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Republic of Estonia Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Project: “Improving administrative capability of the Georgian state in preventing domestic abuse and supporting victims“

INTERVIEWS WITH GEORGIAN POLICE PERSONNEL ON DOMESTIC ABUSE AND VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Interviewing methodology: Helve Kase, Estonian Institute for Open Society Iris Pettai, Estonian Institute for Open Society Zuirab Vaxtangishvili, Tbilisi Policedepartement Levan Machavariani, Tbilisi Policedepartement Interviewers: Nato Shavlakadze, Anti -Violence Network of Georgia Elizo Amirejibi, Anti -Violence Network of Georgia Results analysis: Helve Kase, Estonian Institute for Open Society Iris Pettai, Estonian Institute for Open Society

TBILISI - TALLINN November 2008

INTERVIEWS WITH GEORGIAN POLICE PERSONNEL ON DOMESTIC ABUSE AND VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

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Contents
Lk

Introduction Demographic profile of police officers involved in the survey Domestic and sexual abuse Prostitution and trafficking in women Abuse of children and homeless children Attitudes and views reflecting violence against women and its causes Fact sheet

3 4 5 16 20 26 34

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Introduction

This survey was carried out within the Republic of Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs development cooperation project “Improving the administrative capability of the Georgian state in preventing domestic abuse and supporting victims”. The project partners were: from Estonia the Estonian Institute for Open Society, from Georgia the Anti - Violence Network of Georgia and Tbilisi patrol police. This was the first survey of its kind in Georgia as there had been no earlier studies among police personnel concerning domestic abuse and violence against women The survey of the Georgian police personnel took place in the spring and summer of 2008. Two hundred and one Tbilisi police officers took part in it. The interviews involved the officers, who have the most contact with domestic abuse victims due to the nature of their work.

As to their specialities the interviewees broke down as follows: 1. district officers (analogous to Estonian constables) 2. patrol officers Total 201 police officers. 73 128

The primary issue of the survey was domestic abuse, but it also addressed other most widely spread forms of violence against women as sexual abuse, prostitution and trafficking in women as well as abuse of children. Studies of abuse of women carried out in the world as well as in Estonia by the Institute for Open Society have shown that various forms of abuse are closely related. Domestic abuse victims have often experience violence as early as in their childhood. Victims of domestic and sexual abuse run greater risk of becoming involved in prostitution or trafficking in women.

The goal of the survey was to study: the extent of Georgia police personnel encountering in their daily work victims of domestic abuse and violence against women; the police officers’ opportunities to help the victims and factors obstructing it the causes of abuse in the officers’ opinion; the frequency of various types of abuse of women and children from children’s sexual abuse to trafficking in children; proposals and recommendations for better prevention of abuse of women. 3
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Demographic profile of officers participating in the survey

TABLE 1. Demographic data of police officers involved in the survey
% Education 1. Secondary 2. Specialised secondary (police) 3. Specialised secondary (non-speciality) 4. Higher (police) 5. Higher (law) 6. Higher (non-speciality) Age 1. Up to 20 yrs 2. 21 – 30 yrs 3. 31 – 40 yrs 4. 41 – 50 yrs 5. 50 yrs and older Gender 1. Male 2. Female Length of police experience 1. Up to one year 2. 1-2 yrs 3. 3-5 yrs 4. 6-10 yrs 5. 11-15 yrs 6. Longer
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

6 2 2 18 37 35 2 41 50 6 1 89 11 11 15 25 30 14 5

Georgian police personnel consists of predominantly younger people or those in early middle age. Accordingly the age of the interviewed police officers remained in the range of 21 – 40 years with approx. 40% were in the age of 21 – 30 and half or 50% in the age of 31 – 40 years. There were only 7% of police officers older than 40 among the respondents. The Georgian police are quite male-centred. There were only 10% of women among the interviewees. The Georgian police officers have noticeably high education. Ninety percent out of the interviewees had higher education, incl. specialised police education in case of every 5th – 6th officers, while 37% had higher legal education. More than half of the interviewees, 55%, have worked on 3 - 10 years in the police, every fourth less than three years and every fifth over 10 years.

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Domestic and sexual abuse

TABLE 2. Domestic abuse is an increasingly discussed issue in the world. To what extent do you find mental, physical and sexual domestic abuse to be a problem in Georgia?
Very much + quite serious problem % All Service respondents Constables Patrol 82 93 76 92 96 90 69 93 55

1. Mental domestic abuse 2. Physical domestic abuse 3. Sexual domestic abuse
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

According to the Georgian police domestic abuse is a very serious problem. It especially concerns physical abuse, which is considered to be a problem by 92% of respondents. Based on the police estimates mental abuse is also very widely spread as 82% consider it a problem. Some difference appears in the estimates of sexual abuse. While 93% of constables consider it a problem, slightly more than a half of the patrolmen, 55% share the opinion.

Figure 1. Opinions of Georgian police personnel and medics of the domestic abuse problem probleemile.
Sexual abuse
27 69

Physical abuse

50 92

Mental abuse
0 10 20 30 40 50

52 82 60 70 80 90 100

Police personnel
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Medical staff

At the same time with the police personnel survey, a survey of medical staff was carried out in Georgia in spring-summer 2008 concerning domestic abuse and abuse of women. Table 1 provides comparative data about estimates of domestic abuse. The data show that the police take domestic abuse significantly more seriously than medics. This is quite understandable as the officers are present at the scene and can witness the situation directly. Medics meet the victims later and often do not learn that the case concerned domestic abuse, especially if the victim is unwilling to disclose the actual cause of her injuries. 5
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TABLE 3. How frequent are forced marriages in Georgia in your opinion?
% All respondents 1. Very + quite frequent 10 2. Rather + very infrequent 54 3. Unable to estimate 36 Total: 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 6 12 55 54 39 34 100 100

Police officers do not consider the problem of forced marriages very serious. Only 10% estimate that arranged marriages are quite frequent. More than half, 54% of the respondents, hold the opposite view and believe that forced marriages are rather individual incidents, which are quite rare in modern Georgia. The number of police officers unable to estimate the frequency of forced marriages is quite high, more than one third, which indicates that even specialist circles are relatively uninformed of the problem.

TABLE 4. Who are the most frequent victims of domestic abuse in Georgia?
All respondents Mental abuse concerns the most... 1. Girls 2. Mother 3. Boys 4. Father 5. Grandparents Physical abuse concerns the most ... 1. Mother 3. Girls 2. Boys 5. Father 4. Grandparents
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Mostly + also % Service Constables Patrol 93 75 68 55 22 75 89 67 52 47 80 76 59 16 16 79 70 50 14 14

85 76 62 30 25 78 77 56 28 26

The most frequent victims of mental abuse in the families are the daughters (according to 85% of interviewees) as well as the mother (76% of interviewees). The least concerned by mental abuse are the elderly, according to the police. Only every fourth respondent believes that the grandparents could be victims of mental abuse. The mothers and the daughters suffer almost equally from physical abuse. Here, too, the police believe that the grandparents are the least affected. On the average every fourth police officer , 6
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47% of the constables, consider the grandparents victims of physical abuse. The constables are more convinced that other members of the family like the father and the grandparents, besides the mothers and the daughters, suffer from domestic abuse, while only 14% of patrol officers hold the same view. TABLE 5. Which groups of women become most frequently abuse victims?
by age 1. 21 – 30 yrs 2. 31 – 40 yrs 3. 19 – 20 yrs 4. 17 – 18 yrs 5. 14 – 16 yrs 6. 41 – 50 yrs 7. 13 yrs and younger 8. 51 yrs and older
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

% All respondents 34 29 28 25 19 8 7 5

by marital status 1. Married 2. Cohabiting 3. Divorced 4. Unmarried 5. Widows

% All respondents 77 46 16 11 5

Physical abuse threatens primarily married women up to 40 years of age; the likelihood declines steeply after that. The threat of physical abuse is the lowest among widows above 50. TABLE 6. Which groups of women suffer most frequently from sexual abuse?
% by age 1. 19 – 20 yrs 2. 16 – 18 yrs 3. 21 – 30 yrs 4. 14 – 16 yrs 5. 31 – 40 yrs 6. 41 – 50 yrs 7. 51 yrs and younger 8. 13 yrs and older
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

All respondents 44 36 29 19 18 4 3 1

by marital status 1. Married 2. Cohabiting 3. Unmarried 4. Divorced 5. Widows

% All respondents 63 45 28 9 2

The most likely victims of sexual abuse are, according to the police, girls and young women in the age of 16-20 years. The threat of sexual abuse remains quite high until the 30th year. The threat of rape becomes quite minimal at the age above 40. It is somewhat surprising, considering the largest age group, that as to marital status, married women are viewed as the largest risk group rather than unmarried. It can be presumed that this is an indication of widely spread marital abuse. 7
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TABLE 7. How frequently...
All respondents 1. is the abuser drunk - in most cases (approx. 75%) - in half of cases (approx. 50%) - sometimes (approx. 25%) - rarely (approx. 5%) - unable to estimate Total: 2. is the victim drunk - in most cases (approx. 75%) - in half of cases (approx. 50%) - sometimes (approx. 25%) - rarely (approx. 5%) - unable to estimate Total: 3. are both drunk - in most cases (approx. 75%) - in half of cases (approx. 50%) - sometimes (approx. 25%) - rarely (approx. 5%) - unable to estimate Total:
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

% Service Constables Patrol 44 51 4 ... 1 100 20 33 27 8 12 100 4 42 15 26 13 100 91 5 2 ... 2 100 5 8 43 22 22 100 5 47 17 24 7 100

74 21 3 ... 2 100 11 17 37 18 17 100 5 45 16 25 9 100

Alcohol is a crucial factor in triggering violence. Yet its significance is being overestimated and, according to a widely-spread misconception, abuse occurs only in the families, where both the husband and wife use alcohol. According to the police, the abuser is drunk in most cases, which reach the police attention. Out of patrolmen 91% estimate that the violent party was drunk in most cases police patrols were called to stop the abuse. Yet the victim has been sober in most cases. In the patrol police opinion, the victim had used alcohol either sometimes or rarely. If the victim had been using alcohol, so had the abuser, with great likelihood.

When discussing the parties involved in abuse situation, the results of the police survey allow the conclusion that the police are involved mainly in the cases, when a drunk man attacks a sober woman or both parties are drunk.

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TABLE 8. How frequently ...
% All respondents 1. is the abuser under the influence of narcotics - in most cases (approx. 75%) 29 - in half of cases (approx. 50%) 16 - sometimes (approx. 25%) 15 - rarely (approx. 5%) 29 - unable to estimate 11 Total: 100 2. is the victim under the influence of narcotics - in most cases (approx. 75%) 14 - in half of cases (approx. 50%) 5 - sometimes (approx. 25%) 26 - rarely (approx. 5%) 25 - unable to estimate 30 Total: 100 3. are both under the influence of narcotics - in most cases (approx. 75%) 9 - in half of cases (approx. 50%) 12 - sometimes (approx. 25%) 7 - rarely (approx. 5%) 37 - unable to estimate 35 Total: 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 40 27 8 12 13 100 33 5 36 15 11 100 18 18 9 42 13 100 23 9 19 39 10 100 4 5 21 30 40 100 4 9 6 34 47 100

Beside alcohol, narcotics are another major factor causing violence. The police encounter somewhat less violent abusers under the influence of drugs than alcohol, allowing the conclusion that narcotics are less frequently used than alcohol. The same rule applies here, namely that it is primarily the abusive party who is under the influence of drugs. The cases of the victim being under the influence of drugs or a sober man attacking a female drugs user are much less frequent.

It must be also kept in mind that police officers reach to their conclusions only based on the cases reaching the police attention, i.e. the cases when the police are called to solve the situation.

According to surveys carried out in many countries of the world, incl. Estonia, domestic abuse is a highly covert form of crime, out of which only a small portion, approx. 10% of all cases, reaches the attention of the police. One of the important arguments in calling the police is the uae of alcohol or drugs by the abusing party. Cases, when a sober man has abused a sober woman, generally reach the police only in case of serious injury.

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TABLE 9. According to studies, female abuse victims only ask for policce help in case of serious injury. What in your opinion is the reason of women failing to call the police?
All respondents 81 76 72 71 68 64 50 48 45 39 38 Main reason + also % Service Constables Patrol 86 77 67 81 70 63 66 68 68 78 55 57 48 73 75 69 62 39 30 39 28 33

1. Women do not want anyone to know of the incident 2. Women do not wand the abuser, often a close person, to be jailed 3. Women are embarrassed by the incident 4. Because of children, mothers do not want to traumatise them 5. Fear of the abuser’s revenge 6. Women are oppressed, unaware of their civic and human rights 7. Cases are settled without police interference 8. Women do not believe that the police take it seriously 9. Women do not believe that anyone could help them 10. Women feel guilty for the incident 11. Cases are not serious enough
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Domestic abuse is a from of crime, which often remains hidden for years and only becomes apparent after the victim has suffered from abuse for long time and has been repeatedly injured. This poses the question why the women fail to appeal to the police for aid.

The reasons for failing to inform the police of abuse incidents can be broken down in three groups:

I Reasons of decisive importance (three quarters or more of the interviewees consider important) The primary reason of the domestic abuse victims’ failure to appeal to the police, according to 81% of police officers, is the women’s unwillingness to have anyone know about the incident. This is an attempt to preserve the image of a happy marriage and normal family relations among one’s friends and acquaintances. This is a matter of status for women, since many of them identify themselves through their husband and family. Women do not want to be seen as failing in their marriage and partnership. Another significant reason is compassion for the abuser. Seventy-six percent of police officers believe that women do not want to have their husband , partner, father of children put in jail.

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II Important reasons (considered important by half to three quarters of interviewees) Two leading reasons of this group are directly derived from the above ones. Seventy-two percent of police officers find that women are ashamed and embarrassed by violence in their family. Seventy-one percent consider it decisive that mothers do not want to traumatise their children with police interference and subsequent trial, since the abuser in most cases is not just the husband, but also the father of the children. An important reason not to inform the police, according to 68% of respondents, is the woman’s fear of the abuser’s revenge. Sixty-four percent of the police believe that Georgian women are too oppressed to resist abuse. They lack awareness of their civic and human rights and they often view abuse as a natural and unavoidable aspect of domestic life. At the same time 50% of respondents believe that many cases of domestic abuse are settled without police interference. These incidents have no serious consequence and the parties make up. Unfortunately, it is typical of domestic abuse that unless violence is curbed in the early stage, it will be repeated and become increasingly brutal.

III Less important reasons (up to half of interviewees consider important) Forty-eight percent of police officers agree that one of the reasons for the failure to inform the police may be the women’s fear that domestic abuse cases are not viewed as serious enough. Forty-five percent believe that abused women are often badly depressed and do not believe that anyone could help them. Thirty-nine percent believe that women often consider themselves responsible for the husband’s abuse, blaming themselves for having provoked the violence and in some way deserving it. The least, only one third of police officers, believe that the reason for failing to call the police is the insufficient severity of the abuse.

TABLE 10. What is the share of domestic conflicts of your daily work?
Share of domestic disputes of daily work % 25 36 21

-

All respondents Constables Patrol officers

Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Every fourth case the police have to handle is related to the settling of domestic conflicts and investigation of domestic abuse. Such cases amount to more tan one third, 36% of constables’ daily practice. Every fifth call in the work of patrol officers concerns the settling of domestic disputes.

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TABLE 11. Who report domestic disputes to the police?
Patrol officers % Predominantly + sometimes 98 81 48 40 32 27 17 14

1. Woman 2. Mother-in-law, father-in-law, other relatives 3. Friends, acquaintances 4. Children 5. Random strangers 6. Neighbours 7. Staff of other institutions (medics, social workers, etc.) 8. Husband
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

According to the police, the woman of the victim of abuse reports domestic disputes the most frequently. Grandparents, mother- and father-in-law and the victim’s siblings living in the same household are also active in interfering with domestic disputes and seeking for outside help. The victim’s children call for the police often as well. Outsiders, either strangers or neighbours, are less active in reacting to quarrels. This indicates that domestic disputes are still considered a private affair with which the neighbours do not want or do not consider appropriate to interfere.

The police sometimes receive reports of domestic abuse from specialists of other institutions, e.g. if abuse or rape victims appeal to medics and the physician decided to inform the police. Mel also report domestic disputes to the police in some cases, but it can be presumed that they were in the role of victim rather than the abuser and the violent act was committed by other male members of the household, e.g. son, brother, father or father-in-law.

TABLE 12. How frequrent are the cases of women withdrawing charges?
Constables % Physical abuse 1. Individual cases 2. Quite rare 3. Quite frequent 4. In most cases 5. Unable to estimate Total: Sexual abuse 1. Individual cases 2. Quite rare 3. Quite frequent 4. In most cases 5. Unable to estimate Total:
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

24 24 8 21 23 100 20 25 10 20 25 100

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According to the police, the cases of battered or raped women withdrawing charges are quite frequent. Based on the survey results it seems that the women’s willingness to drop charges and to avoid the resulting investigation and trial in case of sexual assault is even higher. The reasons are partly the same as those for women refusing to inform the police of abuse cases. The police are unable to estimate more precisely the share of cases, when charges are withdrawn or not pressed at all. This would require the existence of corresponding statistics. TABLE 13. AT which stages of investigation do women mostly want to withdraw charges?
Constables % Predominantly + also 84 82 80 59 25 18

1. Next day 2. At the scene 3. Some days after the incident 4. At the start of investigation 5. During the investigation 6. At the end of the investigation (unwilling to go to court)
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

When studying the time period, when women are the most likely to withdraw charges against the abuser, the first days after the event seems to be the most critical. The largest number of reports are withdrawn within 2-3 days after the incident. If the victim finds sufficient support and understanding among the police or her friends and relatives the next day and the day after, the likelihood of the abuser being brought to justice is significantly higher. According to the police estimate, if the victim will endure the “critical period” and not give up, the more time pass es from the incident, the more she finds the strength to bring the case to court. TABLE 14. Which lawful measures can the police take against domestic abusers?
All respondents 91 90 68 41 37 31 25 15 4 Frequently used % Service Constables Patrol 99 87 78 96 69 18 16 46 12 18 6 52 56 50 21 34 13 3

1. Talking to abuser, calming him down 2. Warning the abuser, informing him of the sanctions to be taken in case of repeated offence 3. Reconciling the parties 4. Restraining order for a certain period 5. Detaining the abuser for 42 hrs 6. Recommending psychological counselling 7. Detaining the abuser for a longer period (up to 30 days) 8. Supervision of families, suffered from abuse 9. Initiating criminal investigation without victim’s appeal in case of milder forms of domestic abuse
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

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The most frequent measures the police take at the scene against the abuser are first calming him down, then informing of the sanctions, which can be taken in case of repeated offence. Establishing a restraining order is also quite frequent, 41% of the interviewees admit using it often against abusers. Approximately one third have recommended approaching a psychologist or a marriage counsellor. Thirty-seven percent have detained the abuser for 24 hours and every fourth for an even longer period up to 30 days. Eighteen percent of constables and 13% of patrol officers have supervised families with abuse problems. TABLE 15. How numerous are families, where violence during domestic disputes is repeated?
2. Very + quite 3. Quite + very few 4. Unable to estimate
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Constables % 43 55 2 Total: 100

According to estimates of 43% of the interviewed constables, there are quite numerous families in Georgia, where domestic abuse occurs regularly. More than half of the respondents, 55%, find that repeated abuse is rare in families and its incidents are moistly rare.

TABLE 16. In your opinion, what should be done with families where violent domestic disputes and police calls are regular occurrences? How to protect victims from abuse?
All respondents 88 86 Primarily + also % Service Constables Patrol 86 88 96 79

1. Restraining order against abuser 2. Sanctions against abuser should be gradually toughened from reprimand to criminal case and court sentence 3. Every high risk family with an abusive male should be regularly supervised by a police officer and/or social worker 4. Involve specialists from other spheres to find solution together 5. Compulsory psychological counselling of abusive subjects in case of repeated or serious violence
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

85

92

81

82 75

93 81

76 70

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In the opinion of police officers, the main measures to be used against repeated domestic abusers would be the restraining order, gradual toughening of sanctions and regular supervision of the high risk families. The police are also convinced that they cannot combat violence alone and specialists from other spheres should be involved as well, i.e. a cooperation network of police officers, medics, social workers and children’s protection officials etc. should be formed. Three quarters of the interviewed officers also support the idea that compulsory psychological counselling should be introduced in case of repeated or serious incidents of violence.

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Prostitution and trafficking in women

TABLE 17. To what extent are prostitution and trafficking in women taboo issues in Georgia?
% All respondents Prostitution 1. It is not discussed even among specialists 2. It is discussed, but only among specialists 3. It has been somewhat discussed in the media 4. It is frequently discussed in the media 5. Unable to estimate 11 7 44 27 11 Total: 100 Trafficking in women to other countries for sexual exploitation 1. It is not discussed even among specialists 5 2. It is discussed, but only among specialists 2 3. It has been somewhat discussed in the media 58 4. It is frequently discussed in the media 11 5. Unable to estimate 24 Total: 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 22 18 40 8 12 100 5 1 78 6 10 100 5 2 46 37 10 100 6 2 44 14 34 100

According to the opinions of large majority (69-71%) of police officers it can be concluded that both the issues of prostitution and trafficking in women are to greater or lesser extent reflected in the mass media and therefore cannot be considered a forbidden subject.

TABLE 18. In your opinion, how frequent are in Georgia...
% All respondents Prostitution 1. Highly + quite frequent 2. Quite + very infrequent 3. Unable to estimate 88 6 6 Total: 100 Trafficking in women to other countries for sexual exploitation 1. Highly + quite frequent 46 2. Quite + very infrequent 30 3. Unable to estimate 24 Total: 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 87 3 10 100 57 29 14 100 89 8 3 100 40 30 30 100

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In the opinion of majority of police officers (88%) female prostitution is quite widely spread in Georgia, while only a small percentage, 6% of the interviewees, holds the opposite opinion. It can be concluded that prostitution is, indeed, a massive phenomenon in Georgia. Forty-six percent of police officers consider trafficking in women also quite wide-spread. Less than one third, 33% of respondents, are of the opposite opinion. A rather large share, nearly every fourth officer, cannot estimate the frequency of trafficking in women.

TABLE 19. What is your expert opinion of the existence and number of women involved in
prostitution in Tbilisi? % All respondents 10 8 7 6 14 9 34 12 Total: 100 Service Constables Patrol 22 3 11 7 4 9 7 5 33 3 17 5 3 52 3 16 100 100

1. Up to 100 2. 200 – 500 3. 500 – 1 000 4. 1 000 – 2 000 5. 2 000 – 3 000 6. 3 000 – 5 000 7. More 8. Unable to estimate

Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

The police also find it difficult to estimate the number of prostitutes. Furthermore, the question did not include a clear definition of women involved in prostitution, whether only those with a pimp or also those offering their services independently were meant. The foal was to receive a general estimation of the situation and the number of women forced to sell themselves so as to earn living to themselves and their families, regardless of the form of the activity.

Based on the estimates of the constables, who are aware of the situation in their district, the number of prostitutes remains between 2,000 – 5,000. Yet slightly more than half of the patrol policemen, whose work involves moving in the city, estimate that there could be more than 5,000 women in Tbilisi, who are engaged in prostitution. According to all the respondents’ average estimation, the number of prostitutes in Tbilisi may be between 3,000 and 4,000.

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TABLE 20. How high would you place the share of street prostitutes?
% All respondents 18 31 23 12 16 Total: 100 Service Constables Patrol 32 10 32 30 15 27 10 13 11 20 100 100

1. Most, approx. 75% 2. Half, approx. 50% 3. Some, approx. 25% 4. A few, approx. 5% 5. Unable to estimate

Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Based on the police officers’ estimates on the frequency of street prostitution it can be concluded that it is quite widely spread in Tbilisi and amounts to a considerable part of overall prostitution. Street prostitution is characteristic of countries with warmer climate, which includes Georgia. In countries with colder climate, e.g. Estonia, the share of street prostitution has always been relatively low, less than 10%. The share of street prostitutes in Tbilisi could amount to 25-50% of overall number of prostitutes. According to constables the number of streetwalkers could actually be even higher.

TABLE 21. Howe many establishments in Tbilisi offer sexual services from prostitutes?
% All respondents 1 5 18 11 7 2 40 16 Total: 100 Service Constables Patrol 1 ... 10 2 33 9 19 6 8 6 ... 4 17 53 12 20 100 100

1. None 2. 1 – 10 3. 11 – 30 4. 31 – 50 5. 51 – 75 6. 76 - 100 7. More than 100 8. Unable to estimate

Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Police officers have difficulties in estimating the number of brothels in Tbilisi, showing that they apparently do not know, which “night clubs”, “massage parlours” etc. offer sexual services. One third of constables believe that the number of brothels in the city could be 30. At the same time mire than half of the patrol policemen (53%) estimate that there could be more than a hundred brothels in Tbilisi. 18
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The answers to the questions regarding the number of brothels show that the police have actually no information about the brothels business and therefore the police cannot significantly control the trade with prostitutes.

TABLE 22. How many prostitutes have experienced...
% All respondents Mediators’ , pimps’ abuse 1. Most, approx. 75% 2. Half, approx. 50% 3. Some, approx. 25% 4. A few, approx. 5% 5. Unable to estimate Total: Clients’ abuse C1. Most, approx. 75% 2. Half, approx. 50% 3. Some, approx. 25% 4. A few, approx. 5% 5. Unable to estimate Total:
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 80 6 ... ... 14 100 71 1 ... 1 27 100 19 9 11 19 42 100 18 19 16 6 41 100

41 7 7 12 33 100 37 13 10 4 36 100

Every third respondent has difficulties estimating the frequency of violence concerning prostitutes. Constables are better acquainted with the prostitutes’ situation and 80% of them believe that predominant majority of prostitutes has suffered abuse by their pimps. Seventy-one percent of constables believe that as many women have also suffered violence by clients. The estimates of the patrol police are noticeably more modest. A large share, 41% of the patrol service personnel, was unable to estimate the frequency of violence concerning prostitutes.

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Abuse of children and homeless children

TABLE 23. How serious in your opinion is the situation with homeless children in Georgia?
% All respondents 1. Very + quite serious 98 2. Quite + totally unimportant 2 3. Unable to estimate ... Total: 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 97 99 3 1 ... ... 100 100

Practically all interviewed police officers or 98% consider the homeless children’s problem in Georgia very serious. When comparing this result with that of the medics’ survey, where 88% of respondents considered the issue serious, it can be conclude that homeless children are definitely one of the most urgent social problems in Georgia.

TABLE 24. In your opinion, what are the reasons of children becoming homeless?
% All respondents 89 77 63 42 42 29 22 22 21 18 12 Service Constables Patrol 92 88 83 73 75 57 57 34 62 31 14 38 10 29 8 31 8 28 35 8 3 18

1. Poverty, unemployment of parents 2. Alcoholism, drugs addiction in the family 3. Physical abuse of children in the family 4. Bad influence of youths of the same age 5. Incompetence, inability to bring up children 6. Criminal background of parents 7. Loss, death of parents or guardians 8. Inadequate social welfare system 9. Lack of orphanages 10. Sexual abuse of children in the family 11. Excessive number of children, parents cannot cope
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

The causes, why children become homeless, can be broken down in three groups:

I Causes of decisive importance (over two thirds of police officer consider important) 1. A predominant majority or 89% of police officers believe that the problem of homeless children is caused by the parents’ poverty, which in itself is a consequence of unemployment. This allows the logical conclusion of the reason, why parents prefer to sell their child to a rich foreigner for money rather than give the child up for adoption. 20
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5. According to 77% of police officers the second decisive cause of children becoming homeless is the alcoholism and/or drugs addiction in the family.

II Important causes (up to two thirds of police officers consider important) 1. In the opinion of 63% of police officers, the third major factor causing children leaving home is frequent abuse of children in the family. 2. Forty-two percent of police officers consider the negative influence of other youths an important cause. 3. According to 42% the cause lies with the parents, who cannot or do not want to take care for their children and bring them up. 4. According to 29% of police officers the family background, which is frequently plays an important role. criminal,

III Less important causes (up to one third of officers consider important) 1. According to 22% of police officers the loss or death of parents or guardians is one of the reasons for children becoming homeless. Military conflicts with Georgia’s separatist regions, incl. the August 2008 conflict with Russia, certainly had a share in the emergence of homeless children. 2. Every fourth-fifth police officer considers the state’s inadequate social welfare system and the inability to cope with social problems to be one of the causes of the homeless children’s problem. 3. The lack of orphanages is directly related to the previous cause and every fifth interviewee considers this one of the causes of the homeless children. 4. Eighteen percent of police officers consider sexual abuse at home a cause for homeless children. The fact that such a high percentage of officers (every fifth-sixth) mentioned the sexual abuse of children is an indirect indication of the seriousness of the problem in Georgia. 5. Finally the police officers mentioned the excessive number of children in the families, where the parents are unable to take care for them.

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Figure 2. Cause of children becoming homeless according to the police and the medics
Excessive number of children Sexual abuse of children Scarcity of orphanages Inadequate social welfare system Loss, death of parents The parents’ criminal background Inability to bring up children Negative influence of other youths Physical abuse of children Alcoholism, narcotics addiction Poverty of parents, unemployment
32 18 9 12 18 21 21 22 22 26 29 41 42 42 53 63 77 88 89 94 65 38

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Police personnel
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Medical staff

When comparing the police officers’ and medics’ opinions of the causes of children becoming homeless, it appears that both groups view the problem from different aspects. They agree that the main causes are the families’ poverty and the parents’ alcohol or drugs dependence. Factors like the parents’ inability or unwillingness to bring up their children, the loss or parents or guardians and the scarcity of orphanages in the country have more or less equal weight in the opinions of the police officers and medics. However, the attitude of the police and the medics regarding physical and sexual abuse at home differ quite greatly; the police consider it a significantly more important factor in becoming homeless than the medics do. The medics, on the other hand, emphasise to a significantly greater degree than the police the state’s inadequate social welfare system and excessive number of children in the households.

TABLE 25. Have you encountered paedophilia victims in your work during the past five years?
% All respondents 6 4 55 35 Total: 100 Service Constables Patrol 8 6 11 1 24 73 57 20 100 100

1. Yes, I know of a case with girls 2. Yes, I know of a case with boys 3. I know of no such cases 4. Unable to estimate
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

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Every tenth police officer has encountered paedophilia victims during the past five years. There have been slightly more girls among the victims, which can also mean that cases involving girls are more frequently reported to the police. TABLE 26. Have you experienced cases of parents permitting their child’s adoption by a foreign citizen? If yes, did they...
% All respondents Give up their child for its better future 1. Several times a year 31 2. Once a year 8 3. Less frequently 17 4. I know of no such cases 2 5. Unable to estimate 42 Total: 100 Sell their child for money 1. Several times a year 24 2. Once a year 5 3. Less frequently 11 4. I know of no such cases 2 5. Unable to estimate 58 Total: 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 39 10 11 3 37 100 40 7 11 3 39 100 26 6 21 1 46 100 14 4 12 2 68 100

Thirty-nine percent of constables encounter several times a year cases when parents hand over their child for adoption to a foreign citizen so that the child could have a better future than the one the parents could offer. Almost as many or 40% of constables witness several times a year the situation, where parents sell their child for money to a wealthy foreigner.

TABLE 27. How frequent are in your opinion...?
% All respondents Underage prostitution 1. Very + quite frequent 2. Quite + very infrequent 3. Unable to estimate Service Constables Patrol 14 67 19 100 2 42 56 100

19 28 66 65 15 7 Total: 100 100 Trafficking in children to other countries for the purpose of sexual exploitation 1. Very + quite frequent 9 20 2. Quite + very infrequent 49 61 3. Unable to estimate 42 19 Total: 100 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

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Every fifth police officer believes that juvenile prostitution is quite frequent in Georgia. Among constables 28% of respondents share this view. Two thirds of respondents admit that underage prostitution occurs, but do not consider the phenomenon widely spread. Every tenth respondents and every fifth constable consider trafficking in children to other countries for prostitution widely spread. However, the share of police officers admitting to be unable to estimate the frequency of trafficking in children in Georgia was quite high. TABLE 28. What is your expert opinion of the number of homeless children in Tbilisi?
%

1. Up to 100 2. 200 – 500 3. 500 – 1 000 4. 1,000 – 2,000 5. 2,000 – 3,000 6. 3,000 – 5,000 7. More 8. Unable to estimate

All respondents 5 12 12 20 10 23 10 8 Total: 100

Service Constables Patrol 6 4 12 12 11 13 32 13 17 6 20 25 ... 16 2 11 100 100

Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

The police have no common idea of the number of homeless children in Tbilisi. Every fifth respondent believes that there could be between one and two thousand homeless children. There are slightly more of those, who believe that their number could remain between three and five thousand. The average estimate places the number of homeless children at 2,000-2,500. TABLE 29. Have you encountered in tour regular work...
%

All respondents Juvenile prostitutes 1. A few times a month 2. A few times a year 3. Less frequently 4. Not at all 5. Unable to estimate 6 4 32 45 13 Total: 100 Children trafficked to other countries for sexual exploitation 1. A few times a month 2 2. A few times a year 5 3. Less frequently 4 4. Not at all 67 5. Unable to estimate 22 Total: 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 15 ... 24 39 22 100 6 12 4 54 24 100 2 7 36 48 7 100 ... 1 3 75 21 100

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Child prostitutes as well as children trafficked to other countries are witnessed primarily by constables. Fifteen percent of constables encounters underage prostitutes a few times a month. The police have less experience with cases of trafficked children. Six percent of constables have met them every month, 12% a few times a year. Patrol policemen have practically no contact with cases of victims of trafficking in children.

TABLE 30. In you have encountered in your work children trafficked to other countries for sexual exploitation, which countries were these?
Predominantly + this country as well % All Service respondents Constables Patrol 14 28 5 9 21 3 7 20 ... 6 17 1 6 12 2 5 14 ... 5 11 2 2 2 1 Total: 100 100 100

1. Turkey 2. Russia 3. Armenia 4. Azerbaijan 5. Holland 6. Kazakhstan 7. Germany 8. Italy

Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

According to the police, the main destinations in trafficking in children are Turkey, followed by Russia and Armenia. The next in frequency are more or less equally Azerbaijan and Holland and Kazakhstan and Germany.

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Attitudes and views concerning abuse of women and its causes

TABLE 31. Please judge the following statements. Do what extent do you agree?
% All Service respondents Constables Patrol 1. No man is a real man unless he can control his wife/partner - agree completely + generally 46 49 45 - disagree completely + generally 10 23 3 - no opinion 44 28 52 Total: 100 100 100 2. Domestic physical abuse is a private matter and should be handled within the family - agree completely + generally 36 29 40 - disagree completely + generally 26 37 19 - no opinion 38 34 41 Total: 100 100 100 3. A wife’s duty is to obey her husband, even if he mistreats her - agree completely + generally 18 23 15 - disagree completely + generally 33 23 38 - no opinion 49 54 47 Total: 100 100 100 4. If the husband demands sex from wife/partner against her will, he has the moral right to do so. The wife should obey him. - agree completely + generally 18 19 17 - disagree completely + generally 33 30 34 - no opinion 49 51 49 Total: 100 100 100 Positions justifying abuse
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

We asked the respondents to judge some statements in order to assess the frequency among police officers of views justifying abuse of women. We offered for judgement four statements justifying abuse and two acknowledging its existence.

Out of four proposed statements justifying male violence none was supported by more than half of the respondents. The most popular was the idea of a real man who must be able to control his wife. However, the question did not specify the means of achieving control or whether the use of violence should be allowed. Average support to that idea was 46% among all interviewed police officers. The support was slightly higher among constables, out of whom nearly half or 49% shared this view.

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The second most popular statement was the idea of domestic abuse as a private affair, which outsiders should not interfere with. It was supported by slightly more than one third (36%) of respondents. It is concerning that the supporters included a significant number of patrol officers, whose, out of whom 40% believe that domestic abuse is a private matter. Patrol police are the officers to respond to calls in order to settle domestic disputes. If they believe in advance that this is a private affair of the family, it is questionable how efficiently and impartially they can perform on the scene.

Much less popular were the arguments that the wife must always obey her husband, even if the latter treats her unfairly, and always agree to have sex with him. Yet a significant number of respondents, 18% or every fifth-sixth, supported both views.

Figure 3. Attitudes among the Georgian police and medics justifying abuse of women

A woman should obey her husband even if he mistreats her The husband has the right to demand sex from the wife even against her will Domestic abuse is a private family matter

5 18 9 18 25 36 40 46
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

A man is no real man unless he can control his wife

Police personnel
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Medical staff

The same question, used to determine views justifying the abuse of women, was submitted in the questionnaire to the Georgian medics. A comparison of two important groups of specialists, policemen and medics, on whom the safety and possibly life of violence victims depends above all, shows that attitudes justifying violence are less frequent among the medics. A significant role is certainly played by the fact that the medical services are predominantly staffed by women, while the police are a male-centred institution. Women find it harder to justify abuse of women, while men apparently try to understand and justify other men, who have abused women.

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TABLE 32. Please judge the following statements. Do what extent do you agree?
% All Service respondents Constables Patrol 1. If a man uses physical force against his wife (striking, shoving) it is physical abuse - agree completely + generally 67 49 77 - disagree completely + generally 9 18 4 - no opinion 24 33 19 Total: 100 100 100 2. If a man uses violence against wife/partner to achieve forced sexual intercourse, it is a case of sexual abuse - agree completely + generally 54 51 55 - disagree completely + generally 10 11 10 - no opinion 36 38 35 Total: 100 100 100 Attitudes acknowledging the presence of abuse
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Two thirds of police officers condemn the use of physical force (striking, shoving) against the wife and consider it physical abuse. Although many patrol officers consider domestic abuse a private family matter, most of them (more than ¾), support this view, while only half of constables agree with it. Every fourth respondent declined from taking sides and responded „no opinion“.

Domestic sexual abuse is considered violence to a somewhat lesser degree than physical abuse. Accordingly, only slightly more than half of respondents, 54% consider marital rape to be rape. At the same time the number of hesitant police officers is very high. Thirty-six percent of the respondents cannot state their opinion regarding marital rape.

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TABLE 33. Why do women become victims of physical or sexual violence?
% The blame lies with the women, who… All Service responde Constables Patrol nts 1. act irresponsibly – hitch-hike, become drunk, accompany strangers - especially + also 83 79 84 - no 8 10 7 - no opinion 9 11 9 Total: 100 100 100 2. provoke men to physical abuse by constant nagging - especially + also 71 70 72 - no 12 16 9 - no opinion 17 14 19 Total: 100 100 100 3. are unreasonably jealous - especially + also 68 70 67 - no 10 10 10 - no opinion 22 20 23 Total: 100 100 100 4. are easily irritated and lose self-control over trifling matters - especially + also 68 58 73 - no 15 24 10 - no opinion 17 18 17 Total: 100 100 100 5. provoke men to sexual abuse by behaviour, clothing - especially + also 63 71 59 - no 19 20 18 - no opinion 18 9 23 Total: 100 100 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

We also studied the frequency among police officers of attitudes blaming the victim of abuse. It was studied whether and to what extent the crime victim or the perpetrator was perceived to be responsible and how frequently the reasons of the man’s abusive behaviour were explained by the influence of the society.

We first presented for judging five typical positions blaming the female abuse victims. All five found the support of more than half of the responding police officers. The most supported was the idea of women acting irresponsibly – hitch-hiking, getting drunk, accompanying strangers who make themselves vulnerable to abuse by their own negligence and stupidity. In other words this means that a woman has to consider the likelihood of becoming abuse victim at every step. This position was supported by as many as 83% of all respondents.

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Another widely spread attitude blaming women was that women nag their husbands as long as the latter lose self-control and become violent. This view was supported by more than 70% of all respondents. Three latter views, the women’s unreasonable jealousy, nervousness and hysteria, and sexually provocative behaviour and manner of dressing were somewhat less supported. Yet these ideas as well were acknowledged by more than 60% of all respondents.

Figure 4. Attitudes of Georgian police and medics blaming the abuse victim
Act provocatively Easily irritated Are jealous Nag all the time Act irresponsibly 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 40 65 70 80 37 45 52 63 68 68 71 83 90

Police personnel
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Medical staff

We compared the popularity of attitudes blaming female abuse victims among police personnel and medical staff. Fig. 7 shows that the policemen are significantly more likely to blame the women. While only two statements (irresponsible and provocative behaviour of women) won the support of more than half of the medics, all five attitude options provided in the survey were supported by more than 60% of the police officers.

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TABLE 34. Why do women become victims of physical or sexual abuse?
% The blame lies with the men who … All Service responde Constables Patrol nts 1. do not control their aggressiveness, are quick to anger and become easily violent when irritated - especially + also 72 44 87 - no 19 45 5 - no opinion 9 11 8 Total: 100 100 100 2. are unreasonably jealous - especially + also 69 52 79 - no 13 29 5 - no opinion 18 19 16 Total: 100 100 100 4. try to control everything to impose their will and force women to submission - especially + also 62 48 70 - no 20 38 10 - no opinion 18 14 20 Total: 100 100 100 3. are easily irritated and lose self-control over trifling matters - especially + also 58 53 60 - no 20 30 14 - no opinion 22 17 26 Total: 100 100 100 5. use violence towards family member to release their stress and tension - especially + also 53 53 53 - no 24 31 20 - no opinion 23 16 27 Total: 100 100 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

When comparing attitudes, which seek for the blame for violence in women – the victims of violence – and violent men, it appears that the police are more likely to blame the women than the men. The most important reason of violent behaviour is perceived as men’s inability to control their aggressiveness or lack of anger management skills. This view is supported by 72% of police officers. A highly important triggering factor of abuse of women is seen in men’s unreasonable jealousy (69% of respondents) and excessive need for control (62% of respondents).

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Figure 5. Attitudes of Georgian police and medics condemning the abusers
Relieve their stress on family members Are easily irritated Try to control everything Are jealous Cannot control their aggressiveness 53 56 67 66 68 69 72 75

58 62

0

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40

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60

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80

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Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Medical staff

A comparison of the attitudes of the police personnel and the medics condemning violent individuals shows that there are no significant differences. The statement that men cannot control their aggressiveness finds the greatest support, while the opinion that domestic abuse is a method of relieving stress is the least popular. The surveys of police personnel and medical staff both lead to the conclusion that Georgia is in great need for programmes for violent individuals, (compulsory) psychological counselling, anger management training etc.

TABLE 35. Why do women become victims of physical or sexual abuse?
No one is directly at fault, violence is caused by … All responde nts % Service Constables Patrol officers

1. unemployment, poverty - especially + also - no - no opinion

88 3 9 Total: 100 2. lack of intelligence, absence of elementary communication skills - especially + also 68 - no 13 - no opinion 19 Total: 100 3. abuse experienced in childhood - especially + also 50 - no 21 - no opinion 29 Total: 100
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

90 2 8 100 85 7 8 100 67 22 11 100

87 4 9 100 59 16 25 100 40 21 39 100

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A dominant share of the interviewed police officers (88%) see the causes of violence primarily in the society (poverty, unemployment), rather than in individual men or women, who are participants of a domestic dispute.

Another significant factor is seen in the lack of communicating skills, when violence forms a part of the family members’ communication. Sixty-eight percent of the interviewees consider inadequate culture of communication a cause of abuse. Ties between childhood experience of abuse and abusive behaviour are see less frequently. Fifty percent of police officers consider childhood experience significant.

TABLE 36. Please judge the following pair of offences
% All respondents A An individual causes minor injuries to his family member - no crime 11 - crime for private indictment 40 - crime for public indictment 44 B An individual causes minor injuries to a random stranger - No crime 6 - crime for private indictment 32 - crime for public indictment 58
Estonian Institute for Open Society 2008

Service Constables Patrol 9 45 40 9 28 59 11 38 46 4 34 58

We asked the police officers to judge two analogous offences, which occurred in different environment and in different circumstances, one at home between family members and another in public place among strangers. The goal was to determine to what extent a crime committed at home is viewed as “less a crime”. While 6% of respondents do not consider a quarrel between strangers in public place and leading to minor injury a crime, almost double that number or 11% do not consider a crime analogous incident at home. Another important difference was in the opinion, whether the crime should be classified as pertaining to private or public indictment. Significantly more, 58% of respondents, consider crime committed in public as pertaining to public indictment. At the same time the crime committed at home was classified as requiring public indictment by less than 44% of respondents.

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Fact sheet
                        

Ninety percent of the interviewed police officers have higher education, 37% have legal degree. Ten percent of 10% of the interviewed officers were female Ninety-two percent of the interviewed officers consider physical abuse in Georgian families a serious problem. Every fourth case the police handles concerns domestic abuse; such cases amount to more than one third, 36%, of the constables’ work. Eighty-one percent of police officers and 86% patrol officers estimate that women are the victims in case of domestic disputes. The police estimate that mothers and daughters suffer the most from domestic abuse. Young married women of 21 – 30 suffer the most from physical abuse. The main victims of sexual abuse are even younger married women of 16 – 20. In most cases of domestic abuse reported to the police the abuser was drunk, less frequently under the influence of narcotics. The police most frequently have to settle domestic disputes involving minor injuries. Women are unwilling to involve the police in domestic disputes, since they do not want it to be known or the abuser, generally husband and father of children, to be jailed. The police are informed of domestic disputes generally by the wife or grandparents, less frequently by children. Neighbours are usually unwilling to interfere with domestic disputes. Approximately 2/3 of police patrols would like to have more information about the incident they have to solve before leaving for the scene. Forty-seven percent of officers have been attacked by aggressive domestic abusers at the scene. Thirty-six percent of officers have been attacked by the woman or the victim of abuse while attempting to settle a domestic dispute. According to the police, women quite frequently want to withdraw charges against the abuser, especially in the first days after the assault. According to 2/3 of police officers the number of domestic disputes leading to manslaughter has declined in Georgia during the past five years. Seventy-six percent of officers have used restraining order against abusers, 41% have used this measure often. Twenty-nine percent of police officers and 35% of patrol officers find that domestic abuse cases leading to minor injuries should rate public indictment. Seventy-nine percent of police officers find that in case of serious or repeated abuse compulsory psychological counselling of the abuser would be needed. Seventy-eight percent of police officers find that domestic abuse cases should be handled by specially trained officers, 73% believe that a special domestic abuse unit should be formed. Ninety-five percent of the respondents support the idea of forming a special institution in Georgia to prevent domestic abuse, e.g. Domestic Abuse Prevention Centre. Ninety-two percent of police officers estimate that out of all forms of abuse of women, domestic abuse should be targeted above all in Georgia. Eighty-eight percent of police officers estimate that female prostitution is widely spread in Georgia. According to the average estimate of police officers, the number of women involved in prostitution in Tbilisi could be between 3,000 and 4,000 . 34

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                       

The share of street prostitutes could amount to 25-50% of total number of prostitutes, according to the police estimation. According to 53% of patrol officers, more than 100 brothels could be operating in Tbilisi. The prostitutes’ main clientele, according to the police, consists of local men and men from neighbouring countries like Turkey. The main destination country for trafficking in Georgian women is Turkey, out of Western European countries the Netherlands and Germany. According to 80 of constables a large majority of prostitutes has been mistreated by their pimps, 71% believe that the same percentage of women has also been abused by clients. According to the police, abuse of children has been insufficiently discussed in Georgia. Every tenth police officer has encountered child victims of paedophilia and incest during the past five years. The paedophilia and incest victims are mostly girls, which could mean that incidents with boys are hushed up and do not reach the police attention. The third most important cause of children becoming homeless, after poverty and the parents’ alcohol or narcotics dependence, is domestic abuse in the opinion of the police. Forty percent of constables has several times per year encountered cases, when parents have sold their child for cash to wealthy foreign citizens. According to every fifth police officer and 28% of constables, juvenile prostitution is quite frequent in Georgia. Every tenth respondents and every fifth constable believes that the trafficking of children across state border for the purpose of prostitution is quite frequent. Fifteen percent of constables encounter child prostitutes in the course of work a few times a month. The underage prostitutes and children trafficked abroad for prostitution are, according to the police, predominantly girls. The child abusers, who purchase sexual services from child prostitutes, ate according to the police primarily local men and tourists from Turkey. According to the police, Turkey leads among the destination countries for trafficking in children. According to the police, the state should address more actively all issues concerning abuse of children and their mistreatment, especially homeless children and domestic abuse of children. Forty-six percent of police officers share the view that no man is a real man unless he can keep his wife/partner under control. Thirty-six percent of police officers acknowledge that domestic abuse is a private matter of the family that should be settled within the family. Fifty-three percent of police officers believe that marital rape is abuse of women. 83% percent of police officers find that female abuse victims had been irresponsible – hitchhiking, accompanying strange men. According to 71% of the interviewed women provoke men to physical violence by constant nagging. Seventy-two percent of the respondents believe that men do not control their aggressiveness, lose control easily and become violent when irritated. Eighty-eight percent of police officers consider the families’ poverty and unemployment to be the cause of domestic abuse.

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