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ก 

A Study of Expected and Percieved in Service Quality at Museum of
Siam National Discovery Museum Institute. Bangkok, Thailand 
B  *'9.
Introduction
The International Council of Museum gave the following definition: HA museum
is a permanent establishment administered in the public interest, with a view to conserve,
study, exploit by various means and, basically, to exhibit, for the pleasure and education of the
public, objects of cultural value.E For these purposes, a museum is not only a place where
objects are preserved but also provides inspiration and information, entertainment and
education.
Museums nowadays are meeting competition with alternative providers of leisure and
educational activities such as the entertainment and cultural districts in central cities,
cyberspace, restaurants, sports arenas and shopping malls which also present collections and
exhibitions. More and more museum leaders are concerned about this competition which has
become a challenge for museums to seek ways to reach a broader public and forge community
relationships (Kotler, N. Kotler, P., 2000).
As a result, service quality becomes a big issue when museums try to a broader public
and forge community relationships. The new strategy of museum has shifted out from
a traditional view as concerning more on the service quality. Museum curators have increasingly
been concerned with putting the needs of visitors first, ensuring that museum information
resources are available to all users as needed. Nowadays, every industry in the society is trying
to investigate and research into the information requested by the public to understand what
people actually need. As for the museum, it is necessary to actively provide for and satisfy
domestic and foreign visitorsŸ need for information and services.
The background of the study is from the Quality improvement in service operations.
The quality improvement has been linked with its ability to meet visitor expectations through
the provision of quality services (Atilgan, Akinci and Aksoy, 2003; Swarbrooke, 1999); hence,

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this study is used as a collective data from customersŸ expression for quality of services.
After understand all about the customersŸ expression and expectation toward Museum of Siam,
we will come up with ideas about how to run organizations better with a good quality
management and future management. As a result, this study has to clear up with two
dimensions as customers and efficiency.
The first was about customers, if we can figure out what customers like, and serve them
in the same standard of service quality, the customers will have a feeling to revisit,
and recommend to others about visiting Museum of Siam. However, as museums are part of
the service industry working for satisfying customers, and customersŸ expectation on service
quality generally are rising every day. So we have to find the way to improve our service and we
will become more successful. We can think about quality in this way as reliability | you know
what you are going to get | and reliability | we can reproduce it so it is the same standard
or better everyday.
The second impetus behind the quality management movement was about effectiveness
and efficiency. To do this effectively and efficiently we have to understand the motivation and
needs of different audience segments and create an atmosphere that offers a range of
experiences. It is all about pulling down barriers and allowing visitor involvement and
engagement, and at the same time conserving and securing the collection for future
generations. On another word, we can say that if we can figure out the most efficient way to
produce a product or service, and stop wasting time, materials, replacing broken-down goods
or delivering unsatisfactory services | we will be more successful as reaching new audiences
and retaining repeat visitors is called uaudience development.
This pilot study investigated the information needs in the Museum of Siam, Thailand for
Thai visitors; furthermore, it tried to understand the effectiveness of current guided tour system
and if it met the needs of visitors. The basic purposes of this study are as follows:
1. To understand the visitor information requirements.
2. To conclude the results in the study of information needs of the museum visitors and
the guided tour system, and offer the museum suggestions for future management.
This study focuses on two aspects as follows:
1. Museum Industry and The Museum of Siam, Bangkok
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2. Service Quality, Importance and the SERVQUAL tool for service quality evaluation.
The study on service quality of The Museum of Siam, Bangkok by using the
SERVQUAL model of service quality (Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithamal, 1990) and by
comparing the service visitors actually receive along the five quality dimensions (which will be
explained in detail in chapter 3 of this study) with what they expected to receive. This can
help the museum managementŸs to understand more the true needs and expectations of
visitors.
Service Quality
Service quality is an abstract and elusive construct. Its intangible, variable and
inseparable characteristic is unique to services (Zeithaml et al., 1990)
Service quality has been increasingly identified as a key factor in differentiating services
and building competitive advantage. Therefore, understanding, measuring and improving
quality is a formidable challenge for all organizations since compete to some degree on the
basis of service. Service quality is more difficult for customers to evaluate than goods quality.
Customers evaluate service quality both on the outcome of the service and the process
of service delivery. Museum services just like most services, the museum uservice product is
delivered in a physical environment or site, encompassing land or building space, shape,
lighting, means of directing or orientating the visitor, and methods of stimulating interest and
involvement. Such inherent characteristics of the nonprofit museum service need to be
considered in relation to the citizen as consumer. However, conceptualizing and measuring
customer satisfaction and service quality in museum service have to pay more important on
collecting data with a good relationship with the customers in order to get the data with nonbias.
Research Objective
The objectives of this study can be explained below.
1. To examine the relation between visitorŸs expectation and perception towards the five
dimensions of service quality such as tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and
empathy of The Museum of Siam, Bangkok.

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2. To study the relation between visitorŸs expectation and perception towards
demographic such as gender, age, and profession and thus to evaluate and restructure the
service attributes in The Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
3. To examine whether there is a difference between visitorŸs perception and expectation
regarding in the year of 2007 and 2009.
4. After the careful analysis of all the above factors, the study can provide strategic
suggestions for improvement of services of The Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Framework and Methodology
The theoretical framework that the researcher uses as reference for this study is the
model of customer assessment of service quality, which explains the process of customer
expectations and perceptions of the SERVQUAL dimensions (Tangibles, Reliability,
Responsiveness, Assurance, and Empathy) of Museum of Siam, Bangkok. The researcher also
adapted the conceptual framework based on the conceptual model of service quality
developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1990). The Gap five of service quality, which
is the theoretical framework that is appropriate for this research, was used to measure the gap
between customer expectations and perceived service quality from Museum of Siam, BangkokŸs
visitors.
Figure1. The conceptual framework
1. Age
2. Gender
3. Profession
4. Nationality
Expectations

Perception

1. Tangibles
2. Reliability
3. Responsiveness
4. Responsiveness

1. Tangibles
2. Reliability
3. Responsiveness
4. Responsiveness

Service Quality Expectation-Service quality Perception

Over
Quality

Acceptable
Quality

1. Know - how about the Museum
2. Future suggestion to Museum
3. Revisit
4. Entrance Fee

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Poor
Quality

Research Hypotheses
The purpose of hypotheses are to test the relationship between each variable depicted
in the framework and determine which one of the two hypotheses helps the researcher answer
specific research question (Gay et al., 1992). In this research, hypotheses testing measures the
impact of Thai and foreign visitorsŸ perception and expectation with Museum of Siam, Bangkok,
ThailandŸs service quality dimensions as reliability, responsiveness, assurance, tangibles, and
empathy and their impact on the Thai and foreign visitors perceived service quality of Museum
of Siam, Bangkok, Thailand.
Hypotheses 1:
Ho1: There is no difference between customer expectation and perceptions of service
quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Ha1: There is difference between customer expectation and perceptions of service
quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Hypotheses 2:
Ho2: There is no difference in terms of tangibles between customer expectations and
perceptions of service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Ha2: There is difference in terms of tangibles between customer expectations and
perceptions of service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Hypotheses 3:
Ho3: There is no difference in reliability between customer expectations and perceptions
of service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Ha3: There is difference in reliability between customer expectations and perceptions of
service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Hypotheses 4:
Ho4: There is no difference in responsiveness between customer expectations and
perceptions of service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Ha4: There is difference in responsiveness between customer expectations and
perceptions of service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Hypotheses 5:
Ho5: There is no difference in assurance between customer expectations and
perceptions of service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.

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Ha5: There is difference in assurance between customer expectations and perceptions
of service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Hypotheses 6:
Ho6: There is no difference in empathy between customer expectations and perceptions
of service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Ha6: There is difference in empathy between customer expectations and perceptions of
service quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
Hypotheses 7:
Ho7: There is no difference between customer expectations and perceptions of service
quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok when segmented by age.
Ha7: There is difference between customer expectations and perceptions of service
quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok when segmented by age.
Hypotheses 8:
Ho8: There is no difference between customer expectations and perceptions of service
quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok when segmented by gender.
Ha8: There is difference between customer expectations and perceptions of service
quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok when segmented by gender.
Hypotheses 9:
Ho9: There is no difference between customer expectations and perceptions of service
quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok when segmented by occupation.
Ha9: There is difference between customer expectations and perceptions of service
quality of Museum of Siam, Bangkok when segmented by occupation.

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Table 1. Operational Definition of Influencing Variables and Measurements
Concept
Age

Gender

Occupation

Nationality

Tangibles

Conceptual Definition
It refers to age of the respondent

It refers to gender or sex of the
respondent
It refers to gender or sex of the
respondent

It refers to condition or fact of
belonging to a Nation by birth or
nationalization
It refers to appearance of
physical facilities, equipment,
personnel and communication
material

Operational Component
- 12 - 16yrs
- 17 - 21yrs
- 22 - 26yrs
- 27 - 31
- Above 32 yrs
- Male
- Female
- Government officer
- Business owner
- Student
- Museum employee
- Private employee
- Self employed
- Retired
- Others
- Thais
- Non - Thai
- Equipment
- Physical facilities
- Employees
- Appearance
- Rest room
- Spaciousness of
Exhibition rooms

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Type of
Measurement

Ordinal

Nominal

Nominal

Nominal

Interval

Reliability

It refers to ability to perform the
Promised service dependably and
Accurately.

Responsive
ness

It refers to customers perception
- Willingness to help
of the willingness to help customers customers
and provide prompt service.
- Staffs ability
- Prompt service

Assurance

It refers to customers trust and
confidence in the service and also the
courtesy and competency of service
Providers.
It refers to caring, making effort
to understand the specific needs of
customers and giving customers
Individual attention.

Empathy

- Time & service
Reliability
Interval
- Dependability
- Experienced guiding
staff

Interval

- Trust
- Safety
- Polite

Interval

- Caring
- Individual
Attention
-Understand Visitor
needs

Interval

Methodology
Target Population
Target population is a total group of people from where the researcher might obtain
information to meet the researcherŸs objectives (Mcdaniel and Gates, 2001). In this study, the
target populations were Thai visitors who were first visited in Museum of Siam Museum of Siam,
Thailand during the year of 2007 - 2009.

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Sample Size
Anderson (1996) indicated Theoretical Sample Sizes of Population and a 95% level of
certainty that requires the sample size based on 5% sampling error as follows:
Table 2 Theoretical Sample Size for Different Sizes of Populations: at 95 Percent Level of
Certainty
Required Sample for Tolerable Error
Population
5%

4%

3%

2%

100

79

85

91

96

500

217

272

340

413

1,000

277

375

516

705

5,000

356

535

897

1,622

50,000

381

593

1,044

2,290

100,000

382

596

1,065

2,344

1,000,000

384

596

1,065

2,344

25,000,000

384

599

1,067

2,400

Source: Anderson, G., Fundamentals of Education Research, 1996
In this study, the researcher has investigated the number of Thai visitors who were
visited at Museum of Siam from April 2nd, 2007 | 30 September 30th, 2008 as in the table as
follows:

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Table 3 The Total Number of Visitors to the Permanent Exhibition at Museum of Siam from
April 2nd, 2007 ‚ 30 September 30th, 2008
Period
Thai visitors
April, 2008

9,962

May, 2008

17,513

June, 2008

23,868

July, 2008

29,648

August, 2008

27,549

September, 2008

19,220

Average

21,293.33

Source: NDMI Annual Report 2008
The total number of Thai visitors to Museum of Siam, Bangkok from April 2nd, 2007 | 30
September 30th, 2008 is 21,293.33 (less than 50,000). Refer to the table 4.1 upon above based
on AndersonŸs (1996) sampling method, which indicates that if the population is 50,000,
the minimum sample is 381. As a result, researcher needs to survey 381 respondents at least.
In order to gather information efficiently and protect the any error in the questionnaires, a total
400 questionnaires were distributed. The data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed
with the help of SPSS.

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Table 4 Decision Rule for Hypothesis testing
Ho8
There is no difference between customer
Hypothesis
Hypothesis Statement
expectations and perceptions of service quality
of
The isMuseum
of Siam,
Bangkok
when
There
no difference
between
customer
segmented
Ho1
expectation by
andgender.
perceptions of service quality
Ho9
There
is
no
difference
between
customer
of The Museum of Siam,
Bangkok.
expectations
and perceptions
quality
There is no difference
in terms ofof service
tangibles
of
The Museum
of Siam,
Bangkokand
when
Ho2
between
customer
expectations
segmented
perceptionsby
of occupation.
service quality of The Museum of
Ho3

Ho4

Ho5

Ho6

Ho7

Siam, Bangkok.
There is no difference in reliability between
customer expectations and perceptions of
service quality of The Museum of Siam,
Bangkok.
There is no difference in responsiveness
between customer expectations and
perceptions of service quality of The Museum of
Siam, Bangkok.
There is no difference in assurance between
customer expectations and perceptions of
service quality of The Museum of Siam,
Bangkok.
There is no difference in empathy between
customer expectations and perceptions of
service quality of The Museum of Siam,
Bangkok.
There is no difference between customer
expectations and perceptions of service quality
of The Museum of Siam, Bangkok when
segmented by age.

Hypothesis testing
ANOVA
Technique
Paired ‚Samples
t - test
ANOVA
Paired ‚Samples
t - test

Paired ‚Samples
t - test

Paired ‚Samples
t - test

Paired ‚Samples
t - test

Paired ‚Samples
t - test

ANOVA

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All the data were summarized and analyzed by using SPSS 12.0 and LISREL 8.51. The statistic
treatments of data in this study were: descriptive analysis, reliability, path analysis.
Conclusions/Recommendations
The aim of this research is applied Museum as case study to find out how customer
expectations and perceptions of service are effect to service quality. Also give the
recommendations to meet or exceed user or visitor expectations.
As Museums in Thailand have been traditionally boring and could not meet with the
customersŸ expectation and needs, so now all of that has changed with the Museum of Siam;
the new museum which has been applied a lot of technology and multimedia program to
communicate with visitors. It can make people enjoy the whole afternoon their and would like to
recommend others or come here again.
The literature of this study explores the importance of the service quality experienced by
users that lead to the success of business in meeting or exceeding user or visitor expectations.
A new trend in most businesses is that they focus on the study in service quality by measuring
the gap between customer expectations and perceptions on five dimensions. These dimensions
were developed from the model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry. This model named
SERVQUAL consists of tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy.
Although it is a multi dimension measure of a complex construct, it does not take long to
answer. Therefore, the researcher adopted SERVQUAL model to be the survey instrument in this
research. It is used for measuring the gap between customer expectations and perceptions in
service quality of The Museum of Siam, Bangkok.
All these situations indicate that excellent service delivery is a delicate matter.
A service provider must have thorough knowledge of customer expectations. The provider must
also be able to forecast competitors' behavior. These will lead the provider to gain competitive
advantage.

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The 1st Administration and Management Research Conference

กกก( 

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The1st Administration and Management Research Conference
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Coperate Governance and Firm Diversification :
Evidence from Thailand
: & % *
Introduction
Corporate diversification is now become an interesting issue for strategic management
for practitioners and academic researchers since there are several roots and outcomes from it
since it was first introduced by Schall (1972). Grounded in firm diversification, there are
questions raised about two main issues: value destruction and causes of value discount.
Beginning with value of diversification, many empirical studies have verified that multi-segment
firms have been discounted value compared to single-segment firms as a benchmark due to
limitation to measure value of corporate diversification directly. On the contrary, there are
disagreements especially from recent empirical studies such as Villalonga (2004).
Subsequently, causes of value destruction has been under consideration as diversification
might not destroy firm value itself but affected by some other factors. Agency theory informs
that firms diversify because managers, who act in their self-interests, tend to invest beyond the
optimal level for private benefits at the cost of shareholders. Most of the papers in the literature
on this topic concentrate on the internal governance mechanism such as board composition
and insider ownership. To achieve better outcomes, some authors replace corporate
governance index constructed by different basis. Even though there are several empirical
studies on diversification for both issues, diversification still has been a heated debate in the
corporate finance without perfect conclusion.
There are two objectives in my study. My first objective is to observe an existence of
a relationship between corporate governance and managersŸ decision to diversify. My second
objective is to highlight a relationship among corporate governance and firm value through
corporate sensitivity in value loss caused by different level of corporate governance.
After I introduce this paper so far, my paper has been organized as follows. The next section is
Literature Review. Section 3 is Sample and Hypotheses. Methodology is obtained in section 4
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to answer how to measure corporate governance diversification in term of value and level,
how to construct corporate governance index and regression results. The last section is left for
Conclusion.
Literature Review
Even if there are five perspectives by Hendrikse and Oijen (2002) to explain motivation to
diversify further |market power perspective, strategic contingencies theory, resource-based
view, other benefits such as economies scope and internal capital market , and last but not
least, agency theory, the most theory that has been referenced to decision to diversify is the last
one, agency theory. Several studies discover managersŸ benefits from diversification such as
supervising the larger organization serves an increase in their power and prestige, becoming
more valuable and indispensable to the firm, a reduction in their largely undiversified personal
portfolio, easily accessing to capital through cross-subsidization (Meyer, Milgrom and Roberts,
1992), entrenching themselves (Shleifer and Vishny, 1989), a rise in consumption and
perquisite(Jensen, 1986),and protect their human capital (Amihud and Lev , 1981). Referring to
all these reasons, there are no doubts why managers continue diversifying their businesses.
Anderson, Bates, Bizjak and Lemmon (2000) do not find any evidence that the failure of
internal governance mechanisms is associated with diversification decisions consistence with
Hyland and Diltz (2002) who document that block and insider ownership do not appear to affect
firmŸs choice to diversify. Denis,Denis and Yost (2002) find a negative relation between levels of
diversification and block ownership as well as insider ownership. Daniel and Monahan (2004)
investigate disclosure quality as a representative of governance mechanism and excess value
of diversification and suggest that they have positive relation. Somehow, Jiraporn, Kim,
Davidson and Singh (2006) support agency theory to explain industrial than global
diversification. Dittmar and Shivdasani (2003) have found an evidence that diversification
discount drops following a refocusing action as well as Burch and Nanda (2003). Their finding is
robust when testing post-diversification because the diversification discount and investment
inefficiency decrease after the refocusing. Therefore, my initial belief due to above literature is
that corporate governance index and its components are negatively related to value and level of
diversification and then I set up two hypotheses to resolve my suspicion as I would describe you
soon.
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Sample Selection and Hypotheses
1. Sample Selection
This paper examines only listed companies on SET in 2000-2007. The exclusive sample
groups are financial industry; banking, insurance, and securities and funds similar other
empirical studies. Those are Sheng, and Ho (2000), Anderson and Lemmon (2000), Berger and
Ofek (1995) and Kamphaeng (2000).The first reason for the exception is that their investment
policies are regulated and controlled under government regulation .Second is the
characteristics of financial information are hard to compare with those of other industries. Nonperforming sector is also left out of my sample. After an elimination of some sample groups, I
have nine major groups remained in my study; Agro and Food, Consumer Products, Industrials,
Property and Construction, Resources, Services, Technology, MAI and delisted firms to avoid
selection bias.
I use data from publicly available sources to construct corporate governance index;
company annual reports, the mandatory Annual Disclosure Report (Form 56-1), corporate
websites, the web-based SET Market Analysis and Reporting Tool (SETSMART), and the SETŸs
Director Database. Other information regarding corporate violations of the Stock Exchange rules
is obtained from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)Ÿs database. The financial data
would be collected from annual reports and DataStream.
2. Hypotheses
H1: There is a negative relationship between corporate governance and decision to
diversify.
This is the test to solve a risen question about determinants of decision to diversify.
If agency theory is applicable for diversification, there should be a positive relationship between
corporate governance proxy by corporate governance index (CGI) and decision to diversify
proxy by Herfindahl index (HERF) because higher corporate governance should be more
concentrate on a few lines of businesses while corporate governance and number of reported
segments should have negative relationship.
H2: There is a positive relationship between corporate governance and diversification
value.
To test a cause of value distortion, if agency-motivated reason is applicable to express
value distortion associated with corporate diversification, there should yield a positive
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relationship. That is because good corporate governance firms reflected less agency problem
should have more firm value from diversification while bad corporate governance firms would be
punished by value discount. Corporate governance index (CGI) would be a proxy for corporate
governance together with Berger and OfekŸs excess value would represent value from
diversification.
Methodology
1. Excess Value
In calculating excess value, there are also many methods available such as TobinŸs q
(Lang and Stulz (1994)) and abnormal stock returns (Comment and Jarrell (1994)). Anyhow, the
paper of Berger and Ofek is the most widely accepted and used procedure as a benchmark. I
follow Berger and Ofek (1995) to compute excess value from diversification which could be
compared directly to the single-segment firms within the same industry as a benchmark unlike
TobinŸs q .
n

I(V) = ∑ AIi * (Indi (V/AI)mf)

(1)

i =1

EXVAL = ln(V/I(V))
(2)
Where I(V) = imputed value of the sum of a firmŸs segments as stand-alone firms,
AIi= segments iŸs value of the accounting item (sales) used in the valuation multiple, Indi
(V/AI)mf= multiple of the total capital to an accounting item for the median single-segment firm
in the segment iŸs industry, EXVAL= firmŸs excess value, V= firmŸs total capital(Market value of
common equity plus book value of debt), n= total number of segments in segment iŸs firm
Positive excess value indicates that the entire firm is worth as a whole more than the sum of
its segments whereas a negative excess value shows that the firm as a whole is worth less than
the sum of its segments. The report of excess value calculation is in Appendix B, Table 2.
2. Level of diversification
The selected diversification index in my study is Herfindahl index (HERF) since this
method could indicate degree of level of diversification for individual firms in the sample set.
The index is calculated for all firms based on the distribution of the firmŸs sales across its various
business segments as follows.
HERFi,t

n

= ∑ ( SSALEi,t/ SALEt)
i =1

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(3)

Where HERFi,t= Herfindahl index from firm i in year t, SSALEi,t= segment iŸs sales of the firm,
SALEt = firmŸs total sales of all reported segment in year t
The highest HERF equals to 1 representing firmsŸ concentration in business segments
rather than multi-segment. On the contrary, the lower HERF demonstrates high diversification.
The report of diversified degree calculation is in Appendix B, Table
3. Corporate governance index construction
A construction in corporate governance index (CGI), I employ five major components of
corporate governance: Board Structure, Conflict of Interest, Board Responsibilities, Shareholder
Rights, and Disclosure and Transparency same as Ananchotikul (2006) weighted for
20,25,20,10 and 25 percent respectively. Each sector has its own qualitative sub-questions to
reach the most accuracy and correction in rating. Those questions are weighted differently
when translating into score which is more explainable and correlated to quality of corporate
governance in overall. To illustrate, I demonstrate a few questions for Board Structure sector:
what is the size of board of directors? And what is the size of executive board? The total score
that has been used in running regression is 100 percent. See table 4 for corporate governace
index descriptive statistic.
4. Regression analysis
H1: Corporate governance and decision to diversify
To find a confirmation of a primary cause of division that agency theorem could describe
such the matter, I would do a test between corporate governance and degree of diversification
or decision to diversify. If firm division is the œpetŸ of an influential manager as agency theory,
such a case, degree of diversification (Herfindahl index -HERF) would be affected by firm
governance (CGI). I expect to see a positive relationship between HERF and CGI to approve
agency theory. The higher CGI, it should be the more HERF (lower degree of diversification).
HERFi,t =β0 β1CGIi,t+β2SIZEi,t+β3AGEi,t+β4LEVi,t+β5STDi,t+β6PROi,t+β7D7i,t+εi,t
(4)
Where HERFi,= Herfindahl index, CGIi,t= corporate governance index, SIZEi,t= firm size,
AGEi,t= firm age, LEVi,t= firm leverage, STDi,t= firm specific risk, PROi,t= firm profitability, D7i,t=
firm constrain in capital market (See Appendix ,Table 1 for control variables calculation.)
Table 5 presents regression result of 4 models based on Equation 4 to test degree of
diversification and corporate governance index by panel regression. All three models, 2-4,
support agency problem, size and age effect to diversification which is consistence to prior
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studies that diversification is a result from conflict of interest between managers and
stakeholders, larger firms have higher propensity to diversify and younger firms face barriers to
access new line of businesses.
Next is to investigate which component of CGI is the most influence to diversification.
HERFi,t = β0 +β11 B_STi,t+β12CON i,t +β13B_RESi,t+β14SHAi,t+β15DISi,t
+β2SIZEi,t+β3AGEi,t+β4LEVi,t+β5STDi,t+β6PROi,t+β7D7i,t+εi,t
(5)
The coefficients of each components of CGI would be subscripted by number 1 to
notice that they are parts of CGI and the next number would be indicators for the sub-index. For
example, β11 is for the first sub-index (board structure | B_STi,t) and β12 is for the second subindex (conflict of interest - CON i,t).
Table 6 is panel regression result of degree of diversification (HERFi,t) and five corporate
governance sub indices to replace corporate governance index but other variables is remained
in the regression. To sum up for Equation 5, Board responsibility is the only one of corporate
governance fractions that has been affected decision to diversify. An increase in one percent of
Board responsibility will cause a rise in business concentration. This agrees with Equation 4 that
better corporate governance even corporate governance index or sub-index
H2: Corporate governance and excess value
Its purpose is to answer the second hypothesis that if good corporate governance firms
which no agency problem persist have been diversified, the excess value would have lesser or
no effect relative to bad corporate governance firms where agency problem remains. I set CGI
as a representative for governance policy could be tested against firmŸs value owing to
diversification. The equation would have CGI as an independent variable and excess value as a
dependent variable. The control variables for this section is slightly different from the first
hypothesis because it needs two more explanatory variables, diversification status using a
dummy variable and industrial diversificationŸs effect by dummy variable in the regression.
EXVALi,t=β0+β1CGIi,t+β2SIZEi,t+β3AGEi,t+β4LEVi,t+β5STDi,t+β6PROi,t+β7D7i,t+β8D8i,t+β9D9i,t+εi,t (6)
Where EXVALi,t= firm excess value from Berger and Ofek method, CGIi,t= corporate governance
index, SIZEi,t= firm size, AGEi,t= firm age, LEVi,t= firm leverage, STDi,t= firm specific risk, PROi,t=
firm profitability, D7i,t= firm constrain in capital market, D8i,t= diversification status, D9i,t= industrial
diversification (See Appendix, Table 1 for control variables calculation.)

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Table 7 exposes regression result of ordinary least square (OLS) between value of
diversification (EXVAL) and corporate governance index (CGI). Equation 6 rejects my second
hypothesis saying that corporate governance is a cause of value distortion from diversification.
Conclusion
Referring to regression analysis, the result is that my study does support agency theory
using corporate governance as its proxy to explain diversification on decision to diversify. The
influential factor of corporate governance sub-index to propensity to diversify is not consistence
leading to disability in specification its result for this test. All tests to concerning degree of
diversification (HERF) and corporate governance index (CGI) accept my first hypothesis related
to decision to diversify telling that it is a result from an increase in agency problem consistence
to robustness tests. Other influential factors are firm size and firm age which resembles to other
researchers, for example, Kamphaeng (2000) remark that larger and older firms tend to diversify
than smaller and younger ones. Conversely, my second hypothesis regarding a link among
value of diversification (EXVAL) and corporate governance index is rejected since corporate
governance is not statistically significant for all the tests in this section agreed with robustness
checks. Firm size is sustainable significance positively to firm value after robust checks that
greater firm size will introduce value-enhancing to companies. Other variables beyond size are
not strongly significance to impact excess value.
A special feature of my paper is that I apply CGI to test for agency problem while most
of other papers try to focus on a few of governance mechanism which could not cover all
related important fractions of governance. Furthermore, there is no evidence on this topic in
Thailand before even though it could help to improve firm operating efficiency in the future.
There are some limitations in my study as well. As a consequence, there might be some
other variables related to diversification which is not included in my study caused trouble in
omitted factor. Next, some corporate governance questions need information on corporate
website for every year but we cannot track that information back for all sample periods (eight
years). That is because corporate website have adapted annually while we need the past
information in the website. Thus, we have to leave those questions in the index construction. The
existing limitation is that firms tend to have strategic management in reporting their investment in
business line; therefore, validity of segment sales report is still in doubt.
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Even though my paper finds an evidence to support agency theory in degree
of diversification, it does not appear on firmsŸ value. For further study in Thailand, the other basis
in calculating excess value (For example, EBIT and assets) and degree of diversification (For
example, numbers of reported segments) will probably bring a change in the regression result.
Furthermore, available information on corporate website in the index should be included
if researchers can collect that information to achieve the best corporate governance index in
their studies. Last but not least SET should make a clear criterion to justify firmsŸ operating
business rather than resort board definitions. To illustrate, the US has provided SIC that
precisely state corporate industry in both narrow (sector) and board (industry) classification.

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ก  
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กก   1
- 290 -

Corperate Cash Holdings, Earnings Management and
Corperate Governance : Evidence from Thailand
*
(. ก%
Introduction
The corporate governance is important aspect concerned by both shareholders and
investors because as the shareholders, one would want to maximize their own wealth through
their own operating firm. However, as long as the firm is operated by managers, who in turn
might waste corporate resource for their own benefits, the objective to maximize shareholders
wealth might be neglected. According to Pecking order theory, firms should use cash as the
first source of fund to invest because itŸs the lowest cost of financing. Moreover, the return from
profitable project is higher than the return of cash holdings. However, the conflict of interest may
occur as managers may have incentive to hold cash for building their own empire, investing in
their pet projects or even spending for their own luxurious commodities. As a result, the material
question of shareholders arises: whether firm hold excess cash and abandon the objective to
maximize shareholdersŸ wealth.
The demand to hold cash of managers may cause the earnings manipulation. Since
managers want cash to satisfy them, they may create the financial statement to increase cash
balance for their own interests. Moreover, the managersŸ compensations are partly tied to
companyŸs performance, while the most obvious and easiest way to evaluate companyŸs
effectiveness is through financial report. Thus, managers might have incentive to create
statement to show consistently good performance. Not only shareholders are affected from this
conflict of interest problem but outside investors also are influenced. Financial statements give
companyŸs information for evaluating any financial activities such as debt approval or securities
trading. The manipulated financial report will not reflect companyŸs true economic value that will
lead to unreliable valuation and, in turn, wrong investment decision.
As mentioned earlier about the importance of corporate cash holding and earning
management, further studies has focused on the effect of corporate governance on corporate
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cash holding and earning manipulation. Even though the relationships are different in each
samples; non-monotonic relationship in United Kingdom (Ozkan et al., 2004), negative
relationship between shareholder rights and cash holding in international (Dittmar et al., 2003),
while positive relationship in United State (Harford et al., 2008), overall, the empirical results
show significant relationship between corporate governance and cash holdings. For earnings
management, all studies are examined using United State as the sample, the results show that
firms with good corporate governance will have least likelihood to manipulate financial report
(Xie et al., 2001, Chtourou et al., 2001, Klein, 2002, Frank Yu, 2006)
There is a gap from previous studies that most of them are concern the relationship
between corporate cash holdings, earnings management and corporate governance in high
shareholders protection countries such as United State and United Kingdom. However in low
shareholder protection environment, the conflict of interest problem might be severe and has
significant impact to shareholders, who want to maximize their own wealth. The manipulation of
financial statements might becomes more serious for concerning, too, because low shareholder
rights give high opportunities for manager for earnings management and investors will perceive
wrong firmsŸ information to evaluate firmsŸ performance. As a result, I choose Thailand as the
sample to investigate the relationships of corporate cash holding, earnings management and
corporate governance. Not only Thailand is indicated as has low shareholder protection (Dittmar
et al., 2003) but Thailand also faced crisis due to the lack of high standard in corporate
governance (Tom Yum Kung crisis in 1997). Moreover, the previous studies of the relationship
corporate cash holding and corporate governance show conflict results when using different
samples. Hence, investigate using Thai listed companies is essential to find the conclusion of
this relationship in Thailand.
Objectives of the Study
To examines the empirical determinants of cash holdings and earnings management for
a sample of all Thai firms over the period 2002 | 2007, as a proxy of country in weak corporate
governance environment, by focus on the effect of corporate governance to cash holdings and
earnings management.

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Research Hypotheses
I test the following two hypotheses using listed Thai firms as the sample.
H1: There is a negative relationship between corporate governance and corporate cash
holdings
Cash give low rate of return to shareholders so for publicly traded firms, which have
lower asymmetric information and transaction cost, should hold cash just for invest in
unanticipated profitable project. And use the rest for money-making investment to gain higher
rate of return, which in turn leads to achieve managers and shareholdersŸ objective, maximize
shareholder wealth. I expect firms with strong corporate governance should have low conflict of
interest. As the result, managers in low corporate governance standard firms will accumulate
cash more than is necessary. Hence, one would expect to see negative relationship between
corporate governance and corporate cash holdings
H2: There is a negative relationship between corporate governance and earnings
management:
ManagersŸ compensations are partly based on firmŸs performance relative to benchmark
so managers have incentive to make consistently good performance financial statement. I
expect that the strong corporate governance system will lower chance of earning manipulation
as the results from previous studies also support this hypothesis. Hence, one would expect to
see negative relationship between corporate governance and earnings management.
Literature Review
1. Cash Holdings and Corporate Governance: Recent Empirical
As the result of conflict of interest between shareholder and manager, many recent
studies devote to the relationship between cash holdings and corporate governance. Using
ownership, board structure and controlling shareholders of firms as proxies of corporate
governance, Ozkan (2004) suggest that in United Kingdom, the ownership structure has
significant effects on determination of corporate cash holdings. The relationship is nonmonotonic and this pattern does not change significantly with the board composition or ultimate
controlling shareholders. The empirical result in United State of Harford, Mansi, and Maxwell
(2008) find that the firms with weaker corporate governance structures actually have smaller
cash reserves. They also argue that using G-Index (Gomper et al.; 2003), the firms with strong
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shareholders right hold more cash which inconsistent with the international studies of Dittmar,
Mahrt-Smith, and Servaes (2003). Dittmar, Mahrt-Smith, and Servaes argue that the countries
with low shareholder protection will hold cash twice times compared to good protected ones.
Moreover, some cash holdings motives from theories, such as investment opportunities and
asymmetric information©difficult to access external funding, seem to be less important for
counties where shareholder rights are poor protected. This contradiction encourage me to
investigate the relationship between cash holdings and corporate governance in Thailand,
which indicated statistics by Dittmar, Mahrt-Smith, and Servaes that low shareholders right but
hold less cash.
2. Earnings Management and Corporate Governance: Recent Empirical
The recent studies show consistent result of the relationship between earnings
management, the characteristics of audit committee and board of directors. Using audit
committee and board of directorsŸ characteristics as proxies of corporate governance, Xie,
Davidson and DaDalt (2001) find that firms with more independence audit committee, have
financial sophisticated as the committee members and higher number of meetings, have low
likelihood to manipulate financial reports. Chtourou et al. (2004), Klein (2002) and Yu (2006)
show a negative relationship is found between audit committee independence and abnormal
accruals. A negative relationship is also found between board independence and abnormal
accruals.
Overall, the theories conclude that firms hold cash for these following main reasons: 1)
Internal fund, such as cash, is low cost financing due to transaction and information
asymmetries of external financing cost. 2) To prevent cost of the forgone investment opportunity
when firm does not have liquid assets to invest in unexpected profitable project. However, due
to conflict of interest, excess cash is still a question to be concerned by shareholders, who have
wealth-maximization as the objective. Previous studies find that there is the relationship between
corporate governance and cash holding but the direction is still ambiguous when using different
samples and corporate governance proxies. The result of conflict of interest also reflects on
financial report as managers manipulate it to meet their satisfaction not reflect true firmŸs value.
The problem seems to be more severe for firms with poor characteristics of audit committee and
board of directors. However, there are gaps from previous studies. The first gap is most studies
concern the relationship only in high shareholders protection countries. The second one is
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previous studies use proxy that reflects only one aspect of corporate governance such as
characteristics of audit committee and board of directors, ownership and shareholder rights.
Hence, my study aims to examine the conflict of interest by testing the relationship of corporate
cash holdings, earnings management and corporate governance, using Thailand as the sample
and corporate governance index as the proxy of corporate governance.
Sample Selection and Sources of data
For my empirical analysis, I use publicly traded Thai firms listed on the Stock Exchange
of Thailand (SET). All of these firms have continuous financial data from 1999 to 2007, though
the sample period of panel regression is 2002 to 2007, the reason will be discussed later in next
section: regression analysis. The sample set of this study is constructed by first, exclude firm in
non-performing as some calculations use market value of equity. Second, firms that are
discontinued from 1999 to 2007 were dropped. From these criteria, I got 246 firms or 1,476
observations.
I used the financial data from Datastream and company annual report from Securities
and Exchange Commissions (SEC). For construct CGI, I use the data from the mandatory
Annual Disclosure Report (Form 56-1), company annual reports, corporate websites, the webbased SET Market Analysis and Reporting Tool (SETSMART), and the SETŸs Director Database.
Methodology
1. Corporate Governance Index Construction
I construct Corporate Governance Index (CGI) base on the approach of Ananchotikul
(2006). This index using information of Thai listed companies from publicly source, including the
mandatory Annual Disclosure Report (Form 56-1), company annual reports, corporate websites,
the web-based SET Market Analysis and Reporting Tool (SETSMART), and the SETŸs Director
Database, to avoid bias from self-evaluated questionnaire. The obtained data from 87 questions
will be grouped in to five governance components: A) Board Structure, B) Conflict of Interest, C)
Board Responsibilities, D) Shareholder Rights, and E) Disclosure and Transparency.
Scores are given to each of the governance items and taking a weighted average of the sub
indexes to create CGI. As the result CGI runs from 0 to 100 with higher values indicating better
corporate governance.

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For the proxy of corporate governance, corporate governance index, table 3 presents
mean and median level of it and its sub-indices over period 2002-2007. The sub-indices are
shown in percentage of their maximum score of data collected through questionnaire. Each
sub-index is given a weight of 20%, 25%, 20%, 10% and 25%, respectively, to calculate
corporate governance index. The maximum score of each column is 100, the strongest
corporate governance of a firm. The highest average score of sub-indices of Thai firms in my
sample is E. Disclosure and Transparency (59.473), while the lowest one is C. Board
Responsibility (43.898). The overall mean and median levels of CGI of all 246 firms in the
sample is 48.845 and 48.664, respectively. These number show that on average, Thai firms
have CGI score lower than half of maximum score (50.000) of the questionnaire.
Table 4 reports descriptive statistics on annual corporate governance index and subindices over period 2002 | 2007 of the sample. Panel A presents CGIŸs statistics each year. The
data can be interpret that in average corporate governance index trend to increase every year
over period 2002-2007; 37.655, 43.474, 50.116, 51.753, 54.312 and 55.531, respectively. This
trend also appears in all corporate governance sub-indices. The corporate governance index
grows very fast in first few years (2002-2004), after that the growth rate is lower (2004-2007).
2. Estimations of Discretionary Accruals
I use discretionary accruals as the proxy for earnings management. Since all of the
accruals are not the results of earnings manipulation. Some accrual adjustments are necessary
and appropriate and need to be applied on a regular basis. To detect earnings management,
total accruals can be decomposed into two parts: non-discretionary accruals (NDAs) and
discretionary accruals (DAs)
I follow a model of Yu (2006), which is the modified version of the Jones model (Dechow
et al. 1995). To get discretionary accruals, I first run the following cross-sectional OLS
regression to estimate of coefficients α1, α2, and α3.
TAit
1
∆REVit ∆ΑRit
PPEit
= α1
+ α 2(

) +α3
+ ε it
Ait − 1
Ait − 1
Ait − 1
Ait − 1
Ait − 1

(A1)

where i indexes firms, t indexes time, TA it = Net income | Cash flow from operation, ∆REV it =
changes in sales revenues, ∆AR it = change in receivables, PPE it = gross property, plant, and
equipment, Ait-1 = lagged total assets
Then I use the estimated α1, α2, and α3 to calculate non-discretionary accruals.
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NDAit ≡ αˆ 1

1
Ait − 1

+ αˆ 2(

∆REVit ∆ARit
PPEit

) + αˆ 3
Ait − 1
Ait − 1
Ait − 1

(A2)

So discretionary accruals can be derived as:
DAit ≡ ε it =

TAit
− NDAit
Ait − 1

(A3)
All the variables are scaled by total assets in the beginning of the period, and the magnitude of
a firm's discretionary accruals is indicated as a percentage of firmŸs asset.
Table 5 shows mean and median levels of total accruals, non-discretionary accruals and
abnormal accruals or discretionary accruals of the sample. A mean and a median of total
accruals is -2.3% and -3.6% respectively, meaning that in average, the firms in my sample have
cash flow from operation higher than net income. Abnormal accruals, the result of total accruals
and non-discretionary accruals, has a mean of -0.7% and a median of -1.8% with standard
deviation of 10.9%.
3. Corporate Governance and Cash Holdings
Based on the approach of Ozkan (2004), I examine the relationship between cash
holdings and CGI in 2002-2007 by estimating the coefficient in the following logistic model
CASHit = α0 + α 1CASHit-1 + α 2CFLOWit + α 3LIQit + α 4LEVit +
α 5MKTVALUEit + α 6SIZEit + α 7VARIABILITYit + α 8DIVIDENDit + (B1)
α 9CGIit + εit

I also run another regression to divided CGI into five corporate governance components
to find each contribution to corporate cash holdings.
CASHit = α 0 + α 1CASHit − 1 + α 2CFLOWit + α 3 LIQit + α 4 LEVit +

α 5 BANKDEBTit + α 6 MKTVALUEit + α 7 SIZEit + α 8VARIABILITYit +
α 9 DIVIDENDit + α 10 BRDSTUCTUREit + α 11CONFLICTit +
α 12 BRDRESit + α 13 SHRRIGHTit + α 14 DISCLOSUREit + ε it

(B2)

4. Corporate Governance and Earning Managements
I examine the relationship between earnings management and corporate governance in
2002-2007 by using control variables inspired by Chtourou Bedard and Courteau (2004). This
relationship is observed through the following regression.
EARNMANit = β 0 + β 1 CFLOW it + β 2 EARNINGS it +

β 3 NEG _ CFit + β 4 LOSSit + β 5 ASSETit + β 6 ROAit +
β 7GSALESit + β 8 DEBTit + β 9CGIit + ε it

(C1)

Same as cash holdings, I also run regression of control variables and sub corporate
governance indexes as following

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EARNMANit = α 0 + α 1 CFLOW it + α 2 EARNINGS it +

α 3 NEG _ CFit + α 4 LOSSit + α 5 ASSETit + α 6 ROAit +
α 7GSALESit + α 8 DEBTit + α 9 BRDSTUCTUREit + α 10CONFLICTit +
α 11BRDRESit + α 12 SHRRIGHTit + α 13 DISCLOSUREit + ε it

(C2)

Regression analysis
In this section I will present results of panel regression analysis focusing on the
questions of whether corporate governance (using corporate governance index as a proxy)
influence corporate cash holdings and earnings management. And to find if corporate cash
holdings and earnings management have relationship.
Corporate Governance and Cash Holdings
I find the determinants of cash holdings by start at the question of whether corporate
governance affect cash levels of firm. To do so, I estimate a panel regression on cash model of
Ozkan (2004). The period for the regression is 2002 to 2007, however, I use firms that have
continuous financial data from 1999 to 2007 because VARIBILITY, one of control variables, has
to measure using past 3 years data.
Table 6 shows set of estimation results for the panel regression. In column (B1), the
regression reports the result from equation (B1) that includes the control variables and
corporate governance index (CGI) for our main analysis. In column (B2), I categorize CGI into 5
sub-indices: A. Board Structure, B. Conflict of Interest, C. Board Responsibility, D. Shareholder
Rights and E. Disclosure and Transparency (see equation (B2)).
First, I show the estimation of the following panel regressions model:
CASHit = α0 + α 1CASHit-1 + α 2CFLOWit + α 3LIQit + α 4LEVit +
α 5MKTVALUEit + α 6SIZEit + α 7VARIABILITYit + α 8DIVIDENDit + α 9CGIit + εit
(B1)

All of the estimated coefficients are in line with the hypothesized signs. The result
supports that firm liquidity (LIQ), leverage (LEV) and size (SIZE) has negative relationship with
corporate cash holding, while lagged cash (CASH) and firm variability
(VARIABILITY) exerts positive effect. Both variables are significant at the 1% level. Finally, there
are no evidences supports that dividend paid (DIVIDEND), cash flow (CFLOW) and Market to
book ratio (MKTBOOK) have significant influences on cash holding.
The negative effect of liquidity (LIQ) to cash holdings is consistent with the view that firm
can use their net working capital as substitute for cash holdings same as leverage (LEV) that
firm can use borrowing in stead. Firm size (SIZE) exerts negative effect to cash levels as the
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larger firms are likely to have less asymmetric information problem and trend to reach source of
fund at lower cost. The regressions results also show a significant positive of firm variability,
which is consistent with the view, that firm with high variability of cash flow will hold more cash to
avoid shortage of cash that lead to underinvestment problem.
The result provides no evidence supports that (CGI) influences cash holdings.
Furthermore, I divide CGI into 5 sub-indices, which are the major aspect of corporate
governance that this index capture. These sub-indices are A. Board Structure, B. Conflict of
Interest, C. Board Responsibility, D. Shareholder Rights and E. Disclosure and Transparency.
The model (B2) focuses on finding each contribution to corporate cash holdings.
CASHit = α 0 + α 1CASHit − 1 + α 2CFLOWit + α 3 LIQit + α 4 LEVit +
α 5 BANKDEBTit + α 6 MKTVALUEit + α 7 SIZEit + α 8VARIABILITYit +
α 9 DIVIDENDit + α 10 BRDSTUCTUREit + α 11CONFLICTit +
α 12 BRDRESit + α 13 SHRRIGHTit + α 14 DISCLOSUREit + ε it

(B2)
The results of control variables are similar to the former regressions, all of them have same sign
of coefficients and significant at the same level excluding variability (VARIABILITY) that the
significant level is change from 1% to 5%.
Same as CGI, all sub-indices: Board structure (BRDSTRUCTURE), conflict of interest
(CONFLICT), board responsibilities (BRDRES), shareholder rights (SHRRIGHT) and disclosure
and transparency (DISCLOSURE) are not influence firm cash level.
In summary, the regressions suggest that CGI and all sub-indices are not influence corporate
cash holdings. The first hypothesis is rejected as corporate governance is not one of cash
determinants for Thai firms.
Corporate Governance and Earnings Management
This study observes the relationship of corporate governance and earnings
management of 246 Thai firms over period 2002 to 2007. The control variables are inspired by
the work of Chtourou Bedard and Courteau (2004), which they mentioned that uthe first eight
control variables are included in the effort to ameliorate the measurement errors that may occur
in the estimation of abnormal accruals.
Table 7 reports set of estimation results for the panel regression of earnings
management, CGI and other control variables. Column (C1) reports the result from equation
(C1) that includes the control variables describe in the table above and CGI. Column (C2)

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reports the result from equation (C2) that include the control variables describe in the table
above and sub-indices of CGI.
The model of regression in column (C1) is shown in the following:
EARNMANit = β 0 + β 1 CFLOW it + β 2 EARNINGS it +

β 3 NEG _ CFit + β 4 LOSSit + β 5 ASSETit + β 6 ROAit +
β 7GSALESit + β 8 DEBTit + β 9CGIit + ε it

(C1)

Most of previous works are not include firm characteristics control variables in
regression of earnings management and CGI. Hence, I follow the model of Chtourou Bedard
and Courteau (2004) however they didnŸt mention the expected coefficients of the control
variables. Nevertheless, the result in column (C1) shows that absolute value of cash flow
(│CFLOW│), negative cash flow (NEG_CF) and debt (DEBT) exert negative effect to earning
managements, which are significant at the 1%, 1% and 5% level, respectively. Return on asset
(ROA) and Sales growth (GSALES) show positive relationship with earnings manipulation and
are significant at the 1% level. There are no evidences supports that absolute value of earnings
(│EARNINGS│), loss (LOSS) and firm size (ASSET) influence earnings management.
The result shows no relationship between earnings management and CGI.
However when I divided CGI into sub-indices as the following equation:
EARNMANit = α 0 + α 1 CFLOW it + α 2 EARNINGS it +

α 3 NEG _ CFit + α 4 LOSSit + α 5 ASSETit + α 6 ROAit +
α 7GSALESit + α 8 DEBTit + α 9 BRDSTUCTUREit + α 10CONFLICTit +
α 11BRDRESit + α 12 SHRRIGHTit + α 13 DISCLOSUREit + ε it

(C2)

The result in column (C2) is very similar to (C1), however, firm size show positive
relationship and significant at the 10% level and debt exerts positive effect and is significant at
the 1% level in stead of 5% level.
Even though, corporate governance index doesnŸt have relationship with earnings
management, when divide it into sub category, the result shows that shareholder rights exert
negative effect to earnings manipulate and is significant at the 1% level. However, there are no
evidences shows that the rest sub-indices influence earnings manipulation.
To sum up, the corporate governance index is not one determinants of earnings
management. Hence, I rejected my second hypothesis if using CGI as the proxy of corporate
governance but if using shareholder rights, a part of CGI, as a replacement for, then I cannot
reject the hypothesis.

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Conclusion
The results of the regressions show that there is no significant association either
corporate cash holdings or likelihood of earning managements with the corporate governance,
using corporate governance index as a proxy. These results are not consistent with precious
studies. These may cause by some limitations of this study. First, I am unable to control for all
variables potential correlated with accruals and cash level in emerging market, so there remains
a possibility that the results may cause by bias caused by some omitted variable. Second, this
study focuses on finding the relationships over long period (6 years). Hence, my sample, that
must has continuous financial data since 1999 to 2007, may be too small and also have survivor
bias. Finally, for corporate governance index, corporate governance level is based on only
form56-1 thus, might not be able to capture the other aspects of corporate governance.
However, when using shareholder rights, one of the sub-indices of corporate governance index,
I find negative relationship between earnings management and shareholder rights. This may be
because independence board of directors, the proxy of shareholders, act for the best interest
for shareholders. Hence, reduce the level of earnings manipulation.
As the result show that corporate governance index is not related with cash holdings
and earnings management, for further study, other methods of determine corporate governance
are encourage. Moreover, this study examine the relationship by finding the evidence of a
correlation between financial data, financial reporting quality and publicly report, therefore the
process of the effect among corporate governance, earnings management and cash holdings
is very little understandings. Hence, the further study should be concentrate more on this
process e.g. using neural model.

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The impirical study on the correlation between market orientation
and new product performance in Thailand‡s Electronic and Electrical
industries.
Chutima Wangbenmad
Introduction
In Thailand, the electronics industry is one of the largest in the manufacturing sector.
The value and diversity of electronic exports have continued to increase with positive effect on
ThailandŸs trade and GDP. This industry has a significant contribution to ThailandŸs economic
growth and employment. However the environmental factors for example the rapidly technology
change that led the shorter product life cycle, the complex demand and intense competition
worsen the situation. According to UNICAD (2005) reported that electronics export market
positioning was changed from champion to lost opportunity. To compete in the world market,
ThailandŸs electronic manufacturers necessitate invest more in R & D, innovativeness and
imaginative new designs in lie with rapidly changing international customersŸrequirement.
Market orientation is the capability of organization to generate market intelligence, disseminate
market intelligence across various functions of the organization and organization | wide
responsiveness to it ((Kohli & Jaworski, 1990). According to market orientation the entire
organization need to involved in selecting the appropriate target markets, designing, producing,
promoting and distributing products that meet current and anticipated needs. This study will
conduct research on relationship between market orientation and new product performance.
Literature review
1. Market orientation
For more than 30 years market orientation has been an issue by both marketing academies and
marketing managers. It is the very heart of modern marketing management and strategy (Nerver
& Slater, 1990). There are two main conceptualizations of market orientation. Firstly, Kohli and
Jaworski (1990) conceptualizes market orientation as the process of implementing marketing
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concepts with 3 behaviors processes (1) market intelligence generation, (2) dissemination and
(3) responsiveness. Secondly, Narver & Slater (1990) conceptualizes market orientation as
a business culture with 3 behavioral components (1) customer orientation (2) competitor
orientation and (3) inter- functional coordination.
For new product development besides knowledge of customers and competitors,
they need to know the other environmental factors such as stakeholders (suppliers), social &
cultural, regulations & macro economic factors. This study, we conceptualizes market
orientation followed by Kohli & Jaworski (1990) that viewed market orientation as market
intelligence with components of (1) generation of market intelligence (2) dissemination of market
intelligence and (3) responsiveness to market intelligence.
1.1 Generation of market intelligence
Market intelligence is the organization monitoring and collect information about
competitors' actions and their effect on customer preferences and analyzing the effect of other
exogenous factors such as government regulation, laws, technology and environmental forces.
It relies on formal and informal mechanisms as; customer surveys, customer visits, direct
observation, sales meeting, meetings and discussions with customers and trade partners,
analysis of sales reports, business report, published market research reports, customer
satisfaction studies, and so on (Kohli & Jaworski, 1990). Information that is relevant to customers
and competitors is obtained by functional departments in the company such as R&D, marketing,
manufacturing, and finance. Market orientation focuses attention not only on customers but also
on the external factors as an additional factors in the environment that affect the firm.
1.2 Dissemination of market intelligence
Intelligence dissemination is the organization's ability to adapt to market needs and
to effectively communicate. It is important because it provides a shared basis for concerted
actions different departments. It is the process inwhich the information from different sources is
distributed, shared and transferred throughout the team by memos, reports, bulletin boards and
face to face meeting, breaks (Dixon, 1992; Huber, 1991; Sinkula, 1994).
Information dissemination processes are instrumental in making individual insights and know how accessible to others (Purser et al., 1992). The sharing of information helps to keep
everybody up to date and build cohesion within the group (Imai et al., 1988). Shared knowledge
is one of the unique, valuable, and critical resources that are central to having a competitive
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advantage (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Prahalad and Hamel, 1990). Successful dissemination
requires the participation and cooperation of organizations' departments.
1.3 Responsiveness to market intelligence
Companies must not only have information and knowledge but also the capacity and
willingness to act (Liao et al., 2003). Responsiveness is the ability of initiating actions based on
the information generated and disseminated across the organization (Kohli, Jaworski, & Kumar,
1993). Responsiveness is the organizationŸs capacity for recognizing, anticipating, and acting
on market shift and movement or new technological developments in a way that is superior to its
competitor (Liao et al., 2003). All departments need to be responsive as selecting
the appropriate target market, designing, producing, promoting and distributing products that
meet current and anticipated needs.
2. New product performance
Product performance refers to the success of the product in the market place. Product
performance can be gauged by indicators such as sales and market share, the number of
awards received and the number of customer returns. In this study new product performance in
electronics industry based on general indicators of customer performance, market performance
and financial performance.
Methodology
This research studied the correlation between market orientation and new product
performance. The conceptual framework is shown in Fig.1
Market orientation New product performance
1. Generation of market intelligence 1. Customer performance
2. Dissemination of market intelligence 2. Market performance
3. Responsiveness to market intelligence 3. Financial performance
Assumptions
The following assumptions were used in this study:
H . There is a significant positive relationship between market orientation and customer
1

performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the generation of market
1-1

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intelligence and customer performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the dissemination of
1-2

market intelligence and customer performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the responsiveness to
1-3

market intelligence and customer performance.
H . There is a significant positive relationship between market orientation and market
2

performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the generation of market
2-1

intelligence and market r performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the dissemination of
2-2

market intelligence and market performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the responsiveness to
2-3

market intelligence and market performance.
H . There is a significant positive relationship between market orientation and financial
3

performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the generation of market
3-1

intelligence and financial performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the dissemination of
3-2

market intelligence and financial performance.
H There is a significant positive relationship between the responsiveness to
3-3

market intelligence and financial performance.
Data collection
The population for this study is the electronics and electrical sectors in Thailand.
The unit of analysis is the organization that has new product development activities
or R & D department. The respondents are marketing, general management or product
management background.
The list of all electrical and electronic companies has 2,294 firms (ThailandŸs electrical
and electronics institute, 2007). However not all are involved in R & D or NPD. According to
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UNCTAD (2005) only 5 - 6% have involved in R & D and NPD (2,294 x 6% = 140).
Thus the actual population for this study is the 140 companies that are involved in R & D
and NPD.
According to Raosoft (2004) an estimated sample size would be around 103 companies
(margin of error 5% and confidence level of 95%). However since a list of all companies
involved with R & D and NPD is unavailable, the list of all Electrical and Electronic companies
will be used as a population frame. Base on the population frame, a simple random sample will
be selected. After a sample has been chosen, a screening question will be asked by telephone
prior to sending the complete questionnaire. Only companies with R & D and NPD will be
chosen as the respondent for this study.
Measurement
To measure market orientation 24 items were used. These items were adapted from
Matsuno et al., (2000) who developed an improved market orientation measurement scale built
on Kohli, Jaworski and KumarŸs market orientation measurement scale (MARKOR32).
This measure includes the element of intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination
and responsiveness. A five point likert scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly
agree has been employed for all the market orientation items.
As because this study intends to analyze impact of market orientation towards new product
performance we measured new product performance with three constructs: customer
performance, market performance and financial performance.

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Analysis and Results
Table 1 The frequency of characteristics in 103 responding firms
Demographic variables
Product categories
Electrical product/Equipment
Electrical parts
Others
Years operation
7 - 10 yrs
11 - 20 yrs
21 | 30 yrs
More than 30 yrs
Number of employees
50 to 200
More than 200
Sales proportion in market
Export sale less than 10%
Export sale 10 | 20 %
Export sale 25 | 45 %
Export sale more than 50%
Domestic sale only
Foreigner shareholder
90%
60 - 70 %
45 | 55 %
10 - 30 %
Thai owner 100 %
Position
Assistance vice president
General manager
Business development manager
Assistance marketing manager
Senior marketing officer
Marketing supervisor
Export manager
Export sale executive
Sale executive
Sale coordinator

Categories
Company profile
Electronic parts/Semiconductor, IC
Software
40
24
14
2 | 5 yrs
12
45
27
16
Below 50
21
70
Domestic sale only
6
18
17
47
15
Foreigner owner 100%
2
3
8
4
50
Respondent profile
Marketing/sale manager
2
7
5
4
7
6
4
3
5
3

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Frequency

(%)

25

24

3

12

15

36

55

39
23
14
2.9
11.7
43.7
26.2
15.5
11.6
20.4
68.0
14.6
5.8
17.5
16.5
45.6
15
35
1.9
2.9
7.8
3.9
48.5
53.4
1.9
6.8
4.9
3.9
6.8
5.8
3.9
2.9
4.9
2.9

Sale marketing
Years experience
2 | 4 yrs
5 - 10 yrs
11 - 15 yrs
More than 15 yrs
Involvement in new product
development
Much
Number of new product during 3 years
past
3-4
5 above
Characteristic of new product
New to the company
Product line extension
Product modification

2
1 | 1.5 yrs

1.9
4.9
20.4
43.7
18.4
12.6
8.8
32
59.2

5
21
45
19
13

Less
Middle

9
33
61

New product information
1-2

18

18

24
61
New to the market

23
59
11
35
24
30

25
78
53
64

Table 2 The frequency of customer performance measurement scale
Statement
Improved customer acceptance
Improved Customer satisfaction
Improved customer value
Reduced customer complaint

Very poor Poor Middle Good Very good Mean STD
-

3
1
3

19
24
17
38

56
58
62
50

25
20
24
10

4.00
3.94
4.07
3.63

.74
.68
.63
.73

Overall Mean = 3.91, Over all STD = .70
Table 3 The frequency of market performance measurement scale
Statement
Met sales goal
Met sales growth goal
Met market share goal
Relative sales with other new product in
company

Very poor Poor Middle Good Very good Mean STD
2
2
1
1

10
12
11
10

48
46
46
41

37
37
40
45

Overall Mean = 3.36, Over all STD = .80

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- 308 -

6
6
5
6

3.34
3.32
3.36
3.44

.781
.83
.78
.79

Table 4 The frequency of financial performance measurement scale
Statement

Very poor Poor Middle Good Very good Mean STD
1
2
2
1

Return on investment
Met profitability goal
Met revenue goal
Met revenue growth

10
11
11
15

51
47
51
46

37
41
39
38

4
2
3

3.32
3.29
3.23
3.26

.74
.76
.72
.78

Overall Mean = 3.33, Over all STD = .75
Table 5 The frequency of market intelligence generation measurement scale
Statement

Mean

STD

50

Strong
agree
19

3.72

.95

32

49

14

3.63

.91

10

36

37

16

3.50

1.00

6

11

33

43

10

3.39

.85

5. In our business, intelligence on our
competitions is generated
independently by several departments.

1

9

47

34

12

3.46

.85

6. In our company, we spend time with
our supplier to learn more about various
aspects of their business
(manufacturing process, industry
practices, clientele).

1

10

30

54

8

3.56

.81

Intelligence generation
1. In our company, we poll end users at
least once a year to assess the quality
of our products & services.
2. We periodically review the likely
effect of changes in our business
environment (e.g., regulation) on
customers.
3. We frequently collect and evaluate
general macro economic information
(interest rate, exchange rate, gross
domestic product, industry growth rate,
inflation rate).
4. We collect and evaluate information
concerning general social trends
(environmental, emerging lifestyles) that
might affect business.

Strongly
disagree
3

Dis agree

Middle

Agree

8

23

4

4

4

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Statement
7. In our company, we maintain
contacts with officials of governments &
regulatory bodies (NECTEC, E&E
institute) in order to collect and evaluate
pertinent information.
8. In our company, only a few people
are collecting competitorsŸ information.

Strongly
disagree
6

Dis agree

Middle

Agree

Mean

STD

44

Strong
agree
13

10

30

3.47

1.03

5

19

56

17

6

3.00

.89

Mean

STD

3.55

.92

Overall Mean = 3.42, Overall STD = .72
Table 6 The frequency of market intelligence dissemination measurement scale
Statement
1. Marketing personnel in our company
spend time discussing customersŸ future
needs with other functional departments.
2. Technical people in our company spend
a lot of time sharing information about
technology for new products with other
departments.
3. Our company, periodically circulates
documents (reports, newsletters) that
provide information on our customers.
4. When something important happens to
a major customer or market, the whole
business unit is informed about it within a
short time.
5. In our company, we regularly have
interdepartmental meetings to update our
knowledge of regulatory requirements.
6. We have cross | functional meeting to
discuss market trends and development
(customers, competitors, suppliers)
7. Market information spreads quickly in
this business unit.
8. When one department finds out
something important about competitors, it
is slow to alert other departments

Strongly
disagree
1

Dis agree

Middle

Agree

13

31

44

Strong
agree
14

2

9

42

41

9

3.46

.85

3

19

40

28

13

3.28

1.00

1

8

24

45

25

3.83

.92

1

7

23

48

24

3.84

.89

1

5

28

52

17

3.77

.82

2

13

39

37

12

3.43

.92

2

17

36

36

12

3.38

.96

Overall Mean = 3.52, Overall STD = .72
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Table 7 The frequency of responsiveness measurement scale
Statement
Responsiveness
1. Several departments get together
periodically to plan and respond to
changes taking place in our business
environment.
2. We periodically review our product
development efforts to ensure they are in
line with what customers want.
3. The principles of market segmentation
drive new product development effort in
this business unit.
4. For one reason or another we tend to
ignore changes in our customerŸs product
or service needs.
5. We tend to take longer than our
competitors to respond to a change in
regulatory policy.
6. The product lines we sell depend more
on internal politics than real market needs.

Strongly
disagree
1

Disagree

Middle

Agree

8

36

-

5

1

7. Our business plans are driven more by
technological advances than by market
research.
8. We are slow to start business with new
suppliers even through we think they are
better than exiting ones.

Mean

STD

38

Strong
agree
20

3.66

.91

23

54

21

3.88

.78

7

25

57

13

3.72

.81

-

4

24

55

20

3.88

.76

2

9

39

40

13

3.51

.90

2

7

36

48

10

3.55

.84

1

21

44

30

7

3.20

.88

2

12

44

37

8

3.36

.86

Overall Mean = 3.59, Overall STD = .68
Table 8 The correlation between market orientation and new product performance
Customer performance
MO
Intelligence generation
Intelligence dissemination
Responsiveness

Performance
Business performance Financial performance
.44**
.30**
.38**
.48**

.48**
.30**
.50**
.47**

.38**
.23*
.39**
.38**

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- 311 -

Conclusion
The electronics industry was selected for a questionnaire survey and evaluation of the
study. The results of a statistical study indicated that the market orientation exhibited a positive
effect on new product performance. Alternatively, uthe more market orientation implementation
the better the new product performance. Therefore to survive, the manufacturers must
emphasizes on the generation of market intelligence, the dissemination of market intelligence
and organization - wide responsiveness to it to obtain the higher the new product performance.
This research targeted only electronics industry. It is our suggestion that other industries be
analyzed in the future. The correlation among different industries adopting market orientation
and new product performance should be examined.

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How online trust impacts online repurchase intention :
A case study of www.taobao.com 
.''" (กก3'
Introduction
In the past three years, the number of Internet users in China grew rapidly. The number
of Internet users increased from 0.094 billion users in December 2004 to 0.21 billion users in
December 2007 (China Internet Network Information Center--CNNIC, 2008). At the same time,
with the development of the Internet, the electronic |commerce (popularly used as
e-commerce) also begins to play a major role in the whole market (Fan, 2004).
According to a survey released on June 26th, 2008, China will replace Japan as the
largest online shopping market in the Asia-Pacific region in 2010. There are totally 0.21 billion
Internet users in China. Among them, 46.4 million have online transaction experience; the
number of online purchase users accounts for 22.1% of the total Internet users. If considering
the potential online shopping users, the rate will be increased by more than 50%
(CNNIC, 2008).
However, a serious concern is the number of customer complaints, which has hampered
the sector's development. Although statistics show that a majority of Internet users in China
have tried out online shopping, they do not really trust this new way of buying, due to a lack of
trust in online vendors. Experts say until a system of trust is built, online shopping will not take
off in a big way (Zheng, 2008). Distrust in online trust is a major problem that causes and
discourages customers from shopping online. This is prevalent in China. As such, itŸs crucial
and imperative to examine its impact.
Thus, the objectives of the paper are to find: 1) determinants of online TAM, perceived
risk, characteristics of the company; 2) determinants of online trust; 3) the impact of online trust
on Online repurchase intention.
This research chose www.taobao.com (Taobao) because Taobao occupies most C2C
online auction market; moreover, the success of Taobao reflects the situation of ChinaŸs online
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auction market (Chen et al., 2007). In addition, the research was conducted in Shanghai and
Beijing because according to the CNNIC (2008) the total number of Internet user is 25.3 million,
with 8.09 million users in Shanghai and 7.54 million in Beijing. Both cities accounted for 61.8%
of the Internet users in China. Moreover, the average shopping network utilization rate is 25 % in
China, but Shanghai is the most popular city with the shopping network utilization rate of 45.2 %
followed by Beijing with the rate of 38.9 %.
The paper is organized as follows. Firstly, related literature and research model
reviewed; Secondly, designed framework and the methodology are proposed; Thirdly, findings
are presented; Finally, the paper rounds off with conclusion and recommendations.
Literature review and research model
Unlike traditional purchasing channels, customers making purchases on the net are not
able to touch, feel or test most of the products or services provided by the online shops before
they make an order (Lee & Turban, 2001). Moreover, the vendor is always unobserved and even
unknown. Customers not only have to run the risk that the products received from online shops
are unacceptable quality, but also that they might not even receive the ordered item at all
(Pavlou, 2003; Ratnasingham, 1998). Lack of trust is one of the most frequently cited reasons for
consumers not shopping on the Internet (Lee & Turban, 2001). Furthermore, trust can benefit
companies by reducing their transaction costs, increasing their flexibility and efficiently, and
helping them to design their future marketing plans or strategies more accurately (Chen &
Dhillon, 2003; Dyer, 1997; Nooteboon, 2003; Zaheer et al., 1998).
Online trust
Online trust is the willingness of a consumer to be vulnerable to the actions of an online
store based on the expectation that the online store will perform a particular action important to
the consumer, irrespective of the ability to monitor or control the online store (Mayer & Davis,
1995). In general, there are many different definitions in different ways. Trust not only play a
main role between truster and trustee, but also in the context of information system (Kini &
Choobineh, 1998; Chopra & Wallace, 2003; Kong & Hung, 2006), in the use of third-parties
(Cranor, 1998; Durkan et al., 2003; Brigges et al., 2004; Yang et al., 2005) and in privacy

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protection (Tavani, 1999; Walters, 2001; Pavlou, 2003), and thereby trust has a great influence
on end-users when they decide whether to participate in e-commerce or not (Lee et al., 2006).
There are three indicators to bring out online trust: perceived technology, perceived risk
and characteristic of the company.
Online trust and perceived technology
A website is an information technology to help the buyer-seller can complete their
transaction via Internet. According to the experience studies online trust and online repurchase
intentions should be explained in part by the technology acceptance model, TAM (Davis 1989;
Davis et al. 1989). At present, this model is main theory of technology acceptance in information
system research. Over the past decade, several researchers have applied the TAM to examine
the usage of information technology (Chen et al., 2002; Koufaris, 2002; Luo et al., 2000;
Mathieson et al., 2001; Moon & Kim, 2001). According to TAM, behavioral intention to use a new
technology is determined by three factors: perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use (Davis,
1989; Davis et al., 1989; Koufaris & Hampton-Sosa, 2004) and enjoyment of technology
(Venkatesh & Davis, 2000; Van der Heijden et al., 2003).
uUsefulness referred to customersŸ perceptions regarding the outcome of the online
shopping experience, uease of use refers to their perceptions regarding the process leading to
the final online shopping outcome. In a simplified manner, it can be stated that uusefulness is
how effective shopping online is in helping customers to accomplish their task, and uease of
use is how easy the Internet as a shopping medium is to use. Enjoyment of technology is
regarded as a factor motivating a consumerŸs desire to transact online (Venkatesh & Davis,
2000; Van der Heijden et al., 2003). Enjoyment results from the fun and playfulness of the online
shopping experience, rather than from shopping task completion. Thus, uenjoyment reflects
customersŸ perceptions regarding the potential entertainment of Internet shopping. Childers et
al. (2001) found uenjoyment to be a consistent and strong predictor of attitude toward online
shopping. If consumers enjoy their online shopping experience, they have a more positive
attitude toward online shopping, and are more likely to adopt the Internet as a shopping
medium. Therefore, the perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use, and enjoyment in
technology have positive impact on online trust in Taobao.

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Online trust and perceived risk
Perceived risk can be regarded as a customerŸs subjective function of the magnitude of
adverse consequences and the probabilities that these consequences may occur if the product
is acquired (Dowling & Staelin, 1994). The existing empirical evidence suggests that for buying
something on the Internet the trust of the company negatively influences the perceived risk
(Featherman, 2001; Pavlou, 2001)
Some studies have treated perceived risk as a multi-dimensional construct. Earlier work
has shown that perceived risk consists of numerous types of risk, including financial risk,
physical risk, functional risk, social risk and time-loss risk (Jacoby & Kaplan, 1972, Kaplan et al.,
1974; Roselius, 1971). Zikmund and Scott (1973) asserted the importance of risk associated
with the opportunity cost of making a purchase decision. Dowling and Staelin (1994) found that
consumers need more information to make more risky decisions. Hence, information risk is
another type of risk.
For the research, perceived security and perceived privacy are used to determine the
perceived risk.
Perceived security is the extent to which one believer that the web is secure for
transmitting sensitive information, such as credit card or social security number. Moreover,
Security is a vendorŸs guarantee that such information is safe during transmission and
subsequent storage (Culnan, 2000). Key security concerns involve third-party illegal access to
consumersŸ personal and financial information (Miyazaki & Fernandez, 2000). Perceive security
could increase customerŸs online trust by decreasing perceived environmental risks or by
raising security.
Privacy concerns relating to information use such as the use of personal information,
and communication issues liked the use of email, have been identified as the main obstacles
that reduce the end-userŸs intention to purchase goods or services online (Tavani, 1999).
Cranor (1998) showed that when end-users know more of how a company is going to use their
data, they feel more comfortable about visiting the companyŸs web site. Furthermore, Cranor
(1998) believed that if a company publishes its principles regarding the use of the end-usersŸ
personal information, and gives the user control over the information this action will also
stimulate the visitor to give their information to the marketers. Users may feel that the company
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is more trustworthy and able to protect their information properly. For instance, Platform for
Privacy Preferences Project issued by World Wide Web Consortium, has a set of policies for the
service providers to follow.
Customers may disclose their private information to web sites when reliability and
credibility are recognized; this subsequently reduces costumersŸ concerns of privacy and
security and helps to build online trust toward the web sites (Culnan & Armstong, 1999).
Online trust and characteristics of company
The characteristics of the company can also influence customersŸ online trust and
repurchase intention (Balasubramanian et al., 2003; Koufaris & Hampton-Sosa, 2004), including
features such as company size, good reputation, willingness to customers(Kourfaris &
Hampton-Sosa, 2004; Patricia & Cannon, 1997 ), and interactions with online customers
(Patrick, 2002). This research only focuses on the three factors of company characteristics:
reputation, willingness to customers and interactions with online customers.
Doney and Cannon (1997) defined the reputation was extent to which buyers believe
that the selling organization is honest and concerned about its customers. The better the
companyŸs reputation, the more the company has probability committed resources to build that
reputation, and the more trustworthy the company by the customers. Reputation effects are
strengthened if associated with longevity (Landon & Smith, 1997).
Customization in an Internet setting is described as the ability to tailor products, services
and the transactional environment to individual customers (Srinivasan et al., 2002; Rowley,
2002). Willing to customize has a positive relationship with customersŸ online trust and loyalty,
and drives consumers to more actively participate in transaction processes (Kourfaris &
Hampton-Sosa, 2004).
The interaction with customers assists online customers and helps to influence the
perception of trustworthiness about a company; in this way, customers are treated as a shared
ufamily by sharing information or value-beliefs, and feeling belongingness (Luo, 2002).
Generally, the ease of interaction provided by the company can help the customers trust the
companyŸs future behavior with confidence (Doney & Cannon, 1997). In other words, interaction
also build trust if the degree of personal friendship and liking shared by the buyer.

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Online trust and online repurchase intention
Trust is a very important factor for successful online transaction (Hoffman et al., 1999;
Lee & Turban, 2001; McKnight & Chervany, 2001; Koufairs & Hampton-Sosa, 2004; Keat &
Mohan, 2004; Lee et al., 2006), and for retaining long-term relationship with consumers
(Reichheld & Schefter, 2000; Gefen et al., 2003). In addition, the higher the degree of
consumersŸ trust, the higher the degree of purchase intentions of consumers, and the easier it is
for companies to retain consumers (Jarvenpaa & Tractinsky, 1999; Gefen & Straub, 2004).
Framework and Methodology
Based on the previous review of related literature and models, the framework of this
study can be written as shown in Figure 1. Online TAM is determined by perceived usefulness,
perceived ease-of-use, and enjoyment in technology. Perceived risk is determined by perceived
security and perceived privacy. Company characteristic is determined by reputation,
willingness to customize, interaction with customers. Online trust is determined by online TAM,
perceived risk and company characteristic. Last, online trust determines online repurchase
intention.
Figure1. The conceptual framework of online trust and online repurchase intention.
Online TAM:
-Perceived useful
-Perceived ease-of-use
-Enjoyment of technology
Perceived risk:
-Perceived security
-Perceived privacy

Online trust

Online repurchase
intention

Company characteristic:
-Reputation
-Willingness to customize
-Interaction with customer

Based on the framework the research hypotheses are written as follows:
H1. Online TAM is no significant influence online trust in Taobao
H2. Perceived risk is significant influence online trust in Taobao.
H3. Company characteristic is significant influence online trust in Taobao.
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H4. Online trust is significant influence online repurchase intention in Taobao.
Methodology
A sample size of 402 Internet users who have purchasing experience and intent to
repurchase any product via www.taobao.com and living in Shanghai or Beijing were selected as
the respondents. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Convenience
sampling method via Internet was employed.
The respondents were chosen in the communication forum, online message software
(Aliwangwang) of Taobao or instant chat software, such as: QQ and MSN by convenience.
Then, they were requested to fill-out the questionnaire which was developed based on the
literature review.
All the data were summarized and analyzed by using SPSS 12.0 and LISREL 8.51. The
statistic treatments of data in this study were: descriptive analysis, reliability, path analysis.
Findings
Table 1 shows that among 402 respondents, female accounted for 54% and 46% were
men who like to shop online. The respondents aged 20 to 30 years old are the biggest group of
Internet users accounted for 79.9%. The data shows that young people are the target population
for the online shopping. The respondents with a bachelor degree are the highest (67.4%) who
are online shoppers; the salaried operational employees accounted for 48.8% who like
shopping online; and the respondents whose income lever is from Yuan 1,000 to Yuan 5,000
accounted for 66.4%. The data also showed that salaried operational employees and young
people are the population who like shopping online most.
The overall CronbachŸs α was 0.960 and CronbachŸs α of each variable is higher than
0.60, so the questionnaire is reliable and consistent.

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Table1. The summary of demographic factors by frequency and percentage
Variable
Frequency Percentage Variable
Frequency
Gender:
Occupation:
Female
217
54.0%
Salaried
operational 196
Male
185
46.0%
Others
72
Total
402
100%
Student
66
Age:
Salaried manager
36
20-25 years old 172
42.8%
Business owner
27
26-30 years old 149
37.1%
Retired
5
31-35 years old 52
12.9%
Total
402
Income level:
36-40 years old 15
3.7%
above 40 years 9
2.2%
Yuan 2,000-3,000
78
under 20 years 5
1.2%
Yuan 1,000-2,000
75
Total
402
100%
Yuan 4,000-5,000
58
Education:
Yuan 3,000-4,000
56
Bachelor
271
67.4%
lower than Yuan 1,000 43
Master degree 93
23.1%
Yuan 5,000-6,000
39
High school
19
4.7%
Yuan 6,000-7,000
20
Others
13
3.2%
more than Yuan 9,000 17
Ph.D.
6
1.5%
Yuan 8,000-9,000
16
Total
402
100%
Total
402

Percentage
48.8%
17.9%
16.4%
9.0%
6.7%
1.2%
100%
19.4%
18.7%
14.4%
13.9%
10.7%
9.7%
5.0%
4.2%
4.0%
100%

Discussion of findings
LISREL 8.51 was employed to conduct structural equation model. Figure Ⅰ presents the
model and structural path coefficients for each relationship.
The overall fit indices for the structural model in Table 2 indicate a chi-square ( χ ) of
22.77 with 21 degrees of freedom. The χ test becomes more sensitive as the number of
indicators increases (Kelloway, 1998). Kelloway (1998) further assert that large sample sizes
(>200) also have a propensity to produce significant χ statistics even when the data set may
be well fitted to the hypothesized model structure. In such case, normed fit index (NFI = 0.99),
comparative fit index (CFI = 1.00), incremental fit index (IFI = 1.00), and relative fit index (RFI =
2

2

2

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0.97) provide relatively unbiased estimations of incremental fit of the proposed structural model.
Furthermore, a goodness of fit index (GFI) of 0.99 is a good fit for a relatively large sample size
(Kelloway, 1998). Similarly, the adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) shows a value of 0.97.
As shown in Table Ⅱ, a number of additional factors were taken into consideration in
assessing the model fit (Kelloway, 1998; Diamantopoulos & Siguaw, 2005). Normed chi-square,
the ratio of chi-square to degree of freedom ( χ / df ) of 1.08 indicates a good model fit
(Diamantopoulos & Siguaw, 2005). Additionally, a root mean square error of approximation
(RMSEA) of 0.015 indicates a perfect fit. Last, critical N (CN) of 669.47 which is greater than 200
indicates the model is condensed.
Based on the comparative statistics, the model fits the data well.
Table2 Goodness of fit indices
Obtained
Recommended Value
Index
value
22.77
The smaller the better, p>0.005
χ (chi1.08
<2
χ / df
RMR
0.0092
<0.05
GFI
0.99
>0.9
AGFI
0.97
>0.9
RMSEA
0.015
<0.05 good fit, 0.05 <RMSEA <0.08 reasonable fit,
NFI
0.99
CFI
1.00
Between 0 to 1 and close 1
IFI
1.00
RFI
0.97
CN
669.47
>200
2

2

2

The structural equation model when test the H1 to H4 shown as follows:
OT = γ1 TAM + γ2 PR +γ3 CC + ζ1
OR = β OT +ζ2
Measurement equation when test the H1 to H4 shown as follows:
PU =λ1 TAM +δ1
PE =λ2 TAM +δ2
EN =λ3 TAM +δ3
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PS =λ4 PR +δ4
PP =λ5 PR +δ5
R =λ6 CC +δ6
W =λ7 CC +δ7
I=λ8 CC +δ8
Where,
TAM = technology acceptance model, PU = perceived usefulness, PE = perceived
ease-of-use, EN= enjoyment in technology, PR = perceived risk, PS = perceived security, PP =
perceived privacy, CC = company characteristic, R = reputation, W = willingness to customize, I
= interaction with customers, OT = online trust, OR = online repurchase intention.
λ called lambda is show the relationship between observed variable and latent one.
γ called gamma is show the relationship between latent variable and another latent
variable. In this case, TAM with online trust, risk with online trust and characteristic of company
with trust.
β called beta is show the relationship between online trust and online repurchase
intention.
δ and ζ are the measurement error for measurement and structural model.
Based on the structural equation model, the researcher got the hypothesized model is
shown in Figure1 where circles represent latent variables, and rectangles represent measured
variables.
Figure1. The result of H1 to H4 test

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In this study, TAM does not have the significant relationship with online trust, the γ
(gamma) is 0.03 between TAM and online trust. Although, according to the experience studies
online trust and online purchase intentions should be explained in part by TAM (Davis 1989;
Davis et al. 1989). Especially, perceived useful is positively significant to online trust (Monsuwe
et al., 2004; Chen & Barnes, 2007; Salo & Karjaluoto, 2007); perceived ease-of-use is positively
significant to online trust (Monsuwe et al., 2004; Chen & Barnes, 2007; Salo & Karjaluoto, 2007);
enjoyment of technology is positively significant to online trust (Monsuwe et al., 2004).
However, the study found that TAM can be determined by perceived useful (λ = 0.51),
perceived ease-of-use (λ = 0.59) and enjoyment in technology (λ = 0.72). Based on the
coefficients enjoyment in technology is most important indicator which determines the
technology acceptance model. In other words, technology acceptance model is most
determined by enjoyment of technology, followed by perceived ease-of-use and perceived
usefulness.
In this study, the γ (gamma) is 0.10 between perceived risk and online trust; therefore,
perceived risk does not have the significant relationship with online trust. Based on the previous
studies however perceived risk has significant positive relationship with online trust (Jarvenpaa
& Tractinsky, 1999; Sally, 2006). However, the study found that perceived risk can be
determined by perceived security (λ = 0.77) and perceived privacy (λ = 0.74). Compare the
coefficient between perceived security (λ = 0.77), perceived privacy (λ = 0.74) and perceived
risk; perceived security is most import indicator to predict the latent variable of perceived risk.
In term of characteristics of the company, characteristics of the company has significant
impact (γ = 0.83) on online trust in Taobao. Online trust will higher with higher degree of
characteristics of the company. Additionally, reputation is most impact (λ = 0.85) on
characteristics of the company, followed by willingness to customize (λ = 0.82), and interaction
with customer (λ = 0.64).
Some other studies can support the finding, the detail shown as follows: The better the
companyŸs reputation, the more the company has probability committed resources to build that
reputation, and the more trustworthy the company by the customers (Landon & Smith, 1997).
Willing to customize has a positive relationship with customersŸ online trust and loyalty, and
drives customer to more actively participate in transaction processes (Kourfaris & HamptonSosa, 2004). The interaction with customer is important for build online trust, because the C2C
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market in China is socially-oriented. Social relation plays a crucial role in online transactions in
China. TaobaoŸs customer service strategies, like allowing online communication and price
negotiations among users, and providing a more emotion-oriented virtual community, are more
embraced by Chinese customers; these strategies affect customersŸ purchase decision and
increase their willing to engage in transaction on Taobao (CNNIC, 2006).
The β (beta) between online trust and online repurchase intention is 0.90, which means
there is significant positive relationship between online trust and online repurchase intention.
It shows online repurchase intention can be determined by online trust. In other words, the
higher the degree of online trust, the higher the degree of online repurchases intention. Lack of
trust in online companies is a primary reason why many web users do not shop online (Koufairs
& Hampton-Sosa, 2004). The higher the degree of consumersŸ trust, the higher the degree of
repurchase intentions of consumers, and the easier it is for companies to retain consumers
(Jarvenpaa & Tractinsky, 1999; Gefen & Straub, 2004). Moreover, online trust served as
an intervening variable between characteristics of company and online repurchases intention.
Online repurchase intention will higher with the higher the degree of characteristics of
the company.
Conclusions/Recommendations
The aim of this research is applied Tabobao as case study to find out how online trust
impact online repurchase intention. Based on a detailed literature review, the research model
was created and tested in Shanghai and Beijing.
Taobao is a pronoun of C2C business in China online auction market. Therefore, all the
C2C businesses or even all e-commerce businesses can get benefits from the research, not
only useful for Taobao.
For Taobao, they must maintain their good reputation in C2C online market. In consumer
marketing, the long-term reputation of the seller has been found to be more important than
short-term product quality movements (Landon & Smith, 1997), reputation requires a long-term
investment of resources, effort, and attention to customer relationships. In the Internet marketing
context, reputation of the store will influence the perceptions of the online site (Quelch & Klein,
1996 and Lohse & Spiller, 1998). According to the theory, good reputation is a long time
investment. Taobao is the most successful because of their reputation; they should however
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continue to maintain their reputation. Additionally, Taobao needs to improve such other factors
which affect the online trust and online repurchase intention as providing the products and
service in accordance with the customerŸs demand, communicating well with their customers.
All e-vendors in China should build website from factors of reputation, willingness to
customize and interaction with customer which can build higher online trust with their
customers, and with higher online repurchase intention
A number of limitations can be suggested: Firstly, the research only focuses on the
customers of Taobao; Secondly, the research only focuses on the repurchase of products and
services on the Internet, it did not include the behavior of browsing for information or free use of
these products and services online; Thirdly, the research can not include all the variables that
affect the online repurchase intention; Fourth, The population is only chosen in Shanghai and
Beijing; Fifth, the population is chosen randomly, thus the degree of generalization of the
information beyond the specific context of study may be low.
Further research can conduct in other online companies. Further research also can
investigate other factors influencing online repurchase intention, such as: familiarity with the
website, the experience and delivery methods. Further research, also can examine other
possible elements affecting online trust, such as: price range, product varieties and marketing
tactics. And last, further research also can find other factors affect the online shopping payment
system.

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