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2. RJ-45




Straight Cable

You usually use straight cable to connect different type of devices. This type of cable will
be used most of the time and can be used to:

1) Connect a computer to a switch/hub's normal port.

2) Connect a computer to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.
3) Connect a router's WAN port to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.
4) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's uplink port. (normally used for
expanding network)
5) Connect 2 switches/hubs with one of the switch/hub using an uplink port and the other
one using normal port.

Crossover Cable

Sometimes you will use crossover cable, it's usually used to connect same type of
devices. A crossover cable can be used to:

1) Connect 2 computers directly.

2) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's normal port. (normally used for
expanding network)
3) Connect 2 switches/hubs by using normal port in both switches/hubs.




In a hub, a frame is passed along or "broadcast" to every one of its ports. It doesn't matter
that the frame is only destined for one port. The hub has no way of distinguishing which
port a frame should be sent to. Passing it along to every port ensures that it will reach its
intended destination. This places a lot of traffic on the network and can lead to poor
network response times.
Additionally, a 10/100Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and every one of its
ports. So when only one PC is broadcasting, it will have access to the maximum available
bandwidth. If, however, multiple PCs are broadcasting, then that bandwidth will need to
be divided among all of those systems, which will degrade performance.


A switch, however, keeps a record of the MAC addresses of all the devices connected to
it. With this information, a switch can identify which system is sitting on which port. So
when a frame is received, it knows exactly which port to send it to, without significantly
increasing network response times. And, unlike a hub, a 10/100Mbps switch will allocate
a full 10/100Mbps to each of its ports. So regardless of the number of PCs transmitting,
users will always have access to the maximum amount of bandwidth. It's for these
reasons why a switch is considered to be a much better choice then a hub.


Routers are completely different devices. Where a hub or switch is concerned with
transmitting frames, a router's job, as its name implies, is to route packets to other
networks until that packet ultimately reaches its destination. One of the key features of a
packet is that it not only contains data, but the destination address of where it's going.
A router is typically connected to at least two networks, commonly two Local Area
Networks (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WAN) or a LAN and its ISP's network . for
example, your PC or workgroup and EarthLink. Routers are located at gateways, the
places where two or more networks connect. Using headers and forwarding tables,
routers determine the best path for forwarding the packets. Router use protocols such as
ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two

Routers are also the only one of these devices that will allow you to share a single IP
address among multiple network clients.

So, in short, a hub glues together an Ethernet network segment, a switch can connect
multiple Ethernet segments more efficiently and a router can do those functions plus
route TCP/IP packets between multiple LANs and/or WANs; and much more of course.


IP(internet protocol) - Internet protocol is the set of techniques used by many hosts for
transmitting data over the Internet. The current version of the Internet protocol is IPv4,
which provides a 32-bit address system.

Internet protocol is a "best effort" system, meaning that no packet of information sent
over it is assured to reach its destination in the same condition it was sent. Often other
protocols are used in tandem with the Internet protocol for data that for one reason or
another must have extremely high fidelity.

Every device connected to a network, be it a local area network (LAN) or the Internet, is
given an Internet protocol number. This address is used to identify the device uniquely
among all other devices connected to the extended network.

Types of IP or Internet Protocol

DHCP( Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - is a network protocol that enables a

server to automatically assign an IP address to an individual computer's TCP/IP stack
software. DHCP assigns a number dynamically from a defined range of numbers (i.e., a
scope) configured for a given network. Automatic IP/MAC Address.

Static IP - is simply a “permanent” address that remains associated with a single

computer over an extended period of time. This differs from a dynamic IP address, which
is assigned ad hoc at the start of each session, normally changing from one session to the

IP address assignment is handled by a person’s Internet Service Provider (ISP). Every ISP
is designated a large block of IP addresses that fall within a specific numerical range. The
ISP server automatically delegates available IP addresses within that range as needed, to
clients logging on to the Internet. When a person disables his or her Internet connection,
the temporarily assigned dynamic IP address goes back into the pool for reassignment.
Dynamically assigned IP addresses are fine for most people, however, some prefer a
static IP address.

In some situations having a static IP address is an advantage. For example, people who
game online with remote players often prefer a static IP address. When they return to a
game, the hosting server recognizes them, restoring score, placement in the game, and
other settings accordingly. A static IP is more reliable than a computer cookie that can be

Class A -
Class B - 172. 16.0.0
Class C -

Class A IP - 1 to 126 - used for large network

Class B IP - 128 to 191 - medium sized network..ex: college campus
Class C IP - 192 to 223 - commonly used for small to mid-sized network.. ex: business
Subnet Mask

Class A -
Class B -
Class C -

Sa mga baguhan palang ang gingamit na subnet mask ay under sya sa
class C.
Karamihan sa mga computer shop yan ang gnagamit na subnet mask, kelangan
magkakapareho subnet mask at magkakaiba nman ng IP address.

Sa Default Gateway nman, papalitan mo lang ng 1 yung huling character sa IP address

Halimbawa ang IP address mo ay, ang magiging default gateway mo ay


--The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers
to communicate using standard network protocols, but without network cabling. Strictly
speaking, any technology that does this could be called wireless networking. The current
buzzword however generally refers to wireless LANs. This technology, fuelled by the
emergence of cross-vendor industry standards such as IEEE 802.11, has produced a
number of affordable wireless solutions that are growing in popularity with business and
schools as well as sophisticated applications where network wiring is impossible, such as
in warehousing or point-of-sale handheld equipment.


1. An ad-hoc, or peer-to-peer wireless network consists of a number of computers each

equipped with a wireless networking interface card. Each computer can communicate
directly with all of the other wireless enabled computers. They can share files and printers
this way, but may not be able to access wired LAN resources, unless one of the
computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using special software. (This is called

AD-HOC figure
2. A wireless network can also use an access point, or base station. In this type of network
the access point acts like a hub, providing connectivity for the wireless computers. It can
connect (or "bridge") the wireless LAN to a wired LAN, allowing wireless computer
access to LAN resources, such as file servers or existing Internet Connectivity.


1. Dedicated hardware access points (HAP) such as Lucent's WaveLAN, Apple's Airport
Base Station or WebGear's AviatorPRO. Hardware access points offer comprehensive
support of most wireless features, but check your requirements carefully.

2. Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless network
interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network. The Vicomsoft
InterGate suites are software routers that can be used as a basic Software Access Point,
and include features not commonly found in hardware solutions, such as Direct PPPoE
support and extensive configuration flexibility, but may not offer the full range of
wireless features defined in the 802.11 standard.
Originally Posted by kugelfang
wow maa'm salamat po!. malaking tulong po ito para sa mga baguhan na tulad ko! mam
hingi na rin po sana ako ng diagram kung papano i network 2 ISP in one network. ( i
mean 2 isp i coconect ko sa server ko para may timer sya (mga client pc) gagamitin ko
kasi sa shop ko.. halimbawa globe isp saka smartbro connected sya sa mga client pc tapos
connected din sya sa server ko pero isa lang timer na gagamitin ko.. tia..

Eto po try nyo, Kelangan po Load Balancing Router gamit nyo..