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1. What is WPS?

WPS is Welding Procedure Specification, It is a written document that provides direction to the welder or welding operator for making production welds. 2. What are the Welding Process? a) !"W # as !ungeston "rc Welding) #Shielded %etal "rc Welding) #Su$merged "rc Welding) #&lu( 'oated "rc Welding) # as %etal "rc Welding) #Plasma "rc Welding)

$) S%"W c) S"W d) &'"W e) %"W

f) P"W

). "S%* S*'!I+,S a) S*'!I+, I -ules for 'onstruction of Power .oilers $) S*'!I+, II %aterials Part " / &errous %aterial Specifications Part . Part ' / ,onferrous %aterial Specifications / Specifications for Welding -ods, *lectrodes, and &iller %etals Part 0 / Properties #'ustomar1) Part * / Properties #%etric) c) S*'!I+, III Su$section ,'" //// eneral -e2uirements for 0ivision 1 and 0ivision 2

0ivision 1 Su$section ,./'lass 1 'omponents Su$section ,'/'lass 2 'omponents Su$section ,0 / 'lass ) 'omponents

Su$section ,* / 'lass %' 'omponents Su$section ,& 3 Supports Su$section , / 'ore Support Structures Su$section ,4 / 'lass 1 'omponent in *levated !emperature Service/ "ppendices 0ivision 2 / 'ode for 'oncrete 'ontainments 0ivision ) / 'ontainments for !ransport and Storage of Spent ,uclear &uel and 4igh 5evel -adioactive %aterial and Waste d) S*'!I+, I6 -ules for 'onstruction of 4eating .oilers e) S*'!I+, 6 ,on 0estructive *(amination f) S*'!I+, 6I -ecommended -ules for the 'are and +peration of 4eating .oilers g) S*'!I+, 6II -ecommended uidelines for the 'are of Power .oilers h) S*'!I+, 6III -ules for 'onstruction of Pressure 6essels 0ivision 1 0ivision 2 3 "lternative -ules 0ivision ) 3 "lternative -ules for 'onstruction of 4igh Pressure 6essels i) S*'!I+, I7 Welding and .ra8ing 9ualifications :) S*'!I+, 7 &i$er 3 -einforced Plastic Pressure 6essels k) S*'!I+, 7I -ules for In Service Inspection of ,uclear Power Plant 'omponents l) S*'!I+, 7II -ules for 'onstruction and 'ontinued Service of !ransport !anks.

"S%* / "merican Societ1 of %echanical *ngineers "S%* . )1.) 3 Process Piping "S%* . )1.1 / Power Piping "S!% 3 "merican Societ1 of !esting %aterials "PI / "merican Petroleum Institute "IS' 3 "merican Institute of Structural 'oncrete "WS 01.1 3 "merican Welding Societ1 #Structural Welding) "WS 01.; 3 "merican Welding Societ1 #Structure SS Welding) <. What are the different t1pes of roove? a) 6 3 roove $) = 3 roove c) 0ou$le 6 roove >. What are the different t1pes of .ase %aterial with rade? 'S i) " 1?; r . ii) " >) r . iii) "PI >5 r . SS i) " )?< ii) " )?<5 iii) " )1; iv) " )1;5 v) " )21 vi) " )22 vii) " )<@ viii) " )<A "55+B " ))> / P11 " ))> / P22 )

%+,*5 "S!% . 1;> ,oC <<?? "5=%I,I=% S. 2<1 rade >?A)

;. What is the Procedure 9ualification !hickness 5imits? 9W 3 <>2 i) ii) iii) @. %aterials #& ,os) 'S "55+B SS %+,*5 A. %aterial 'onsuma$lesC/ !"W 'S SS *- @?S 3 2F)F< *- )?A, *- )?A5 *- )1;, *- )1;5 G. Specif1 *lectrode !rade ,ame *S"., 5I,'+,, "0+-, *H", %*!-+0* 1?. Welding Position Pipe 3 1 , 2 , > , ; , ; Plate 3 1 , 2 , ) , < PIP*C/ 1 C / " Pipe is 4ori8ontal Position and weld $eed is a vertical position. !he Pipe will $e rotated. S%"W @?1;, @?1A 3 1 * )?A, * )?A5 * )1;, *)1;5 !"W ; ; ; <2 S%"W < < > <2 It is the test coupon D 1E / Si8e welded #0ia) !hickness alwa1s 2! 3 ! 3 !hickness of !est 'oupon %inimum !hickness 9ualified 3 1.>mm


2 C / " Pipe is 6ertical Position and weld $eed is 4ori8ontal Position > C / " Pipe is 4ori8ontal Position and weld $eed is 6ertical Position ; C / " Pipe is a <>? Position P5"!*C/ 1 C / Plate is 4ori8ontal and weld is 4ori8ontal 2 C / Plate is 6ertical and weld is 4ori8ontal ) C / Plate is 6ertical and weld is 6ertical < C / " Plate is in +verhead Position weld is 4ori8ontal Position 11. What is pre/heat temperature for 'S, SS, "55+B, and %+,*5? 'S I5ess 2> mm 1??' %in , "$ove 2>mm A?? ' SS I %a( 1??' "55+B I P 11 I 1>??', P 22 I 1<G?' %+,*5 I %a( 1??' 12. Interpass !emperature 'S I 2>??' SS I 1>??' "55+B P11 I )???' "55+B P22 I )???' %+,*5 I 2???' 1). !1pes of Welding Position? =phill Position and 0own Position. 1<. What is PW4!? Post Welded 4eat !reatment, !o -emove -esidual Stress. 'S / "$ove 1G mm 3 >G)?' to ;<G? "llo1 3 "$ove 1) mm 3 @?<?' to @<;? F 4igh "llo1 3 @?<?' to @;??' 1>. as .acking When we are using SS material must use Purge as %a1 $e 3 "rgon F ,itrogen 1;. What is Pipe? It is a tu$ular item made of %etal, Plastic, and lass etc.


1@. What is the width of Weave .ead? %a(. Weave width I )( *lectrode dia. 1A. Write the weld la1ers? I. -oot II. 4ot Pass III. &ill I6. 'ap 1G. PW4! for ,i 3 "llo1? J 1)mm K>>??' to >A>?' 2?. What are the main -esponsi$ilities of Welding Inspector? !o +$serve, !o -ecord, !o 'ompare #"cceptance 5evels) 21. !1pe of 'ommon Welds? roove Welds &illet Welds Spot F Seam Welds Plug F Slot Welds *dge Welds 22. !1pe of 'ommon Loints? .ut Loints ! Loints 5ap Loints +pen 'orner Loints 'losed 'orner Loints 2). !1pes of Loint Preparation? .evel, 6, L, S #Single M 0ou$le Sided) 2<. What are the Weldment !erms? i. Weld &ace ii. Weld -oot iii. &usion None iv. &usion .oundar1 v. 4eat "ffected None #4"N)

vi. Weld !oes vii. Weld Width 2>. What are the Welding Imperfections? I. 'racks II. as Pores and 'arities III. Sold inclusions I6. 5ack of &usion 6. Surface and Profile 6I. %echanical F Surface damage 6II. %isalignment. 2;. What is the %a:or Inspection of %aterial -eceiving? a) Si8e $) 'ondition c) !1pe F Specification F Schedule d) Storage e) 4eat ,um$er 2@. Pipe Inspection #%aterial)? i) ii) iii) iv) v) 2A. What is Steel? "n "llo1 of the Iron with the ,on 3 %aterial 'ar$on #?.1 /1.<O ') 2G. What is Plain 'ar$on Steel? Steel that contain onl1 Iron M 'ar$on are main elements,!races of %n,Si,"l,PMS ma1 $e also present from refining. )?. 5ow 'ar$on Steel? ?.?1 3 ?.)O' Welded Seam Inside +ut side 5ength Wall !hickness

)1. %edium 'ar$on Steel? ?.) 3 ?.;O' )2. 4igh 'ar$on Steel? ?.; 3 1.< O' )). 5ow "llo1 Steel? Steel 'ontaining Iron and 'ar$on and other "llo1ing elements. i.e.C/ %n, 'o, ,i, %o D @O !otal )<. Which of the following is a function of a &lu( 'oating of a S%"W electrode? Ioni8ing, Insulation, "llo1ing, 0e +(idation Shielding. )>. Write Pipe Specification? %aterial Pipe, Si8e, 5ength of Pipe, Si8e of .ore );. !1pes of asket? &.& I &lat &ace -.& I -aiced &ace %etallic Spiral Wound asket +ctagonal -ing asket &lat -ing asket )A. Write Small .ore &ittings? Weldolet Sockolet !hreadolet *l$olet ,eppolet )G. !1pes of &langes? Weld ,eck &lange Slip +n &lange Socket &lange Screwed &lange and .lind &lange / %etallic asket / ,on %etallic asket ,on %etallic -u$$er asket "s$estos asket !ufflon asket +il Paper asket

)@. !1pes of %etallic, ,on %etallic asket?

<?. !1pes of ,ipples? Plain !hreaded Swage <1. !1pes of 'aps? .ut weld 'aps !hreaded 'aps *nd 'ap <2. !1pes of 'oupling? &ull 'oupling, 4alf 'oupling, !hreaded 'oupling, -educer 'oupling. <). !1pes of .oss? Weld .oss, Socket Weld .oss <<. !1pes of +rifice Plates 'oncentric +rifice *lectric +rifice Segmetal +rifice <>. !1pes of *lectrodes? 'oated *lectrode .are *lectrode #,on 'oated *lectrode) <;. Si8e of *lectrode? 1.; mm 2.> mm ).1> mm < mm > mm ; mm <@. 0uties of Welding Inspector? I. Pre 4eating #%ethod M 'ontrol) II. In Process 0istortion 'ontrol III. 'onsuma$le 'ontrol I6. Welding Process

6. Welding -un Se2uence and Interpass !emperatures 6I. %in F %a( Interpass !emperatures 6II. &ull 'ompliance with all *lements given on the WPS <A. 0uties of Welding Inspector after Welding? i) 6isual Inspection ii) , 0 ! iii) -epairs iv) -epair Procedure #,0! F Welding) <G. !ool .o( a) " Welding auges $) !ap c) !orch d) %irror e) Pen -eport >?. &illet Weld Profiles 'onve(, 'oncave, %itre >1. What is the Profile Imperfection? i) Spatter ii) In 'ompletel1 filled roove iii) 5ack of -oot &usion iv) Incomplete -oot Penetration v) Shrinkage rooves vi) -oot 'oncaring vii) 'rater Pipe viii) *(cess Penetration i() .urn !hrough >2. "ccepted %is "lignment? 1.> mm as per "S%* )1.) >). What is %echanical !esting? 4ardness, !oughness, !ensile Strength, 0uctilit1.


><. %a:or things of Welding Procedure? a. Pipe 0ia M !hickness $. Welding Position c. Process d. %aterial roup e. 'onsuma$le f. 4eat Input -ange #Hg F mm) g. Pre 4eat M PW4! >>. *(plain * A?1A * 3 *lectrode A? 3 !ensile Strength 1 3for all Position A 3 'oating >;. Inspection of .efore Welding? 1. "pplication Std 2. WPS ). Welder 9ualification <. %aterial 'omposition >. 'ondition of %aterial ;. !1pes of *dge Preparation @. 'onsuma$les A. Welding Process. >@. Inspection of after "ssem$l1 'learance 0imensions >A. What is Solu$le 0am? Solu$le 0am is Water 3 Solute %aterial used for -efracting the Purging as/ with in the Pipe. >G. What should $e the -adius of 5ong -adius *l$ow? 1.>0 #0 3 is 0iameter of the Pipe) ;?. What is the !rue Welding Inspector 'ertifications 'overed in "WS 9' /1? 'WI, '"WI, S'WI


;1. What are generall1 considered to $e the most important 2ualit1 of a Welding Inspector? Professional "ttitude ;2. !he 6ision -e2uirements for a 'WI are near 6ision "cuit1 onC Laeger L2 at 12 inches, with or with out corrective lenses. ;). !he Welding Inspector should have a $asic understanding of Welding Process ,on 0estructive !esting %ethods 'ode and Standards ;<. !he term used to descri$e dela1 in the production schedule to permit inspection is 4old Point ;>. Inspection report correction should $e made $1C Single 3 line out the error correct the error, date end initial ;;. " definition of *thics isC 1. =sing common sense and honest1 2. 5iving $1 the rules ). .eing faire and impartial <. .asing decisions on facts ;@. &or communication to $e effective it should form a Pcontinuous loopQ 1. !rue ;A. Proper usage and handling of compressed as '1linders include. 1> psi @?. +(1gen is a &lamma$le as &alse @1. *lectric currents a$ove appro(imatel1 ; milliamperes are considered Primar1 currents, 4armful 12 ,ot welding on '1linders ,ot including the '1linders in the ground or *lectrical circuit Securing them properl1. Identif1ing the gas prior to use.

;G. "cet1lene $ecomes unsta$le a$ove what pressure?

@2. When operating gas c1linders the primar1 value should $e opened +ne turn or less onan acet1lene c1linder. "ll the wa1 onan o(1gen c1linder to $ackseat the value @). Wh1 is there an increasing need for weld 2ualit1? Safet1 *conomics 5ess conservatives design overnment regulations @<. What "WS documents descri$e the rules for the 'WI certification program? "WS 9' /1 @>. Weld 2ualit1 control should $egin after welding has $een initiated &alse @;. !he a acron1m H"S4 stands for Hnowledge, "ttitude, Skills and 4a$its. @@. " metal that is difficult to magneti8e is said to have? 5ow Permea$ilit1 @A. &erromagnetic %aterial is? Strongl1 attracted $1 a magnet. 'apa$le of $eing magneti8er @G. " circular field ma1 $e induced in to a specimen $1 which of the following methods? a) 0irect Induction #4ead Shot) $) 0irect Inductions #Prods) c) 'entral 'onductor A?. !he permea$ilit1 of a material descri$es? !he eas1 with which it can $e magneti8ed. A1. In which material can $e magneti8ed? Iron, ,ickel, 'o$alt A2. !he magnetic &ield is Stronger when? !he magneti8ing current is flowing A). !he unit usuall1 used to denote flu( densit1 is the? auss


A<. %aterials which are repelled magneticall1 are called? 0ia magnetic A>. %aterials which are attracted magneticall1 are called? &erromagnetic A;. !he interpretation of magnetic particle indications ma1 $e aided $1? +$serving the indications as the1 are formed A@. %aterials which are strongl1 attracted to a magnet are called? %agnetic %aterials AA. 0uring magnetic Particle testing generall1 leakage field caused $1 discontinuities which are? !ransverse to magnetic &ield AG. %ethod of magneti8ation is the? !1pe of magneti8ing 'urrent G?. !o detect ver1 fine 'racks on contour surface the method is? Wet particle suspension with ".'. G1. !he a$ilit1 of the magnet to attract or repel iron is? 'oncentrated at local areas called poles G2. When testing for fine shallow surface cracks, the preferred %! method should $e? Wet ".'. G). 'ommonl1 used techni2ue for preserving %! powder patterns? 'lear lacgues, transparent tape, and photograph1 G<. !he defect commonl1 associated with the welding process? 5ack of Penetration G>. !he unit of measure of one line of flu( per s2uare centimeter of area is one? auss G;. %aterials which are weakl1 attracted magneticall1 are called? Paramagnetic G@. !he end of a magnet at which the lines of flu( are thought of a entering the $ar is? !he South Pole


GA. !he general term used to refer to a $reak in the metallic continuit1 of the Past $eing tested is? 0iscontinuit1 GG. If like poles are closest the magnets will? -epel one another 1??. Surrounding an electro/magnet the magnetic field is strongest? While the current is flowing 1?1. " solenoid is a coiled conductor? 'ontaining a num$er of loops 1?2. 5ongitudinal magneti8ation can $e esta$lished in an article $1? Placing the past inside a coil through which current is flowing. 1?). !he strength of the magnetic fields or a coil is determined $1? !he 'urrent on the 'oil, !he ,um$er of turns in the 'oil 1?<. Which t1pe of current is $est for detection of surface discontinuities? "lternating current 1?>. 4alf wane 0' is? Pulsed 0', =sed with dr1 power, used for Inspection of welder 1?;. When using a coil what is the effective distance on magnetic field? ; to G inches on each side of the coil 1?@. When a 1oke is used the resulting magnetic field will $e? 5ongitudinal 1?A. 0isadvantage of using a permanent 1oke is? !he1 provide relativel1 low magnetic flu( field 1?G. " -esidual magnetic field is alwa1s? Weakes that the magneti8ing field producing it. 11?. 0r1 particle e(amination shall not $e performed if the surface temperature +f the part is? *(ceeds 1?22?&


111. In wet particle e(amination shall not $e performed if the surface !emperature of the part is? *(ceeds 1A>? & 112. In $lack light, light used is? White light 11). !he *(amines in $lack light dark adaptation is? "t least > minutes 11<. !he ammeter shall $e cali$rated at least? +nce a 1ear 11>. In "F' 1oke the lifting power is? 1? 5$ at the ma(imum pole spacing 11;. In 0' or permanent 1oke the lifting power is? <? 5$ at the ma(imum pole spacing 11@. !he magnetic force of 1oke shall $e checked? +nce a Bear 11A. %" ,*!I*S !here are two t1pes of magnetic i) ii) 5ongitudinal %agnetic #or) "(lem %agnetic 'ircular %agnetic #or) -adial %agnetic

11G. &5*%I, -=5* 'ircularC / 'urrent flow in the !hum$ direction !he magnetic field is the finger direction 5ongitudinalC / !he 'urrent flow in the finger direction !he magnetic field in the !hum$ direction 12?. auss meter? !hat will measure that what amount of magnetism field retained on the surface. 121. Permea$ilit1? *as1 to magnetism


122. -eflecturnsC/ +pposition of magnetic field 12). 'ontinuous magnetism? "ppl1 current magnetism o$:ect simentl1 testing using iron particles 12<. -esidual magnetism? "ppl1 current after shut/ off the current using the retained magnetic field testing the o$:ect. 12>. Steel melting point? 1><??' 12;. Prod *2uipment? i) &or :o$ thickness up to 1Amm G? "mphere per inch of prod spacing ii) &or :o$ thickness greater than 1A mm 11? "mphere per inch of prod spacing. iii) !he prod spacing is not less 2 inch note more. !hen A inch iv) *ffective prod spacing is ) to > inch v) !he same area is tested for 2 times one is perpendicular to other for complete coverage. 12@. !he tendenc1 at a li2uid penetrant to enter a discontinuit1 is primaril1 related to? 'apillar1 action 12A. In penetrant testing the time period from developer application to inspection after refereed to as? 0evelopment time 12G. !he method used to remove e(cess visi$le d1e penetrant from a test part is primaril1 deferment $1 the? Surface roughness of the part under test 1)?. " discontinuit1 that must $e found in welding? 'rack, lack of penetration


1)1. !he discontinuit1 found I forging is? 41drogen flake 1)2. &or appl1ing non 3a2ueous developer is normall1 considered most effective? Spra1ing 1)). 0eveloper assists in the defection of the visi$le d1e penetrant lot indication $1? Providing a contracting $ack ground 1)<. !he discontinuities would $e impossi$le to defect using P!? Internal inclusions 1)>. !he penetrant s1stem is generall1 considered least sensitive? Water washa$le 3 visi$le d1e 1);. In which conditions will decrease the life of a $lack light $ul$? 5ine voltage fluctuations 1)@. 0evelopers improperl1 used? %a1 o$scure indication 1)A. When using the dr1 developer, the dr1ing operation is performed? "fter application of the developer and $efore inspection 1)G. "n *(cessive concentration of developer powder in a wet developer can cause? 'reaking of the developer capacit1 during F after the dr1ing 1<?. In penetrant s1stem is generall1 considered highest sensitive? Solvent remova$le 3 fluorescent d1e. 1<1. In a post emulsifia$le d1e 3 penetrant the emulsifies time? Is the faire needed to rise the emulsifies and e(cuses penetrant from the surface


1<2. !he instruments used in P! to measure specific gravit1 of wet developers? 41drometers 1<). In which method is not generall1 accepted? Wire $lushing 1<<. What is the most universall1 used $lack lift source? *nclosed mercur1 vapors are lamps 1<>. 5ines indication is? +ne heaving a length greater then three times the width 1<;. -elevant indications? %a:or dimension greater than 1F1;.inch %a:or dimension greater than 1.; mm 1<@. 5ipophhilic ecrulsities are? +il misci$le li2uids used to emulsif1 1<A. 41drophilic emulsifies are? Water misci$le li2uids used to emulsif1 the e(cess oil fluorescent penetrant 1<G. !he ma(imum intensit1 of visi$le light e(amination is? 1?? &' 1???57 1>?. In fluorescent light e(amination visi$le am$ient light? Should not e(cel 2 &' Should not e(cel 2?57 1>1. Water wasa$le? "ppl1 penetrant if self contain emulsifies


1>2. *mulsifies? Is a li2uid act with surface penetrant to make water wasa$le after penetration time the surface penetrant is clean with water so the surface to $e dra1ed $1 hot air than appl1 developer than evaluations 1>). Solvent remova$le method? "ppl1 penetrant after penetration time the surface penetration is cleaned $1 solvent than appl1 developer and evaluation 1><. 0r1 developers? 'an $e applied $1 spra1ing, flowing pric1 solvent can $e applied $1 electrostatic spra1 particle should $e #/) and high voltage shock all to $e done in a log cham$er so we can sauce the A?O of the material 1>>. ,on / a2ueous developers? !his is onl1 applied on dr1 surface this mi(ed with sol solvent and chock power applied $1 spra1ing duping not allowed $ecause the pentrant will $e cleaned so we canRt find the defect 1>;. .1 Spra1ing? Is advantages $ecause the solvent enter to the discontinuit1 and 'ar1 out the penetrate and solvent can $e evaporate the penatrant will form the cane indication ver1 well and we canRt earl1 see the defect Solvent 1>@. Wet developer #or) "2ueous developer? #i) #ii) Solvent I Particle si8e ?.1>micron 3 !his one $est Suspended I II 9ualit1

1>A. Solia$le Particle diluted with water this developer will term fungus $ut read1 to use


1>G. SuspendedC Water is onl1 the curies this will slot form fungus $ut an ever1 wa1 we have to Shake. 1;?. &ilterC Will charge the while light to =6 light );> ,% of wave length 1;1. 5ipophilic emulsifiesC Is act with surface penatrant $1 diffusion process 1;2 What is the ,0! %ethod? -!, =!, P!, %! 6! I 6isual !esting "*! I "coustic *mission !esting !I- I !hermal Infrased -eal !esting ,-! I ,eutron -adiographic !esting *!I *dd1 'urrent !esting 5! I 5eak !esting 6.".!. I 6i$ration "nal1sis !esting -! I -adiographic !esting =! I =ltrasonic !esting P! I Penetrant !esting %! I %agnetic Particle !esting 1;) Wave lengths of (/ra1 and gamma ra1 a.) 1?/G to 1?/1)m 1;<. S,!' 3 !' /1" uide line for. Societ1 of ,ational !echnical 'ouncil 1st document. 1;>. -S+, -!, -!&I -S+ I -adiation Safet1 offices, -! I -adiographic !esting,


-!&I I -adiographic &ilm Interpretation. 1;;. 0<, 0@ 0< / *(tra fine grain film with ver1 high contrast 0@ / &ine grain film with high contrast and high speed 1;@. 0oes level I can do interpretation? ,o 1;A. 0oes level II can do procedure writing? Bes 1;G. !1pes of Penetrameter $.) 4ole t1pe 3 0I, c.) Wire t1pe 3 "S!% 1@?. !1pes of 'urie? In gamma ra1 sources? 'o$alt ;? 3 >.) 1ears Iridium 1G2 3 @< da1s 'esium 1)@ 3 )? 1ears !hulium 1@A 3 12@ da1s Btter$ium 1;G 3 )1 da1s 1@1. Special purposes of curie? 7enon 1)) 3 >.) 1ears *uropium 1>2 3 1) 1ears adelium 1>< 3 G.) 1ears Sodium 2< 3 1> hours Selenium @> 3 121 da1s Iodine 12> 3 >@.< da1s 1@2. Who invented the iridium? Iridium was identified and named $1 !ennant #*ngland) 1@). Wire t1pe ;2/1ears of design &e 3 iron


1? M 1; 0esignation ,um$er IS+ 3 International +rgani8ation for Standardi8ation 0I, 3 0eusche Industr1 ,orm 1@<. 4ole !1pe 1 SQ 0esignation num$er represent thickness of the penetrameter SQ 7 'ontrast 5evel 7 <! 1! 2!

Sensitivit1 level 1! I thickness I ?.?> inch 2! I thickness I ?.?> ( 2 <! I thickness I ?.?> ( < 1@>. I9I / Image 9ualit1 Indicator 1@;. Wire t1pe materials. "luminum, 'opper, Iron 1@@. 4alf life period formula ,o I Present 'urie Strength , I 'urie strength afterTtR da1s t I no. of da1s of time elapsed


! I half life period 1 I deca1 constant is ?.;G) ,o I e 31tF! &or e(ampleC 2? curie ,o I e 31tF! ,o I e /?.;G) ( > F @> I e/?.<;2 I ?.G>

1@A. !1pes of -adiographic !echni2ue a.) SWSI 1.) =nidirectional 2.) Penarmic $.) 0WSI c.) 0W0I 1@G. 0eveloping Process 0eveloping >mts "ccelerator #sodium car$onate) 3 is an alkali Preservative #sodium sulphate) 3 preventing o(idation -estrainer #potassium $romide) 3 e(posed region of silver $romide 0eveloping agent #h1drogenous) 3 prevent development of une(posed 'r1stals. Stop $ath for few seconds "rrest the function of the developer, stop $ath ma1 contain lacial "cidic "cid # ""). &i(es is used to remove the developed silver $romide 1mts. &i(ing has a solva$le compound with silver $romide &i(es is a sodium thiosulphate a cleaning agent.


-unning water after fi(es thoroughl1 washed to remove all processing material Wetting agent is to drain water uniforml1 0r1er 1A?. !1pes of camera !ech/ops 3 2< kg Spec2t 3 2< kg amma grid 3 1A kg -ollicamera 3 )> kg 1A1. Screen cover material 5ead screen !op screen ?.??>mm .ottom screen ?.?1?mm 1A2. Stages "void guide to $e $end =se minimum guide tu$e length =se collimeter Surve1 meter "rea of cordon .ate return of source *mergenc1 re2uires proper procedure 'amera $ack to storage room 'amera maintenance at least once in three month 'ollimeter 3 tungsten material


'ali$ration and %aintenance Surve1 meter 3 ) month Pocket dosimeter 3 1 1ear Proper check dail1,/ $atter1 check 0ensitometer 3 G? da1s Porosit1 due dirt1 electrode wire, dirt1 $ase metal, improper techni2ue =ndercut current too high, welding speed too high, arc length too long Incomplete fusion due to fault1 :oint, improper weld rod diameter, improper weld polarit1 Incomplete penetration fault1 :oint design, welding speed too rapid, weld current too low, arc length too long. 1A). What does sensitivit1 depends on? 0efinition and 'ontrol 1A<. "ccepta$le densit1 limit for viewing a weld image. 2 to < 0ensities 1A>. !he densit1 variation through the Penetrameter to area of invest /1>O to U)?O 1A;. &ilter is used? !o -educe Scatter -adiation !o "$sor$ Secondar1 -adiation !o Produce +nl1 4ard -adiation 1A@. Panoramic e(posure, minimum num$er of I9I is? ) penetrameter, 12?V of part. 1AA. 5amination is a? Process 0efect 1AG. Principle of =!. -eflection of Sound


1G?. Sound Sonic

Su$sonic 1G1. 4uman -ange. 2? 48 to 2?,??? 48 .elow 2? 48 > %48 to 1> %48 =ltrasonic -ange 2 %48 to < %48 Industrial Purpose "$ove 2?< 48 =ltrasonic Waves


"$ove 2?,??? 48, it will not travel through airW it will onl1 travel in the solid material. 1G2. %a:or uses for =!. a.) &low 0etection $.) !hickness %easurement c.) 0istance %easurement d.) %aterial 'haracteri8ation 1G). "dvantages of =!. e.) 0epth Information f.) Immediate -esult g.) ,ot 4a8ardous


h.) 4igh Sensitivit1 i.) Porta$le :.) 5ow 'ost 1G<. 0isadvantages of =!. k.) +perator skill is re2uired l.) Indirect indication it is in the P*choQ form m.) 'ouplant is re2uired n.) ,on 4omogenous material testing is not possi$le 1G>. I.I.W. .lock? International Institute of Welding 1G;. !1pes of .lock? 61, 62 $lock 1G@. =! %achine &low 0etector

"nalog machine

0igital machine

1.) %od Sonic 2.) Sonatest a.) Site Scan 1<? $.) Site Scan 2<? c.) Site Scan <<< d.) Site Scan )<; ).) Hraut rammes <.) Panameteri( >.) P ( 1? ;.) P ( 2?


1GA. What is the use of 'ouplant? !o remove the air gap $etween the transducer and o$:ect. 1GG. !1pes of 'ouplant Water, +il, rease #Silicon rease or Petroleum rease), el, Wall Paper Paste, Soft -u$$er. 2??. !1pes of reference .lock Side drill hole t1pe a.) ? to 2> mm I 1G mm $.) 2> to >? mm I )A mm c.) >? to 1?? mm I @; mm d.) 1?? to 1>? mm I 11< mm e.) 1>? to 2?? mm I 1>2 mm 2?1. !1pes of *cho pattern for scanning. " Scan it is used in Industrial . Scan it is used in %edical ' Scan it is used in Immersive !esting and "tomic 2?2. 'ali$ration method o.) -esolution p.) Penetration 2.) Sensitivit1 r.) Sweep linearit1 s.) Screen high linearit1 t.) "mptitude control linearit1 2?). -esolution Place the normal pro$e at a focal point in 61, $lock for a 1??mm range. !he echo will comes at A>, G1, 1?? mm separatel1 2.< ).; <.A ; @.2


2?<. Penetration Place the normal on perspe(, the echo will come out >?mm $ased upon velocit1 station perspe( M steel X2@)?C>G2?Y 2).> mm Perspe( is e2ual to >?mm of steel. 2?>. Sensitivit1 Place the pro$e towards 1.;mm hole the echo will come at 1> #?1))>. 2?;. Sweep linearit1 Place the pro$e on thickness 2>, >?, @>, 1?? mm. !he echo will produce in a descending order. 2?@. Screen high linearit1 Place the pro$e towards St and Zt to A?O and <?O reduce 2d$ up to ;d$. !he value in ta$le is 2>.; tolerances [ >O of the value. 2?A. "mptitude 'ontrol linearit1 Place the pro$e towards the artificial defect to A?O reduce to ;d$ /12d$ measure the value make to <?O of height increase U;d$ measure the value make 2?O increase U12d$ measure the value, as per tolerance 2?O of the value. 2?G. 0"' 0istance "mplitude 'orrection 'urve " scan 1;?> %48 21?. !1pes of Pro$e. ,ormal pro$e, "ngular pro$e, triangular pro$e #<>V, ;?V, @?V). 211. ,ormal pro$e, !riangular pro$e. ,ormall1 used for thickness check/up onl1. 212. "ngular Pro$e =sed to find the weld defect. 21). Si8e of the pro$e. A ( G, 2? ( 22 21<. &ormula S $eam path I t Fcos \ &ull $eam path I 2tFcos \


1S $eam path I )tFcos \ 2 $eam path I <tFcos \ 21>. Skip distance S skip distance I t ( tan \ &ull skip distance I 2t ( tan \ 1 S skip distance I)t ( tan \ 2 skip distance I <t ( tan \ 21>. 0epth S depth I $eam path ( cos \ &ull depth I 2t/$eam path ( cos \ 1S depth I $eam path ( cos \/2t 2 depth I )t/$eam path ( cos \ 21;. 5ocation .eam path ( sin \ 21@. \ <>V ;?V @?V sin\ ?.@ ?.A; ?.G) cos\ ?.@ ?.> ?.)< tan\ 1 1.@)2 2.@< sec\ 1.< 2 2.G

21A. !hum$ rule G?/ !hickness. &or e(ample 2<mm thickness G?/2<I;;mm ,earest pro$e is @?V, so we have to select @?V pro$e 21G. .elow )Amm we use <m48 pro$e, a$ove )Amm we use 2m48 pro$e.


22?. 62 .lock ,otesC .ased upon 62 $lock, echo pattern facing the angle pro$e towards 2>mm radius the 1st echo will come at 2>mm make the echo to 2.> divisions. !he ne(t echo will come in an increment of @>mm to 1??mm automaticall1 at 1?th division. " 1??mm range facing the pro$e towards >?mm radius the 1st echo will come at >?mm make this echo at <th division, the ne(t echo will increment at @> to 12>mm at the 1?th division. 221. 61 .lock ,otesC .ased upon 61 $lock echo pattern face that angle pro$e towards 1??mm radius at focal point 1st echo will come at 1??mm make this echo at <th division. !he 2nd echo travel 12> mm of increment come at 22>mm on the Gth division automaticall1 each division 2>mm >? division 2>?mm. 2)mm thickness Pro$e selection G?/t G?/2)I;@ &re2uenc1C $elow )Amm 3 <m48 "$ove )Amm 3 2m48 Pro$e si8e A ( G, 2? ( 22 'ouplantC water, grease, oil Set the -ange #@?V) S $eam path I tFcos\ I 2)F?.> I <; mm &ull $eam path I 2tFcos\ I <;F?.> I G2mm


222. " P4ot Work PermitQ is re2uired forC "reas where a fire 4a8ard %a1 occur during a Welding, 'utting, Preheating/ +peration. 22). *1e 4a8ard &ound in Welding +perations IncludeC #i) &l1ing Particles #ii) -adiation #iii) Smoke and &umes 22<. Protective *2uipment not suita$le for *1e Protection from Welding -adiation includesC 'lear Safet1 oggles. 22>. Suita$le 'lothing %aterials for Welding and 'utting areC Wool 'hemicall1 !reated 'otton 22;. .efore working on *2uipment Where %achiner1 uards have $een removed a 5ock, !ag, and !r1 Procedure should $e 'ompleted. !rue 22@. In avoiding fumes during welding the most important factors is !he Position of the Welders 4ead 22A. It is not important to consider 6entilation during welding and cutting operations &alse 22G. When entering contained Space a PStand$1Q is not re2uiredC &alse 2)?. Some of the !o(ic %aterial the welder ma1 $e e(posed to $eC 'admium, 'hromium, ,ickel, 5ead 2)1. !he Welding Inspector is e(posed to which of the following Safet1 4a8ardsC #i) -adiation, #ii) Lalling +$:ects #iii) *lectrical Shock, #iv) *1e 4a8ards 2)2. " document which covers safet1 in welding and cutting isC ",SI F "S'N<G.1 2)). !he %ost Important 'omponent of an *ffective Safet1 and 4ealth Program isC %anagement Support 2)<. Safet1 !ran king is mandated under prorisions of +S4"


2)>. !he "$$reviation P%S0SQ meansC %aterial Safet1 0ata Sheet 2);. !he "$$reviation P!56Q meansC !hreshold 5imit 6alue 2)@. *mplo1s must make all applica$le P%S0SQ data availa$le to their emplo1s !rue 2)A. Personal must $e trained to recogni8e Safet1 4a8ards. !rue 2)G. !he Welding Inspector must offer communicated with #i) Welder, #ii) Supervisor, #iii) Welding of %anagement 2<?. ,0* Personnel #other than 'WI) should $e certified to what documentC "S,!/S,!/!'/I" 2<1. Bou must have a high school diploma to $ecome a 'WI &alse 2<2. !he 'WI *(am has several partsW these are fundamentals practical, code !rue 2<). !he 'WI *(am re2uires that the 01.1 code $e used for the open $ook code test &alse 2<<. !he little of the "WS. Standard, ").? isC Standard Welding !erms and 0efinitions 2<>. "PI Standard 11?< 'ores the fa$rication of ross 'ounter .ridges &alse 2<;. Some of the "pproval 'odes F Standard for the +pen .ook, Portion of the 'WI *(am are "WS 01.1, "PI 11?<, "WS 0 1.>, and "WS0 1>.1 2<@. Prior to Staring a Lo$ "ssignment, the Welding Inspector should determineC #i) What code standard, or Specification applies? #ii) What Inspections should $e conducted? #iii) When Inspection should $e #iv) Where -ecords are maintained


2<A. When we are using *ccentric -educes 'oncentricC #i) *ccentric/Pump Suction to "void #ii) Pump 2<G. What is the !hum$ -uche to 'alculate Spanner? Si8e of given .olt? 1.> 0ia of .olt 2>?. What is the !hum$ the calculate current re2uired for welding? 'urrent #"%P) I 0iameter elevation #mm)] <? 2>1. What are Items we are remitting $efore the 41dro test in the line? #i) 'ontrol 6alue #ii) +rganic Plate #iii) -ote %at #iv) Safet1 6alues #v) !hermo wells 2>2. What is the use of -educes? !o :oint different 0iameter of Pipes 0ifferent .olt It has head one end and has threading other end it is tightened with a nut 2>). What is the use of as cut? as cut is a 'ertain %aterial used to fi( $etween the flanges. 2><. What is the use of *l$ow? !ie Loint the two Pipe, Pipe cut an angle of <>? or G?? 2>>. What is the use of !ee? =sed to make a $ranch line at right angle to the main line. 2>;. Which one we are not considered a t1pe of :oint? &illet 2>@. What is the ",SIF"S%* 0imensional S!0 for Steel &lange M &illing? #i) . 1;.) #ii) . 1;.> #iii) . 1;.G #iv) . 1;.1? Stud .olt It is thread $olt end