Community Organizing Participatory Action Research (COPAR) Presented by: Rochelle P.

Cabario, RN,RM Community is: • A social group determined by: • geographical boundaries • common values and interest • members know and interact with each other • creates norms, values and social institutions Characteristics of A Healthy Community • People are concerned with their health status • Parents/Guardians are role models • Health needs are accessible and affordable • Environmental and physiologic needs are sustained • Members are aware of their own health and biologic status. • Attains independence • Characteristics of A Healthy Community • Gives credit to the governing body • Has a strong and reliable governing body • Everyone is working to attain HEALTH CITIZENRY. • Resources are open for everybody IN SHORT A healthy community is…

• Economy • Recreation Community Organizing • In its strictest definition refers to organizing which takes place in a geographically defined living area, such as an urban poor community or a rural village • A means for empowering people; its primary aim is to transform a situation of societal injustice, inequality and poverty. • Both a process and an orientation; an orientation for genuineness and liberating social transformation. Mike Miller’s Definition of CO: - CO rectifies the problem of power imbalance Transforming individuals from being passive into mutually respectful co-creators of public life • A social development approach that aims to transform the apathetic, individualistic and voiceless poor into a dynamic, participatory and politically responsive community. During the 1994 National Rural CO Conference, CO was defined as a collective, participatory, transformative, liberative, sustained and systematic process of building people's organizations by mobilizing and enhancing the capabilities and resources of the people for the resolution of their issues and concerns towards effecting change in their existing and oppressive exploitative conditions.

Characteristics: • Human Biology • Environment • Population • Systems of health care Classification: • Urban • Rural • Rurban Components of A Community • Core - PEOPLE • 8 sub-systems • Housing • Education • Fire and safety • Politics/government • Health • Communication system

Community Organizing History: • Declaration of Martial Law in 1972 led to: • Elimination of formation of groups/organization grassroots activities were started by NGO’s and church leaders like:  Urban and Rural Missionaries of the Philippines  Task Force Detainees of the Philippines,  Episcopal Commission on Tribal Filipinos,  Share and Care Apostolate for Poor Settlers SAUL ALINSKY – father of community organizing • • 1st Qtr 1970’s – CO was Philippine Ecumenical Council for Community Organization (PECCO). December 1972 – establishment of ASSOCIATION OF FOUNDATIONS with 10 members

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From PECCO, ZOTO was born through the use of ALINSKY’s method 1976 – AF had total of 40 members including Philippine Alliance for Rural and Urban Development (PARUD). NGOs recognized the need to band together into networks for purposes of linkaging, synchronization of activities, and cooperative exchanges of experiences and resources.

Community Development’s Assumptions

Principles of CO • • • • • The social condition of the poor itself gives opportunities to conscienticize the people. Tactics should be within the experience of the people and outside the experience of the target. People generally act on the basis of their selfinterest. Man learns more effectively and more deeply from his own actual experiences. The process of organizing moves from simple, concrete, short term and personal issues to more complex, abstract, long-term and systemic issues. Man needs to deepen and widen his horizon, therefore, he must move from the particular to the universal, from the concrete to the abstract, to apply one's experience and its lesson to another situation. Throughout the organizing process, the people must make their own decisions.

 People’s worth and dignity are CD’s basic values.  Everyone has something to contribute  People have the ability to grow and learn  Opportunity to reveal a new “SELF”  Characteristics of Community Development  It is for the entire community and community life  Brings about social change  Finds solutions to community conflicts  It is based on SELF-HELP and PARTICIPATION  CD’s programs should be based on a felt need/desire/aspiration  It is an educational process  Involves technical assistance whether task or process goals
Approaches to Community Development

 Welfare  Modernization  Transformatory/ Participative
Guiding Principles Development in Community

Types of CO  Grassroots  FBCO  Coalition
Strengths of Community Organizing

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It is usually successful in building critical, selfreliant, creative grassroots organizations Openness to experiment It is rooted in the community Generates immediate success It immediately breaks the culture of silence, As an approach for empowering people, it is relatively simple and can be learned easily by anyone

Participation by all Commitment Voluntary involvement Democratic practices Transparency Learning thru reflection Flexibility Organized group Partnership between the people, NGO’s and LGUs  Outsiders act as facilitators          COPAR  A social development approach that aims to transform the apathetic, individualistic and voiceless poor into dynamic, participatory and politically responsive community.  A collective, participatory, transformative, liberative, sustained and systematic process of building people’s organizations  A process by which a community identifies its needs and objectives, develops confidence to take action

Key Principles in Community Organizing Participative Culture

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Inclusiveness Breadth of mission and vision Critical Perspective

Phases of COPAR  A continuous and sustained process of educating and mobilizing the people to develop their capability and readiness to respond and take action on their immediate needs towards solving their long-term problems Importance of COPAR • • • Important tool for CD and people empowerment Prepares community for self-independence Maximizes community participation and involvement; community resources are mobilized for community services. 1. 2. 3. 4. Pre-entry phase Entry phase Helping phase Phase out/ sustenance phase

Principles of COPAR  People, especially the most oppressed, exploited and deprived sectors are open to change, have the capacity to change and are able to bring about change.  COPAR should be based on the interest of the poorest sectors of society  COPAR should lead to a self-reliant community and society PHC objectives of COPAR • • • To make people aware of social realities To form structures that holds people’s basic interests. To initiate responsible actions

Pre-entry Phase 1. Preparation of criteria and guidelines for area selection • Criteria for selection:  Leaders and community are receptive/supportive  CO can serve as model for elimination/ reduction of diseases  High prevalence of diseases  Economically depressed  Must have a population at ten thousand and above  As much as possible no RHU/BHS Phases in Guideline Preparations:  Piloting  Implementation of activities 2. Identification of target area 3. Assessment of target area  Entry Phase 1. Establishment with leaders and agencies 2. Immersion A. Integration with the community B. Identification of potential leaders C. Information campaign on health Programs D. Provision of basic health services 3. Agreement 4. Direction Setting
Guidelines for Health Care Worker

Emphases of COPAR in PHC • • • • The members of the community work to solve their own problems. The direction is internal rather than external The development of the capacity to establish a project is more important than the project There is consciousness-raising with regards to the situation of health care delivery within the total structure of society

COPAR Process • • • • A progressive cycle of action-reflection action Consciousness through experimental learning central to the COPAR process Is participatory and mass-based Is group-centered and not leader-oriented.

 Must recognize the role of local authorities  Her appearance, style, speech and lifestyle should be in keeping with those of the community residents  Must keep a low profile Helping Phase 1. Community profiling and analysis • Collection of primary data thru surveys • Walk through of the community • Collection of secondary data thru interviews/review of records  Data Analysis 2. Core group formation 3. Community planning Implementation 4. Monitoring and evaluation Functions of Core Group

3 Dimensions of Participation • • • Mode Intensity Effectiveness

 Serve as a training ground for democratic and collective leadership  To build people’s potential and self-confidence  Help organizer gather data for deeper community studies and identify potential secondary leaders  Helps in laying out plans for formation and maintenance of a community-wide organization Problems in Data Gathering  Uncooperative community  Preventive measures:  Proper info dissemination  Conduct gen. assembly  Proper explanation  Defective or Inappropriate questionnaires  Preventive measures o Formulation of appropriate questionnaire o Avoid using ready made questions o Proper observation of the researcher  Too many dead files  Preventive measures:  Researcher should be well taught on how to fill up the forms  Proper observation of the researcher  Source is reliable  Questioning techniques should be reviewed and practiced  Marking of the interviewed families  Inconsistent data  Preventive measures:  Proper observation of the researcher  Inform the source of info to answer survey as honest as possible  Avoid leading questions  Questioning techniques should be reviewed and practiced  Lost/misplaced Documents  Preventive measures  Two copies should be prepared and kept by 2 different researchers  Consistency of the 2 copies  Documents must be dealt with confidentiality Phase Out Factors to ensure sustainability: • Structure • Skills development and technology transfer • Systems • Commitment

When to Phase OUT  When the objectives have been attained  Change has been made  Members of the community are able to take over the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation  Community resources can be already maximized by the people  A VIABLE community-based organization has been established Phase Out Strategy 1. Conduct of an impact assessment 2. Preparation of a comprehensive phase out action plan 3. Gradual pull-out of intervention 4. Institutionalization of the community organization with other agencies who provide support 5. Provision of consultancy services Steps in Phase Out • Determine factors to ensure sustainability • Determine when to phase out • Identify which strategy plans to phase out • Strategies • Education and training • Networking and linkaging • Conduct of mobilization on health development concern • Implementation of livelihood projects • Developing secondary leaders


Community Immersion Program • Community health nursing practicum of health care students. • It is an integral part of CHN General Objectives: • Further develop the level of consciousness and sensitivity of the community • To provide proper motivation for the community to respond to the health needs • Specific Objectives • Bring into consciousness of the actual plight of the community’s condition • Take active part in the management and implementation of a program organization • Respond to health needs of the community • Acquire and develop skills • Contribute to the enhancement process Steps in Building People’s Organization

1. INTEGRATION • Immersion • Understand the bio-socio-cultural aspect of the community Methods: • Participation of the direct production of activities of the people • House visits • Conversing with people where they usually gather 2. Social Investigation - Known as community study 2. Tentative Program Planning 3. Groundwork 4. The meeting 5. Role Play 6. Mobilization Approach 7. Evaluation 8. Reflection 9. Organization Social Mobilization • Process of generating and sustaining the active and coordinated participation of all sectors at various levels to facilitate and accelerate improvement SM Perspective 1. It is a continuing process 2. Cyclical and dynamic; it has neither beginning nor end 3. It is a deliberate strategy SM Benefits  It raises people’s morale  Promotes sense of belonging  Makes people committed to health work  Contributes to wider development of the community  Enhances health care delivery Factors Affecting SM • Socio-economic environment • Local culture, traditions and customs • Access • Availability of resources • Level of health literacy Levels of SM • Individual • Family • Community STEPS in SM

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IEC Community Organizing Training and orientation Networking Monitoring and Evaluation Feedback

ABCD of IEC? A = audience – target audience B = behaviour – what type of behavior C = condition – under what condition D = degree – to what extent Barriers to Building Organizing into CD Strategies  Community planning/development organization often lack patience with the commitment to organizing process.  Definition of CO is tightly circumscribed.  There is a weak funding infrastructure Application of COPAR in Community Health Care Process 1. Community Assessment  COPAR strat used: - Integration - Social investigation - Ground working - People participation 2. Planning - Objective - Activities 3. Program Implementation 4. Program monitoring and evaluation Types of evaluation 1. Impact evaluation 2. Cost-effective analysis Community Diagnosis o Process by which the health worker collects data about the community o Types:  Comprehensive  Problem- oriented Phases:  Preparatory Phase  Implementation Phase  Evaluation Phase Qualities of Health Community Settings  Open  Tactful Workers in

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Coordinator Objective Good Listener Efficient Flexible

Functions of a Health Care Worker  Community Health Service Provider  Facilitator  Health Counselor  Co-researcher  Member of a team  Health Educator

6. Spot Map 7. Barangay Org chart 8. Health Center Org Chart 9. Family Structure 10. Socio-Economic % cultural 11. Home & Environment 12. Knowledge and concept of health care 13. Responsible parenthood 14. Data on Community Development 15. Community Problems & recommendations 16. Appendices

Qualities of An Organizer       Role     Irreverence A Sense of humor Creativity Flexibility Tenacity A genuine love for the people of an Organizer Facilitator Animator Enabler Catalyst COPAR Document Guidelines  Title:  title and table number  Barangay name  Zone Number  District Number  Date of Survey  Table of comparison  Shows percentage and frequency of the compared data  Shows the comparison between the variables  Legends  Graphs  Data Analysis

Goals of an Organizer • Task Goals – goals concerned with the identification of objectives and the development of the means and resources to carry them out or implement them. Process Goals – refer to the enhancement and strengthening of the community members, competence for participation, self-direction and cooperation. Relationship Goals – focus on changing certain types of social relationships and decision making patterns in the community.

“What follows is for those who want to change the world from what it is to what they believe it should be. “ (Saul Alinsky)

Organizer’s Must Have Skills • Interpersonal Skills • Analytical skills • Organization Development Skills • Training Skills COPAR Document Guidelines 1. Acknowledgements 2. Introduction 3. Table of contents 4. Community Profile 5. Vicinity Map

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