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als, YMAN FOR n lival. Labor The Cinema of Attraction: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde NOTICE: THIS MATERIAL MAY BE | PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW | (TITLE 17 U.S. CODE) | Lita | min By Tom Gunning ‘Waiting in 1922, flushed with the excitement of secing Abel Gance’s La Rowe, Femand Léger tried to define something of the radical possibilities of the cinema, The potential of the new art did not “the mistaken path” ofits resemblance to theater Tis unigue power was a “matter of making images seen." It is precisely this hamessing of visibility, fay in tating IDE ANGLE ‘his act of showing sa exhibition which J fel Cinema before 1905 crplaye mot ines. 1 Itgpation for heaved of te uty Socades ths cnay seed go be reeaponee Witte by they meri (Foust, Dudas td Suet) on the cen oom 3 pte st lato ger: emtuslacn for thsnew medi sad 1h pots, and daappeintnent a fe way thas aia veloped tr eadeenent fo ional ie forms, pardulty fewer od Werte. Tis fn th theo of ned a he ‘Seempanying fay of eng tener fe tk ‘purgeat te a pat m) cane ane Sod tas auber 9 rpoits want tous tolluminne atone have sproached been fet ‘other ange, de sang heterogeneous flea Shatin eo 1906 (or) bean te aor bat allow, and he way a aking count of ser iy seas nt conee pin of fim stony and fis fom, My work in his osha pusued i calsboraion wih andi Gavdresle® Toe history of eat eins Uke he history of ip Srey. Ras en ten td ea Under te hegemony of parave Bie, Ey A sakes Ue Sruth, MBL, and Porte hae been Studied primatl fiom the ewpoit ofr eet Suton timo a story edn puislary the volun of arate editing Although suc Approuces ae not totaly misguided hey te ene Adedandpoteusly ator both te wos of se Fimualase and he actual forss shaping cinema Before 1906. A few oberon il inate he way {hateaay enema wasnt dominaed by the mare inp hat we nowred tava one the mec Fist thee isthe extiemely portant soi tat ‘ett plays neal fn progocton, ast faton of the fins copyrghied the US. showe tha ata ms outnumbered eval ewe tnt 1906.) The Lemire tadton of “plang the ‘rl within one’s each though trv flim and tepals didnot disappear with the ext of the ismstosrape rom fim prosucton. But even wid sonartalty lming-what has soit oes wteredto a the “MELD ai “tn ce narrative plays gute afferent than Geena arate Bim, Mebe himself decaed ddiusing ie wrkng mtiod As forthe scenario, te “fable,” oF “tle, I only osider tthe ond a state tht she Scenario ovsacredn aus manner hat no portaneh, ee ate mere ee preset or the tae fete “ets "or fore mec areige ble Whaieriernets one might find between Lime and Mads, ey sould no epee the ppedton econ naa nd senate sng at at ute underood toGay, Rate, one an ie heen a comaepaon that wet cee ‘Sa key of ling stoner a sway of preening $s of iva fo an meine, ia See afc ony poner whet: ene Hagen tmetion offedto het seences by Luni, te mage on sancocte by MER) and ‘tom In ober wos eve tate aon Xo te specter tp by he ss of bos Lunes and Mb and many oer fmake bere. 1908) itd acomaen bas and one til fom the Palas spectator ilaons tp by narae Ain ter Tb wal cals eae escent latin, "ie coma of ateacdons? [Sone at ‘is wception omits nana ul abot 1906 130% Alhoub acento the faa storing exploted by the nes fem te ne of Gals, iinet oscesaly opened oT tn at the Sinem‘ atacton does rot dsappes! vith tre laminae of are, but rater ges unerroind, both tain nar pate nd a com Done! of save fins moe eet a sone Ermes(ea. the muncal ann oes What secely is he cinema of attraction Fit ic SS gevema that bans lf on the quay tat Lege Celebrated: ty to show something, Conaeed to tevoyeunsi pect ofnatainecnewn snes by Chastan Met tus an exhibitions dens An sect ofemy cinema which hve wsten about in ots sts is emblems of thi diferent futahip the cnema of atection conus ‘with iy sfectaton the wecung Took at Be ‘era by sto. This actin ws ner pereind SS'potng ie watsue son ofthe cinema shee Under with bo, etabling ontnet with te {idee From comedians smihing a te caer, {othe ongtant bowing and pests fhe Gojoe in mage fi, diss ner that copay a bailing to ruplure 2 seenovedfctonal sou for a hance fo mc Be steno of te "Exdubsniam become itera the ees of roe ns we ply an inportant rl in eat fim produaion (the sume Path eatlogue Would nd ‘erie te Pasion Pay. long. with "scenes, ‘ivi Gun chaetém pint" erotic Ame often ning fl ney), round ininer yous ASCE, Et in conection lene Hn ‘lene: Gore) thie (Gitte, 0) seed a fre Setwech dur exnibidenstle ter fim snd dw enation of fete man unde fred hi) int Herm bend te Trove Coneran he ene adeoes her erode sete ‘fei ing mero da ‘Ag the quote (zen MBs pone fn petnape the dominate 20 te bole 1906, Lease EF'mapial atactons, vatlar € Setchot nara coin ‘Hn oper wih ie cone Iocharstezznton. Bato flied x ns nich a ucts roms ts gout. T vides 2 fume upon which io Faton of te magica posit Modes of exibition Ia en cb MEL camem car arate moriupon te screen arahowa,® tie ely shown {peat ddl of contra oer se fente, sual weewng rhs and sopping # Blement, sock az sound eee ‘ferent Pechape moa extt ‘Tous, the larest chan of es ‘owg i eto 1963, Nt ‘mowing eh (msl tra) ‘elf war srange a3 tn cat eho took teks ad sound ¢ The cekeisk of weds and Sven wewing expences rll aclsns of be fproung hs (fibe legume beat. The 1 ‘lm and the emergence of te par, such ss Coney Ian Ett promées neh sound rots ay cane, Norshould ws eve font that 8 One might ad. betwecn 5 Bey saul not sncepon thts Cnet rete he elt Ha "he aiden Le rons Tbeeve tat ie isto 1p bythe ns af bot Lane other makers efve 1966) ind cet den tom te al hs eae concept ot of ations” T eve Bat 3y the cnems frm the ne does to dsappee with te ese practi snes co lh move evident in sone cinema of striction? Fi it lseion te uakty tha 19 thom something. Contested ‘toate eins naysce 1s is an exibition arene Blinc oft difenat 6 teouring look a te selon wih ter peresiveg gishing cont wth oe ioe skg a he emer ciera Dat apy ts Ia ellendone tevonl the ate of the potant rei uty in Pa eatdoge would 9 along. wh “sores Pig" erote As Lsundestod say Rate Fed eee aed etal tie, ney, pots, aes of easfomatione See cee ucnetee lemmas, euch sound tflects and spoken ‘Sowa ns Before 1966, Not oly dd he ns ‘moving velcles (usualy trai), but the theate ‘Rtaelon of Se tupound than to the tations Nor hou we oer forget dha nde eas years SPERNbiion be nem if ws ation