• Trade Union means a combination formed for

the purpose of regulating the relations not only between workmen and employers but also between workmen and workmen or between employers and employers
- Trade Union Act 1926

A trade union is an organised group of workers. Its

main goal is to protect and advance the interests of its members

A union often negotiates agreements with

employers on pay and conditions. It may also provide legal and financial advice, sickness benefits and education facilities to its members

Trade unions aim to represent the interests of

people at work and negotiate with employers for better terms and conditions for their members

The first trade union was started in 1877 in Nagpur It was this labour protest on an organized scale,

through the support of some philanthropic personalities, that organized labour unions came to be formed The setting up of large-scale industrial units, created conditions of widespread use of machinery, new lines of production, and brought about changes in working and living environment of workers, and concentration of industries in large towns The first Factory’s Act was passed in 1881 by N.M. Lokhode In 1919 Madras Labour Union was the first Union in India to be formed and established by B. P. Vadia Bombay Trade Union formed in 1975 under the

At least 7 members should be present for an application It should in a prescribed form ,fees and should be

registered under the Registrar of Trade Unions
Should be accompanied by a copy of the Rules of TU Certificate of Registration is issued as soon as TU has

been duely registered under the Act

 To secure for workers better wages  To safeguard security of tenure and improve conditions of

 To increase opportunities for promotion and training  To improve working and living condition  To provide for educational cultural and recreational facilities  To promote identity of interests of the workers  To offer improved level of production and productivity

discipline and high standard of quality
 To promote individual and collective welfare

 The trade union movement started after 1918, when the workers

formed their associations to improve their conditions. It is, thus, a part of the ‘labour movement’, which is a much wide term

 A trade union is an essential basis of a labour movement for

without which one cannot exist, because trade unions are the principal schools in which the workers learn the lesson of selfreliance and solidarity
 Trade

Unionism in India modern factory system

has been the natural out come of the

 The main elements in the development of trade unions of workers

in every country have been more or less the same

 The development of trade unionism in India has had a checkered

history and a stormy career

TRADE UNION MOVEMENT GROWTH Social Welfare Period (1875-1918)
 The development of industries led to large-scale production on the one hand

and social evils like employment and exploitation of women and child labour and the deplorable workable conditions, the government’s attitude of complete indifference in respect of protection of labour from such evils, on the other.

Early Trade Union Period(1918-1924)

 The year 1918 was an important one for the Indian trade union movement.  The industrial unrest that grew up as a result of grave economic difficulties

created by war. The rising cost of living prompted the workers to demand reasonable wages for which purpose they united to take resort to collective action.

Left-Wing Unionism Period (1924-1934)

In 1924, a violent and long-drawn-out strike by unions led to the arrest, prosecution, conviction and imprisonment of many communist leaders. The rapid growth of the trade unionism was facilitated by several factors

Trade Union’s Unity Period (1935-1938)

 In mid-thirties the state of divided labour movement was natural thought undesirable and soon after the first split, attempts at trade union unity began to be made through the efforts of the Roy Group on the basis of ‘a platform of unity’.
Second World War Period (1939-1945)

The Second World War, which broke out in September 1939, created new strains in the united trade union movement. nearly 200 unions with a membership of 3, 00,000 and formed a new central federation known as the Indian Federation of Labour

 Hence, again a rift took place in 1941 and the Radicals left the AITUC with

The Post-Independence Period (From 1947 to-date)

 As pointed out earlier, when attempts to restructure the AITUC failed, those

believing in the aims and ideals other than those of the AITUC separated from the organization and established the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in May, 1947

Names and details of some Unions in India

The Indian National Trade Union Congress

Origin: The INTUC came into existence on 4th May, 1948, as a result of the resolution passed on 17th November 1947, by the Central Board of the Hindustan Mazdoor Sevak Sangh, which was a labour leader on the Gandhian Philosophy of Sarvodaya Objectives:
 To establish an order of society which is free from hindrances to an all-

round development of its individual members, which fosters the growth of human personality in all its aspects, and which goes to the utmost limit in progressively eliminating social, political or economic exploitation and inequality, the profit motive in the economic activity and organization of society and the anti-social concentration of power in any form;

 to place industry under national ownership and control in a suitable form;  to secure increasing association of workers in the administration of industry

and their full participation in that control;

All-India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) Origin: It was established in 1920 as result of a resolution passed by the organized workers of Bombay and the delegates which met I a conference on 31st October, 1920. Objectives:
 to establish a socialist state in India;  to socialize and nationalize means of production, distribution and exchange;  to improve the economic and social conditions of the working class;  to watch, promote, and further the interests, rights, and privileges of the

workers in all matters relating to their employment;
 to secure and maintain for the workers the freedom of speech, freedom of

press, freedom of association freedom of assembly, the right to strike, and the right to work and maintenance;
 to co-ordinate the activities of the labour unions affiliated to the AITUC;

United Trade Union Congress (UTUC) Origin: Some trade union leaders of the socialist bent met together December 1948 to form a new central organization of labour, called Hind Mazdoor Sabha Objectives:
 The objectives of the UTUC are:  to establish a socialist society in India;  to establish a workers’ and peasants’ state in India;  to nationalize and socialize the means of production, distribution and

 to safeguard and promote the interests, rights, and privileges to the

workers in all matters, social, cultural, economic and political;
 to secure and maintain workers’ freedom of speech, freedom of press,

freedom of association, freedom of assembly, right to strike, right to work or maintenance and the right to social security;

Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) Origin: This union has been the outcome of decision taken by the Jana Sangh in its Convention at Bhopal on 23rd July, 1954. Objectives:  to establish the Bhartiya order of classless society in which there shall be secured full employment;
 to assist workers in organizing themselves in trade unions as medium of

service to the motherland irrespective of faiths and political affinities;
 the right to strike;  to inculcate in the minds of the workers the spirit of service, co-operation

and dutifulness and develop in them a sense of responsibility towards the nation in general and the industry in particular.
 The BMS is a productivity-oriented non-political trade union. Its ideological

basis is the triple formula:
 nationalize the labour;

National Front of Indian Trade Unions (NFITU) Origin This union was founded in 1967, with the claim that “this trade union of India is not controlled by any of the political party, employers or government.” Objectives:
 to organize and unite trade unions with the object of building up a National

Central Organisation of trade unions, independent of political parties, employers and the government, to further the cause of labour and that of national solidarity security and defence of India, and to make the working people conscious of their right as well as of obligations in all spheres of life;
 to secure to members of trade unions full facilities of recognition and

effective representation of interests of workers and to ensure for the working people fair conditions of life and service and progressively to raise their social, economic and cultural state and conditions;
 to help in every possible way member trade unions in their fight to raise

real wages of the workers;
 to endeavour to secure for members of affiliated trade unions adoption of

Centre of Indian Trade Union (CITU) Origin This union was formed in 1970 when as a result of the rift in the AITUC, some members of the Communist party seceded. About the objectives of the CITU, its constitution says: Objectives:
 The CITU believes that the exploitation of the working class can be ended

only by socializing all means of production, distribution and exchange and establishing a socialist state, that is, it stands for the complete emancipation of the society from all exploitation.
 The CITU fights against all encroachments on the economic

and social rights of the workers and the enlargement of their rights and liberties including the right to strike, for winning, defending and extending the freedom of the democratic trade union movement. demands: (a) nationalization of all foreign monopoly concerns who barbarously exploit the working class; (b) nationalization of all concerns owned by Indian monopolists and big industry who garner huge profits at the expenses of the workers, who exploit the people by pegging prices at a

 In the fight for the immediate interest of the working class the CITU

Political Affiliations
 As regards leadership, all the four organizations have their

political affiliations, and the leadership, therefore, lies in the hands of the politicians, and not in those of the working class, which is yet illiterate and backward to wield any influence. towards the government is not entirely hostile, but of course highly critical of the government.

 The AITUC is pro-communist. It is led by the Right CPI. Its attitude

 The UTUC is radical, non-communist and anti-INTUC. It is led by

some independent trade union leaders, the Forward Block and the Revolutionary Socialist Party. the international level, the INTUC is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) – an organization mainly supported by the Anglo American block; while the AITUC is affiliated to the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU), supported by the Communist block.

 On

Trade Union is an important factor of the

current society, as it safeguards the basic interest and needs of both the employees as well as employers, by giving better terms and conditions of employment, secured jobs, better wages, favorable working environment which in turn leads to desired profitability.

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