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E<¥K ÷¥ÆØ„T ¥¶<gN¥ ∑g¶„ $ <¥K √¶„≤>∂ - <GK¶÷϶ - ¥¯T¶„Ødfi¶¥∑¶Æ¶∑’> ∑g¶„ $ jg¶„&zZæ∑’ ¥g∑N¥ «√T∏¶„ gÆb gƶT∂K Txg¶∑F
(20) P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ [1]

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c ¥¶<gN¥ $ <¥K √¶„dg - ¥¶„Ƶg¶b ¥¯T √∑ÆK¶∑’ ∑g¶„ $ <¥K ¥æ√æŒ - Ø„T¶∑’ ∑g¶„ $ LLL P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ LLL jTg’ ÷T’√’ fi >g’ c
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c ∏¢Dd∑’-fi÷g’ LLL 1) Gb ∑’ «’„ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T ¥’fi[„∑’ ÷T’√¶∑’ fi >gN¥ T‘√N¥ <jKd¶T<Ïd¶∑’ ∏dgQ>„ fi∆[„ ض„ÇN¥ ∑’ «’„ c
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c T‘√N¥ P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T ¥’fi[„∑’ P{b ∏¢Dd∑¶ fi∆[¶ ®T’ ÁÏæ G’¸ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T ¥’fi[„∑’ P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ c
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c Ø¥ ∏¢Dd∑¶ fi∆[¶ Â’ Gƶ fi÷g„ gƶfi÷g„ «W„ ¥æ«W„ fi÷g«W„ fi÷g¥„∑„ fi÷g√æµg„ j<Ï<∑√æµg„ ∏¶j’Ø„ j’Øj„ Gb ∑’ «’„ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T c
c ¥’fi[„∑’ P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ Ø¥ ∏¢Dd∑¶ fi∆[¶ fi >gN¥ ∑’ «’„ ∏¢Dd∑N¥ P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T ¥’fi[„∑’ P„{ ∏Q>„ fi∆[„ ®T’ ÁÏæ c
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c G’¸‡ „∑’ P{¶Ï„∑’ „∑’ ¥g®∑’ ~’fi¶ j¶g’ jdK∂ ƶ„zZ¶ fiæ∆«W„ ~„b® P‡{<∑® K¶d¶ fi÷g¶Tby Ø„T∂ ÂzZ ∑’ ~’fi¶® jdK∂® ¥„<∑dN¥ Kr∑¶„ «É¶ P‡{<∑dN¥ Kr∑¶„ c
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c ~æÑg¶÷d¶ P{¶Ï∂ j¶g’ Ø„T∂ ƶ„zZ¶-¥‡g¶Ï¶ Â∂¥„ ∑’ P{¶Ï∂® Ø„T∂® fiæ[„ P{¶Ï„ j¶g’ Pæ{g¶K„ ƶ„zZ¶-¥‡g¶Ï„, ÂN¥ ∑’ P{¶ÏN¥ Pæ{g¶KN¥ fi÷g¶Tby j¶g’ Ø„T∂ ƶ„zZ¶- c
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c ¥‡g¶Ïfi¶<∑fi¶d¶ G¶T <TÆKb ® ∑’ ¥¶ fi÷g¶Tby Ø„T∂ ∏ªjd¶ P{d¶b’ Â’<¥ ¶K¥√’<¥ T¶¥OK’<¥ ∏\Ω«*ÂK∏¶„ ¥<~[P{µg„ G¶T ¥∂Æ’ ¥æ<g∑„ fi¶<¥[¶∑’ c
c fi≤>¸æx¶ ®T’ Gµg∑’ Gƶ gƶ¸ÏN¥ G¶T j¶gc„É’-GµÆ¶ ∑’ ∏µÆ’ bg„ ضK® P{¶ÏN¥ Pæ{g¶KN¥ fiæ[„ fi÷g¶Tby® Ø„T∂® ∏[® Â’ ƶ„÷ ∑’ ∏µÆ’ bgN¥ ضK√N¥ c
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c j¶gc„É’ fi÷g„-fi÷g„ ¥„¥’ Gƶ gƶ¸ÏN¥¥ ∏Q>∏¶„ ض∏¶ G¶T ÷\hfi* fi¶¥¶dTK√® <TÆKb ¥¶g∂ ¥g¶„¥K® fiK¥¶ <j‘√d¶ P‡{<∑® <j‘√® fi÷g„<T Gƶ gƸτ c
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c <j‘√® ÂÆ„T ∏µg¶<fib∏¶fiæÚE>∑¶ G¶T fi¯Tb® ∏∑√¶K„ G¶®bKd¶¥<g® G¶T √æ[¸’«d¶K∂ ® ∑’ ¥„ fi÷g„ ∏∑√¶K„ ¥g∑N¥ «√T∏¶„ gƶT∂KN¥ ÂƶŒT¶∑’ c
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c Z„K¶∑’ ∏’<® ¥¶g¶bdg¶bd¶b’ ®Pø{P{¶K¥ ∏’√¶b’ ∏<ÆÉb ∏<G<É[¶ ¸Æ°<Æ* ~÷[ZE>Q>g’ - (Ø¥g-ØÿT¶Ï¥„<Æ* g¶¥xg¶¥Ág∑„<Æ* <T<~[„<Æ* ÂT¶„P{µg„<Æ* c
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c ∏hfi¶∑’ «¶T„g¶∑„) <TÆKb ® ∑’ ¥„ fi÷g„ ∏∑√¶K„ „∑’ ∏¶„K¶Ï„∑’ Gƶ g„ƶ„ ÂÆ„T cµgG¶√Kd¶ <~*¶ ®T’ GÆ„T g„ƶ„ ÂÆ„T ¥g∑’ «√T’ gƶT∂K’ ∏¶fiæ\ÚE>[¶<T÷Ï„ c
c G¶T fi¶∏¶„T√® P{¶Ï’ ∏∑TP’{Ág¶∑„ <TÆKb ® ∑’ ¥„ fi÷g„ ∏∑√¶K„ ¥g∑N¥ «√T∏¶„ gƶT∂KN¥ ÂƶŒT¶∑’ Z„K¶∑’ ∏’Âb® ¥¶g¶bdg¶bd¶b’ ®Pø{P{¶K¥ c
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c ∏’√¶b’ ∏<Æ<É[¶ ¸Æÿfi≤>fiæ∆¶b’ fi’~ T¶¥¶b’ ¥¶gr∑fiKd¶√’ fi¶÷<∑[¶ g¶<¥d¶® ¥’Ï„Æ∑¶® ∏hfi¶∑’ D¶„¥„[¶ ¥<Q>* «[¶b’ ∏∑¥∑¶® E>„<Ø[¶ ∏¶∑æfiæ¯T∂® c
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c P{¶Ï√® Z„K¶ ∏¶„br∑¶ «√T’ √¶„dg„ fiæÚE>b ¥¶g∂ P{Æ„b G¶T ¥<Q>* «[¶b’ ∏∑¥∑¶® E>„<W[¶ ∏¶Ï¶„bd-fi≤>Pø{P’{„ ÷≤ø> >’ ~’<Øg-¥‡K-√Æ√∑-jaÁ[-¶K¶- c
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c ŒT¶∑’ ¥¶„Ƶg„ P{hfi„ Ø„T[¶® ÷TTr∑„ ض„ ¥¶√K¶b’ Ê>by, ¥„ ∑’ «’„ fi÷g„ Ø„T„ ¶∏¶„ Ø„T϶„√¶∏¶„ ∏¶÷aÁ®∑’ fiæÚE>¶ √¶„dg¶ gƶ<TØ„Æ„ T¶¥„ Gƶ Ø >fibr∑¶„ G¶T c
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∏’Â’ P{¶<Æb Â’ ®T’ ÁÏæ G’¸‡ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T ¥’fi[„∑’ P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ fi >gN¥ ∏¢Dd∑¥¥ ∏dgQ>„ fi∆[„ <[ ¸„<g $1$  (21) c
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fi >g’ ∏¢Dd∑’ ¥g[’ ¸∂∏’ ∏¢Dd∑’ - gƶfi÷g’  2) Gb ∑’ «’„ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T ¥’fi[„∑’ P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ fi >gN¥ ∏¢Dd∑N¥ c
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c ∏dgQ>„ fi∆[„ ض„ÇN¥ ∑’ «’„ ∏¢Dd∑N¥ P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T ¥’fi[„∑’ P„{ ∏Q>„ fi∆[„ ®T’ ÁÏæ G’ ¸ ‡ „ ∑ ’ P{¶Ï„ ∑ ’ „ ∑ ’ c
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c ¥g®∑’ ~’fi¶ jdK∂ ƶ„zZ¶ fiæ∆«W„ ~„b® P‡{<∑® K¶d¶ fi÷g¶Tby Ø„T∂ ÂzZ ∑’ ~’fi¶® jdK∂® ¥„<∑dN¥ Kr∑¶„ «æɶ P‡{<∑dN¥ Kr∑¶„ ~æÑg¶÷d¶ ¥æP{¶Ï∂ j¶g’ Ø„T∂ c
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c ƶ„zZ¶ Â∂¥„ ∑’ ¥æP{¶Ï∂® fiæ[„ ¥æP{¶Ï„ j¶g’ Pæ{g¶K„ ÂN¥ ∑’ ¥æP{¶ÏN¥ Pæ{g¶KN¥ gƶfi÷g¶ j¶g’ Ø„T∂ ƶ„zZ¶-¥‡g¶Ï¶ ® ∑’ ¥¶ gƶfi÷g¶ Ø„T∂ ∏ªjd¶ P{d¶b’ Â’<¥ c
c ¶K¥√’<¥ ®T’ ÂÆ„T gƶfi÷g„ j¶g’ ضK® G¶T <¥¢D<Æb jTK’-by¥¶∑„ P{hfi„ ÷TT¶∏¶„ ÷Pø{P{¶„¥<Q>b∏¶„ Â’ ®T’ ÁÏæ G’¸‡ ¥g∑„∑’ «√Td¶ gƶT∂K„∑’ G¶T ¥’fi[„∑’ c
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c P{hfiT≤>*<¥d¶∑’ ض„ÇN¥ ∏¢Dd∑N¥ ∏dgQ>„ fi∆[„ <[ ¸„<g $2-1$ (22-1)  ¸∂∏’ ∏¢Dd∑’ ¥g[’ 3-10-∏¢Dd∑¶<∑  3) ®T’ c
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c ¥„¥¶<T ∏Q> j„d¯T¶, g¶d¶∏¶„ ¥K¥j¶g¶∏¶„ P{¶Ï¶by∑’ Ø¥rÆ’ fiæ[¶∑’ ∏¶jæfiæ¯T∂® $2-2$ (22-2) 4) ض„rÆ’ ~ fi’~ ~[¶K <ÂrÆ’ <ÂrÆ’ ~ ƶ„*< <Âr∑„T ض„rÆ’ ~ c
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c ض„\r∑ T¶¥¶ ¥„<∑dj[‡g’ fiKd¶∏¶„ $$1$$ 5) ÷TT¶∏¶„ ∏¶jæfiæ¯T∂®-fi >g¶„ ¥¶„Ƶg„ <¸b∏¶„ by¥¶∑„ Âb∏¶„ ¥∑’Pæ{g¶K„ ~÷zZ¶„ g¶<Æ*Ø„ fi’~g¶„ ¸’«Ï¶„® E>Q>¶„ ϒ® c
c ¥[g¶„ gƶ¥æPø{P„{ ∏Q>g¶„ ¥ÆN¥¶K„ jTg¶„ fi¶∑® Ø¥g¶„ ∏Çæ® ¥¯TzZ ÷Pø{P{¶„¥<Q>yb «¶<∑d¯T¶ gƶ<TØ„Æ„ <¥\¢D<Æ*< $2$-(22) LLL 3-10 ∏¢Dd∑¶<∑ c
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