient organisationg= 'he ans%er is sta#ility. %ith the information coming from the internal environment -into S3. C and D are a representation of the details of ho% those parts of the . optimisation. and a %ay of rounding off the %hole thing to ensure all the various parts are %orking %ithin the same #asic ground rules& 'he strange looking arro%s connecting systems 3.

The . and one of the key concepts of @S5 diagnosis& . versions of the larger system& 'hey have a . an /peration and they have arro%s %hich indicate they are connected %ith an e7ternal environment& 'his illustrates the principle of recursion. originally formulated mathematically #y <eer.etasystem. or divisions. the /perational part %ill #e composed of su#0units& 'hese are the /perational units& 'hey may #e people. /perational ellipse. inside %hich are three -smaller.etasystemic /o#s %ill #e carried out #y =higher management= 0 typically directors& n @S5 terms they are only there to service the needs of the /perational parts of the organisation& Compare this %ith the traditional vie% that the /perational parts are only there to carry out the orders of the Lirectors& O1 The /peration7 a little more detail Whatever your organisation.'his is nothing like a straight line of command diagram& 'he @S5 %orks %ith #alances and closed information loops& t is not a hierarchical model %hich %orks %ith one %ay communications& -Lo this as say so and thus it has to #e right &&&. or departments.etasystem is there to provide a servi e1 n most traditional companies the . /perational elements& Eou %ill pro#a#ly have noticed that the /perational units are dra%n to look like smaller -rotated. or separate companies& 'his diagram sho%s the -large.

The prin iple applies at all levels) throughout all 5iable %ystems1 (herever you look) the /peration is omposed of EsmallerF 5iable %ystems) and is embedded in a ElargerF 5iable %ystem1 They are all nested one within the other) like +ussian dolls1 +e ursion means that at all levels) the same prin iples of organisation Pre ur)P and so it doesnQt matter if you are diagnosing a twoperson business or the global e onomy .evels of +e ursion1 +eview . the . C and D& System . and carries out the organisationAs primary activities& 'he .e!a tly the same prin iples apply1 The 5%.etasystem and the @nvironment& $ll three are in continuous interaction& 'he /peration is called System (. or %ork together. *onfli t resolution) stability1 System 3 "nternal regulation) /ptimisation) %ynergy1 System C -daptation) dealing with a hanging environment) forward planning1 ..The 'orm of the 5iable %ystems .etasystem is composed of Systems . and the systems needed to ensure they cohere. harmonious %hole& 'he three #asic elements are the /peration. 3. as an integrated. is a re ursive model1 The various levels are alled .odel 'he @S5 considers an organisation as a num#er of /perational units.

distri#ution. reading the Case Studies is perhaps the most accessi#le route to gaining the necessary #ackground information& Rui k <uide7 The .odel 'he @ia#le Systems 5odel looks at an organisation interacting %ith its environment& 'he organisation is vie%ed as t%o parts: the /peration %hich does all the #asic %ork -production. strategic planning &&&. earning the money. it may #e difficult to grasp some of the concepts& f this proves to #e the case. a phone call or a delivery of steel ingots& 'he :peration %ill consist of a num#er of :perational units& 'hese could #e production units or teams of people doing various /o#s& . the entire @S5 diagnosis is presented in #rief& t %ill give you an overvie% of ho% the full diagnosis %ill proceed and of some of the diagrams %hich %ill #e used t %ill also ena#le those of you %ith some prior understanding and %ho have specific organisational pro#lems to /ump in at the sections that are most relevant& 9o%ever. accounts. n the follo%ing section. it should #e stressed that until you have a reasona#le understanding of the %ay in %hich the @S5 looks at organisations. or trucks. 'hese #its are called the . and the #its %hich provide a service to the :peration #y ensuring the %hole organisations %orks together in an integrated %ay -scheduling. regardless of scale& 'his means that any @ia#le System is composed of smaller @ia#le Systems and is em#edded in a larger @ia#le System& T&@ R="*# <="$@ T/ T&@ 5%. that is the same principles of organisation re(ur at all organisational levels. represents the 5etasystem 'he arro%s indicate the many and various %ays that the three parts interact& 6ach arro% may have several aspects 0 it may #e information.System D =ltimate authority) poli y) ground rules) identity1 'he model is recursive.etasystem& 'he follo%ing diagram illustrates the #asic @S5& • @ represents the 6nvironment • / represents the :peration • .

and thus can #e looked at as smaller @ia#le Systems em#edded in the larger system& Rui k <uide7 The . you list the #its that do things.%lightly @laborated Jote the three main parts 0 :peration. their environment& 'he :perational units themselves must #e via#le. and %ith the resolution of conflicts& 'his is = nside and Jo%=& • The @!ternal @ye 0 %hich looks at the e7ternal environment. assesses the threats and opportunities and makes plans to ensure the organisation can adapt to a changing environment& 'his is =:utside and 'hen=& • 6oli y %ystems 0 %hich esta#lish the ground rules %hich set the tone for the %hole organisation& 2olicy rounds off the system& 'he policy systems must have ultimate control& 'his is the #asic model: 'he @S5 sees any via#le system as a collection of :perational elements %hich are held together #y a 5etasystem& <oth :peration and 5etasystem must #e in contact %ith. 6nvironment and 5etasystem& Jote the 5etasystem is sho%n %ith its internal and e7ternal eyes& Jote the :peration is sho%n %ith five :perational units.odel . all of %hich are smaller em#edded @ia#le Systems& Rui k <uide7 6reliminary $iagnosis n the 2reliminary Liagnosis you look at your o%n organisation and e7amine the units %hich compose it& 'hat is. the co0ordination functions. and interacting %ith.'he 5etasystem can #e divided in three main functions: • The "nternal @ye 0 %hich looks at the entire collection of :perational units and deals %ith %ays of getting them to %ork together in mutually #eneficial %ays. the accounting and scheduling functions and so on& Eou then dra% a large @S5 %hich %ill look something like the pictures on the previous pages to identify: • the :perational parts .

and %hich deal %ith sta#ility and optimisation of the :perational units& • the parts %hich have inputs from the 67ternal 6ye and %hich make long term plans in the light of 6nvironmental information& • the 2olicy Systems& $t the end of this process. /o#s and %ith ensuring that they have the capa#ilities to function properly& So for e7ample. and to ensuring that conflicts are resolved and that their performance is optimised& nternal #alance is concerned %ith these -5etasystemic.• the parts %hich have inputs from the nternal 6ye. you may decide to create ne% /o#s to ensure these functions get perfomed& Eou may also find that some /o#s donAt seem to have anything to do %ith the @ia#le Systems& Eou may decide they are not necessary& Rui k <uide7 $esigning -utonomy t is essential to create the right conditions for all the :perational units to function %ith as much autonomy as possi#le& 'hus they %ill need • ndividual 5ission Statements& • <udgets for the resources they need to carry out this 5ission& & • $n agreement that they can decide on their o%n internal development as long as they are %orking to the agreed 5ission& 'here %ill also have to #e safeguards to ensure that the units cannot threaten the overall via#ility of the organisation of %hich they are a part& 'hus • 'hey must #e accounta#le and a#le to demonstrate they are %orking to the agreed plan& • 'here must #e pre0agreed intervention rules %hich means that autonomy is forfeit under certain conditions& 'he %orst case scenario must #e considered in advance& Rui k <uide7 Galan ing the "nternal @nvironment <y this stage you %ill have looked at the various parts of you organisation and decided ho% they map onto the @S5& Eou %ill also have considered the autonomy of the :perational units& 'he nternal 6nvironment consists of all the :perational units and those /o#s %hich are dedicated to looking at them -'he nternal 6ye. you %ill have a large picture %hich gives a representation of your organisation in its totality& 'his is the #asic model from %hich the rest of the diagnosis %ill follo%& n some cases the 2reliminary Liagnosis %ill #e the most useful aspect& Eou may find that your organisation has no %ay to carry out some of the functions %hich are vital for via#ility& 'hus. a committee %hich meets once every three months %ould #e an a#surd idea 0 most of these /o#s need to #e done on a continuous #asis& 'he approach to nternal #alance is as follo%s: .

after all the a#ove have #een e7hausted. and in terms of #oth efficiency and of human %orking conditions should #e seen as the very last alternative& 'he essence of the internal #alance is to vie% the nside of your enterprise as a system of autonomous :perational elements. to guarantee that each :perational unit is . %hich need to #e overseen -the nternal 6ye. as the usual %ay of dealing %ith most pro#lems& Rui k <uide7 "nformation %ystems 'he @S5 re8uires thorough and up0to0date information systems& 'he perfect information system %ould measure everything it needs to kno% continuously. #reakages &&&. morale.• 5a7imise autonomy so that the vast ma/ority of pro#lems are dealt %ith %ithin the :perational units& • 67amine the e7change of goods and services #et%een the :perational units. to define clear limits to autonomy. at the end of each day& 'he figures are then plotted onto a time series so that the trends may #e assessed& The essen e of the 5%. and see if improvements may #e made& • 67amine the #its of the e7ternal environment peculiar to each :perational unit and see if changes can #e made -perhaps they all use the same suppliers and thus #enefit from /oint #uying.& • :ptimise the allocation of resources to the :perational units& t may #e possi#le to cut #ack in one unit and re0invest in another. it may #e necessary to =#eef up= the capa#ilities of the 5etasystem in order to ensure it can discharge its functions of overseeing the :perational units& 'his is the usual %ay that traditional #usinesses operate. %hich are called algedoni s. thus creating synergy in the %hole system& • 67amine the scheduling and co0ordination functions& • 6nsure that the information systems %hich inform the 5etasystem of the goings on at the :perational level are %ell designed& 9o% complete is the informationg 9o% up0to0date is itg • $nd lastly. to look for %ays of generating synergy& 'he imposition of dictates from ab!ve should only #e used %hen the via#ility of the %hole enterprise is at risk and not. approa h to information is that you only need to know if something hanges1 f everything is going as normal. are the #asis of information handling in the @S5& 'hey can #e designed to provide :perational units %ith the information they need to learn and adapt to environmental changes. sales. you can leave it alone& 9o%ever as soon as something changes -dramatic fall in productivity. so that a real0 time model of the goings on %ithin any part of the enterprise may #e maintained& 'he compromise #et%een this and the usual management information %hich is %eeks or months out of date is the use of daily performance indicators& 'hese measure %hatever is seen as important %ithin each :perational units -productivity. %astage. itAs essential you are notified immediately& 'hus: • 9uge printouts of standard information %hich say =n!thing mu(h has (hanged= are useless& • mmediate alerting signals %hich say =s!mething dramati( has happened= are essential& 'hese signals. as in traditional #usinesses.

or to ne% technology. and %ill determine the e7tent to %hich it may descri#e itself as democratic& Rui k <uide7 Gasi 5o abulary 'his juick *uide to ho% the @S5 looks at organisations and ho% it ensures the various parts are #alanced has introduced most of the #asic voca#ulary& • $utonomous :perational units& • 5etasystem 0 concerned %ith ensuring the :perational units hang together or cohere into a single integrated organisation& • Synergy 0 the added efficiency %hich comes from %orking together in a co0operative fashion& • Laily 2erformance ndicators 0 %hich measure the goings on %ithin each :perational unit& • $lgedonics 0 signals %hich are generated to say =>ook out && something unusual has occurred= . the practicalities of this need to #e addressed& 9o% often can the entire mem#ership meetg 9o% effective are #ig meetingsg 'he ans%er to the 8uestion of ho% you involve all mem#ers in policy decisions and ho% you ensure that everyone has to %ork %ithin these ground rules is perhaps one of the #iggest 8uestions for any Social 6conomy enterprise.%orking as an integrated part of the %hole0system and so on& 'he design of these information systems is crucial to the effective operation of your enterprise. and develop any strategies %ithin this conte7t& t must #e a#le to agree and implement its plans through the connections to the :perational units& t must function %ithin policy guidelines& Rui k <uide7 6oli y %ystems 'he policy systems oversee the entire organisation& 'hey constitute the ultimate authority& Clearly they must #e designed %ith great care& For a co0operative it is crucial that everyone is involved in policy decisions and this usually involves a meeting of all mem#ers& 9o%ever. or %hatever& $gain. and can #e used as an alternative to authority& Rui k <uide7 Galan e with the @nvironment 'he 67ternal 6ye maintains contact %ith the relevant parts of the e7ternal environment. and ena#les the future planning systems to develop strategies for adapting to change in the market. the various parts must #e #alanced: • 'he future planning system must have the capa#ilities to e7amine and find the relevant information& • • • • t must #e capa#le of planning and simulating various options& t must #e a%are of the capa#ilities of the :perational units.

and to dra% them on a large @S5 diagram %hich represents the parts of your organisation in its totality& f any are not present.&II pm that afternoon& Psually."3-+9 $"-<3/%"% "$@3T"'"*-T"/3 /' T&@ H %9%T@. #ut needed advice 8uickly& $ meeting %as scheduled for . then they are not crucial for via#ility and may #e unnecessary& 6reliminary $iagnosis . they %ill need to #e designed and added to your organisational structure& f any e7isting parts of your organisation do not fit into one of the D Systems. a consultant needs several days to assess the situation and gather the #ackground %hich is .% 'he @ia#le Systems 5odel is #ased on D systems %hich are seen as fundamental to via#ility& f all D systems are %orking %ell %ithin you organisation. and thus compete more effectively in e7porting their products& 'he group had done some preparatory %ork.&ow it (orks %as told this story #y a colleague -referred to as *<. and you %ill need to change your organisation to ensure via#ility& 'he purpose of the 2reliminary Liagnosis is to identify the D systems needed to ensure via#ility. and %ho uses the @S5 as a tool in his consultancies& t gives such a clear picture of the use of 2reliminary Liagnosis that decided to include it at this point& 9e %as telephoned one morning in connection %ith the proposed amalgamation of several #usinesses into an alliance designed to ena#le the mem#er companies to com#ine their strengths. then your organisation is not via#le in the terms defined in this pack. %ho lectures in 5anagement Studies. the manual %ill assume you understand these terms& t %ill also use the five systems to descri#e the various functions %ithin the organisation& %ystem I %ystem J %ystem 3 %ystem K %ystem H 'he entire collection of interacting :perational units& 'he system responsi#le for sta#ilityQresolving conflict #et%een :perational units& 'he systems responsi#le for optimisationQgenerating synergy #et%een :perational units& Future plans and strategies& $daptation to a changing environment& 2olicy& 6+@.From no% on. then you can say that the #asic functions needed for via#ility are present& f they are not.".

*< arrived for the first meeting %ith a large piece of paper on %hich %as dra%n the outline of the @S5. rather like opening a ?ussian doll to find several identical smaller dolls& For e7ample =56= %ill . and %rite in =maintenance division=& $nd so on& Luring this process you may %ant to add other units %ithin the original set of nested recursions. some of the #o7es %ere empty and *< #egan to pro#e =9o% do you intend to ensure that the mem#er companies %ork together in a more effective manner 0 %onAt you need someone to e7amine the various possi#ilities and to look for synergyg= <asically. and %rite in it =56=& 'hen dra% a larger shape around the 56. that *<As clients %ere over%helmed %ith =his= insight and made a%are there %ere several aspects of the organisation they had completely overlooked& $nd all of this %ithout any preparation& n your case. and some%here the functions needed for via#ility %ill have #een implemented& 'he 8uestion is 0 are they ade8uateg <ut %hatever the conte7t. you %ill #e mapping your o%n organisation onto a @S5 diagram. assuming you are looking at an e7isting #usiness. look for the #its of your o%n enterprise %hich does it. that is the :perational units and Systems . circle& dodecahedron &&&&. there are times %hen itAs easy to lose track of e7actly %hat is #eing studied& So its essential to #egin the 2reliminary Liagnosis %ith a clear statement of the organisation -or the parts of the organisation.. 3. you are looking at& 'hroughout this guide. he %as looking for something to %rite in the System 3 #o7& 'his is the essence of the 2reliminary Liagnosis& Eou define a function. the insights are unlikely to #e so staggering& 2ro#lems %ith via#ility %ill have arisen and #een dealt %ith. this %ill #e referred to as the System0in0Focus& I1I %ket h some +e ursions1 Eou may %ell have done some of this already in the recursion0games suggested in $ppendi7 (& f not choose a shape -s8uare. and %rite it in on the relevant part of the diagram& 'he @S5 is so thorough in its model of ho% a #usiness %orks. T/ G@ $"-<3/%@$ 6=+6/%@7 To larify the boundaries of the %ystem-in-'o us1 Luring the diagnosis %hich follo%s. he #egan to ask 8uestions a#out the proposed organisation and to fill in the #o7es in his @S5 diagram& :perational units: the mem#er companies& $nd so on& $fter the proposed organisation had #een descri#ed. and this process is #ound to affect the %ay you look at your enterprise& %tep I7 $@'"3@ T&@ %9%T@.essential for sound advice& 'his %as clearly impossi#le& So. C and D& $s the meeting proceeded. and dra% in the ne7t recursion up%ards in %hich you are em#edded& 2erhaps it is =#icycle repair shop=& $gain put a larger shape around this one.

-all (D. and for those of you %ho %ish to read further there is a provocative #it of 'he 9eart of 6nterprise in %hich <eer discusses his ideas& 'he essence is that 2urpose can only #e defined as =What a system actually does=& tAs of no use having a purpose of =<ringing do%n the Capitalist 5onster= if %hat you actually do is sit around and drink coffee all day& What matters is %hat actually happens& <eer therefore concludes that the purpose of the <ritish rail%ay system is to dissuade him from travelling #y rail&. and its easy to get distracted into the details of any one of these& deally you should have a huge notice #oard %ith -for e7ample. #ut it should #e complete enough to have at least one complete recursion at each level& >ike most of the e7ercises %hich follo% the %ay this %orks %ill depend entirely on conte7t& $ small %ork0team %ill #e descri#ed ade8uately #y a simple diagram& 'he social economy of Chile involved fourteen recursions and %eeks of %ork& $t the very least.III employeesgg.inevita#ly have =S$5=. SES'650 J0F:CPS: Co0op Federation pinned to it to ensure you are clear a#out your current focus of attention& I13 (rite down the 6urpose of the %ystem-in-'o us1 $t this point. =$?'9P?= and =5$?E=& 2lay %ith these diagrams until you have a clear idea of %hatAs going on& $ complete mapping %ill #e completely over0the0top. itAs essential to map the recursions immediately a#ove and #elo% your system0in0focus& I1J $efine your %ystem-in-'o us1 >ook at your diagram of the various recursions& 'he System in Focus might #e your %hole co0 op or one department or it may #e a proposed federation of co0ops& <ut %hatever. itAs much easier to keep your attention on the relevant issues& -'he issue of purpose is not as simple as it first appears. this is #eing referred to as the 5ission Statement. =SP6=. a statement of the 2P?2:S6 for the System0in0Focus should #e %ritten do%n #elo% its name& 'his %ill help to clarify several issues as the diagnosis continues& Currently.ist the various parts of your %ystem-in-'o us1 . I1K . although $ims and :#/ectives is an e8ually clear %ay of e7pressing it& $gain the point of this is clarity& :nce the system0in0focus is defined %ith a name and a purpose. you have to #e clear a#out %hat you are concentrating on& >ater there may #e lots of diagrams at various levels.

5etasystem and 6nvironment 0 %ill #e sketched in& <et%een them they represent the overvie% of your System0in0Focus in its totality& 'he diagram represents your system0in0focus interacting %ith its environment& 'he :peration carries out the systemAs #asic activities& t %ill consist of several :perational units& t is the muscles. the accounting functions. the production units. keep one eye on your sketch of the various recursions and ensure that the items on the list refer only to the system0in0focus& tAs likely that your first list %ill need revision and that one or t%o items %ill #elong to another recursion& Check it carefully& $s the 2reliminary Liagnosis proceeds./$@. the management functions and so on& n compiling the list. the management& 'he details of the %hat goes on %ithin each of these three shapes %ill #e filled in as the diagnosis proceeds& 'he /o# at this point is to dra% the @S5 in outline as an overvie% of your system0in0focus interacting %ith its environment& . the parts that generate %ealth& 'he 5etasystem is there to provide a service to the :perational units& t is there to hold the organisation together& t is the #rain. the list %ill disappear completely and there %ill #e D %ell defined systems giving the #asis for via#ility& f not."3@ 6=+6/%@7 To depi t the overview of your %ystem-in-'o us in its totality1 'he diagnosis of your organisation %ill proceed #y dra%ing a large diagram %hich %ill represent your System0in0Focus as a %hole system& $t this stage.@ %9%T@. . you should list all the parts of the System0in0Focus as you see them& 'he list should #e e7haustive as it %ill #e referred to throughout the 2reliminary Liagnosis& t %ill contain the :perational parts. the list %ill gradually disappear& f your organisation is perfectly @ia#le. the regulator. you %ill #e a#le to take the items on your list and allocate them to one or other of the D systems %ithin the @ia#le Systems 5odel& 'hus. the outlines of the three main parts of the @S5 0 :peration. "3 /=T.<efore starting the Liagnosis and the identification of the systems needed for via#ility. either • some ne% /o#s may have to invented or • some e7isting /o#s are not needed for via#ility and can therefore #e considered as redundant& %tep J7 $+-( T&@ 5"-G.

J13 Lra% the 5etasystem as a #ig diamond and the :peration as a matching ellipse and the 6nvironment as an amoe#oid shape& 5ake all of these as large as you can& 3otes7 (& 'here is a tendency to see this diagram as hierarchical& 'he <oss over the Workers& From my e7perience. System :ne is the production units. #ut more recently lining %allpaper %hich is cheap and so you can rip up diagrams you donAt like and start again& J1J Write in #ig letters • %9%T@."%%"/37 -or if youAd rather &&& use -ims and /bje tives.from %tep J . this is completely %rong& 'he 5etasystem is there to service the :perational elements& t has a different perspective. @ia#le Systems in themselves.$+-("3< T&@ 5%. System :ne is the programmers or teams of programmers. activities& 'he first system in the @ia#le Systems 5odel is the entire :peration %hich %ill #e composed of several :perational units& 'he :perational units undertake the System0in0FocusAs #asic activities& 'hey %ill all #e -smaller. or over0vie%. /3@ . #ut the need to have po%er over the people in the :peration is strictly limited to its /o# of cohesion& t can only %ield po%er if the system is in danger of #reaking apart& .drawing the outlines J1I *et the #iggest piece of paper you can find& Ave used $( technical dra%ing paper.T&@ /6@+-T"/3 6=+6/%@7 'o specify those parts of the system0in0focus %hich undertake System :ne -primary. so you %ill drop a level of recursion. perhaps divided into various specialist areas& .& 6verything %hich %ill #e dra%n on this diagram must refer to the System0in0Focus& $t a later stage you may %ant to delve further into the %orkings of each :perational element. as it has to consider the collection of :perational units in its entirety. "3 '/*=%7 • . . each element can #e considered as a profit centre& f you are a manufacturing #usiness. and thus must #e a#le to maintain a separate e7istence& System :ne generates %ealth and in a #usiness. define a ne% system0in0focus and start again& For the time #eing the diagnosis %ill concentrate upon the System0in0Focus you have defined& %tep 37 %9%T@. the teams of people and machines %hich actually do the manufacturing& f you are a programming co0op. -and from discussions %ith <eer.

and in its small environment %rite =suppliers. #ut is actually one of the most difficult areas to define clearly& For e7ample. distri#ution. in the e7amples given a#ove the computer department %as a System :ne in the programming firm. facilitators. machinery maintenance. for e7ample. then they do not 8ualify as System :ne& Eou are no% in a position to go #ack to the original list of /o#s carried out #y your System0in0Focus. and %arehousing& System :ne sounds straightfor%ard. $+-("3< T&@ 5%.adding the /perational =nits 'his diagram sho%s the @S5 %ith three :perational units high0 lighted& 'here is no reason %hy you should have three. the trucks and drivers and the management of the transport department are found %ithin that :perational Pnit&.f you are looking at a more comple7 organisation. although it is unlikely that you have more than eight& 'he diagram also sho%s the parts of the environment %hich are specific to the :perational units& 31I 'ake the list from (&3 and %rite do%n the /o#s %hich are primary activities of the System0in0Focus& 'hese are the :perational elements& Sketch small @S5s %ithin the large :perational ellipse 0 one for each unit& 31J Lra% in smaller overlapping environmental shapes 0 one for each :perational element 0 %ithin the large environment& 313 $nnotate the diagram& 6&g& For :perational unit ( %rite on =%arehouse=. or are they #ack0up. #ut the computer department in the manufacturing company %ould have a support role and %ould therefore not #e part of System :ne& Some people %ho are in #asically service areas such as engineering maintenance may consider themselves important enough to #e System :ne& 'he 8uestion is: are they part of %hat the organisation is really a#out. and to list those %hich #et%een them make up System :ne& Jote: 6ach :perational unit is a @S5 at the ne7t recursion do%n and thus %ill include #oth the physical aspects and the management of one aspect of the :peration& So.from %tep 3 . racking engineers=& 'hink a#out those parts of the e7ternal environment %hich are specific to the %arehouse& %teps I) J and 37 @!ample So far you have dra%n the @S5 in outline and added . . or supportg f the ans%er is the latter. you may have a System :ne %hich includes manufacturing.

the diagnosis takes no account of the interactions #et%een the :perational units and environments& 'his comes later& %teps I) J and 37 -nother @!ample ?adical ?outes is a group of co0ops in the PK %ho have formed a loose Federation in order to promote their activities& 'hey found the @S5 an interesting environment %ith %hich to look at their pro#lems and carried out a 2reliminary Liagnosis on their o%n& 'hey #egan %ith System :ne and thought S! -hat are -e reall# ab!ut ''' -hat are the primar# a(tivitiesV Pnderstanda#ly. stimulating interest a#out co0ops and so on& %as then invited to meet %ith them and discuss the %ork they had done& $fter some discussion %e decided that a more useful %ay of looking at System :ne %as as follo%s: • ?adical ?outes e7ists to service the mem#er co0ops • 'he primary activities of ?adical ?outes concern the mem#er co0ops themselves • 'herefore the :perational units are the mem#er co0ops and all the activities of the federative #ody are 5etasystemic& $fter this fundamental re0think %e spent the rest of the afternoon looking at the design of the %hole system in these terms& $ diagnosis #ased on the original definition of System :ne %ould have come up %ith entirely different results& So please note: (& 'he %ay that you define the :perational elements largely determines the %ay that the rest of the diagnosis proceeds& . for e7ample fund0raising.• the :perational units • the e7ternal environments %hich are specific to each of the :perational units& $t this stage the Suma @S5 looked as follo%s: SES'65 J F:CPS: Suma Jatural Food Wholesalers 5 SS :J: Warehousing and Listri#uting Jatural X 6cological products& 3ote I 7 3ote J 7 3ote 3 7 Whatever the nature of the :perational elements. education. %hile the 5etasystem parts can only .& 'his is crucial to a useful outcome& 'he :perational parts need to #e primarily concerned %ith their o%n internal issues -minding their o%n #usiness. they #egan to dra% the :perational elements as the activities of the federation. each %ill have its specific #it of the e7ternal environment %hich it interacts %ith regularly& 'he details of the environments given a#ove are #y no means e7haustive& 'he more detail the #etter& $t this stage.

"T9 -3$ */3'. coherent system& t may #e defined as providing the =glue= to make sure the autonomous departments donAt drift apart into a num#er of isolated #its& . #ut at all times it is involved %ith System :ne in its entirety& 3& t %ill not #e concerned %ith internal matters %ithin the :perational units& 'his %ould #e compara#le to e7pecting you to #e involved %ith the mechanics of the #eating of your heart& n general the :perational units are seen as autonomous and the 5etasystem is concerned only %ith the %ay they interact& %tep K7 %9%T@. then the system cannot function effectively& 3& 'here are no a#solute rights and %rongs& $ model is only correct to the e7tent it is useful& ?adical ?outes may %ell have reached interesting conclusions from their initial guess. and its e7ternal environment& Eou have defined your System0in0Focus and its 5ission Statement& 'he System0in0Focus has #een defined in t%o parts: (& 'he :perational units %hich carry out the primary activities.& 'he 5etasystem %hich is there to provide %hatever services are needed #y the :perational units to ensure they hang together in an integrated form& Eou have listed all the parts of your enterprise %hich are part of the system0in0focus as you see them& Eou have e7tracted the parts %hich #et%een them make up the :peration or System :ne& Eou have dra%n these :perational units on the outlined @S5 %ith their corresponding local environments& 'he Je7t Stage &&& 9aving listed the :perational units in System :ne. %hich L: %hatever is needed to fulfil the 5ission Statement& and &&& . T(/ .function if they have the a#ility to prioritise the over0vie%& f these are %rongly chosen. you %ill #e moving on to look at the 5etasystem. and to think a#out ho% the 2reliminary Liagnosis is going to proceed& So Far &&& Eou have dra%n in outline three shapes %hich represent your System0in0Focus in its totality.& 'he 5etasystem %ill al%ays #e concerned %ith the :peration as a %hole& t may #e looking at the interactions #et%een the :perational units or at the implications of a policy decision."*T +@%/.%T-G".=T"/3 6=+6/%@7 'o identify those parts of the System0in0Focus %hich ensure that the :perational units interact in a sta#le manner& . and it is important to #ear in mind the follo%ing thoughts: (& 'he 5etasystem is charged %ith doing %hatever is needed to ena#le the :perational units to come together to make a single. and only the final outcome -did it %orkg. can /udge %hich diagnosis %as the #etter& 2ause for #reath &&&&& $t this stage it is sensi#le to revie% %hatAs happened so far. integrated.

oscillations %ould #e rare& <eer lists many e7amples of insta#ilities in industry %hich lead to oscillations& :ne of these came from his o#servation that the stocks of ra% materials in a production shop vary dramatically& Sometimes they run so lo% that everyone is %orried that they %ill run out. C& 'o deal %ith this. any via#le system must have a System '%o for: • resolving conflicts • dealing %ith insta#ility • damping oscillations . or in <eerAs terms it %as oscillating due to conflicting interests #et%een :perational elements& 'he resolution of this pro#lem %as to get the operators from each floor to meet. to discuss the pro#lem and then to resolve it: =>ook someone has to agree to take this pallet and its definitely nothing to do %ith me 0 only do #eans and grains&= =Ees.%ant it[ *ive it to me[ Jo %onAt[. have sta#ility pro#lems& $nyone %hoAs had the misfortune of trying to ride a #icycle %ith a #uckled %heel do%n a steep hill %ill kno% ho% an unsta#le system can #ehave. and %hy the consideration of sta#ility criteria is an essential part of any design& nsta#ilities #et%een people are /ust as universal& >ook at young children in the playground. other%ise the organisation %ill shake itself to pieces& 'he argument goes: (& 'he parts of a system %ill invaria#ly have conflicting interests& . #ut youAre the only one %ith enough spare space &&& my floorAs too full already= 6ventually agreement %as reached. or the %ay communes inevita#ly collapse& Jation States e7hi#it e7treme insta#ilities. and the system %ill #egin to oscillate& .(hy think about stabilityC Without e7ception. all systems %ith interactive parts. sometimes they are so high that the availa#le space runs out and storage #ecomes a pro#lem& . the need for some %ay of dealing %ith insta#ilities is essential.%ystem J story Suma used to have a three floor %arehouse in %hich goods %ere moved up and do%n #y fork trucks lifting pallets through holes in the floor& 6very no% and again. all day& 'he motion of the pallet %as e7actly like a yo0yo. up and do%n. or marital #reak0do%n. regardless of their nature. the pallet %as found a home and the oscillation stopped& $ general strategy for System '%o in this conte7t %ould #e a series of rules for allocating pallets& f it %ere thorough enough.& 'hese conflicts %ill tend to lead to insta#ilities& 3& nsta#ilities left unchecked #ecome destructive. a pallet %ould fail to find a home and the top floor operator %ould send the pallet #ack do%n to the middle floor& 'he operator on the middle floor %ould think =this isnAt my pallet 0 it %ill have to move #ack up= and the pallet %ould go up and do%n. the arms0race #eing the most concerning outcome& <ut %hatever the particular case.

it looks at the entire collection of interacting System :ne units %ith a vie% to resolving conflicts. in most of my applications. %orking %ithin a co0operative ethos means that there is already a pervasive System '%o. insta#ilities %ill #e fairly easy to resolve& f the company ethos is competitive. for e7ample Just n 'ime ordering. dealing %ith pro#lems and creating sta#ility& System '%o has #een dra%n slightly larger than usual for emphasis& . then itAs much more likely that your interests %ill #e e7actly the opposite of others& So the temptation %ill #e to act in such a %ay that your successes %ill #ring a#out othersA failures& $nd of course everyone else is doing the same& :#viously. . if your success is measured against the performance of others. and this gives the System t%o designer a head start& %ummary System '%o is charged %ith dealing %ith the insta#ilities %hich inevita#ly arise #et%een the :perational units& 6very organisation must have a System '%o: • to resolve conflict • to deal %ith insta#ilities • to damp oscillations $+-("3< T&@ 5%. added -in green. and that it passes through every :perational unit& 'hus.'he stock levels oscillate #et%een these e7tremes& $gain a System '%o needs to #e designed to sta#ilise this situation.from %tep K . %hich keep inter0process stocks to a minimum& n some cases System '%o may #e a nuts0and0#olts system like a production schedule or a timeta#le %hich %ill ensure that conflicts do not arise as several parts of an organisation are all clamouring for the same resources& n other cases.& Jote that System '%o is part of the 5etasystem -it sits in the diamond. System '%o may #e more su#tle& n 5ondragon the predominant System '%o %as the methods they employed to share resources and support each otherAs #usinesses& 5y attempts to find out ho% they deal %ith conflicts #et%een competing #usinesses %ere al%ays ans%ered %ith =#ut %e share all profits any%ay &&& %hy should there #e a pro#lemg= n the case studies %hich you read you %ill notice that System '%o in a co0operative is generally covered #y the =co0operative ethos&= t seems clear that in an organisation in %hich the common good is paramount.adding %ystem Two 'he diagram to the right sho%s the @S5 %ith System . a co0operative %ill not #e completely free of this kind of thing: there is only so much money to spend and the various :perational elements %ill compete for it& Some people are naturally competitive& Cash flo% %ill need to #e controlled& 'he financial System '%o %ill have to #e designed& 9o%ever.

"%-T"/3 6=+6/%@7 'o identify those parts of the System0in0Focus %hich optimise the interaction of the :perational units./6T". T(/ . and to update the @S5 diagram accordingly& . %hich may occur as the :perational elements interact& 9o% are these conflicting interests resolvedg >ist the insta#ilities and the %ays that they are dealt %ith& K13 'ake your @S5 diagram and dra% in System '%o& K1K $nnotate your diagram& %tep K7 "$@3T"'"*-T"/3 /' %9%T@. -or oscillations.ondragon 5ondragon provides a System '%o #y sharing profits and #y mutual financial support& 'his resolves any conflict of one #usiness #enefiting at the e7pense of another& %ystem Two7 % hool 'he timeta#le is regularly cited as the ideal System '%o& t takes care of dou#le0#ooking. etc& %ystem Two7 . T&+@@ . pro/ectors etc&. and thus sta#ilises the pro#lem of too many people in one area and not enough in another& 'here must #e good cash flo% control.K1I >ook at your list of :perational elements& K1J 'hink a#out any conflict of interests or insta#ilities. thus sta#ilising the tendency for huge surpluses and overdrafts& 'he recent stock0control system sta#ilises stock holdings and avoids an oscillation #et%een vast stocks and goods going out0of0stock& %ystem Two7 . and resolves the conflict of several teachers all %anting the same rooms.anufa turing *ompany1 System '%o is the production schedule %hich performs the same sta#ilising function as the school timeta#le& t resolves the conflict %hich could emerge in competition for limited resources& %tep H7 %9%T@.e!amples Eou have no% dra%n in System '%o on the @S5 diagram& 67amples of System '%o are as follo%s: %ystem Two7 %uma System '%o is generally performed #y the co0operative ethos %hich prevents ma/or conflicts #et%een mem#ers& 'he %eekly ?ota allocates mem#ers to various /o#s according to departmental needs.

. and not your o%n #ody %eight& 'he same /o# can #e done. and the generation of synergy is the essence of System 'hree& The .%ystem Three %tory Consider a @ia#le System consisting of several doBen people trying to put out a fire #y running to a near#y lake. #ut only a fraction of the energy needs to #e e7pended& 'he e7tra efficiency %hich is generated as a conse8uence of acting as a %hole system rather than an un0 coordinated collection of parts is called synergy. thinking a#out %ays of optimising the %hole thing& $lthough this depicts nicely the relationship #et%een Systems 'hree and :ne. itAs a #it messy. and interacting %ith each other& System 'hree sits right in the middle of all this activity. then you only have to move the %ater and #uckets.the $iagrams1 System 'hree is #est thought of in the middle of a %hole lot of activity& $ll around it the :perational elements are concerned %ith meeting the demands of their o%n environments -ans%ering the phone. and leave no room .ob of %ystem Three n all cases. or it may think a#out optimisation& 6ventually she may realise that if everyone forms a chain and moves the #uckets from hand to hand. scheduling the trucks &&&. so System 'hreeAs /o# is usually descri#ed as generating synergy& Synergy is of course the essence of co0operation: four people %orking together co0operatively may #e t%ice as efficient as four people doing the same %ork on their o%n& 'he current task is to descri#e the %ays that System 'hree functions %ithin a via#le system& • 9o% does it deal %ith the nside and Jo%g • What does it do to generate synergyg %ystem Three . getting the orders completed on time. filling a #ucket and running #ack to thro% the %ater on the fire& 6ach person %ith a #ucket is an :perational unit& 6ach %ill #e a#sor#ed %ith his o%n /o#& 'he 5etasystem 0 %hich may #e one person sitting on the top of a ladder 0 %ill look at the %hole system and may say =Keep to the left on the %ay do%n= -S#stem 7 0 stopping continuous collisions. System 'hree has the same function: • • • t is poised %ith an over0vie% of the entire collection of :perational elements& t looks at the %ay these elements interact& t considers %ay of optimising the overall efficiency of the entire collection of :perational elements& • 'his improvement in efficiency is called synergy.

All cut do%n my #reak on key#oards&= <ut %hatever the particular e7ample. itAs the %ay the :perational element demonstrates . and a large System 3 added for emphasis& tAs sho%n interacting %ith three :perational elements.II.ountability :nce an :perational unit has #een allocated its share of resources. it must demonstrate that itAs using them properly& 'hus the :perational elements must #e accounta#le: they must #e a#le to sho% that everything is proceeding as agreed %ith the 5etasystem& 'his is an essential aspect of the resource #argain. and it leaves System 'hree %ith enormous amounts of fle7i#ility to generate synergy =9mmmm &&&& if put a fe% more resources into production they say they can #e (Fd more efficient& <ut that %ill mean cutting #ack on procurement and cut our margins #y (&D. the resource #argain is more likely to involve allocation of people& =Eou do this and All do that.III a month to do it& $nd as long as you do the /o# properly. looking for synergy& The +esour e Gargain System 'hree usually controls the purse strings& ?esources are ultimately limited. and so itAs essential for System 'hree to allocate them according to the glo#al needs of the System0in0 Focus& 'his re8uires System 'hree to look at the %hole of System :ne. and things %ill %ork #etter &&&= n a /aBB #and it could #e allocation of time ='he sa7 solo %ent on longer than e7pected. you %ill continue to get the money&= :#viously this %ill re8uire lots of negotiations #et%een all the :perational units and System 'hree.to illustrate the interactions #et%een System 'hree and the rest of the 5etasystem& So itQs usually drawn above a sta k of /peration elements like this: 'his diagram sho%s the @S5 %ith System . although not as clearly as in the first diagram& 'his arrangement has much more in common %ith the human System 'hree 0 the #ase #rain 0 %hich sits on top of the spinal column and optimises the %orking of the muscles and organs& We can no% #egin to descri#e the %ays in %hich System 'hree over0sees the collection of :perational elements.. and to allocate resources so as to optimise performance& 'hus System 'hree may say: =Eour /o# is to get the goods to the customers in the most effective %ay. manipulation of the resource #argain provides a means of optimisation& /perational . reduced to fit into the 5etasystemAs diamond and outlined.d& :n #alance that looks fine &&&a much #etter allocation of resources&= n a team. and %e %ill give you n.

so that each :perational element kno%s it %ill #e left alone unless it transgresses the agreed norms& $ll of this needs careful design& <eer has a simple recipe for deciding on the level of autonomy %hich can #e allocated to an :perational element & 9e says autonomy should only #e forfeit %hen system cohesion is at risk& So. %astage is up and morale has collapsed. designed to #e autonomous& The *ommand *hannel EJF7 . there must #e rules in place to deal %ith this& n certain situations System 'hree has to #e given the mandate to intervene %ithin an :perational element& For e7ample. this information is used #y the #ase #rain to modify the flo% of adrenaline to the organs and muscles to optimise their operation& <eerAs design for an e8uivalent system in an enterprise is #ased upon near real0time monitoring of all System :ne activity and a set of statistical filters assessing the information& 'he System 'hree office %ould have a #ig green light or a continuous tone %hich %ould mean =everything is :K=& $s soon as any of the measurements moved outside accepta#le limits. or something completely une7pected like a floodg n some cases the unit can cope. 9eath and Safety and employment& .egal S *orporate +eTuirements1 <y no% it should #e clear that the approach used here is in no %ay hierarchical and uses authority only as a last resort& 'he practice of senior management to interfere in all aspects of the #usiness has #een dismissed not for political reasons #ut purely from the >a%s of @ariety 0 it /ust canAt #e done competently& 9o%ever. in others it may not and this may threaten the survival of the entire enterprise& Clearly. and other signals %ould identify the source of the pro#lem& <ut %hatever the design. after all. all the trained personnel leaving suddenly. then itAs essential for System 'hree to intervene& ntervention means loss of autonomy and is only permitted %hen the cohesion of the %hole system is at risk& ntervention rules must #e defined clearly.that it can /ustify the continuing allocation of resources from System 'hree& 'he human @ia#le System has %ithout dou#t the most thorough net%ork for demonstrating that all is going %ell& 6very part of the #ody sends continuous messages to the #ase #rain %hich kno%s /ust %hatAs going on in real time& Luring periods of intense activity. if the information sho%s that productivity is do%n. here %e have a case in %hich the :perational Pnits. the :perational units must have a %ay of /ustifying their allocation of resources& The *ommand *hannel EIF7 "ntervention +ules1 nevita#ly there %ill #e pro#lems& What happens if one :perational unit #egins to deteriorate due to machinery #reakdo%ns. must o#ey a higher authority& System 'hree %ill ensure they pay ta7es and stick to legal guidelines on -for e7ample. the light %ould go off. its autonomy must #e forfeit& n all other cases it should #e left to function %ithin the resource #argain 0 it is. conceived as %orking %ith ma7imised autonomy. if the actions of one :perational unit threaten to shake apart the %hole system.

this is the /o# of System 3o& t may involve a study on #uildings or machines or on the incidence of #ack in/uries or on any aspect of the goings0on %ithin the :peration& System 3o is often referred to as looking for signs of stress& n the original physiological model System 3o %as #ased upon a nerve called the vagus %hich reports #ack to the #ase #rain on signs of stress in muscles and organs& n the @S5 this function has #een e7tended to give System 3o the /o# of topping up the information needed #y System 'hree& %=. deals %ith pro#lems #et%een the :perational units -its function is sta#ility. the overall performance may improve& System 'hree needs to kno% ho% each :perational unit is doing. System 'hree must have the a#ility to intervene %ithin an :perational unit if it #elieves that unit is threatening the via#ility of the %hole system& . and goes directly to the :perational #its of System :ne& tAs /o# is to provide %hatever information is needed to complete the model %hich is needed #y System 'hree& tAs inevita#le that System 'hree %ill encounter situations in %hich it /ust doesnAt have enough information to kno% %hatAs going on& ?egardless of the kind of information it may need. and looks at the %ay they interact& System 'hree is concerned %ith improving the overall performance of System :ne. System 'hree allocates resources of people and money& t may see that #y cutting #ack in one area and #y re0allocating those resources in another. %hereas System 'hree makes positive suggestions as to %ays of improving overall performance& n order to do this. #ut the proposal %as %ell outside our 2olicies on employment and pay& Corporate Suma said no& %ystem 3U -udits and %urveys1 'he final link #et%een System 'hree and the :perational Pnits is called System 3o.-+9 System 'hree deals %ith the %hole of System :ne -all the :perational units. System . System 'hree %ill have a complete and up to date model of everything it needs to kno% a#out System :ne& From time to time System 'hree %ill need further information a#out the :peration and %ill ask to do audits and surveys& $nd finally.System 'hree %ill also ensure that the :perational elements stick to company 2olicy.. or remuneration or a commitment to give money to charity& Some years ago a Suma mem#er suggested that %e set up a separate department staffed mainly #y part time la#our from the /o# centre& Figures suggested %e could make money this %ay -la#our costs %ere significantly #elo% usual levels. regardless of the financial advantages& 'his may concern e8ual opportunities. so it can continuously re0think its o%n plans in the light of changing circumstances& t therefore needs the :perational units to #e accounta#le& deally. so its main /o# is optimisation& n simple terms.

and acts accordingly& $ccounta#ility is total as the people doing the %ork and the managers . i&e& ho% they demonstrate to System 'hree that they are doing the /o#s they agreed %hen the resources %ere allocated& H13 Lra% the System 3o lines on the left hand side of the diagram& H1K Write inside the System 'hree s8uare the people or departments %hich carry out these functions& Jote: ?emem#er this is the 2reliminary Liagnosis %hich is concerned only %ith the identification of the five Systems& So the /o# at this point is only to specify %hich parts of your enterprise do System 'hree stuff& 'he lines %hich you have dra%n are to sketch in the connections #et%een System 'hree and the :perational units& >ater all of these interconnections %ill #e dealt %ith in more detail. of optimising their interactions& H1I 'ake your @S5 diagram and dra% in the System 'hree #o7 in the lo%er part of the 5etasystem& H1J Lra% t%o lines from this #o7 through all :perational units& 'he first line is the Command Channel& t is concerned %ith mandatory System 'hree matters. and looks for %ays of generating synergy.adding %ystem Three 'his diagram sho%s the @S5 %ith System .. reduced to fit into the 5etasystemAs diamond and outlined. %ith the issues %hich the :perational elements must o#ey& 'he second line is concerned %ith ?esource <argain programmes and %ith the methods used to ensure the :perational units are accounta#le. #efore delving into the %ay the five systems interact& %ystem Three7 @!amples %mall <roup %ystem Three $ll of the :ptimisation functions are carried out #y the team0mind %hich constantly assesses %hatAs going on. and that it has connections %ith every :perational unit& System 'hree surveys the entire collection of interacting :perational units.$+-("3< T&@ 5%. and a large System 3 added for emphasis& $gain note that System 'hree is part of the 5etasystem. #ut itAs far easier to #uild up a frame%ork for the entire system0in0focus. .

the lease move to another rented site. and this is optimised& $ccounta#ility is very patchy& 'here is no standard departmental system to account for ho% the #udgets are spent& 5a/or mistakes are o#vious any%ay. and the most likely alternative selected& 'hroughout this process.are one and the same& $ complete analysis of all System three function revealed no inade8uacies %hatsoever& %uma IOOI 'he Finance :ffer and Finance Committee allocate #udgets on a yearly #asis& 'his is thrashed out in discussion %ith the various departments. System C must #e referring constantly to System 3. to ensure that the :perational constraints are considered& 9o% many s8uare feetg 9o% much head roomg $ccess to motor%aysg 9o% much office spaceg $ny specialised manufacturing facilitiesg Clearly. %hen System C has recommended a num#er of options. #ut regular 8uantified reporting has yet to #e esta#lished& $udits are common and emerge from areas of interest& 9o% much are %e spending on #ack treatmentg What skills do %e have that are unusedg Lo %e need to rotate /o#s more regularlyg ?eports %ill #e produced and the su#/ect discussed& ntervention rules have still to #e defined& n theory a department could #ecome inefficient -especially in slack times. K 6=+6/%@7 'o identify those parts of the System0in0Focus %hich are concerned %ith Future plans and strategies in the conte7t of environmental information& $n e7ample: a company may have one year of its lease left& $ num#er of possi#ilities are availa#le: it could re0negotiate. and decided on the #asis of optimisation 0 ho% to allocate the money so as to get the most from Suma as a %hole& 'he personnel #udgets are decided in a similar %ay& Lepartments are asked ho% many people they can manage %ith. and no0one %ould kno%& 'hus an accepta#le lo%er performance level and intervention rules are not possi#le& . marketing 'ransfer of technology nter0trading Joint ? X L :ptimised product ranges 'hese functions are carried out #y meetings of managers from the various mem#er co0ops& %tep 67 %9%T@. it %ill re8uire site visits from System . #uy an e7isting #uilding or #uild a ne% one& 6ach of these options needs to #e researched in some depth.ondragon *o-ops IOOI 'he #ody %hich articulates System 'hree for a group of autonomous mem#er co0ops descri#es itself as stimulating the (!-!rdinated j!int devel!pment !+ the (!-!ps in(!rp!rated in the gr!up Synergy is perhaps the single most used %ord %hen talking to people a#out this function& 'here are many e7amples of ho% this is carried out& • • • • • Centralised #uying.

you should have a good idea a#out the System C activities %hich you organisation ought to #e undertaking& When its finished. L or 6 -$ the most urgent 0 'hey could all #e 6. Cross out everything %hich #elongs in System :ne& 'hey %ill #e dealt %ith at the ne7t level& . this kind of activity is usually undertaken as a last resort& 'he @ia#le Systems 5odel asserts that for this function to %ork properly it must have a continuous focus: some%here in the System0in0Focus someone must #e looking at the environment and thinking a#out %ays of dealing %ith a largely unkno%n future& n the follo%ing section. <.ist the a tivities of %ystem K under the following headings $C' @ 'E ?6S2:JS < > 'E ' 56 SC$>6 2? :? 'E • $ctivity: What sort of planningg • ?esponsi#ility: Who has to do itg • 'ime Scale: C for current& :ne year if it needs to #e dealt %ith in a year& • 2riority: $. and decide %hether you think it can do the /o# of continuously adapting to the future& %ystem K @!er ise • .". this is a#out the System0in0Focus. you %ill find an e7ercise concerning System C.3. and the interchange of ideas %ill continue& 6+@. • +evise the list 'he list contains all the activities %hich you System0in0Focus is undertaking in order to guarantee adaptation to the future& s it completeggg 'he list refers to the System0in0Focus& *o thorough it and identify the items %hich refer to the em#edded System :ne :perational elements& -67ample: For Suma relocating refers to the System0in0Focus& ?eplacing a Fork 'ruck refers to the Warehouse %hich is System :ne. not a#out the em#edded S( @ia#le Systems &&& Eou may find that there is no focus for System C in your organisation& n the co0ops Ave %orked in. C. and a %orked e7ample& When you have completed it. you should think a#out the 8uestion posed on this page: -What is System C in your structureg."3-+9 R=@%T"/3 W9 C9 2$?' :F E:P? SES'650 J0F:CPS 2?:LPC6S S'?$'6* 6S F:? FP'P?6 2>$JJ J*g -?emem#er.

then something should #e done& t means that the mem#ers of your organisation concerned %ith future planning are %orking in isolation. ne% machinery.• <roup the a tivities into oherent groups1 Several of the items on the list may #e concerned %ith -say.@ 6+"/+"T9 5e $ll 5e 5e $ll $ll C -current. L and 5arket ?esearch& (orked @!ample7 &(. or 5arket 2otential& • $raw a diagram showing the overlaps1 'he diagram #elo% is the one did for 9W5C in (HG6& $t the time %e %ere in the process of relocating and the other ma/or areas %ere rationalising the machinery -selling some. 2roduct Lesign. and this is o#viously not a good idea& 9o%ever it is not uncommon for ?esearch and Levelopment to #ecome o#sessed %ith technological issues and to ignore 5arket ?esearch& $nd for Corporate 2lanning to degenerate into purely economic terms %hich pay little heed to ? Xamo.@-%*-. or 'echnological Levelopment.* IONH -*T"5"T9 5ove to 9alifa7 ?elations %ith Suma Je% 5achines Selling :ld 5achines >ooking for ne% <usiness 2acking for Co0op Federations +@%6/3%"G". relationship %ith ma/or customer. C ( year 6 months ( year 3 years $ $ C L L 6 'here %ere several more entries #ut they seemed to fall into four categories& $fter a fe% attempts the diagram looked like this& . is the centre of real concern a#out the future& 6ach shaded area indicates %here colla#oration may #e needed& Eou %ill pro#a#ly need to re0dra% this diagram several times& f the diagram you dre% has no areas of overlap. and our relationship %ith our single ma/or customer& 'he areas of overlap indicate ho% the various issues relate to each other. packing for ne% customers. and the #it in the middle %hich has three areas overlapping -the move. #uying others."T9 T".

there is no continuous focus for System C activity. . and thus very little future planning& .%uma IOOI Future planning is given occasional consideration #y groups and individuals& 'he Futures committee looked at possi#ilities for diversystem0in0focusication #ut didnAt produce any proposals& $ recent five year plan decided only to continue to proceed in same mode& n summary.'his illustrated the main activities and ho% they overlapped.e!amples Eou have no% dra%n in System C on your @S5 diagram& 67amples of System C are as follo%s: %ystem K . %rite in the parts of your organisation %hich are responsi#le for these tasks& %tep 67 "$@3T"'"*-T"/3 /' %9%T@. and thus gave a good representation of the issues %ith %hich System C had to deal& $+-("3< T&@ 5%.adding %ystem K 'he diagram sho%s the @S5 %ith Systems (. K .'rom %tep 6 . and 3 in outline and a large System C right in the middle of the 5etasystem& t also sho%s that part of the e7ternal environment %hich is the specific area of interest for System C. some of %hich is unkno%n& System C also has to #e in touch %ith the internal part of the @S5 via System 3& 61I Lra% in the System C s8uare on your @S5& 61J From the e7ercises you have done. .

the ethos& Who is System Dggg f your mind %orks like most of us the ans%er to this 8uestion %ill #e something like 9enry Ford or Walt Lisney or some other hero %ho dominates the policy of the enterprise& -$ny colour as long as itAs #lack &&&.& <eer has %ritten at length a#out the %ay that all elements of the @ia#le System are mutually dependant. of course.& $t Suma. to monitor the goings on in the %hole organisation& 'hese must #e constrained #y policy& 'here is. H 2P?2:S6: 'o identify those parts of the System0in0Focus %hich are concerned %ith 2olicy& 2olicy concerns the ground rules %hich affect everyone in an organisation& n the @ia#le System.& t is currently looking seriously to%ards the unified 6uropean market in (HH3 and planning accordingly& %tep M7 %9%T@. the ground rules. %ithin the co0op itAs the same and systems must #e designed to ensure thatAs ho% it %orks& -$gain notice that 5ondragon seem to have grasped the essence && they descri#e their *eneral $ssem#ly as ='he Will of the 5em#ers=. 'he 8uestion of %ho System D actually is has to #e ans%ered very simply as everyone involved in the system& $t the governmental level it should #e descri#ed as =the Will of the 2eople=. and its role is to #ecome involved in the comple7 interactions #et%een Systems 3 and C& System D has t%o main functions: Firstly. the 9u#QSector system evolved to provide a means of ensuring that policy can involve all mem#ers on a continuous #asis& 'o my kno%ledge this is the only System D %hich %orks in this %ay %ith large num#ers: usually systems %ill involve a fe% meeting a year& .%ystem K . its System C keeps in touch %ith developments in all aspects of ro#otics. production techni8ues. nothing to stop System D %ielding its o%n authority -for e7ample &&& demanding that System C #egins to study a particular issue and that System 3 responds to this &&& and that the eventual outcome is passed to the :perational units to #e ela#orated into a production plan. policy is the domain of System D& t may #est #e descri#ed as ='op >evel 6thos=. and computerisation& 5ondragon has #uilt its o%n ? X L facility& t is in touch %ith those aspects of its e7ternal environment %hich may e7hi#it novelty -e&g& 6uropean Space 2ro/ect. ne% products. to supply =logical closure=: 'he loop #et%een systems 3 and C is potentially unsta#le and must #e overseen 5etasystemically& Secondly. #ut this is a rare occurrence& System D provides the conte7t. and that giving one any more importance than another is clearly %rong& -9o% via#le %ould $ristotle have #een if any of his ma/or organs had closed do%ngg.ondragon 5ondragon has a firm commitment to ?esearch and Levelopment..

e!amples 9ou have now drawn in %ystem H on your 5%. %ith esta#lishing the conte7t %ithin %hich the %hole organisation can function& M1I Lra% in the System D s8uare& M1J Write in the people or departments %hich are responsi#le for System D policy matters& %tep M7 %9%T@.from %tep M .ondragon Eearly meetings of all mem#ers. .adding %ystem H 'he diagram sho%s the @S5 %ith Systems (. . diagram @!amples of %ystem H are as follows7 %ystem H7 %mall *o-op Weekly meeting of all mem#ers %ystem H7 %uma Weekly meeting of delegates representing the vie%s of all mem#ers& %ystem H7 .$+-("3< T&@ 5%. or of representatives& %ystem H7 Traditional *ompany 6ither the o%ners or shareholders& Jo employee involvement& . H .. 3 and C in outline and %ith System D sho%n as a large #o7 right at the top of the picture& System D is concerned %ith policy.

."3-+9 $"-<3/%"% <y no% you have: • >isted the :perational elements& • dentified System .+@5"@(7 T&@ 5%. f you canAt put anything in some of the #o7es. "3 "T% @3T"+@T9 'he picture to the right #rings all the diagrammatic elements together& t sho%s the five systems and the connections %ith the e7ternal environment& %tep N7 6+@. level of organisation& 'he #o7es . C and D refer to the %hole of Suma&. 3. at Suma& $t this point you should take some time to consider the implications of the preliminary diagnosis& Some of the five functions %ill #e performed #y people or departments %hich clearly donAt have the resources to do the /o# ade8uately& . e7cept %hen it %as unavoida#le. %hich %ill give a picture of your System0in0Focus in its totality& Jo% cross out those parts of your organisation %hich appear on the @S5 from your original list& ?emem#er to #e clear a#out the System0in0Focus& $nything a#out the internal %orkings of the :perational elements should not appear on this diagram& -So && in SumaAs case && the optimisation techni8ues used %ithin each department donAt appear& 'hey are the concern of the ne7t -smaller. you are in the same position that %as& 'here %as effectively no System C.".& • >isted the five functions of System 3 and identified it& • >isted System C activities and considered %ho does them& • Considered policy and the e7tent to %hich it represents the vie%s of the mem#ers& Eou have also put all of this together on a large @S5 diagram.

n some cases the entire 5etasystem %ill #e performed informally. %hich comes out of 'raditional Chinese 5edicine& . and therefore donQt have anything to do with viability1 This on ludes the 6reliminary $iagnosis1 &@-. like machine maintenance& 'he computer department is a facilitator.& 'here %ill #e some /o#s %hich are left on your list after filling in the @S5& $re they necessaryg Some %ill #e support /o#s. %hich makes things happen more smoothly and 8uickly& <oth these /o#s are clearly useful& <ut %hat a#out some of the committeesg $re they really essential to via#ilityg -t the end of this pro ess you should have • "dentified the major parts of your %ystem-in-'o us whi h render it viable1 • *onsidered the parts whi h seem to be inadeTuate1 • "dentified any parts whi h donQt map onto the 5%. and that may #e fine -See Case Study on 9W5C."3< ("T& T&@ %@-%/3%1 (-T@+1 :ne of the most important conceptual tools in macro#iotic practice is the Five 'ransformation 'heory -also called 'he Five 6lement 'heory.

'he Forces of W J'6? create C:>L in 9eaven and W$'6? on 6arth& 'hey create the K LJ6E organ and 'he <:J6S %ithin the #ody&&& $nd the 6$?S. emotionally. %e need to understand the relationships that pertain the human #eing and the earth during the course of the year so %e can center our eating ha#its in the course of the seasonal rhythms in harmony %ith the seasonal changes& $ccording to the Five 'ransformation 'heory. simply #ecause this is %hat the state of health for the human #eing0 physically. and the <>$CK color.'ive Transformation Theory7 'he illustration sho%s the relationship of the five paired organs to one another in relationship to the seasons& 'here are t%o cycles. C:>L creates W$'6?. mentally and spiritually 0 is understood to #e founded upon& 'hus. as resulting from the activities taking place in the atmospheric chi or etheric %orld& 'he poetic imagination necessary to come up %ith this tool states that the Spirit of 'he Seasons creates the state of transformation of the etheric forces or chi designated #y the name associated %ith those seasons& We are going to #egin our study %ith the W$'6? season as this #egins around the Winter Solstice& 'he essence of macro#iotic practice is to harmonise ourselves consciously %ith the rhythms of the earth. #oth moving in the same direction& 'he outer cycle is called the mother0 daughter or nourishing cycle and the inner one. the controlling or destructive cycle& n essence the Five 'ransformation 'heory is the result of o#serving the events in nature as they change throughout the course of the year and attri#uting the out%ard manifest changes taking place in nature -seasonal changes in the vegetation and %eather patterns and the #ehaviour of animals etc&. 'he Spirit of Winter creates the state of transformation called Water and it says: ='he J:?'9 creates e7treme C:>L. and the S$>'E flavor&&& 'he emotion F6$? and the a#ility to make a *?:$J J* sound&= .

'his is from the Jei Ching -Eello% 6mperorAs Classic of nternal 5edicine. =9ealing :urselves=& t goes on to say a#out the K LJ6E. the kidneys rule over the ears&= =67treme fear is in/urious to the kidneys. and the #ones and the marro% strengthen the liver. the local geography and topology of the place %here %e live %ill mean the date %hen the change takes place %ill #e different for different localities& 'hus %e each need to #e attentive to the changes occurring in nature to find out %hen the change takes place . ='he kidneys strengthen the #ones and the marro%. the Water Season #egins traditionally at the Winter Solstice although #elieve this is not the case every%here in the Jorthern 9emisphere. and Athe #ones ache and the hair on the head falls outA= Classification #y 'he Five 'ransformation 'heory: W$'6?: Eang :rgan Kidneys Ein :rgan <ladder 'issue <ones ndicator 9air Sense :rgan 6ars Sense 9earing <ody Fluid Prine Lirection Jorth $dverse Climate Cold Season Winter 'ime of Lay Lay 2lanet 5ercury Jum#er 6 6motion Fear 67pression *roan 5anner in 'ime of 67citement X 'rem#ling Change Faculty Will 'aste Salty *rain <eans Fruit Chestnuts @egeta#le Watercress Lomestic $nimal 2ig $s stated. as reported in Ja#oru 5uramotoAs classic. #ut sympathy can overcome fear&= ='oo much s%eet flavor in food endangers the kidneys.

kidney stones. along %ith the spleen. kidney diseases like nephrosis. cystitis and vaginal discharges in %omen. and in addition. at first glance. it is redundant. %hich is hardly surprising since most people eat the modern =meat and chemicals= diet all the year round and year in and year out and have done so since they %ere #orn& 'his of course means there are further symptoms indicating a more chronic condition of Water Lisease and these include poor hearing. stiffness and %eakness in the ankles and %rists. osteoporosis. deterioration of the ligaments and tendons. #reasts. and split0ends in %omen& :#viously. Water Lisease also manifests as se7ual impotency and sterility& $lso chronic tiredness. then the strengthening and cleansing of them #y the Water state of 'ransformation %ill #e manifested as symptoms indicating those organs are #eing deto7ified 0 sore throats. macro#iotically speaking. vagina. sharp contractions %hich are the asthmatic attacks& 'here is no 8uestion a reduction in li8uid inatke is very helpful to reduce the chances of an asthmatic attack& 'here are also emotionalQpsychological symptoms of Water Lisease %hich include fear. since the #ladder is the complementary paired organ of the kidneys. %hich is %hy %e are hearing a lot of promotional announcements telling us to get our Aflu shotsA no%& :f course.. e7cessive urination. the response of the lungs to #ecoming too in is to initiate short.& :f course if %e get these symptoms often and throughout the course of the year. the atmospheric chiQetheric dynamics are focused -o#viously $>> the states of 'ransformation of chiQetheric forces are active all year round. tiredness-especially #et%een the hours of C0G25. hair loss especially at the top0front of head. flu0like symptoms. poor eyesight due to distortion of the lens of the eye as %ell as glaucoma and cataracts.. the %eakness and poor functioning of the kidneys means if %e are drinking too much li8uid then the e7cess yin condition thus created can lead to the lungs #ecoming too yin. chronic pain in the middle of the #ack. chronic sore throats.. an7iety and . appro7imately four months ahead of the date the season changes from the 5etal Season-Fall. this means the kidneys and #ladder and related tissues and senses are chronically to7ic.%here %e live& What %e are attempting to do is harmonise our #lood 8uality %ith that of the seasonal changes and since the cycle of the red #lood cells circulating in the #loodstream is four months -(. nephritis. since it causes %eakening of the immune system. on the kidneys and #ladder and those tissues and senses related to them in such a %ay that they are #eing strengthened. lymphatic system and the large intestines. clogging of the ears. tinnitus -a permanent ringing in the ears. kidney stones and loss of kidney function. if a person sprains or #reaks their ankles or %rists this is a symptom of kidney to7icity0 left ankle and %rist means the left kidney is %eak and the right ankle and %rist means the right kidney is %eak& $nother important condition %hich. to Water& 'he important point to grasp is during the Water Season-Winter. #alls of the feet and the little toes. %ould not #e thought to #e associated %ith the Kidneys is $sthma& 9o%ever. including cancer& n men se7ual organ pro#lems like prostatitis. cleansed and harmonised in their structure and activities& 'his means if those organs are to7ic and stagnated -%hich is necessarily the case if %e are eating the modern =meat and chemicals= diet. headaches-especially at the top of the forehead. and in %omen chronic pro#lems of the menstrual cycle. %hich is to strengthen the kidneysQ#ladder -the kidneys #eing an important organ of the immune system. and pro#lems in the uterus and cervi7. to suggest the taking of Aflu shotsA is a %aste of time. thus undermining %hat %e need to do. incontinence. an7iety. ovaries. >ungs and >arge ntestine. #eing the main symptoms of these organs healing themselves& ncidentally it #oth interesting and not surprising to students of the Five 'ransformation 'heory the =Flu Season= occurs #et%een the January and 5arch ( in the Pnited States. and prostate cancer& n #oth se7es.. liver. %e need to #egin introducing those foods %hich are strengthening to the kidneys-and #ladder. s%ollen testicles. adrenal insufficiency& 2ro#lems like pain.I days.

also the daikon #ath& First %ant to focus on osteoporosis. this initiates a process %here#y minerals are leached out of the #ones #ecause the #ody is al%ays in a process of maintaining its internal #alance& n the healthy person.& 9o%ever. in the case of %omen. %e need to avoid eating these in order to lessen the stress on the kidneysQ#ladder&. the soft tissues& 5inerals are more yang than say. then the #lood %ill #e more yin than it %as #efore menopause. it is thought. milk and milk products like #utter. %ith the e7cess #eing lost through urination and #o%el movement& 'hus. necessarily. they can filter in a given unit of time& Furthermore. %hen the condition of the #lood and tissue fluids #ecomes more yin. sipping it every ten minutes as if it %ere some kind of security #lanket& 'his is greatly in e7cess of the #odyAs needs& 'he reason people are strongly suggested to drink so much li8uid is #ecause %hen consumed animal protein is meta#oliBed to produce ammonia and uric acid. over the long term a chronic loss of mineral content of the #ones and tendons and ligaments occurs& 'his is osteoporosis& 'he reason %hy osteoporosis tends to accelerate in %omen after menopause is due to the fact that the monthly menses a %oman e7periences from pu#erty to menopause is. a monthly flushing of e7cess #lood out of the #ody& f the %omanAs #lood is e7cessively more yin. Jo%. over the long term more minerals are #eing leached out of the #ones than are #eing replaced. sports drinks as %ell as those foods %hich are e7treme yang like meat. among other things. this flushes out e7cess yin and therefore means less leaching of minerals %ill occur& :nce this stops at menopause. the minerals return to the #ones-and ligaments and tendons. for e7ample. the condition of the #ones is related to the condition of the kidneys& n terms of yin and yang the #ones are more yang than.lack of self0confidence& 2oor a#ility in decision making. sugar or fruits& Jo%. ice cream etc&. here %e come to %hat is perhaps the most significant reason in modern culture for kidneys #ecoming %eakened and damaged &&& e7cess li8uid intake& t is no% commonplace for people to #e encouraged to drink eight to t%elve eight ounce glasses of %ater a day. and so more leaching of minerals occurs. leading to all the various symptoms of Water Lisease descri#ed a#ove& . including fruits. the condition of loss of mineral content of the #ones& What has this to do %ith the kidneysg $s related in the Jei Ching. they are filtering organs& 'hey filter the #lood and release the to7ins and %aste meta#olites out of the #ody in urine& Since they are filtering organs they only have a limited capacity of fluid -#lood and plasma. dried foods like chips etc& So. damaged and lose their vitality. this means the more yang minerals are leached out. if %e are al%ays pushing the #lood and tissue fluids to%ard a more e7treme yin condition #y our daily eating and drinking ha#its. enter the more yin #lood and tissue fluids to #ring them into #alance and %hen the appropriate dynamic #alance is achieved. any food %ith a high sugar content like sodas. all these symptoms an #e cleared up #y going a macro#iotic dietary program and doing ginger compresses and. ta#le salt. over time they #ecome %eak. drinking plenty of fluids %ill have the effect of #oth diluting their concentration and flushing them out of the #ody 8uickly& 'he pro#lem here is the kidneys are not flushing organs. %ith people taking their #ottle of spring %ater %ith them %herever they go. the #ody can only hold a limited amount of fluid and if %e drink e7cessive amounts of fluid %e start to place undue stress on the kidneys and they start to get over%orked #ecause the e7cess amount of li8uid is asking them to do more than they can handle& 'hus. meaning an acceleration of osteoporosis& 'he main foods %hich cause the #lood and tissue fluid to #ecome more yin include any food %ith simple sugar content. %hich are #oth highly to7ic& 'hus. especially those re8uiring relatively 8uick responses& 2oor long term memory& Jo%. %hich is a condition %hich happens in #oth men and %omen.

'he Forces of SP556? create 96$' in 9eaven and F ?6 on 6arth& 'hey create the 96$?' organ and 'he 2P>S6 %ithin the #ody&&& $nd the ':J*P6. and therefore also the se7 organs. %rists. and the #lood enlivens the stomach. 96$' creates F ?6. and the < ''6? flavor&&& 'he emotion J:E and the a#ility to make a >$P*9 J* sound&= 'his is from the Jei Ching -Eello% 6mperorAs Classic of nternal 5edicine. 'he Spirit of Summer creates the state of transformation called Fire and it says: =From the S:P'9 comes e7treme 96$'. and the ?6L color. ='he heart nourishes the #lood. all fruits& all foods and drinks %ith refined sugar content0 soft drinks. including refined flour products& all cold producing foods like ra% food. salads& e7cess fluid intake. =9ealing :urselves=& t goes on to say a#out the 96$?'. ice cream. alcohol. as reported in Ja#oru 5uramotoAs classic. tendons.SummariBing the foods %hich actively %eaken and damage the kidneys: refined salt& animal protein and fats& foods %ith simple sugar content0 dairy products like milk. sports drinks& all refined. and ears& &@-. and Athe pulse hardens. cream. the heart rules over the tongue&= =67travagant /oy is in/urious to the heart. tears make their appearance and the comple7ion changesA=& Classification #y 'he Five 'ransformation 'heory: F ?6: Eang :rgan 9eart . #ones. #ut fear counteracts /oy&= ='oo much salt in food endangers the heart."3< ("T& T&@ %@-%/3%1 '"+@1 We continue our study %ith the F ?6 season as this #egins around the Summer Solstice& $ccording to the Five 'ransformation 'heory. processed foods. fruit /uices. ligaments. ankles and the eyes-lens and intra0 ocular fluid tension. including %ater& We also need to start on a macro#iotically oriented and informed dietary practice and one of the fundamental insights derived from the Five 'ransformation 'heory is %e #egin introducing those foods %hich are also manifestations of Water state of transformation& 'he follo%ing is a menu %hich is specifically designed to strengthen and harmoniBe the functions of the kidneys and #ladder.

redness of the face.. -since the small intestine is the complementary paired organ of the heart. diBBiness and a feeling of =spaciness=& . tiredness. e7cita#ility and grief. headaches.. then the strengthening and cleansing of them #y the Fire state of 'ransformation %ill #e manifested as symptoms indicating those organs are #eing deto7ified 0 sore tongue. flu0like symptoms. -especially #et%een the hours of (. to Summer& 'he important point to grasp is during the 9eart Season -Summer.Ein :rgan Small ntestine 'issue <lood @essels ndicator Comple7ion Sense :rgan 'ongue Sense Speech <ody Fluid S%eat Lirection South $dverse Climate 9eat Season Summer 'ime of Lay Joon 2lanet 5ars Jum#er F 6motion Joy 67pression >augh 5anner in 'ime of 67citement X SadnessQ*rief Change Faculty nspirational 'aste <itter *rain CornQ?ed 5illet Fruit $pricot @egeta#le Scallions Lomestic $nimal Sheep $s stated. >iver and *all <ladder. %e need to #egin introducing those foods %hich are strengthening to the heart and small intestine. fever. Joon0C 25. hysteria.I days. appro7imately four months ahead of the date the season changes from the Wood Season -Spring. cleansed and harmoniBed in their structure and activities& 'his means if those organs are to7ic and stagnated -%hich is necessarily the case if %e are eating the modern =meat and chemicals= diet. the atmospheric chiQetheric dynamics are focused -o#viously $>> the states of 'ransformation of chiQetheric forces are active all year round. the Fire Season #egins traditionally at the Summer Solstice although #elieve this is not the case every%here in the Jorthern 9emisphere. the local geography and topology of the place %here %e live %ill mean the date %hen the change takes place %ill #e different for different localities& 'hus %e each need to #e attentive to the changes occurring in nature to find out %hen the change takes place %here %e live& What %e are attempting to do is harmoniBe our #lood 8uality %ith that of the seasonal changes and since the cycle of the red #lood cells circulating in the #loodstream is four months -(. on the heart and small intestine and those tissues and senses related to them in such a %ay that they are #eing strengthened.

processed foods. as %ell as those foods %hich are e7treme yang like meat. alcohol. ice cream. all fruits& all foods and drinks %ith refined sugar content0 soft drinks. cream. deterioration of the #lood circulation generally. medications. including refined flour products& all cold producing foods like ra% food. also refined %hite flour products. %hich is hardly surprising since most people eat the modern =meat and chemicals= diet all the year round and year in and year out and have done so since they %ere #orn& 'his of course means there are further symptoms indicating a more chronic condition of Fire Lisease and these include poor digestion like mala#sorption syndrome. as %ell the small intestines and kidneys and it is definitely highly recommended that people %ean themselves off these at the earliest opportunity& 9o%ever. sports drinks& all refined. dried foods like chips etc& 'his list is pretty much the same for all the organs #ut emphasis must #e put on spices and other strong tasting foods like garlic. hot foods& any alcohol& t occurred to me %hile %riting this that have never mentioned the %hole realm of drugs. spirulina. anti#iotics. ta#le salt. all these symptoms an #e cleared up #y going a macro#iotic dietary program and doing ginger compresses on the a#domen& 'he main foods %hich cause damage to the heart and small intestine include fruits. sodas. since many of these drugs are e7tremely po%erful it is only recommended this is done under the guidance of someone %ith several years of macro#iotic e7perience and kno%ledge& We also need to start on a macro#iotically oriented and informed dietary practice and one of the fundamental insights derived from the Five 'ransformation 'heory is %e #egin introducing those foods .:f course if %e get these symptoms often and throughout the course of the year. sports drinks. fruit /uices. necessarily. anthelmintics etc&. peppers etc& %hich are particularly harmful to the heart. any food %ith a high sugar content like fruit /uices. as are foods %ith a high fat content& So. ice cream etc&. or vitamin and trace element supplements and the so0called =super foods= like #lue0green algae. this means the heart and small intestine and related tissues and senses are chronically to7ic. high #lood pressure. #ut especially the liver. chronic constipation andQor diarrhoea and dysentery and parasitical infections in the small intestine& $lso poor circulation of the #lood meaning among other symptoms the feet and hands are al%ays cold. hallucinogens. #loating. over e7cita#ility and too much talking as %ell as feeling dull and #ored and suffering from ennui and feeling #lue& Jo%. #ody temperature is unsta#le so %e can get too hot or too cold easily. cardio0 vascular insufficiencey. chlorella etc& $ll these %ithout e7ception are to7ic to all the organs. and deterioration of the speaking voice so %e get stuttering and other speech impediments& Chronic lo%er #ack pain& $lso chronic tiredness from having %eak and anemic #lood& 'he comple7ion of the face is either very red or very pale& 'he emotionalQpsychological symptoms of Fire Lisease include hysteria. salads& all spicy. %hether they #e narcotics. milk and milk products like #utter. heart attacks. %e need to avoid eating these in order to lessen the stress on the heartQsmall intestine& SummariBing the foods %hich actively %eaken and damage the heart and small intestine: refined salt& animal protein and fats& foods %ith simple sugar content0 dairy products like milk. angina.

as reported in Ja#oru 5uramotoAs classic. and the E6>>:W color. and therefore also the tongue. and the SW66' flavor&&& 'he emotion SE52$'9E and the a#ility to S J*&= 'his is from the Jei Ching -Eello% 6mperorAs Classic of nternal 5edicine. and Athe flesh hardens and %rinkles and the skin #ecomes slackA=& Classification #y 'he Five 'ransformation 'heory: F ?6: Eang :rgan Ein :rgan 'issue ndicator Sense :rgan Sense <ody Fluid Lirection $dverse Climate Season 'ime of Lay 2lanet SpleenQ2ancreas Stomach Flesh >ips 5outh 'aste Saliva Center 5oisture >ate Summer 0 6arth . 'he Forces of the 6$?'9 create 9P5 L 'E in 9eaven and the F6?' >6 S: > on 6arth& 'hey create the S':5$C9 organ and 'he F>6S9 %ithin the #ody&&& $nd the 5:P'9. #ut anger counteracts sympathy&= ='oo much sour flavor in food endangers the spleen and stomach. =9ealing :urselves=& t goes on to say a#out the S':5$C9. the circulation and the digestion in the small intestine &@-.1 We continue our study %ith the S: > season as this #egins around $ugust (st& $ccording to the Five 'ransformation 'heory. the stomach rules over the mouth&= =67treme sympathy-%orry. 9P5 L 'E nourishes the S: >. 'he Spirit of >ate Summer creates the state of transformation called Soil and it says: =From the C6J'6? creates 9P5 L 'E. is in/urious to the stomach. and the flesh protects the lungs. ='he stomach nourishes the flesh."3< ("T& T&@ %@-%/3%1 %/".%hich are also manifestations of Wood state of transformation& 'he follo%ing is a menu %hich is specifically designed to strengthen and harmoniBe the functions of the heart and small intestine.

#elching. to >ate Summer& 'he important point to grasp is during the Soil Season ->ate Summer. cleansed and harmoniBed in their structure and activities& 'his means if those organs are to7ic and stagnated -%hich is necessarily the case if %e are eating the modern =meat and chemicals= diet.I days. %e need to #egin introducing those foods %hich are strengthening to the spleenQpancreas and stomach. cynicism. the Soil Season #egins traditionally around $ugust (. chronic irrita#ility manifesting as ulcers and vomiting and parasitical infections in the stomach& $lso poor sugar meta#olism meaning among other symptoms %e are al%ays hungry and have a craving for sugar0rich foods. Aheart#urnA. then the strengthening and cleansing of them #y the Soil state of 'ransformation %ill #e manifested as symptoms indicating those organs are #eing deto7ified 0 sore mouth. -especially #et%een the hours of G&II$5 0Joon. the atmospheric chiQetheric dynamics are focused -o#viously $>> the states of 'ransformation of chiQetheric forces are active all year round. the local geography and topology of the place %here %e live %ill mean the date %hen the change takes place %ill #e different for different localities& 'hus %e each need to #e attentive to the changes occurring in nature to find out %hen the change takes place %here %e live& What %e are attempting to do is harmoniBe our #lood 8uality %ith that of the seasonal changes and since the cycle of the red #lood cells circulating in the #loodstream is four months -(. flu0like symptoms. fever. tiredness.. skepticism. 9eart and Small ntestine. yello%ish tinge to the skin. indigestion etc&& 'he comple7ion of the face and skin generally is either pale yello% to yello%0red& 'he emotionalQpsychological symptoms of Soil Lisease include %orry. %orry. on the stomach and spleenQpancreas and those tissues and senses related to them in such a %ay that they are #eing strengthened. this means the spleenQpancreas and stomach and related tissues and senses are chronically to7ic.. although #elieve this is not the case every%here in the Jorthern 9emisphere. dou#t and skepticism. Change Faculty ntellectual 'aste S%eet *rain Eello% 5illet Fruit Lates @egeta#le S8uash Lomestic $nimal :7 $s stated. %hich is hardly surprising since most people eat the modern =meat and chemicals= diet all the year round and year in and year out and have done so since they %ere #orn& 'his of course means there are further symptoms indicating a more chronic condition of Soil Lisease and these include poor stomach digestion like acid stomach. %e als%ays tend to feel tired and have the Asugar #luesA& Lia#etes and hypoglycemia have their origin in spleenQpancreas& $lso stomach pain. appro7imately four months ahead of the date the season changes from the Fire Season -Summer. stomach ache and feeling of upset stomach& :f course if %e get these symptoms often and throughout the course of the year. dou#t. .Jum#er D 6motion Sympathy 67pression Sing 5anner in 'ime of 67citement X <elch-stu##orn. -since the spleenQpancreas is considered one organ and is the complementary paired organ of the stomach. headaches.

or vitamin and trace element supplements and the so0called =super foods= like #lue0green algae. anti#iotics.@T-. as are foods %ith a high animal fat content& So. ice cream etc&. medications including pharmaceutical drugs. necessarily. self0pity& Jo%. ice cream. fruit /uices. sodas. #ut especially the liver. as %ell the small intestines and kidneys and it is definitely highly recommended that people %ean themselves off these at the earliest opportunity& 9o%ever.1 We continue our study %ith the 56'$> season as this #egins around the $utumn 68uino7& 'he essence of macro#iotic practice is to harmonise ourselves consciously %ith the rhythms of the earth. mentally . %hich are particularly harmful to the spleenQpancreas. any food %ith a high sugar content like fruit /uices. as %ell as those foods %hich are e7treme yang like meat. all these symptoms an #e cleared up #y going a macro#iotic dietary program and doing ginger compresses on the a#domen& 'he main foods %hich cause damage to the spleenQpancreas and stomach include fruits. processed foods. sports drinks& all refined. dried foods like chips etc& 'his list is pretty much the same for all the organs #ut emphasis must #e put on sugary foods. milk and milk products like #utter. #eing overly o#sessive and in the more yin e7pression. hallucinogens. and other strong tasting s%eet foods like fruit /uices and sports drinks. anthelmintics etc&. including refined flour products& all cold producing foods like ra% food. emotionally. alcohol. chlorella etc& $ll these %ithout e7ception are to7ic to all the organs. s%eets. sugary drinks."3< ("T& T&@ %@-%/3%1 . all fruits& all foods and drinks %ith refined sugar content0 soft drinks. %e need to avoid eating these in order to lessen the stress on the spleen0 pancreasQstomach& SummariBing the foods %hich actively %eaken and damage the heart and small intestine: refined salt& animal protein and fats& foods %ith simple sugar content0 dairy products like milk. %hether they #e narcotics. also refined %hite flour products. since many of these drugs are e7tremely po%erful it is only recommended this is done under the guidance of someone %ith several years of macro#iotic e7perience and kno%ledge& We also need to start on a macro#iotically oriented and informed dietary practice and one of the fundamental insights derived from the Five 'ransformation 'heory is %e #egin introducing those foods %hich are also manifestations of Soil state of transformation& 'he follo%ing is a menu %hich is specifically designed to strengthen and harmoniBe the functions of the spleen0pancreas and stomach. spirulina./ealousy as %ell as #eing suspicious. the flesh and the digestion in the stomach& &@-. hot foods& any alcohol& t occurred to me %hile %riting this that have never mentioned the %hole realm of drugs. sports drinks. and therefore also the mouth. cream. ta#le salt. salads& all spicy. simply #ecause this is %hat the state of health for the human #eing0 physically.

'he Spirit of Fall creates the state of transformation called 5etal and it says: ='he W6S' creates scorched L?EJ6SS. 'he Forces of $P'P5J create L?EJ6SS in 9eaven and 56'$> on 6arth& 'hey create the >PJ* organ and 'he SK J upon the #ody&&& $nd the J:S6. and Athe skin #ecomes %ithered and the #ody hair falls outA= Classification #y 'he Five 'ransformation 'heory: 56'$>: Eang :rgan >ungs Ein :rgan >arge ntestine 'issue Skin ndicator 9air Sense :rgan Jose Sense Smell <ody Fluid mucus Lirection West $dverse Climate Lryness Season $utumn 'ime of Lay 6vening 2lanet @enus Jum#er H 6motion *rief 67pression Weep 5anner in 'ime of 67citement X Coughing Change Faculty @ital . %e need to understand the relationships that pertain the human #eing and the earth during the course of the year so %e can center our eating ha#its in the course of the seasonal rhythms in harmony %ith the seasonal changes& $ccording to the Five 'ransformation 'heory. #ut /oy counteracts grief&= ='oo much #itter food endangers the lungs. hair protect the kidneys. hair. and the 2PJ*6J' flavor&&& 'he emotion *? 6F and the a#ility to make a W662 J* sound&= 'his is from the Jei Ching -Eello% 6mperorAs Classic of nternal 5edicine.and spiritually 0 is understood to #e founded upon& 'hus. ='he lungs strengthen the skin and the -#ody. the lungs rule over the nose&= =67treme grief is in/urious to the lungs. and the skin and the -#ody. as reported in Ja#oru 5uramotoAs classic. L?EJ6SS creates 56'$>. and the W9 '6 color. =9ealing :urselves=& t goes on to say a#out the >PJ*.

the single most diseased and sick organ in modern culture %orld0%ide is the >arge ntestine. SpleenQ2ancreas and Stomach. many symptoms of 5etal Lisease ->arge ntestineQ>ungs. #eing the main general symptoms of these organs healing themselves& :f course if %e get these symptoms often and throughout the course of the year. diarrhea. the 5etal Season #egins traditionally at the $utumn 68uino7 although #elieve this is not the case every%here in the Jorthern 9emisphere.for those people %ho do not have the good fortune to discover macro#iotics and the *inger Compress.'aste 2ungent *rain <ro%n ?ice Fruit 2each @egeta#le :nions Lomestic $nimal 9orse $s stated. and visitors to 'he $lchemycal 2ages. also free. if you are a fre8uent visitor to 'he $lchemycal 2ages. and the <i#liography are not on the %e#site. to 5etal& 'he important point to grasp is during the 5etal Season-Fall. in other %ords.. urge you to consider #uying the #ook in order to get a . then the strengthening and cleansing of them #y the 5etal state of 'ransformation %ill #e manifested as symptoms indicating those organs are #eing deto7ified 0 sore throats. F and (.I days. 'he 6nd :f 5edicine. many hours of time put into adding to and maintaining the %e#site.. sadness and grief.& n the #ook. are chronicled in the chapter on Liagnosis in 'he 6nd of 5edicine& n order to #e fair to all concerned 0 purchasers of the #ook %ho do not have %e# access. e7cessive coughing and nasal mucus discharges. plus ans%ering and giving advice to people %ho e0mail me. as %ell as feeling upset in the lo%er digestive tract. flu0like symptoms.. G0(( are taken from pages on the site and have #een modified and some minor changes made& Chapters (. 30D. tiredness-especially #et%een the hours of C0G$5. %hich is hardly surprising since most people eat the modern =meat and chemicals= diet all the year round and year in and year out and have done so since they %ere #orn& 'his of course means there are further symptoms indicating a more chronic condition of 5etal Lisease& $ctually. %hich costs me CGI dollars a year plus the many. this means the lungs and large intestine and related tissues and senses are chronically to7ic. and the deep sickness in this organ is the root of all diseases hitherto kno%n and those yet to come. since the large intestine is the complementary paired organ of the lungs. on the lungs and large intestine and those tissues and senses related to them in such a %ay that they are #eing strengthened.& 5y #ook.. Chapters . headaches-especially at the front of the head. the atmospheric chiQetheric dynamics are focused -o#viously $>> the states of 'ransformation of chiQetheric forces are active all year round.f you think am #eing unfair in not putting all the details here. consider that am providing the information on 'he $lchemycal 2ages for free -since June (HH6. is %ritten to descri#e in detail ho% and %hy the >arge ntestine is the =root organ= of all disease. cleansed and harmonised in their structure and activities& 'his means if those organs are to7ic and stagnated -%hich is necessarily the case if %e are eating the modern =meat and chemicals= diet.& So. 6. the local geography and topology of the place %here %e live %ill mean the date %hen the change takes place %ill #e different for different localities& 'hus %e each need to #e attentive to the changes occurring in nature to find out %hen the change takes place %here %e live& What %e are attempting to do is harmonise our #lood 8uality %ith that of the seasonal changes and since the cycle of the red #lood cells circulating in the #loodstream is four months -(. and all the many. %e need to #egin introducing those foods %hich are strengthening to the lungs-and large intestine. appro7imately four months ahead of the date the season changes from the Soil Season->ate Summer.. am not putting all the details in the #ook on the %e#site & . %e have a great deal of trou#le getting up in the morning.

&II $5 0 C&II > @6? $5 C&II $5 0 6&II >PJ*S $5 6&II $5 0 G&II >$?*6 $5 J'6S' J6 G&II $5 0 (I&II S':5$C9 $5 (I $5 0 (.&II 96$?' 25 .&II 25 0 C&II S5$>> 25 J'6S' J6 C&II 25 0 6&II <>$LL6? 25 6&II 25 0 G&II K LJ6ES 25 G&II 25 0 (I&II 96$?' *:@6?J:? 25 (I&II 25 0(.&II S2>66JQ2$JC?6$S Joon T+-3%'/+."3< ("T& T&@ $-91 /ne of the more useful diagnosti tools derived from the 'ive Transformation Theory is the y le of hiVetheri flow in the organ meridians1 This is a JK hour y le as follows7 T".-T"/3 F ?6 W$'6? F ?6 W::L 56'$> S: > .&II '? 2>6 96$'6? 25 (.@ /' $-9 9"3 /+<-3 9-3< /+<-3 (.&II $5 *$>> <>$LL6? .fuller picture& &@-. Joon 0 .&II0 .

This is the y le of the Pflow of hiVetheri for esP through the meridians on the diurnal y le1 "t an be seen from this hart that the Pleading edgeP of the rhythm passes through ea h of the meridians at spe ifi times of the day Ethis is for the 3orthern &emisphereF1 (hat this signifies is at those periods of the day) the P hiVetheri P is Qfo usedQ on those meridiansVorgans orresponding to ea h twohour period1 This means the etheri for es are fo using their harmoniWing and Qfine-tuningQ a tivity on those organs and their fun tions at those times of the day1 3ow) if) as will generally be the ase) those organs are QstagnatedQ) to!i ) Qimbalan edQ) then the a tivity of the etheri Qfo usingQ on the hroni ally stagnant organs will be eviden ed by the manifestation of Qdis hargesQ E%ee the "ntrodu tionF su h as fevers) heada hes) sore throats) oughing and sneeWing) watery eyes) nasal dis harge) flu-like symptoms) diarrhea) skin breakouts) heada hes) shivering) fatigue) and hills1 "f these types of dis harge symptoms o ur regularly within the same time-frame of the day) then we know from the hart whi h organ or organs are under duress1 Then we go to the links to see what we an do to strengthen those organs1 3ow) we bear in mind that these are Ppaired) omplementary organsP) so that whatever is manifesting in the way of dis harges by one of the paired organs means) de fa to) the other of the pair is also stagnated1 Thus) as is very ommon) we Phit the wallP at K oQ lo k in the afternoon) then we know from the hart that this signifies bladderVkidney weakness1 /r) if) as is also very ommon) we annot sleep between IJ midnight and K1LL -.) we know we have a liverVgall bladder problem1 "t will be noted that for 'ire there are two sets of paired organs1 "n a tuality) the &eart <overnor and Triple &eater are not organs) but fun tions1 The &eart <overnor is responsible for the overall ondition of metabolism of the body) and the Triple &eater is responsible for maintaining the proper internal body temperature with respe t to the e!ternal ambient temperature1 9"3 -3$ 9-3<1 .

-nyone starting a ma robioti dietary pra ti e without studying yin and yang an do so adeTuately) e!perien ing in reasing health benefits physi ally) emotionally and mentally) for only a ertain period of time) perhaps three to five years1 &owever) sin e a ma robioti dietary pra ti e is not dieting in the stri t sense) if we have not studied and begun to understand the prin iples whi h inform the pra ti e) prin ipally yin-yang theory and its derivative) the 'ive Transformation Theory) we will find that around this time our e!perien e of doing a ma robioti pra ti e will get Qbogged downQ1 "t is ommonpla e for people to have started a ma robioti dietary pra ti e and given up after three years or soX one onstantly hears people saying) Poh yes) " tried ma robioti s for a ouple of years ba k inP whatever de ade they happened to have tried it1 The per entage of people who have tried ma robioti pra ti e and given it up relative to the people who ontinue past the two to three year period is probably NLY1 3ow) there are many reasons for this phenomenon) and " feel the most important is the la k of study of yin -yang theory means people do not know how) by and large) to make the ne essary adjustments to their dietary pra ti e as their ondition improves1 These dietary adjustments generally mean we have to start widening the hoi es of foods available to us) so we eventually an eat anything we want) always maintaining whole grains and vegetables as our daily staple foods1 "n a tual fa t it is not in a ord with ma robioti philosophy for anyone to maintain the same dietary intake from season to season) year in and year outX also) a diet suitable for a person in a ertain ondition is not appropriate for the same person when their ondition improves1 -nother very important reason to learn and understand yin and yang is to hange our way of thinking1 -nd we need to hange our way of thinking if we wish to heal ourselves1 The present dominant mode of thinking in the world an be hara teriWed as s ientifi materialisti redu tionist thinking) whi h has developed over the past four hundred years1 This manner of thinking has arisen from the study of the material world) its basis for knowledge being the world of minerals and hemi als1 'rom e!haustive studies) e!perimentation and observations of the phenomena of the mineral kingdom have been derived the laws of physi s and hemistry1 These hemi al and physi al laws have then been applied in the manipulation of matter in developing a brilliantly lever and in many instan es benefi ial material te hnology1 This is fine as long as the hemi al and physi al laws are understood to be pertinent only to hemi als and minerals1 &owever) this mode of thinking hara teriWed as materialisti s ientifi redu tionist permeates every bran h of knowledge and learning) and most human endeavors today1 (e need to wake up to the fa t that we are totally deluded if we think the plant) the animal or the human being is merely a more elaborate and omple! .

mineral) plant) animal and human.in the realm of the physi al world behave they way they do1 This is the worldVs of spiritual beings) for es and a tivities1 The fa t that the people inhabiting the world today appear not to find this logi al on lusion admissible is more a statement about humanityQs present enthralment to the delusion of modern s ientifi materialism) feebleness of soul) intelle tual aridity and less than stringent) a urate observation of material phenomena than it is about the truthfulness of the logi al on lusion itself1 -s a first step) or bridge) toward developing this new way of thinking) the study and understanding of yin and yang is very helpful) be ause it is predi ated on the knowledge there are hidden Ethat is) imper eptible to the physi al sense organsF for es and dynami s lying within and behind material phenomena whi h give them .arrangement of physi s and hemistry than is the ro k or stone1 "n other words) it is not logi ally possible to derive true understanding and knowledge of living organisms by means of the laws of physi s and hemistry1 The world is suffering grievously under the burden of this delusion1 "t is not an e!aggeration to say all the problems the world is now e!perien ing and has been for several de ades) be they e ologi al) environmental) e onomi ) legal) so ial) politi al) medi al) edu ational or religious) are the result of this dominant mode of thinking " hara teriWe as s ientifi materialist redu tionist1 "t seems fairly obvious to draw the on lusion that this mode of thinking will not help us in solving these problems) be ause it is largely the ause of all the problems going on in the world todayX using the same manner of thinking to solve problems aused by it will in fa t make these problems more intra table than they have already be ome1 (e therefore need to develop a new way of thinking whi h has its epistemology based on the logi ally undeniable fa t that the worlds of plants) animals and human beings) and) in the final analysis) even the world of minerals) are the e!pression) the manifestations and symptoms of spiritual laws and a tivities operating in the world of spirit whi h reates) imbues and permeates the physi al world1 The pi ture +udolf %teiner gives of the evolution of human ons iousness is the development of the intelle tual apa ities of the human soul su h that we ould obje tively investigate the material world and develop the apa ity to think independently) out of our own resour es of the soul) beginning around IKI3 -1$1) was a ne essary step in the evolution of human ons iousness1 &owever) any human being taking the materialisti s ientifi world view to its logi al on lusion annot but admit it is not possible to find in it any real satisfa tion for the soul as to why the phenomena of the world fun tion the way they do1 Thus) having rea hed the ne essary Qbri k wallQ at the end of s ientifi materialism) we must needs posit an invisible domain) lying beyond the veil of the physi al senses) whi h is behindVwithin material phenomena and is the fundamental ause for why phenomena .

edi ine1 &owever) <eorge /hsawa) who " refer to as the Qre-dis overerQ of ma robioti prin iples and pra ti es) hanged the perspe tive of yin and yang from the traditional metaphysi al one to one whi h is geo entri 1 "n essen e) if we study the Q" *hingQ) whi h is the onsummate e!pression of yin and yang theory and philosophy from the metaphysi al perspe tive) it states that Q&eavenQ being the generator of all things) is more reative) a tive) dynami and therefore more yang than the e!pression of its reative a tivity) whi h is alled Q@arthQ1 Q@arthQ) whi h is) in ontrast to Q&eavenQ passive) re eptive)and still) is therefore more yin1 "n fa t Q&eavenQ is alled <reat 9ang and Q@arthQ is alled Q<reat 9inQ1 <eorge /hsawa said) on the other hand) from the perspe tive of an individual living on the earth) heaven is a wide) vast) relatively empty e!panse flung out above us) and is therefore more yinX the earth) from this perspe tive) is a solid) ompa ted) physi al obje t floating in this wide e!panse of spa e) and is therefore more yang1 'rom this radi al hange in perspe tive /hsawa then developed the yin-yang theory presented here1 Thus) neither one is in orre t as long as they are not mi!ed upX if we are onsistent in our interpretations from ea h of the different perspe tives then we will not make errors) e! epting those made be ause of our la k of understanding of whi hever interpretation of yin and yang we are using1 There is no reason one annot learn bothX however) my advi e is to start with the e!planation given here and learn it .their form and dynami of fun tion and a tivity1 9in and yang is a Qdes riptive languageQ to understand the dynami s of spiritual a tivity1 %in e understanding yin and yang is so different from the onventional habit of s ientifi materialist redu tionist thinking) it reTuires a rigorous and onsistent retraining of our thinking1 (e must also realise developing our understanding of yin and yang is not only ne essary in order to fa ilitate our healing) it is also ontingent upon re overing our physi al) emotional) mental and spiritual health and vitality1 The ne essity of developing a feeling for yin and yang is also ne essary be ause it is simply not an intelle tual arrangement and an never be understood from a purely intelle tual standpoint1 'or although on the surfa e yin and yang theory appears to be simpli ity itself) and in a ertain respe t it is) it is also omple!) profound and subtle1 /ne problem) whi h " need to address here) is if a reader omes to this page with any sort of ba kground in Traditional *hinese .edi ine) then they will look at the des ription of yin and yang Tualities) attributes and tenden ies that follows and on lude the ma robioti understanding of yin and yang is in error1 -nd indeed it is) from the perspe tive of Traditional *hinese .

other-'ather *reative ontinuously manifests two tenden ies of dynami spiritual a tivity whi h are always and in all pla es and times under the ontinuous guidan e of the /ne1 Together) these three are manifest in QThe Ten Thousand ThingsPX that is) all visible and invisible phenomena of the relative world1 J1F The two tenden ies are alled yin) entrifugality and yang) entripetality1 31F 9in attra ts yangX yang attra ts yin1 K1F 9ang repels yangX yin repels yin1 H1F -t their e!treme of movement) yin hanges into) or produ es yangX likewise) at the e!treme yang hanges into) or produ es) yin1 61F The greater the polarity between yin and yang) the greater the for e of attra tion between them1 The more alike two phenomena are respe t of yin and yang) the greater the for e of repulsion between them1 M1F 9in and yang are onstantly hanging into one another1 N1F 3o phenomenon is ompletely) absolutely yang) or ompletely) absolutely yin1 -ll phenomena are permeated with both yin and yang tenden ies1 O1F 3o phenomenon is neutral) that is) perfe tly balan ed1 9in or yang is present in e! ess in all phenomena at one time or another in dynami interplay1 IL1F =nder the guidan e of the /ne) all inter-relationships of yin and yang are always tending toward a dynami balan e1 These ten prin iples are) so to speak) the rules of the game1 3ow we need to learn what " all the -G*Qs of yin and yang1 (hat follows is by no means an e!haustive list) and by learning it) you an add many more e!amples1 The properties) attributes and tenden ies of yin and yang7 6+/6@+T"@%) @T*1 9"3 C6J'? FP*$> 9-3< C6J'? 26'$> .thoroughly and understand it well1 This is a minimum two year proposition) while simultaneously adopting a ma robioti dietary program) whi h is one of the appli ations of yin-yang theory and therefore a great way to study yin and yang is to learn how to ook and eat ma robioti ally1 The 6rin iples of 9in and 9ang1 I1F /neness) <od) the .

a#ove ground horiBontal lighter more active. 2. etc& 5oon Sun Space 'ime . etc& 9. 5g. C. :.faster longer %avelength higher fre8uency lo%er fre8uency night day more mental more physical feminine masculine vegetal animal %inter summer colder hotter rougher smoother softer harder lighter heavier %etter drier taller shorter #igger smaller @iolet ndigo <lue *?66J Eello% :range ?ed J. Ca. #eneath ground vertical darker more inactive. K.e7pansion diffusion dissipation 'endencies dispersion separation decomposition contraction fusion organiBation assimilation gathering composition Lirection -in plant gro%th. $s. 2osition >ight 5ovement @i#ration Liurnal ?hythm $ctivity Se7 <iology Seasons 'emperature 'e7ture Lensity Weight 5oisture content 9eight SiBe Color Chemicals 9eavenly <odies Limension disintegration integration up%ard and out%ard do%n%ard and in%ard horiBontally. Ja. slo%er shorter %avelength horiBontally.

/3T&1 "n these pages " will look at a spe ifi disease symptomology every month or so1 Gefore pro eeding " must point out that everything written here and elsewhere in The -l hemy al 6ages is stri tly for informational purposes only1 3othing written here onstitutes medi al advi e or has anything remotely to do with it) and any ma robioti advi e is only general statements1 9ou are a uniTue individual with a uniTue onstitution) ondition) body type) and biography) living in pla e of habitation with limate) topography and weather patterns whi h have to be taken into a ount in making any dietary re ommendations1 Therefore if you are thinking about adopting a ma robioti way of eating " strongly re ommend you seek out people in your area who are familiar with and are e!perien ed in ma robioti prin iples and pra ti es1 "n the ourse of the oming months " will be building up a resour e page of ma robioti tea hers) ounselors) enters and so forth here in The -l hemy al 6ages1 .eanwhile you an onta t me either by email or letter if you want information on who) if anyone) is in your area who may be able to help you1 -lso " will be happy to answer any Tuestions you send by e-mail #aare Gursell EpreferablyF or letter1 A!"# $% &$N #N '( JPJ6 (HH6 JP>E (HH6 S62'65<6? (HH6 6+/%T-T@ $2? > (HHH %6/+T% "3..@+<"@% J:@65<6? 6%/+"-%"% 5"%"/3 (HHH ."t is important to bear in mind that when we are seeking to determine whether any given phenomenon is more yin or more yang) it is always relative to another phenomenon1 "t does not make sense to say any phenomenon is yin or yangX it is always more yin or more yang relative to another phenomenon1 'urther) it is usually ause for error when we only take only one attribute) property or tenden y of a phenomenon) say olor) to determine if it is more yin or yang than another phenomenon1 'or e!ample) say we want to know what the yin and yang of arrots and tomatoes) whi h are both red) and a green apple is) relative to one anotherX if we only use olor as a basis for omparison) we would on lude the green apple is more yin than the arrot and the tomato1 (ell) we would be orre t in the ase of the arrot) but in orre t in the ase of the tomato1 To understand why is your homework $"%@-%@ /' T&@ .=+"@% *-3*@+ G+@-%T *-3*@+ $P*PS' (HHH -.

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P F is a omple!) hroni ondition whi h auses widespread pain and profound fatigue) as well as a variety of other symptoms1 "ts effe ts are felt primarily in mus les) tendons) and ligaments throughout the body1 =nlike arthritis) however) no inflammation a ompanies fibromyalgia) and the joints of the body are not dire tly affe ted1 The pain of fibromyalgia syndrome is usually des ribed as a hing or burning and is unpredi table in nature1 "ts severity varies from day to day) and different parts of the body tend to be affe ted at different times1 "n some people) '.% pain an be very severe and disabling) while in others it may ause only mild dis omfort1 .9-.-=<=%T IOON1 '"G+/.%P or P'.<"" am writing about this disease symptomology at the reTuest of a visitor to The -l hemy al 6ages1 " obtained the following information from a website whi h no longer e!ists1 9ou an get more information from this website 'ibromyalgia1*om7 'ibromyalgia syndrome Ealso alled P'.ow ervi al7bilateral) at the anterior aspe ts of the intertransverse spa es at *H-*M1 "arge *ntestine H S 6) TrapeWius7 bilateral) at the midpoint of the upper border1 )all !ladder M S N) %upraspinatus7 bilateral) at origins) above the s apula spine near the medial border1 !ladder O S IL) %e ond +ib7 bilateral) at the se ond osto hondral jun tions) just lateral to the jun tions on upper surfa es1 Kidney .ikewise) the fatigue whi h often a ompanies fibromyalgia syndrome ranges from a mild) tired feeling to all.onsuming e!haustion1 'ibromyalgia Tender 6oints7 3/T@ .There are illustrations of these points at the website linked above and " have he ked these points against the pathways of a upun ture meridians on a meridian hart and Eas near as " an determine) anywayZF) " have noted on whi h organ meridians these points lie) in itali s1 "dentified by the -meri an *ollege of +heumatology in IOOL) at digital palpation with an appro!imate for e of Kkg1 I S J)/ iput7 bilateral) at the subo ipital mus le insertions1 )all !ladder 3 S K) .

.%1 They may be aused by referred pain from tender ne k and shoulder areas) or they may be asso iated with pain in the mus les and other soft tissues around the temporomandibular joint) or T.) whi h is lo ated where the jaw meets the ear1 "n the latter ase) jaw or fa ial pain is usually present) too1 -bdominal $is omfort7 '.II S IJ) .% patients may awaken feeling unrefreshed) as if theyQve barely slept at all1 They may also have diffi ulty falling asleep or staying asleep1 %tiffness7 Gody stiffness is a signifi ant problem e!perien ed by most patients1 "t an o ur upon awakening or remaining in one position for prolonged periods1 "t an also a ompany weather hanges1 "n reased &eada hes or 'a ial 6ain7 &eada hes are a ommon omplaint for many with '.% sometimes e!perien e a ondition alled P osto hondralgiaP whi h involves mus ular pain at the spot where the ribs meet the hest bone1 %in e osto hondralgia mimi s ardia symptoms) it is always a good idea to he k with a physi ian if hest pain o urs1 *ognitive $isorders7 'reTuent omplaints) whi h vary from day to day) in lude diffi ulty on entrating) Pspa inessP) memory lapses) word mi!-ups when speaking or writing) and lumsiness or dropping things1 .% usually e!perien e some of the following7 %leep $isturban e7 $espite getting adeTuate amounts of sleep) '.ateral epi ondyle7 bilateral) J m distal to the epi ondyles1 "arge *ntestine I3 S IK) <luteal7 bilateral) in upper outer Tuadrant of butto ks in anteriorfold of mus le1 IH S I6) <reater tro hanter7 bilateral) posterior to the tro hanteri prominen e1 !ladder IM S IN) #nee7 bilateral) at the medial fat pad pro!imal to the joint line1 'pleen %ymptoms7 "n addition to pain and fatigue) individuals with '.%-related symptoms in lude digestive disturban es) abdominal pain and bloating) onstipation) and diarrhea1 -s a whole) su h symptoms are known as irritable bowel syndrome1 "rritable Gladder7 'ibromyalgia patients may noti e an in rease in urinary freTuen y or e!perien e a greater urgen y to urinate1 /ften) no a ompanying bladder infe tion is present1 3umbness or Tingling7 -lso known as PparesthesiaP) symptoms usually involve a pri kling or burning sensation) parti ularly in the e!tremities1 *hest 6ain7 6ersons with '.

$yseTuilibrium7 '.%1 These are dis ussed in more detail in publi ations and audiotapes produ ed or sold by the 'ibromyalgia -sso iation of <reater (ashington) "n 1 E'.% patients may also e!perien e diWWiness and balan e problems1 Typi ally) there is no lassi al) spinning vertigo1 +ather diffi ulties in orientation o ur when standing) driving) or reading1 @nvironmental %ensitivity7 -llergi -like rea tions to a variety of substan es are ommon) as are sensitivities to light) noise) odors) and weather patterns1 $ryness of the skin) eyes) and mouth is also ommon1 /ther %ymptoms7 "n reasingly) additional symptoms and syndromes are being asso iated with '.-<(F1 $iagnosis *urrently) no diagnosti ) laboratory test e!ists for '.%1 Treatment onsists of managing symptoms to the greatest e!tent possible1 Ge ause patients vary widely in their responses to available modalities) several approa hes may need to be tried before a satisfa tory regimen an be established1 'or this reason) a multi-dis iplinary) medi al team approa h is benefi ial1 The following treatments) used alone or in ombination) generally help patients feel better and improve their Tuality of life7 .edi ation7 'or pain relief and improved sleep) medi ines whi h in rease the bodyQs level of serotonin Ea hemi al in the brain that regulates pain and sleepF are often pres ribed in low doses1 "n addition) non-steroidal) anti-inflammatory drugs Ei1e1) ibuprofen) aspirinF an also be helpful1 %pe ifi medi ines whi h treat other symptoms Elike abdominal or allergi omplaintsF may also be reTuired1 6hysi al Therapy7 -mong the many types of available approa hes are7 massage) myofas ial release) ranio-sa ral therapy) mild ele tri al stimulation) the appli ation of heat Ei1e1) moist heat pa ks) hot baths or showersF) the appli ation of oldVi e pa ks) ultrasound) posture and movement training) and hiropra ti 1 .%1 Treatment To date) there is no ure for '.%1 'or fibromyalgia to be diagnosed) other onditions that mimi its symptoms must first be e! luded Ei1e1) thyroid disease) lupus) lyme disease) rheumatoid arthritis) et 1F1 'urthermore) a ording to offi ial) diagnosti riteria established by the -meri an *ollege of +heumatology) a patient must suffer from widespread pain in all four body Tuadrants for at least three months1 'inally) II of IN possible tender points should be present when spe ifi lo ations in the ne k) shoulders) hest) hip) knee) and elbow regions of the body are e!amined by a physi ian Esee diagram at rightF) although patients may not be aware that these tender points e!ist1 %ome physi ians take the position that less than II tender points an be present at any given time for a fibromyalgia diagnosis to be made1 +heumatologists and physiatrists Espe ialists in physi al medi ine and rehabilitationF are often the most knowledgeable when it omes to diagnosing '.

@!er ise7 <entle e!er ise an often be helpful in easing sore mus les by in reasing blood ir ulation and range of motion1 .% also seems to run in some families) although no geneti omponent has yet been identified1 @n ouraging resear h is now o urring in the fields of neuroendo rinology) immunology) ardiology) and e!er ise physiology) among others1 %o) what do you do if you have any or all of these symptomsC 9ou go on a ma robioti dietary program tailored to your physiognomy and onstitution and do the regimen of ginger ompresses on your abdomen1 Top of 6age1 .% is triggered in pre-disposed individuals by su h pre ipitants as illness) physi al trauma to the body) or a ute emotional stress1 '.edi al pra titioners usually pres ribe stret hing and lowimpa t e!er ise Ei1e1) water e!er ise in an NH degree heated pool) walking) treadmills or rossountry ski ma hinesF1 -lternative -pproa hes7 "n reasingly) fibromyalgia patients are finding some relief from su h treatment modalities as biofeedba k) yoga) tai hi) stress management) nutritional ounseling) and a upun ture1 @motional support is also ru ial to help individuals manage their perple!ing array of symptoms and undertake ne essary lifestyle hanges1 %upport an be obtained informally from fibromyalgia self-help and support groups) lergy) family members) or friends1 6rofessional assistan e is also en ouraged for those having a diffi ult time adjusting to life with fibromyalgia syndrome1 *ause (hile resear hers ontinue to seek the ause of fibromyalgia syndrome) there is eviden e that '.

ore on $iabetes This disease symptomology is one whi h was reTuested by a visitor to The -l hemy al 6ages1 The term Qsugar bluesQ omes from a book of the same title written by (illiam $ufty a ouple of de ades ago and refers to the modern addi tion for refined sugar and the onseTuen es this has on our physi al body as well as our emotional and mental ondition1 %ugar) in the form of glu ose) is absolutely ne essary for us to live and our blood stream needs to have between 6L-OH mgsVILL s of glu ose at all times1 "f the blood arries more than OH mgsVILL s we have what is alled hypergly emia Etoo mu h glu oseF and if we have less than 6LmgsVILL s we have hypogly emia Etoo little glu oseF1 %imple sugars are found as monosa harideEglu ose) a single mole ule found only in refined sugarFF or a disa haride) Ea double mole ule like fru tose whi h is present in fruits and la tose) whi h is present in milk and dairy produ tsF1 There are also polysa haridesEmultiple hain sugars whi h are found mainly in whole grainsF1 %ugar metabolism is a omple! arrangement whereby sugar is absorbed in the blood stream in the digestive tra t and the level of sugar is regulated to maintain the range of 6L-OH mgVILL s at all times1 The main organs responsible for regulating the glu ose levels in the blood are the pan reas and the liver1 (hen the blood sugar level rises above the normal range it stimulates the se retion of insulin by ells present in the pan reas whi h produ e more insulin as the blood sugar level rises too high1 This hormone sends a message to the liver to onvert the e! ess sugar into gly ogen whi h is stored in the liver) thus lowering the blood sugar levels to normal1 "f the blood sugar level falls too low) then different ells in the pan reas se rete a hormone alled glu agon whi h sends a message to the liver to onvert the stored gly ogen into glu ose whi h is released into the blood stream) thus raising the blood sugar level to normal1 This is the homeostati pro ess whereby the blood sugar levels are maintained onstantly within the normal range at all times1 &owever) what we need to know is what an upset this balan e and lead to disturban es in the pro ess whi h either leads to there being too little or too mu h insulin leading to hypergly emiaEin the former aseF or hypogly emia Ein the latter aseF1 ."-1 .-+*& IOON1 P%ugar GluesP$"-G@T@% S &96/<.9*@..

" all sports injuries Psports drink diseasePF and the minerals are lost during the e! essive urination whi h along with the loss of sugar makes us be ome more hungry and thirsty1 This in turns leads to in reased fluid intake and overeating1 /ther symptoms in lude weakened and rough skin whi h is easily bruised and if we get a ut it does not heal easily1 There is poor ir ulation of the blood espe ially in the periphery of the body and we thus e!perien e onstant old in our hands and feet1 -lso our eyes be ome weaker and we have glau oma1 @motionally we be ome depressed) whiny and irritable and mentally we tend to be unable to fo us our thinking whi h be omes loudy and our memory be omes poor1 "n the ase of their being an over se retion of insulin before the ells in the pan reas be ome e!hausted and their insulin se retion is too little) the ondition whi h develops is hypogly emia whi h manifests as weakness and tiredness) the mus les be ome weak) thirst in reases) there is mental irritability and neurosis and in e!treme ases onvulsion and oma1 &ere we an orre t the problem temporarily by eating more sugar but of ourse we then ause se retion of more insulin and eventually we get diabetes1 /bviously modern medi al has no answer for either of these onditions other than the simplisti approa h of pres ribing insulin to people who are diabeti and their ondition ontinues to deteriorate be ause the underlying ause is not addressed) leading to blindness) heart disease) gangrene) espe ially in the lower limbs reTuiring amputation) and death Ediabetes is the seventh leading ause of death in the =1%1F -nd " know people who have gone on a ma robioti dietary program who had diabetes and have thrown away the insulin) no longer needing it1 "n one ase) the person had been taking insulin for HL years and got off it with the ma robioti approa h1 ."nsulin is a more yang hormone and glu agon a more yin hormone) relative to one another1 Therefore the stimulation of se retion of insulin is a more yin ondition) reated by the e! ess glu ose) whi h is more yin than minerals) protein or fats1 The problem with e! ess glu ose in the blood is that what happens is the liver annot store more than J kilograms of gly ogen1 /n e this amount is rea hed we have the body storing the e! ess sugar as fat and the blood itself be omes fatty) whi h also means the holesterol level rises1 The fat deposition initially takes pla e in the hips) waist) butto ks) legs) shoulders and ne k and then it begins to be stored in the organs and tissues themselves1 'urthermore) on e the apa ity of gly ogen storage in the liver is e! eeded the blood sugar level tends to onstantly e! eed the upper levels of the normal range1 This means the ells in the pan reas are onstantly being asked to produ e more insulin and they eventually be ome e!hausted in their apa ity to do so and we be ome insulin defi ient and the body begins to be ome diabeti 1 The symptoms of diabetes are e! essive urination whi h ontains sugar Eon e the blood sugar level gets over IIL mgVILL s bloodF) there is hroni fatigue and tiredness) and there is in reased thirstiness1 There is also loss of minerals be ause the overly yin ondition of the blood aused by the in reased blood sugar levels leads to mineralsEmore yangF being lea hed outEyin attra ting yangF of the bonesEosteoporosisF and tissues Ebrittle tendons) ligaments and joints making them more easily injured by e!er ise et 1) whi h e!plains why modern athletes are so injury prone.

The Tuestion is how do we be ome addi ted to simple sugar) the table sugar we buy in the gro ery store and use to make ookies and akes) put in our tea and offee) in our sports drinks) in our beer and wine and liTuor) and in the andy we onsume onstantly1 The addi tion to sugar of the population of the =nited %tates is illustrated by the fa t that in IOLL the average per annum per person onsumption was K lbsX in IONH it had rea hed I3L lbs1 (hen we eat of animal fats and proteins as our main daily food two pro esses are set in motion7 I1F These foods are very yang relative to the human organismQs dynami of yin and yang and makes us seek e!treme yin foods in an attempt to make balan e with them1 Thus) if we eat animal foods daily) we are onstantly attra ted to eating e!treme yin foods whi h are sugar) al ohol Ewhi h is fermented or pro essed sugarF) fruits and dairy food) as well as drugs1 J1F The digestive system of the human organism is not designed for the digestion of animal proteins and fats and this lead to the build up of stagnated mu us both in the lumen of the intestines and eventually also in the tissues of the walls of the intestines1 The build up of this mu us leads to the small intestine having more diffi ulty in absorbing sugar) so we tend to rave it more1 -nd we satisfy this raving by eating the simple sugars whi h are absorbed dire tly into the blood stream in our mouthX sin e they are simple sugars they do not need to be digested the way omple! arbohydrates are before they an be absorbed as simple sugars1 This need to eat sugar as simple sugars also means a weakening of the digestive pro esses o urs1 Thus) if we want to have neither diabetes nor hypogly emia we need to hange to a ma robioti diet1 3ow) there are slight but signifi ant variations in the ma robioti dietary approa h if we wish to orre t diabetes or hypogly emia sin e the former is more yin ondition and the latter a more yang ondition1 The hief differen e is that in the ase of hypogly emia no salt is used in ooking the main foods to begin with) and the ooking style is more yin and in the ase of diabetes it is important to use millet as well as brown ri e on a daily basis as well as winter sTuashes like a orn) butternut and hokkaido pumpkin1 " will have more to say on helping the pan reas heal itself in the &ealing (ith The %easons page when " do the %oil %tate of Transformation1 /ne of the problems people have when they start a ma robioti diet is that the main sour e of glu ose is ooked whole grains1 These are omple! arbohydrates whi h after ooking and hewing thoroughly are gradually broken down so that by the time they enter the small intestine they are redu ed to glu ose) whi h is then absorbed by the small intestine1 %in e people starting a ma robioti dietary program have a digestive system abused by a diet of animal foods it is in a weakened state and has problems in digesting and assimilating the omple! arbohydrates1 This a ounts for the fa t that many times people starting on a ma robioti dietary program are always hungry and eat large Tuantities of food and lose a lot of weight at the same time) if they are overweight to begin with) whi h is the ase with the vast majority of people1 (e also tend to rave sweets1 "n this ase) it is a good idea to transition off sugar when starting a ma robioti dietary approa h to our daily eating by using honey in small amounts) like no more than a tablespoonful a day) for a ouple of weeks when we need to have some sweet taste and then start using either brown ri e syrup or barley maltEagain no more than a tablespoonful a dayF1 .

Top of 6age1 .

.-3=-+9 IOON1 *&+/3"* &@6-T"T"% * 5"+=%1 " have re ently been informed this ondition is on an epidemi s ale world wide) with HLL)LLL)LLL people e!pe ted to have the symptomology of this disease by the year JLLL1 " have personally ounseled one person who had this disease and is now in great health and " re ently met another who after less than a year on a ma robioti diet is doing well1 To begin with our study of the symptomology of &epatitis * 5irus it as well to remind you if you have looked at the page "ntrodu tion you will find an a ount of the ma robioti theory of disease where %tage H of the 6ro ess of $isease is the %tage of *hroni Glood To!emia where all the various hroni infe tious diseases show up and it is stated there ma robioti theory does not re ogniWe the <erm Theory as being a valid hypothesis for a ounting for these disease symptomologies1 /n the ontrary) viruses and ba teria are understood to be merely one of the presenting symptoms of persons who have these onditions) they are not the auseEsF of these onditions1 'or more dis ussion on this subje t li k on this link "t therefore does not help in any way to develop treatments for eliminating these organisms from the body1 The ma robioti approa h is to understand that through improper diet and lifestyle habits the physi al body be omes into!i ated and the gradual build-up over the years of these to!ins in the body lead to the internal environment be oming a suitable habitat for the germination and flourishing of various pathogeni organisms like viruses) whi h an ome from sour es e!ternal to the body and from within the body itself1 'or further dis ussion li k on this link1 The following symptoms of *hroni &epatitis * 5irus $isease " obtained from a website alled @mallis Ehttp7VVsoli1inav1netV[webbsiteVsymps1htmFwhi h is dedi ated to providing information for people with &*51 %ymptoms 7 I1 Q'lu-like illnessX alternate hills and fever Elow gradeF ...." J1 %tabbing pains in the liver region .u) .. 31 "ndigestion .) ." K1 "rritable bowel syndrome." .

") 6 J31 $iWWiness S peripheral vision problems) su h as QfloatersQ .#) & JI1 6uffy fa e) it hy skin .oint pains. ....ental fatigue) freTuent or ontinuous heada he . JK1 %leep dust in the eyes ...oss of appetite .. M1 5ivid dreams) night sweats . N1 $epression) mood swings) %easonal -ffe tive $isorder .u JL1 6ronoun ed fluid retention ." 61 'ybromyalgia Esevere mus le painF ..") # O1 *hroni fatigue or sudden atta ks of e!haustion ..H1 ..) .") .u) # JJ1 Glood sugar irregularity . IH1 $iarrhoea .. II1 -bdominal bloating ..) .&) .") ..) . I61 . IK1 -version to fatty foods ..." IM1 *ognitive disfun tion ..") #) %p IL1 -dverse rea tions to al ohol .. IO1 *hest pains) palpitations ..) # JH1 %mall red patterns of inflamed blood vessels known as Q%pider 3aeviQ ." IJ1 'reTuent urination) often during the night .) ." IN1 6oor sleep Tuality) not feeling rested after sleep ..# I31 .

M.%he gift of Five Element acupuncture is to ma$e availa le the wisdom and understanding of these classical concepts of .. there is little to nurture the spirit. . Moss.J61 %ymptoms of *hroni 'atigue %yndrome or .yalgi @n ephalomyelitis . who has captured the essence of this remar$a le s!stem and rilliantl! applied it to the dilemmas and challenges of modern life. rooted in %aoism.arge "ntestineX #-#idneysX &-&eartX %6-%pleenX .") %p . the /ei Ching 0u Wen 1the first method of acupuncture is to cure the spirit. the second was to give $nowledge of how to restore the od!.ungsX 6 .%he $nowledge that addressing the spirit is critical is also found in the earliest writings in Chinese medicine. mind or spirit level.ooking at these onstellation of symptoms from a ma robioti perspe tive it is evident that there is more than one organ involved1 The letters after ea h symptom refer to the following organEsF involvement with the symptoms7 . . %his article reflects the training & had with Worsle! and m! e'perience of appl!ing it over () !ears in a primar! care medical practice. %he %ao %e Ching discusses protecting the spirit through the state of desirelessness .D. whether on a od!. Man! of the current practitioners of this healing art have een trained ! ". mind and spirit. Five Element acupuncture as practiced in the West is a distillation of traditional concepts from Chinese medicine which emphasizes treating the whole person: od!... Mind and Spirit Charles A.#. with its emphasis on striving for material wealth. %his has led to the clinical finding that man! individuals toda! have the origin of their health pro lems on the spirit level.) #) . Five Element acupuncture rings a vision and understanding of how to assess and treat the roots of illness.(.-.iver) . is over (*** !ears old !et in man! wa!s is more applica le toda! than ever efore. &n toda!+s culture. as well as the overwhelming mental stimulation.6an reas1 Thus) all these organs are stagnated with build-up of to!ins and these symptoms show the body is attempting to rid these organs of their to!i ity1 The ma robioti approa h is therefore to hange the dietary intake of the person with these symptoms to a ma robioti dietary program for that person1 -s the dietary hanges are made the body responds by deto!ifying itself) revitaliWing itself and regenerating dead tissue) thus making the internal body environment inhospitable to pathogeni organisms1 Thus) the symptoms disappear as the body heals itself1 'or more information on the spe ifi organs go to (ater whi h is the first in a series of studies based on The 'ive Transformation Theory1 'rom that page you will find the page on (ood and 'ire1 The (ater organs are #idney and Gladder) (ood organs are ."-.u-. &n order to ma$e acupuncture effective one must first cure the spirit. Worsle!.iver and <all Gladder and the 'ire organs are the &eart and %mall "ntestine1 Five Element Acupuncture: Treating Body.wu wei-. %he Five Element acupuncture s!stem.

3i is descri ed as the vital life force which animates all living things. an im alance ! disease. &f the c!cles of the season and climactic conditions were ignored.was further e'panded in the Five Element s!stem. 4in and 4ang are strictl! translated as the shad! side of a hill . %he 4in!ang concepts originated in the fourth centur! 5. are the same laws that organize human e'perience. :aramount among these laws is the 2aw of Five Elements . %he levels of .%he 2aws of /ature direct all movement within these Five Elements. &n the time of the 9an d!nast! .8.4in!ang. interior.acupuncture for the challenges of life at the rin$ of the new millennium. %he interaction of the Five Elements rings harmon! and ever!thing is in order.C. %he characterization of phenomena into two aspects of correspondences . /ature and man are the macrocosm and the microcosm of these 2aws.6-.and the sunn! side of a hill. When living in accordance with these 2aws. stillness and potential and the 4ang 7ualities of light. &n the Five Element s!stem. %he 4in 7ualities of cold.9sing-. which is the eginning of 0pring. the health of the od!.(** 5.!ang-. rising and activit! e'ist in relation to each other.!in. %he /ei Ching discusses the relationship of the natural laws as follows. %he Five Elements represents the universal consistenc! of s!stematic lin$s. 4in!ang and the Five Elements. the three $e! components of traditional Chinese philosoph! . dar$.C. %he Five Elements divides human e'perience into five distinct groupings. When the 3i is alanced a person remains well.Wu. %hese Elements act as maps that reflect all levels of human function. . A d!namic alance of 4in and 4ang is characterized ! health. mind and spirit is supported. . 3i is defined as Energ! which is conducted through the od! in the meridian pathwa!s which supplies the organs and the od!. %hese 2aws organize the movement of 3i within the individual and provide the structure for diagnosis and treatment in the Five Element s!stem. heat. living in harmon! with nature as a wa! of maintaining health was an o vious need.)&n Chinese philosoph! the natural laws that organize the c!cles of change in nature. and e'plained natural phenomena as the 1ceaseless rise and fall of opposite !et complimentar! forces1 . when im alanced illness can occur. e'terior. such as the seasons.-. At the end of one !ear the sun has completed its course and ever!thing starts anew with the first season. %hese 2aws include the concepts of 3i. famine and illness certainl! would follow in the agrarian societ! of China. %his s!stem is compara le to a ring which has neither eginning nor end. including. the anatomic and ph!siologic functioning of the organ s!stems. 4in and 4ang are continuousl! interacting and are interdependent and transformative of each other. mind and spirit. TAO AND THE FI E E!EMENTS %he goal of Five Element acupuncture is to enhance personal alignment with what the ancient %aoists called the 2aws of /ature. ut not limited to.

%he Five Element concepts are part of not onl! medical theor!.1 .*th centur! 5. stomach-.- .function range from iochemical processes to the function of the person as a whole ranging from ehavior. emotions and attitudes. &n the Footsteps of the 4ellow Emperor ! :eter Ec$man.Figure . 2iving a life of alance and harmon! within oneself and in the societ! was the mar$ of living with %ao. providing stimuli onl! when man had not een a le. colon. as well as correspondences within the person. Further discussion was found in the /ei Ching 2ing 0hu and the /an Ching. 1%he concept of acupuncture differed from that of drug application in that it constantl! reinforced the s!stem of correspondences.is alanced in od! mind and spirit. there is resistance to disease and an a ilit! to adapt to the ever changing demands and challenges of modern life. ladder-.$idne!. triple heater.spleen.When the vital energ! .@. %he goal of the ph!sician was to assist patients in treating illness and to educate them in the wa!s in which the! were not following the %ao. %he correspondences include seasons and climactic conditions. & refer the reader to the e'cellent oo$. ... %hese concepts first appeared in several oo$s on philosoph! such as the 0hu Ching.liver and gall ladder-.%he first medical writings on the Five Elements were found in the /ei Ching 0u Wen written around (** 5. emotions. to alance his e'istence in the proper wa!.%o understand the histor! of Five Element acupuncture in the West. spiritual state and intellect to relationships and career.. %he Five Elements include Wood . as well as eing adapta le in our iochemistr! and immunolog!. ut are an integral aspect of all ancient Chinese cosmolog! and philosoph!. Fire . . Five Element theor! has een part of Chinese Medicine from the . mind and spirit was part of the %aoist ph!sician+s approach in utilizing the wisdom of the Five Elements and %ao. %he a ilit! to e fle'i le in mental functions such as eliefs. ps!chological state.>. .B%o impart an understanding of od!. owing to his own negligence or e'ternal conditions. small intestine. the 2i Chi and the ?uan Dzu. Earth .heart. %he /ei Ching states 1A person is not sic$ ecause of a disease. 9er s and medicines were frowned upon ecause the! hindered the understanding of the true reason a person got ill.C.C.+ d!sfunction occurring on an! of these levels can e placed in the appropriate conte't.3i.lung.1 .and Water .%he principles of the Five Elements were used in aspects of societ! ranging from agriculture to affairs of state. rings a higher level of well eing.*FI E E!EMENTS AND THE "#"!E OF !IFE %he clinical application of the Five Elements is ased on the s!stem of correspondences. pericardium-. the! are diseased ecause the! are sic$. . Metal . <sing the Five Element =map.A.

Figure (- . tastes in food. ph!sical and emotional s!mptoms. . color. emotional state.Each Element has correspondences. disease tendencies and a general orientation toward life. sensor! organs. including organ s!stems.

0elected positive 7ualities corresponding to each Element are illustrated in Figure 6. .

having the a ilit! to organize. in a health! manner. %he Fire Element corresponds to 0ummer. Wood corresponds to having a vision of the future. &n the individual. %he Wood Element corresponds to 0pring.. enthusiasm. headaches . high levels of frustration. passion. Wood includes the function of the iliar! tract.and visual pro lems. . warmth and rela'ation. the longest da!s. %he causative factor is the Element that.including migraine. %he organ s!stems include the heart. Co!fulness. e'pansiveness. ocular s!stem and musculos$eletal s!stem. inappropriate anger. increasing activit! and longer da!s. the Wood Element correspondences include difficult! in ma$ing decisions. %his is the time of greatest warmth and light. liver. the greatest activit! and lu'uriant growth. which is a time of new growth. e'press love and se'ualit!. an'iet!. small . &n the individual Fire correspondences include the a ilit! to esta lish relationships..%o understand what these Elements represent in man it is helpful to see each Element in relation to its seasonal correspondence.%he correspondences are used to organize the diagnosis which incorporates the histor! and ph!sical findings to identif! a root or causative factor. When not in alance. under internal or e'ternal stress. chronic muscular pro lems such as fi rom!algia. and to e'press emotions. e'cessive need for control. including anger. difficult! rela'ing. ecomes im alanced and initiates a state of dis.ease. pla!fulness. plan and initiate action.

an ina ilit! to recover from loss. and s!mpathetic and paras!mpathetic nervous s!stems.as 1defined not ! ph!sical properties. confusion and dou t. as well Mother Earth. securit!. difficult! in intimate relationships. s$in and colon. movement and flow. h!pertension. an$!losing spond!litis and dental patholog!. depression. our a ilit! to procreate. all disorders of the urinar! tract. insomnia. lum ar s!ndromes. %he ph!sical s!mptoms include fatigue and e'haustion. timidit! and a lac$ of trust in life and in other people. the will to survive. %he ph!sical s!mptoms include asthma. %his is a time of decreasing light. %he organ s!stems are the ladder. e'cessive materialism and emotional withdrawal. courage. When out of alance. the Water Element corresponds to fear and a struggle for survival. When the Metal Element is out of alance there can e depression and sadness. &n the individual. %he ph!sical s!mptoms include eating disorders.descri es the Dfficial . frontal headaches and all g!necological disorders. eczema and other s$in disorders. Metal represents the iological and spiritual Father. increasing cold and shorter da!s.Dr s. OFFI"IA!S. %he season for the Earth Element is 2ate 0ummer. harvesting what is needed for self and others. . &n the individual.(. &n the individual. digestive pro lems such as irrita le owel s!ndrome. :or$ert . a lac$ of reserves and deep fatigue. all endocrine disorders. pericardium. low energ!. %rees lose their leaves as the! withdraw their energ! internall!. sta ilit!. Earth corresponds to nourishment. pancreas and all digestive processes. self actualization. F$N"TIONS AND !A%S &n Five Element acupuncture the function of the organs and meridians are descri ed ! the term Dfficials. self worth. rhinitis. the Metal Element represents internal resolve and strength.intestine. self centered. When the Fire Element is not in alance there is a lac$ of Co! and warmth. reduced se'ualit!. constipation and lower owel disorders. %his is the dar$est and coldest time of the !ear. the Water Element represents energetic reserves. vitalit! and endurance. poor self esteem. %he season of the Metal Element is Autumn. opinionated. ones and endocrine s!stem. as well as the a ilit! to let go of emotional upsets and grudges.. ut ! its specific roles in the processing. contentment. %he organ s!stems of Earth are the stomach. lac$ of inspiration. infertilit!. %he Water Element is correlated with Winter. $idne!. willpower. rigidit!. sinusitis. empath! and caring. When the Earth Element is not in alance we see a person who can e o sessive. upper and lower gastrointestinal disease including peptic ulcer disease and inflammator! owel disease. Earth corresponds to the iological mother. when activit! in the plant $ingdom occurs onl! deep in the roots. insecure and uncaring. trust and faith. self esteem. %his is harvest time when food is plentiful and the warmth and golden light of the 2ate 0ummer da!s create a sense of rela'ation and contentment. cardiac disease and tinnitus. spleen. %he organ s!stems are the lung.

the ?all 5ladder. that is Water.Figure .1. %he laws which govern the movement of energ! within the person are reflective of the ph!sical laws of nature.Earth-G soil rings forth MetalG when heated Metals produce steam. the effect might e indecisiveness. %he ?all 5ladder is 1responsi le for what is e'act and Cust.and the 1Controller of :lanning1 . %he energ! of the Five Elements move through a creative c!cle and a controlling c!cle. lac$ of initiative.also called engendering. &n the Wood Element. that is soil .the 2iver-. %he Dfficials give us the a ilit! to use a =wide angle lens+ to loo$ at the life st!le that a person has created as a reflection of the functioning of the Elements.%he creative c!cle . or e!e disorders which are often attri uted to ?all 5ladder and 2iver.i. <nderstanding the ehavioral manifestation of the Dfficial often provides insight into the d!namics ehind chronic illness.. %he 2aw of Five Elements .1 &n the case of the Wood Element.. %hese two se7uences form the asis for health and when not in alance provides . %here is a set relationship etween these Elements which is repeata le and o serva le in nature.When these officials are poorl! functioning..1 Determination and decision stem from it.Wu. .descri es the Elements as energetic capacities that create transformation and change. %his might e more significant than the ph!sical manifestation such as headaches.e. drug addiction. . %he a ilit! to ma$e appropriate plans is affected and distur ance in the E lueprintE for functioning on a cellular level . repeatedl! ma$ing decisions which undermine an individual+s well eing reflects poor functioning of this Dfficial.storage and distri ution of vital energ! and thus the maintenance of life.Figure >. or h!pochondria with constantl! changing s!mptoms.. %he controlling c!cle .6. chest pain. assessment of circumstances and conception of plans stems from it. %he movement through these Elements reflects the nature of human e'perience from irth to death. %his information is critical in Five Element diagnosis. %he 2iver 1holds the office of general. that is WoodG Wood rings forth FireG Fire produces ashes. the two Dfficials are the 1Dfficial of Decision Ma$ing and Wise "udgment1 . %he 0heng c!cle can e seen in this traditional description: Water produces plantsFtrees. anger and frustration. or a glo al level . m!algias.9sing.i. o serva le in /ature as well as in the person. Figure 8 has a list of the Dfficials and the corresponding Element and organ. dia etes-..might e the outcome.8<nderstanding the functioning of the Dfficials and Elements and the acupuncture laws provides the organization of s!mptoms and signs needed to provide effective treatment. Decisions relating to career or relationships might e repeatedl! flawed and lead to stress and agitation.He.is illustrated as follows: Water overcomes fire through inhi itionG Fire activates MetalG Metal structures WoodG Wood penetrates EarthG Earth a sor s water.e. 0hengis est understood using the macrocosmic &mages of the Elements. productive. dizziness.

%he Elements involved in this case are initiall! the Metal . %his is descri ed as the 2aw of Mother Child. "oan was )A !ears old when she first consulted me for chronic fatigue s!ndrome. &n Chinese philosoph! there is no separation of od!. 0he also had s!mptoms of fi rom!algia. %he Five Element s!stem provided a diagnostic structure to identif! the Element and the energetic asis of the comple' s!mptoms presented ! "oan. as well as the incapacitating fatigue. and rings them into alignment with their will and higher purpose. aliveness and optimism. where the preceding Element . A clinical e'ample is a patient who has a histor! of low ac$ pain with sciatica who has not responded to acupuncture or other treatments directed at the ac$ pain itself.( !ears earlier after an episode of severe sciatica led to edrest and multiple medications. mind and spirit through the 2aws of Five Elements.Mother. mind and spirit. &n a person with a strong spirit there is vi ranc! and strength reflected in the e!es.the understanding of the development of disease. 0he had the onset of the chronic fatigue . manifesting in od!.and s!mptoms will occur in oth the Mother and Child Elements. %hrough the treatment of the appropriate Element and acupuncture points addressing the spirit level of illness.and then Water .0heng c!cle.Child. %he sciatica had continued to e a pro lem. 0pirit in this conte't is the inner sense of aliveness that gives us our purpose and direction in life. Most important for her was the restoration of her spirit and a new found enthusiasm. 9er histor! revealed that she had eczema and asthma as a child and the onset of the ac$ pain occurred after a series of deaths in her famil! from which she has never recovered emotionall!. overwhelmed and depressed. mind and spirit orientation. BOD# MIND AND S&I'IT A maCor emphasis of Five Element acupuncture as currentl! practiced is on the concept of spirit and the assessment of the person from a od!. eczema.to maintain the health of the following Element . "oan had not responded to previous medical and complementar! therapies and admitted to feeling hopeless. A health! spirit rings ease to the individual. . cognitive d!sfunction and recurrent fevers. %he 0heng c!cle movement of energ! from the Metal to the Water descri es the chronolog! of events and dictates that treatment address the Metal for the Water s!mptoms to improve. Death is the dispersion of this organization.low ac$ pain and sciatica-. allows !ou to deepl! connect with them.asthma. she responded with dramatic improvement in her energ! and cessation of the sciatica. will not provide the normal energetic support .when im alanced. 2ife is the organization of the vital life force 3i. a normal grieving and her relationship with her father are all correspondences for Metal. depression. 0he also had a histor! of depression as a child as well as a critical and demanding father.

shouting voice and a pattern of suppressed anger. As Worsle! points out illness is often not isolated to one level: 1&f the od! is sic$. aliveness and happiness. %he! appear to lac$ purpose.1 which provides the instincts to $now the truth and live in the material world. ut can also e seen in people with minor ph!sical ailments.%his is .causative factor.1 which allows for health! decision ma$ing. sound. feel unfulfilled. headaches. %he emotion attri uted to the Wood Element is anger. . Co!.is shen. which is considered a fundamental su stance of the od! and is the asis of consciousness. %he Water Element is Ihi. %he findings in the Five Element e'amination showed a green facial color. %he headaches occurred when he felt an'ious or under pressure. which is translated as memories and nourishment and provides understanding. constant moving and speech pattern are all correspondences for the Wood Element. the =Corporeal soul. %he Metal Element is :+o. Co!. empt! inside themselves and seem to e constantl! desiring or striving. &ndividuals with spirit level pro lems find it difficult to ma$e significant changes and often do not respond to intervention with long lasting improvement. enthusiasm. During the e'amination he was nervous. &f we loo$ at the historical correlates regarding the Wood Element and how this patient demonstrates the correspondences of the Wood Element. od! mind and spirit.%he a ilit! to directl! effect the whole person. %he Earth Element is 4i.+ 0pirit level pro lems do not alwa!s manifest as maCor medical disease. una le to sit still. empath! and concern for self and others. the #ight Wa!.Figure ). commitment and direction. the mind worries and the spirit grievesG if the mind is sic$. emotion. %he irrita le owel s!mptoms would also worsen when he was under more stress.9eart. 9is Five Element diagnosis was Wood . planning and a alanced and well coordinated life st!le. we can see the rationale for his Five Element diagnosis.A further understanding of the concept of spirit is through the 2aw of Five Elements.?all 5ladder. %he color. ASSESSIN( THE %HO!E &E'SON: "O''ES&ONDEN"ES AND DIA(NOSIS "ac$ was )( !ears old when he presented with recurrent tension. %he manifestation of spirit in the Fire Element .). and spo$e with a halting though rapid pattern. ocular headaches and chronic irrita le owel s!ndrome. there will e no will to care for the od! or mind. %he /ei Ching discusses the Wood Element as providing the a ilit! to 1discover the %ao. Wood Element is 9un or transformation and the =9eavenl! soul. as well as when in right sunlight. self actualization and manifestation. nervousness.. e!e involvement. is one of the greatest gifts of this s!stem of healing. the od! and spirit will suffer from its confusionG if the spirit is sic$.1 . Most important for the diagnosis was his pattern of eing disorganized and responding to stress with irrita ilit! and difficult! in seeing solutions.

Anger in this situation also stems from loss of a sense of control over life+s events and often manifests as aggressive ehavior %he correspondences allows an organization of essentiall! all s!mptoms as well as emotional and ehavioral st!les. in his words.generated ! the frustration of eing loc$ed in setting out in new directions. the histor! will often reflect this in a chronological order..Midnight and Mother.0heng c!cle-. the practitioner can access the $e! diagnostic aspects of the e'amination and act as a guide and teacher as well. %his involves testing the five emotions. sta le. What appears to a ph!sician as the 1onset of the present illness1 is often the culmination of a long se7uence of energetic distur ances in the Dfficials and the Elements. odors and colors in an interactive wa!.He c!cle-.e'cess emotions-. climactic conditions. centered.Child. 1& am more focused. %he correspondences of these Elements will clarif! the specific se7uence of events. %he most important of these laws are the 0heng and He c!cles . and more self aware ph!sicall! and emotionall!. e'ternal . resilient.Another important part of the e'amination is the traditional pulse diagnosis with emphasis on the individuation of the %welve Dfficials. %hrough this deep connection with the patient. less irrita le. &n Five Element diagnosis the esta lishment of rapport with the patient is critical in allowing a clearer vision of the underl!ing Elements.or inherited perverse energies. %he traditional diagnosis calls for the e'aminer to e an active participant in the e'perience. . the patient descri ed a ove with the Wood causative factor. &n the e'ample of the Wood Element an im alance could create s!mptoms in Wood. When Five Element acupuncture treatments are effective the changes seen em race the od! mind and spirit of the person. surger!.and Earth . %he treatment involved using points that effect the spirit as well as a variet! of points on the 2iver and ?all 5ladder meridians. &llness occurs when the Dfficials are una le to overcome either internal . 9is response to treatment was. %he disease process is often triggered later in life ! an ina ilit! to adapt to additional challenges and stress.>. %he laws of acupuncture will determine what the configuration of the patient+s s!mptoms will e.0heng c!cle.see Figure >-. voice 7ualities.1 9is headaches and irrita le owel s!mptoms also reduced significantl!. T'EATMENT IN FI E E!EMENTS: EN(A(IN( THE ESSEN"E "ac$. also had a spirit level im alance. alanced. When an im alance occurs in a significant wa! within an Element and Dfficial. Control . Midda!. &n "ac$+s case the effect of . Fire . %he events or e'periences that initiate the im alance in an Element often occur at an earl! age and can e related to earl! childhood e'periences or traumas.through the a normal movement of 7i through these different c!cles. %hese laws include: Creation .inCuries. Dne of the advantages of the Five Element s!stem is that the language used to descri e and classif! information is familiar.He c!cle.

hus and wife im alance . felt e'citement a out life. including aggressive energ! and spirit level points. With treatment of the Earth Dfficials. sought out friends. &f & were to focus on treating the ac$ pain primaril! the points along the ladder meridian would have een the logical choice . %hese loc$s include aggressive energ! .%ai 4ang-. however. %he transfer of energ! from one Element and Dfficial to a deficient Element is organized through the 0heng and He c!cle relationships. the level of illness and the relative e'cess or deficienc! of energ! noted on pulse diagnosis. will lead to chronic pro lems. For e'ample.if present and then alance deficienc! or e'cess of normal 7i through the use of transfers of energ!.!in. had improved energ!. showed the Earth Element and the 0pleen Dfficial to e the causative factor.. . a patient & recentl! treated had the following s!mptoms: chronic and severe ac$ pain. fatigue. unhappiness and a histor! of reast cancer. %he organization of the treatment course in Five Element acupuncture is to first clear =perverse 7i+ . possession . if not corrected.Figure )- . :ossession and 9us and. %he Five Element diagnosis in this case. %reatment aimed to clear present s!mptoms will mas$ the underl!ing effect on the causative factor and dela! deeper healing effects.Wife.Jie 3i. started new proCects. e fle'i le and ma$e health! decisions which reflects the function of the Dfficials of the ?all 5ladder and 2iver. %he goal of treatment in Five Element acupuncture is to reach the level of the constitutional im alance or causative factor and not focus on treating a s!mptom or s!ndrome. as well as clearing of the ac$ pain. she reported an immediate shift in her desire to engage in life more full!. %his demonstrates the impact of treating on the correct Dfficial and level with this s!stem.perverse 7i-.!ang im alance-.Aggressive Energ!.losing control of one+s spirit from either disease or perverse outside influences. %he s!mptoms are interpreted as signs of an im alance in an Dfficial and. organize.and entr! e'it. a lac$ of initiative. &n m! practice the use of the Five Element s!stem has een a catal!st for change with man! of m! patients. %he treatment is organized ! the diagnosis of which Element and Dfficials are the root factors.alancing the energ! of the Wood Dfficials was to reesta lish the a ilit! to plan. %he recognition of maCor = loc$s+ in the alance of the energ! is critical for effective treatment as well.

"unction . :oints are generall! chosen individuall! and not ! groups.points.is fre7uentl! emplo!ed. as the treatment is aimed at a precise effect. sedation etc. diet changes. Associated Effect . meditation and specific mental e'ercises related to the Element which is eing treated. & use the positive 7ualities that are represented in the correspondences of the Element to create a healthier environment for the energetic movement to .the! are on the meridian of the Causative FactorG (.luo. %he wa! these points are used in the normalization of 7i is uni7ue to Five Element acupuncture. Direct mo'i ustion .points.%he effects of the points chosen are related to their Element function and include %onification and 0edation points.the! ring to the od!. tonification.the! have certain classical functions i. mind and spirit of the person the desired effect as encoded in the name and the function of the point.. &n m! practice & have found that involving the patient in their care through the use of homewor$ to e invalua le. %he points are selected through several criteria: . Alarm .heating a point ! urning a cone of mugwort on the s$in. ac$ shu.e. %he needling techni7ue used is a powerful stimulant to release the effect of the specific point chosen and often involves tonification and immediate removal of the needle.G and 6. Ker! few points are used at each session. %his includes e'ercise.points and Entr! and E'it points. :ulse diagnosis is used to verif! the effect of the point immediatel! after each point is stimulated ilaterall!. Each treatment is specific for that patient at that time and is not ased on a s!mptomatic formulation.mo.

. For e'ample. happ! and integrated life. .B. %he Elements of %aoism. A. when the Wood Element is the causative factor.C. %he Five Element s!stem lends itself to application in other wa!s than acupuncture itself. M. 5oth ph!sical and emotional s!mptoms can e placed within this diagnostic framewor$. %here was less hostilit!. %he comple' patient with a multi. use of meditation and an e'ercise program which further reinforced the effect of the acupuncture treatments. %ao. Academ! of Driental 9eritage. Element 5oo$s.BB. od! mind and spirit with the goal of addressing the root of the disease process. 9enr! C. &n the case of "ac$. anger and hostilit! seen with im alance in the Wood Element. he developed improved Cudgment and healthier decision ma$ing a ilit!. Kancouver. %he most significant aspect of Five Element acupuncture is that it allows for treatment of the whole person.. 5ehaviorall! it is important to reduce demands and develop a plan for the near and long term. ( 2u. alcohol and high fat foods are particularl! important. dietar! practices such as eliminating caffeine.trans-. 5. %he s!stem of correspondences aids in the understanding of the diverse information gathered from the patient.. Dfficials and level of illness. pp. %he 4ellow Emperor+s Classic of &nternal Medicine and the Difficult Classic. . &t is in this aspect that the Five Element approach is most effective. #oc$port.B@A. Emotionall!. %9E D#&?&/A2 &/%E?#A%&KE 9EA2%9 CA#E Five Element acupuncture has fre7uentl! een the catal!st that allows patients to ma$e the appropriate health enhancing life st!le changes.occur. less need for control and a clearer vision of future needs. Mass. adopting an attitude of forgiveness can help to reduce some of the frustration. %he modern ideas of ps!choneuroimmunolog! are seen within the Five Element concepts of causative factor. 'EFE'EN"ES . &n traditional %aoist thought the Five Elements are a guide to living a health!. %he suggestions given to the patient wor$ on areas such as forgiveness for the Wood Element or trust for the Water and support the positive aspects of each Element. %he information from the Five Elements does not onl! appl! to illness and d!sfunction. <nderstanding the positive 7ualities and correspondences of the Elements can help an individual support change and effectivel! deal with man! of the issues that can challenge us on a dail! asis.faceted pro lem presents a challenge in organizing information in a conte't that can lead to effective treatment. :almer. 9e was a le to follow through on suggestions for a healthier diet.. <nderstanding the connection to the laws of nature allows a person to e more self aware and ecome a more compassionate mem er of the greater whole. .

p.. C%. . BB. 6l tipo constitucional mente0cuerpo de una persona puede ser uno de los siguientes: • atta • &itta • )ap*a • ata+&itta .p.B@8. 8 <nsculd. ! pueden conseguir lo 7ue se propongan. 9igganum. &. Medicine in China. migraPa. 5er$ele!.BA).6 <nsculd :. 0an Francisco. causando una mala salud. &n the Footsteps of the 4ellow Emperor.. Five Elements and %en 0tems. Cam ridge. . B Ec$man... 5er$ele!.B@(.)ap*a+&tta• ata+&itta+)ap*a ata corresponde al aire. con rOpidos cam ios de humor.B) @ Matsumoto. 2as tres energNas del cuerpo . p.B) ) Keith. :ress.A6. M. :. A :or$ert. %he %heoretical Foundations of Chinese Medicine. el estrLs.)6. H. ! se asocia a personas de constituciMn delgada.. %he 4ellow Emperor+s Classic of &nternal Medicine.)ap*a+ ata• &itta+)ap*a . &.trans-.&. artritis. pro lemas emocionales. . . .* <nsculd. & id p. <n visionario nato..vata. (. Enfermedades asociadas a predominancia de Kata: sistema nervioso.%. <niversit! of California. MA. vive la vida a paso acelerado. los traumas. . . En sus meCores momentos son ingeniosos ! ocurrentes. . & id pp. p. 86. :. & id. las lesiones. desMrdenes digestivos. p. -yurveda *uDl es tu $osha C 2a Medicina a!urvLdica se asa en el conocimiento del tipo corporal o Dosha de cada persona para personalizar su alimentaciMn o tratamiento. pitta ! $apha. C!press 5oo$s.se dese7uili ran con una dieta inadecuada. .6> > Keith. <niversit! of California :ress.&itta+ ata• ata )ap*a . un mal am iente..BA@.BB>. carOcter despierto e in7uieto ! suePo ligero. )). M. :aragon :u .

5razos: medios. :iernas tamaPo medioG fuertes.. Enfermedades asociadas a predominancia de :itta: fie res. uen apetito. meta olismo lento. . . . . lo 7ue le convierte en el compaPero perfecto. . 0ed: sedientos. largas o cortas en relacion con el resto del cuerpo. pe7uePa. irrita ilidad cuando no se como a la hora acostum rada. DCos: pe7uePos. en algunos casos o eso. DCos: tamaPo medio. depresiMn. 0ensi ilidad al calor ! al fuego. . temperamento enLrgico. Apetito: variado. . Comes de mas cuando estOs deprimido o ansioso. . 0ed: escasa. :eso: moderado. DigestiMn difNcil. siempre deCan huella. dias con mucho apetito. %Mra': moderado . infecciones. retenciMn de agua. . %Mra': estrecho . . 0ensi ilidad al viento. suePo profundo ! carOcter esta le ! cariPoso. . ulceras. Delgado pero fuerte. :iernas delgadas. fantasNa se'ual activa &itta se corresponde al . 5razos: mu! largos o mu! cortos en relaciMn con el resto del cuerpo.0e'ualidad: &nterLs e impulso se'ual alto )ap*a se asocian a la tierra ! a las personas de constituciMn fuerte. Comple'iMn: estatura mas alta o aCa 7ue el promedio. . vigoroso. . 7ue nunca pierde la calma: el peligro es 7ue puede degenerar en pereza ! pasividad. Apetito: apetito consistente. e individuos de comple'iMn media. agudas. AdemOs. . . urticaria. irrita les. humor varia le ! apasionado ! suePo tran7uilo. . . . ro usto. .uego ! al agua. otros inapetentes. con uen tono muscular. 0ensi ilidad al frNo ! la nie laG te gusta el sol. . . lo7ueos. Apetito: mucho apetito. corpulento. Comple'iMn: fuerte. :eso: aCo o peso varia le. <Pas 7ue radizas . Cara: larga. :eso: pesado. . al frNo. inflamaciones. Comple'iMn: estatura mediaG estructura corporal medianamente desarrollada. mente afilada. delgada. <Pas suaves . con tendencia a enveCecer prematuramente. . Es el mOs leal ! esta le de los tres doshas. DinOmicos ! apasionados. Enfermedades asociadas a predominancia de Hapha: pro lemas respiratorios.0e'ualidad: &nterLs se'ual varia le. firme. Cara: formas angulosas. disfruta llevando el mando. . a la se7uedad. . agravada cuando hace mucho calor. . sensi les a la luz. afiladas.

DCos: grandes ! prominentes. 2os doshas pueden ser conocidos tomOndole el pulso a la persona. El tema es cuando ha! una predominancia de uno de ellos. 'engo gases o constipaci_n con facilidad -(Mpocos gases 6Mmuchos gases.! segQn dNa o Lpoca del aPo. 5razos: ro ustos ! ien desarrollados. suaves contornos. Soy entusiasta y vivaB -(Mpoco entusiasta 6Mmuy entusiasta. 0e de e uscar un e7uili rio. 'engo dificultades en tomar decisiones -(Msoy muy decidido 6Msoy muy indeciso. :iernas: ro ustas ! largas. Soy delgado. . Suelo ser rapido para aprender -(Maprendo lento 6Maprendo muy rapido. . !a 7ue cada dosha tiene sus puntos dL iles ! fortalezas. Cara: redonda. .! de %est a %est. la predominancia de doshas puede cam iar de hora a hora . Camino ligero y rapido -(Mcamino lento 6Mcamino muy rapido. 0ed: moderada. tam ien predominan sus puntos fuertes ! sus puntos dL iles. %Mra': ancho .. . 'engo las manos y pies fr]os -(Mmanos y pies calidos 6Mmanos y pies muy J 3 K H 6 . mente rapida y cam#iante& 5odelos vivaces& mpresionan por lo imprevisi#les 8ue suelen ser& Si responden a presiones se vuelven irrita#les y ansiosos 3ivel de intensidad de menor mayor I 9aces tus actividades con prisag -(M poca prisa 6Mmucha prisa. o haciLndo el siguiente test. 0in em argo. me cuesta engordar -(Mno soy delgado 6Msoy muy delgado. Jo sirvo para memoriBar y recordar -(MmemoriBo mucho 6Mno memoriBo. <Pas fuertes .0e'ualidad: &nterLs e impulso se'ual constante 2os seres humanos tienen caracterNsticas de los tres doshas. :ara conocer tu dosha responde a las siguientes preguntas: @$'$ Cuerpo delgado. .

$prendo y olvido con rapideB -(Maprendo lentamente 6Maprendo rapido y olvido pronto. Cam#io de humor con facilidad. Soy de caracter firme y tengo una actitud en`rgica -(Msoy fle7i#le 6Msoy en`rgico. 5i mente es activa. pelirro/o o muy claro -(Mninguna o pocas de las caracteristicas 6Mmuchas o todas las caracter]sticas. soy emotivo -(Mno cam#io de humor 6Msoy muy emotivo. Pna o mas de `stas caracter]sticas corresponden a mi ca#ello prematuramente: cano o calvo fino. si lo deseo puedo comer en cantidad -(Mcomo poco 6Msoy voraB. me consideran parlanch]n -(Msoy callado 6Msoy de mucho ha#lar. 9a#lo con rapideB. suave. 5i piel es seca. 5is movimientos son rapidos y activos. 6n mis actividades soy muy e7acto y ordenado -(Msoy desordenado 6Msoy ordenado. 'iendo a transpirar con facilidad -(Mno transpiro 6Mtranspiro mucho. Soy facilmente e7cita#le -(Msoy poco reactivo 6Msoy muy e7cita#le. 6 . 2 ''$ Cuerpo medio. mis ha#itos de comida y descanso tienden a ser irregulares -(Mcomo con puntualidad 6Mcomo cuando me acuerdo o tengo mucho ham#re no importa la hora. mente ordenada y decidida& $ctitud en`rgica& mpresionan por su intensidad& <a/o presi_n son col`ricos y a#ruptos& I J 3 K H 5e considero muy eficiente -(Msoy un desastre 6Msoy un perfeccionista. 'engo #uen apetito. ru#io. Si de mi depende. Soy ansioso y me preocupo facilmente -(M soy tran8uilo 6Msoy ansioso. in8uieta e imaginativa -(Mmente tran8uila 6Mmente muy activa. mi energ]a tiende a surgir como arran8ues -(Msoy tran8uilo 6M soy en`rgico. 'olero menos el fr]o 8ue los demas -(Mtolero el fr]o 6Mno tolero el fr]o. Si me salteo o retraso una comida me siento inc_modo -(Mcomo cuando me acuerdo 6Msi no como a horario sufro mucho.frios. especialmente en invierno -(Mmi piel es normal 6Mtengo piel seca. 5e cuesta conciliar el sueNo o dormir profundamente -(Mduermo #ien 6Mduermo mal. 5e incomodo y fatigo mas 8ue otros cuando hace calor -(Mel calor no me molesta 6Mel calor me trastorna. 5e irrito o eno/o con facilidad aun8ue no siempre lo demuestre -(Mno me eno/o 6Mme eno/o mucho. lacio.

pero tengo larga memoria y retenci_n -(Molvido J 3 K H 6 . K$29$ Cuerpo pesado& mente serena y esta#le& $ctitud despreocupada& mpresionan por lo rela/ados 8ue son& <a/o presi_n se vuelven mohinos y silenciosos& I 5i tendencia natural es hacer cosas lenta y rela/adamente -(Msoy super rapido 6Msoy tran8uilo para hacer las cosas. suelo tener mas diarrea 8ue constipaci_n -(Msoy muy irregular 6Msoy muy regular y a veces tengo diarreas. catarro. Soy sereno y dif]cil de hacer eno/ar -(Msoy irrita#le 6Msoy sereno. Jo aprendo facilmente. Jo tolero comidas demasiado calientes y condimentadas -(Mme gusta comer caliente y picante 6Mno tolero las comidas calientes yQo picantes. Luermo muy profundamente -(Mduermo liviano 6Mduermo profundamente. Lisfruto de los desaf]os y cuando deseo algo soy muy decidido para conseguirlo -(Msoy conservador 6Msoy arriesgado. Soy regular en mi comportamiento intestinal. 'iendo a ser muy cr]tico con los otros y conmigo mismo -(Mno me importa nada 6Msoy muy cr]tico. $umento de peso con facilidad. 5e eno/o con facilidad pero olvido pronto -(Msoy rencoroso 6Mme eno/o facil y olvido pronto. asma -(Mno tengo catarro casi nunca 6Mtengo catarro facilmente. no me altero facilmente -(Msoy in8uieto 6Msoy sereno. flema. Jo tolero facilmente a 8uienes disienten conmigo -(Msoy fle7i#le 6Mson intolerante. 2uedo saltearme comidas sin malestar -(Mcomo a horario siempre 6Mpuedo saltearme comidas.5ucha gente me considera terco -(Msoy influencia#le 6Msoy muy terco. 'engo temperamento placido y sereno. me cuesta adelgaBar -(Mme cuesta engordar 6Mme cuesta adelgaBar. 5e gustan alimentos fr]os como helados o #e#idas fr]as -(Mme gusta poco lo frio 6Mme encantan los helados y #e#idas muy fr]as. Si un am#iente es caluroso lo noto mas facilmente 8ue si esta fr]o -(Mme gusta el calor 6Mel calor me fastidia rapidamente. 'iendo a ser perfeccionista en cuanto a detalles -(Msoy impreciso 6Msoy perfeccionista. 'iendo a tener moco. 5e impaciento con mucha facilidad -(Msoy tran8uilo 6Mpierdo la calma facilmente. Le#o dormir al menos G horas para estar #ien -(Mpuedo dormir poco 6Mtengo 8ue dormir al menos G hs.

*eneralmente camino a paso lento y medido -(Msoy muy arre#atado para caminar 6Msoy de andar armonioso. 5i pelo es grueso oscuro y ondeado -(Mtengo ca#ello fino y lacio 6Mtengo ca#ello grueso oscuro y ondulado. dulce. 'engo piel suave y algo palida -(Mmi piel es aspera y oscura 6Mmi piel es suave y clara. acumulo grasa facilmente -(MSoy de tendencia a ser delgado 6Mengordo facilmente. 'iendo a dormir demasiado. mi rendimiento es pare/o -(Mme canso facil 6Msoy muy resistente. soy lento y met_dico en mis actos -(Mcomo rapido 6Mcomo lentamente. Soy sereno. afectuoso y con tendencia a perdonar -(Mno perdono 6Msoy cariNoso y perdono facilmente. 'iendo a engordar. soy lento para arrancar en la maNana -(Mduermo poco 6Mduermo mucho y me levanto con dificultad. 5i cuerpo es grande y s_lido -(Msoy de cuerpo pe8ueNo 6Mmi cuerpo es grande.facilmente 6M$prendo con dificultad pero tengo #uena memoria. tengo aturdimiento al despertar. 5e molesta el tiempo fresco y hcmedo -(Mel clima fr]o y humedo no me afecta 6Mme molesta el clima frio y humedo. 'engo digesti_n lenta. me siento pesado luego de comer -(Mdigiero rapido 6Mmis digestiones son lentas. Se7o 2ais Jom#re y $pellido email Fuentes . como con lentitud. 'engo #uen vigor y resistencia f]sica.

on the midline. . It is located two finger-widths below the edge of the skull. The second point is on the tip of the mandible behind the auricle of the ear.The Principal Points The first principal point is also a point used for treating deafness.

and the auditor' ner&e+ • The outer ear. $I%E all sensations.. it is alwa's in terms of one ear. This might be a small thing that a 'oung child has inserted into his ear.tends from the ear0the auditor' ner&e that conducts these sensations to the brain !ome obstacles to hearing occur in the outer ear. and look at those obstacles that can occur along its course. for e.ample. the ner&e that e.Deafness BECA !E !" #D. which contains the centers that register sound and also the centers of balance • /inall'. or e&en earwa. (hen we talk.tends from the outer edge of the ear to the membrane of the t'mpanum or eardrum • The middle ear or barrel of the ear -t'mpanic ca&it'. which in adults and children can harden and obstruct the ear canals.. when the ear canal is blocked b' a foreign ob)ect. I ha&e e&en seen a small spider and its web in this location1 . (e should therefore take a look at )ust what this path consists of. deafness can be caused b' an'thing that interferes with the process of sound tra&eling from the outside world to those portions of the brain specificall' designed to recei&e it. is percei&ed b' the brain. in which are found the little bones that transmit sounds • The inner ear. which e. *owe&er anatomists make a distinction between three sections of the ear.

The ear Two ma)or problems can occur in the middle ear+ otitis media -inflammation. and otospongiosis. !ometimes inflammation of the middle ear will cause an acute earache whose onset is dramaticall' accompanied b' pain and fe&er. "n the other hand, there are often small ear inflammations that de&elop without much fanfare. The most common sign of these is the secretion of a stick' &iscous fluid from the ears. !erous earaches are a &eritable 2li3uid4 cork that deadens sound. If the' de&elop unchecked, these kinds of ear inflammations will cause the eardrum to shri&el and e&entuall' retract, which is a ma)or cause of deafness. "tospongiosis, on the other hand, is a malad' that afflicts the tin' ossicles that transmit sound. Despite their minuscule si5e, these ossicles are connected to each other b' actual )oints. !ometimes one of these articulations will become blocked and two bones will knit together, pre&enting sounds from being transmitted in their full range and subtlet'.

The Ossicles: (& Hammer (malleus) ;& Anvil (incus) 3& Stirrup (stape) C& Round window D& Eardrum (tympanic membrane)

Detail of the anvil-stirrup (incus-stape) joint. Otospongiosis occurs when this articulation knits together. The operation to correct this condition consists of inserting a plastic ring between the two bones. As different as these two disorders are from each other, the causes of hearing loss and deafness we ha&e )ust discussed are both related to transmission6 the' in&ol&e a blockage affecting the transmission of sounds. "n the other hand, hearing loss that is caused b' an attack upon the auditor' ner&e or the organs of the inner ear is referred to as hearing loss &ia perception+ the illness affects the perception of sound. This kind of hearing loss can be the result of microbial infections, &irus attacks, or small hemorrhages. It can also be caused b' a malformation or deterioration of the auditor' ner&e. This is often a conse3uence of growing old -and wh' the elderl' often become 2hard of hearing4.. But there are hereditar' forms that strike the &er' 'oung. /inall', deafness can be a conse3uence of birth0the result of a malformation or infection suffered b' the mother during her pregnanc'. !TA#DA7D T7EAT8E#T Earwa, can be e,tracted b' using a water )et -though ne&er, ne&er an' metal ob)ect1., but the illnesses of the middle ear0inflammations, and shrinkage of the eardrum0are the specialt' of the surgeon. In our lifetime we ha&e witnessed the birth of a wonderful surger' that treats otospongiosis using a microscope. Treatment for afflictions of the inner ear, on the other hand, are strictl' of a medical nature. The subtle hearing loss connected to circulator' disorders represents a real emergenc' situation that calls for the rapid use of &essel dilators. But when the auditor' ner&e is damaged, there is nothing to do but use hearing aids. (hile these ha&e become increasingl' smaller and more effecti&e, the' can ne&er trul' replace the natural organ itself. AC 9"I#T T7EAT8E#T *ere is an area where there was no e,pectation for results from acupoint therap'. *owe&er0and this is one of the ma)or disco&eries of contemporar' acupuncture0 it is surprisingl' effecti&e, not upon the superficial hearing loss caused b' problems with transmission, but on the much more serious forms of hearing loss, those of perception. A Chinese doctor named Tchao 9ou 'i was able to successfull' restore hearing to deaf-mute children simpl' b' stimulating a specific point on a dail' basis. It is time that we in the (est reall' considered this miraculous point -as well as all the others.. TEC*#I: E! T" !E

The deafness point is one that is treated in China with &er' deep stimulation using a long needle, to which an electrical current is often added. This is the treatment

gi&en to deaf-mutes. But we are now able to use electrical stimulation through the skin, which can be done without needles. As deafness is a chronic affliction, it is necessar' to stimulate the appropriate points regularl'0se&eral times a da' for se&eral minutes at a time, in order to impro&e or stabili5e the hearing.

The Principal Points The first principal point0a point that is famous in China for its potent effects in the treatment of deaf-mutes0is located on the nape of the neck, two fingerwidths below the edge of the skull on the median line.

(& Ed e o! the s"ull ;& Puncture point The second point is at the tip of the mastoid bone )ust behind the ear.

The Secondary Points The first of these points is situated directl' in front of the earlobe. . The mouth has to be open in order to find it. The second point is beneath the )aw. halfwa' between its two corners.

following directl' after an attack of di55iness or e. in the latter case often recurring at night. for those who suffer from it. Affliction b' a &irus is often cited as a cause.TINNIT ! DE!C7IBE! A chronic ringing in the ear. for e. CA !E! The causes of tinnitus are unknown.posure to a &er' loud noise. to the contrar'. In an' e&ent.enerall'. the tinnitus sounds remain depressingl' identical and last for an entire lifetime. an abnormal noise graduall' settles in and the patient cannot specif' the time when his or her problem started. But most often it is a ringing or whistling sound similar to the noise of a teapot boiling on the sto&e. !ometimes. it can be an e. nfortunatel'. but this irritation can occur among the ner&e threads themsel&es or in the fluid areas of the ear+ the lab'rinth and semicircular canals. The noise can be continuous or intermittent. (hat is known is that tinnitus in&ol&es an irritation of the auditor' ner&e. It can be accompanied b' some loss of hearing and di55iness.ample in workers whose )obs sub)ect to them to loud noises0like )ackhammer operators. . or running water.treme anno'ance and sometimes a social disabilit'. as is congestion of the ner&e or a small clot in the arteries that feed it.plosions. !ometimes acute or repeated sonorous traumas can cause tinnitus. once tinnitus has de&eloped. The person suffering from it ma' hear what sounds like metallic noises. e. or an' of those persistent noises percei&ed b' the ears that ha&e no ob)ecti&e realit'. and this anno'ing irritant still poses a difficult 3uestion for medicine. The ringing noises can appear suddenl'. . it rarel' subsides.

As this is a chronic affliction. this therap' is harmless and offers no danger. . It is therefore an e. !TA#DA7D T7EAT8E#T This is an eas' treatment to sum up+ there is no treatment.!ometimes the' get worse. !ufferers ha&e tried all kinds of products from blood dilators to products that are reputed to ha&e an effect on the ner&es. AC 9"I#T T7EAT8E#T Acupoint therap' is all the more &aluable as it often obtains &er' good results. on the midline. two or three times a da'. it is helpful to repeat the stimulations for se&eral minutes at a time. But to tell the truth. It is located two finger-widths below the edge of the skull.cellent idea to stimulate the specific points s'stematicall'6 e&en if the' don<t impro&e the condition. This is not for lack of tr'ing. and render life untenable for the indi&idual suffering from them. The Principal Points The first principal point is also a point used for treating deafness. nothing 'et has been found that works. though not in e&er' case. I cannot emphasi5e too much how greatl' electrical stimulation is indicated in this case. such therap' can reduce or e&en eliminate the abnormal noises. (hen it<s successful. TEC*#I: E! T" !E Electrical stimulation is particularl' helpful for treating tinnitus. The de&ice should be pressed steadil' onto the skin. The second point is on the tip of the mandible behind the auricle of the ear.

%an llevado a cabo una investigación en la &ue se demuestra &ue las células madre mesen&uima les de la placenta se tornan en %epatocitos 'células de %(gado). una prote(na &ue permite la distribución correcta de los l(&uidos corporales en el cuerpo %umano. between the big toe and its neighbor6 the second is behind the inside of the ankle. &ue se %a divulgado a través de la revista -.The Secondary Points The first is on the top of the foot.o %(gado de apenas medio cent(metro de grosor Esta %epatosfera muestra la actividad pro pia del órgano. 1e trata d e la primera investigación &ue pone de manifiesto la formación de estructuras biológicas capaces de desarrollar una función %epática a partir de células ma dre de la placenta adulta. $tra parte de la investiga ción subra/a &ue si las células . las indagaciones del Grupo de Medicina Regenerativa del nstituto de nvestigación del !ospital "# de $ctubre. con eficacia. *e este modo. aclara &ue las células madre mesen&uimales de la placenta -tejido del &ue derivan gran parte de los órganos./tot%erap/0.cultiva das -in vitro0 en un medio &ue contiene pro te(nas presentes de forma natural en el %(gado.elular. )ust abo&e the heel bone. eficaces para combatir el cáncer Los avances en cuanto al estudio de células madre se refiere siguen mejorando las investi gaciones para combatir el cáncer. Este trabajo cient(fico. Las células madre. de la 1o ciedad nternacional de 2erapia . En esta oca sión. /a &ue produce alb+mina. se acent+a la po sibilidad de restaurar este órgano.ado. si está da. pueden mudarse en %epatocitos / formar una estructura %epatosfera parecido a un pe&ue.

también se cambian en %epatocitos / pueden ser rentables en un futuro para su uso en lesiones %epáticas. En otro estudio de estos investigadores. demostrando &ue ralenti4a el desarrollo del tumor.ado. difundido en la revista cient(fica -. . se e3plica el uso de células madre mesen&uimales de la placenta en cáncer de mama.áncer Gene 2%erap/0.madre mesen&uimales de la placenta se cultivan con ele mentos presentes en un %(gado da.

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