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# Module 1.

2: Moment of a 1D Cantilever Beam

Table of Contents Problem Description Theory Geometry Preprocessor Element Type Real Constants and Material Properties Meshing Loads Solution General Postprocessor Results Validation

Page Number 2 2 3 6 6 7 9 10 13 13 15 16

UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.2

Page 1

2.33 Length of beam Cross Section Base Cross Section Height Applied Moment Young’s Modulus of Aluminum at Room Temperature Poisson’s Ratio of Aluminum In this module. ( . since the nodes of choice are located at the top surface of the beam.2) Using these simplifications. The beam theory for this analysis is shown below: Theory Von Mises Stress Assuming plane stress.4) UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. the Von Mises Equivelent Stress from equation 1 reduces to: (1.2. the shear stress at this location is zero.2.3) Bending Stress is given by: (1. We will be using beam theory and mesh independence as our key validation requirements.2. (1. we will be modeling an Aluminum cantilever beam with a bending moment loading about the z-axis with one dimensional elements in ANSYS Mechanical APDL.1) Additionally.2 Page 2 .Problem Description M y x Nomenclature: L =110m b =10m h =1 m M=70kN*m E=70GPa =0. the Von Mises Equivalent Stress can be expressed as: (1.

2.6) Beam Deflection The beam equation to be solved is: (1.2.26mm (1.9) Geometry Opening ANSYS Mechanical APDL 1. Click on Mechanical APDL (ANSYS) to start ANSYS.8) With Maximum Deflection at x=L: = 7. This step may take time. 3 1 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.Where and . we can derive: (1.2.2.2 2 Page 3 . From statics. Under Search Programs and Files type “ANSYS” 3.5) = 42KPa (1.7) After two integrations: (1.2. On your Windows 7 Desktop click the Start button 2.

Check the box that says Structural 3. Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> type /Title. Go to Main Menu -> Preferences 2.Preferences 1.2 Page 4 . Click OK 1 2 3 Title: To add a title 1. 1D Cantilever Beam and press enter 2 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> type /prep7 and press enter 2.

type /triad. Click Apply 5.0 6.0.0.Geometry Key points Since we will be using 1D Elements. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Keypoints -> On Working Plane 2.2 for points previously generated. 5. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Replot Line 1. Click Ok 7. write: 0. This will create a key point at the origin. In the box underneath.off in Utility Menu -> Command Prompt 2 3 6 7 8. The Triad in the top left corner is blocking keypoint 1. Select Pick 3.0. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for 110. 4. our goal is to model the length of the beam. Select List of Items 4. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Lines -> Lines -> Straight Line 2. Click Global Cartesian 3. 1. To get rid of the triad. Click Ok 2 3 4 5 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Type 1.2 Page 5 .

3.The resulting graphic should be as shown: Preprocessor Element Type 1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete Click Add Click Beam -> 3D Elastic 4 Click OK Click Close 3 4 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. 2. 4. 5.2 Page 6 .

Cross-sectional area AREA enter 10 6. Click Add 3.2 Page 7 .4 7. 1. Under Thickness along Z axis TKZ enter 10 8.Real Constants and Material Properties Now we will add the thickness to our beam. Under Area moment of inertia IZZ Enter 10/12 this is shown in Theory under Eq. Click OK 10. Choose Type 1 Beam4 4. Click OK 5. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add/Edit/Delete 2. Close out of the Real Constants window 3 2 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. 1. Under Thickness along Y axis TKY enter 1 9.2.

2 Page 8 .Now we must specify Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio 1. out of Define Material Model Behavior 3 3 4 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Enter 7E10 for Young’s Modulus (EX) and . Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Material Props -> Material Models 2. Click OK 5.33 for Poisson’s Ratio (PRXY) 4. Go to Material Model Number 1 -> Structural -> Linear -> Elastic -> Isotropic 3.

Set SIZE Element edge length to 11. Click Mesh 7. Click OK 5. Size Controls : -> Global -> Set 3.2 Page 9 . Click Pick All 2 5 3 4 4 6 7 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Select Mesh: -> Lines 6. This will map 1 element every 11 meters down the beam for a total of 10 elements.Mesh We are going to mesh this beam to have ten elements through the length of the beam. 4. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Meshing -> Mesh Tool 2. 1.

Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Nodes Go to Utility Menu -> Plot Controls -> Numbering… Check NODE Node Numbers to ON Click OK 3 4 The resulting graphic should be as shown: ANSYS numbers nodes from the left extreme to the right extreme and then numbers from left to right. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.Loads 1. 3. 2.2 Page 10 . 4.

Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Loads -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Displacement -> On Nodes 2. Click OK 3 4 5 6 The resulting graphic should look as shown below: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Under Value Displacement value enter 0 6.2 Page 11 .Displacement 1. Click OK 2 4. Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 1 3. Under Lab 2 DOFs to be constrained select All DOF 5.

4. Click OK Under Direction of force/mom select MZ Under VALUE Force/moment value enter 70000 Click OK 4 5 6 The resulting graphic should look as shown below: 3 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 2 2 3.Force/Moment 1. 5. 6. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Loads ->Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Force/Moment -> On Nodes 2.2 Page 12 .

let’s create plots of Y Deflection and Equivalent Von-Mises Stress. it’s time to solve the problem. To give the graph a title. 1. If a warning box pops up click Yes General Postprocessor Now that ANSYS has solved the load step. Click OK 4. Go to Main Menu -> General Postprocessor -> Plot Results -> Contour Plot -> Nodal Solu 2.2 Page 13 . Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS 2. Deflection of a Cantilever Beam with a Moment followed by the return key and the command /replot The resulting graph should look as shown below: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. go to Utility Menu -> Command Prompt and type /title. Displacement 1. Go to Nodal Solution -> DOF Solution Y-Component of displacement 3.Solution Now that our boundary conditions have been specified. Click OK 3.

Go to Utility Menu -> List -> Results -> Element Solution … 2. we can readily calculate the bending stress in our model and by extension. Go to Element Solution -> All Available force items 3.3. 1.4. look up the moment reactions at each element. We can. however.Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress Unfortunately. the equivalent stress. we will look to the last column in the chart: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. we cannot create a contour plot of Von-Mises stress for 1D elements. Since we are interested in reaction moments in the z direction.2 Page 14 . If we plug this value into equation 1. Click OK This chart shows all reaction forces and moments at each node in the domain.

the answer will have no error because the Quadrature is accurate to the correct degree polynomial. a numerical technique which is fourth degree accurate. the percent error for Max Deflection and Equivalent Stress in our model is 0%.11) Max Equivalent Stress Error Using equation (1.2. Beam4 used twopoint Gaussian Quadrature. Thus the one dimensional method has zero percent error in deflection and stress.Results Max Deflection Error The percent error (%E) in our model max deflection can be defined as: ( ) = 0% (1. Since the equations for deflection and stress are third order and first order respectively.2. This is due to the fact that ANSYS uses Gaussian Quadrature to interpolate between the integration points.2 Page 15 . UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. This changes with respect to the element used.11) above.

2 Page 16 .Validation: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.

UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.2 Page 17 .