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The Laws of Migration Author(s): E. G. Ravenstein Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 52, No.

2 (Jun., 1889), pp. 241-305 Published by: Blackwell Publishing for the Royal Statistical Society Stable URL: . Accessed: 10/02/2012 10:33
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the Royal StatisticalSociety, 16thApril,1889. [Read before The President,Dr. T. GRAHAM BALFOuiX,F.R.S., &c., in the Chair.] CONTENTS: GeneralScope of the Paper ........ 241 Birth-place and "Nationality" .... 242 " Dispersion " and " Absorption" 244 Gains and Losses due to Migration244 Countries unequal in Population, nor comparable ........................ 245 The UnitedKingdom .................... 246 German Empire .................... 247 Netherlands 253 ............... Belgium 253 ............... ILuxembnrg...... 254 ......... Switzerland ...... 254 ......... Austria ............... , 2'5 Hungary ..... .......... 259 The Balkan Peninsula ............... 263 Denmark ..... 265 .......... Norway.... 265 ........... Sweden... 266 ,, Finland........ 267 Russia .. 267 ...... France .. 269 ...... Italy ........ 272 Spain and Portugal .................... 274 A GeneralSurveyof Europe ........ 274

NorthAmerica......................... 278 Canada ........... 278 .............. The UnitedStates........................ 280 Conclusions whichmay be Drawn fromthe factspresented as to the Laws of Migration ............ 286 Remarks.................... 288 Cotncluding Appendix (Tables I-X) ............ 290 1. WesternEurope: the ForeignElement. 2. Western Europe: Regions of Disand Absorption. persion 3. Canada and the United States: the ForeignElemnent. 4. Canada and the UnitedStates: Regionsof DispersionandAbsorption. 5. Dispersion of Migrants from Virginia and Quebec. 6. Absorption of Migrants by Iowa and Manitoba. With an inset Map illustrating theAbsorption of Migrants by Kentucky.


March, 1885, I had the honour of reading beforethis Society a paper which I perhaps somewhat ambitiouslyheaded " The Laws " of Migration." To that title I still adhere, notwithstandingthe objections that may be raised against it. Of course I am perfectly aware that our laws of population, and economic laws generally, have not the rigidity of physical laws, as they are continually being interferedwith by human agency. Currents of migration which would flow naturally in a certain direction traced out for them in the main by geographical features,may thus be diverted, or stopped altogether,by legislative enactments. Even London, notwithstandingits unique geographical position,and the advan' In the preparation of this paper I am indebtedto my young friend Mr. G. Philip for assistancein computing the tables and for several of the illustrative diag,.ams.


Laws of Migrationw. RAvENSTEIN-TAe


tages derived fromits being the centreof a vast empire,would not have grown to the size it has if an enactment of the reign of Queen Elizabeth in restraintof its growthhad been enforceddown to the presentday. Instances of towns and even of countrieshaving been stunted in their growththrough a mistaken policy can be foundas easily as can instances in which a wise legislation has partly neutralised all these exceptions, natural disadvantages. But notwithstanding I hope to be able to prove that similar conditionsproduce similar migratorymovements,whetherwe examine into this question on this side of the Atlantic or on the other. In my firstpaper I confinedmyself to the United Kingdom. On the present occasion I propose to extend my inquiry to the principal countries of continental Europe and to North America. I shall firstof all place before you the leading results of some recentcensuses, in as far as they throw light upon the distribution of the populationaccording to birth places, and I shall then discuss these results with a view of discovering the principles, if any, which underlie migratorymovements. If my success in the latter respect should turn out smaller than I could wish, I hope that my statisticalsummarieswill be accepted at least in part compensation for this deficiency. In dealing with my subject I shall adhere, as far as possible, to the lines of my formerpaper, so as to facilitatecomparison. I shall therefore,first of all, divide the population of each country, province, or parish into its constituent elements, as determinedby place of birth. I thus call "Parochial Element" thoseinhabitantswho resided at the time of the census in the parish in which theywere born. I apply the terms " Provincial Element," " National Element," or " Foreign Element " in the same setise. Unless otherwise.statedthese " Elements" are determinedby place of birth,and not by " nationality,"or admission to the privileges of citizenship. All persons bornwithin the limits of the German Empire thereforepass with me for German,whethertheirmother tongue be German, French, or Polish. On the other hand, the childrenof Germans born in France, are counted by me as Frenchmen, or rathernatives of France, whetherenumeratedin Germany or elsewhere,or whethertheyhave " opted " for the French nation. ality, or secured that of their parents. Fortunatelythe numberof to the total population of a country such persons proportionately is nowherevery considerable. There are however censuses which classifythe population not according to place of birth, but according to " nationality," the distinctionmade being between "citizens " or " subjects " on the one hand, and legal " foreigners" on the other. These distinctions

. 179 15.. and secondlywith referenceto selected localities..848 France ...095 2z8...] RAxENSTEIN-The Laws of Miqrttion. 28....704 .. to According Placeof Settlement...733 + + 02.... but apply also to natives who may have changed their " place of also the children of British subjects born abroad.482.421. go982 95 79 99 23 14-60 9030 98-55 145 ..29 60.. 34......592 46. they obscure or even obliteratethe great migratory currents..628 36. . Their amount depends of course upon legislation.969. County National Foreign . and should thereforebe used with caution or not at all.807 28. . ....804. there must naturally arise a very great differencein the numbersgiving places of birthon the one hand.. 15.884....859..... Having determined the elementsof population of each country.. or Suhjects Difference.whilst in France and elsewhere the born in the countryfollowthe nationalityof childrenof foreigners theirfather.. Where the process of naturalisation and the acquisition of civic rights are easy...228 + 324) 145 ....400. 243 are not by any means confinedto persons born abroad.. ....I65..102 Hungary Italy .. 37..." as shown by the following statement of the elements of the population of Hungary: According to Placeof Birth.. ...677 34.. These differenceshowever become really formidable when we descend to parishes or "places of settlement....642. 0-77 It is obvious that figuresbased on the "place of settlement" are altogether misleading in the case of Hungary.240 36.912 15.......759 ....358." as the English poor law has it..976 34... and not upon any natural or economic law... I shall endeavour to trace and point out the results of migration. GermanEmpire . In England every person born in the country.459. ... firstly in general....502....345 + 6 5.. are treated as British subjects.535.573 46. 46. Parochial element ... or attended by material advantages.855.930.... This difference....... in the case of a few countries. exhibitedin the followingtabular statements:Population.1889..and they are not very great.... United Kingdom.419. and nationalityor "place of settlement" on the other..785 9 in the last column of this little table are due The differences to the naturalisation of foreignersand the presence of natives of colonies in the mother country.

exhibiting thus an increase of 15.And thus pensatory whilst Anhaltis clearlya " countyof absorption.oooinhabitants and xo. p. has been largely used in censusreturns ( shouldbe classedwith counties of dispersion if we desirein additionto thisto takeaccountof the emigration to foreign parts. more especiallyseverein the case of frontier provinces." It is clear thatthegainsand lossesfrom migration ascertained in thismanner apply onlyto migratory movements whichgo on within thelimits of a State or country.500 Germansand foreigners. and natives of it).592 inhabitants in 1880. or that'increasewhichis due to an excess of births over deaths.574inhabitants. Such a province I term a province of " dispersion. The loss therefore due to emigration and not compensated for by immigration amountedto 139 . and thatthisloss has only been compensated forby an inflow of 10.oo0 persons. where thetotal population of a province is larger than the number of its nativesthroughout the country.2 As an illustration I select the Duchyof Anhalt.738. Theytake no accountof thelosses suffered by emigration to foreign losseswhichare parts.oooof its nativeshave migrated to other partsof the country. 51).ooo strangers from beyond. 1881. I safelyconcludethat 6o." where the reverse is the case we are dealing witha case of absorption. IV.i66 in 1885. 2 The methodof computingloss and gain by migration. I considerthe case of a province If. [June. This loss would have beenstillmoresevereif in return forthe 59. therehad not been a cominflow of 57. and I find that throughout the country there wereenumerated 1So. for instance." and a gainer to the extentof 1'3 per cent. Where this naturalgrowthis in excess of the actual growth we have before us the process of " dispersion .the naturalgrowth. to 1-38per cent. whichhad 232.ofthepopulation.129 = o-io per cent. . we haveto deal witha province of "absorption.with the actual growth as determined by the census. equal to 50 percent.290 native Anhalters who left their country for other parts of Germany and for foreigncountries. and 248. as also the censusof Englandand Wales.that is. as long as we confine ourselvesto the migratory movements going on withinthe bordersof the GermanEmpire. the various censusreports forthe German Empire. The absoluteloss due to migration wouldamount to natives of that province. But as during the same periodthe birthsexceededthe deathsto the numberof 16. had therebeen no wouldhave amounted emigration.annually. containing ioo.244 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. immigration in combination. for born persons outside (9o. equivalent to I 29 percent." Where thereverse process takesplace. annually. These losseshowever can be expressed if we compare thenaturalgrowth of a population.

only half that number are likely to cross a boundary measuring only 2. to go per cent. 1 is supposed to representa parish of Ioo inhabitants.for those amongst them who had migrated fromone parish to another would no longer be counted as strangers.the less active will the process of migration appear to be. viz. the circle enclosing this united parish would be = 2. the temptation of looking upon the figureswhich I give as being in the strictsense of the word comparable. its amount must have diminishedproportionately to the reduced extent of the boundary by which the united parish is brought into contact with outlying parishes. It is obvious that the appato the smallrent rate of migrationmust increase proportionately ness of the units of the population with which we deal. The larger or more populous the districts into which we divide a country. whilst the foreign element in each of the separate parishes amounted to 20 per cent. I will endeavour to make this clear to you by means of a few simple diagrams. in other words. RAVENSTEIN-The 245 Whenever practicable I have availed myself of both methods of stating " losses" and "gains.1889. one. There is one other feature in my paper against which I feel bound to warn you.2. FIGi. and although the total numberof inhabitantswould still be 400.3. only in the united parish. FIGi. B. the gain will amount to the numbers of these strangers." and I must confess that the method described last presentsundoubted advantages. .and proportional to the total populations to which they refer. each other. Each of the rings (A. the parochial elementhas increased from8o per cent. and not = 4.. If we suppose the rate of migrationto have remained the same.and to no more.20 of whom are not natives. yet there would be fewer strangers. the circle enclosing each parish we suppose to measure = 1.exhibitingneither loss nor gain. C. until by taking a whole country the effectsof amounts to io per cent. or. And thus.. My figures are simply relative. If now we consolidate these four parishes into a single FIG. 1. Thus if 8o migrants crossed the boundaries of four separate parishes measuring 4. D) in Fig. If foreign residents in the countrybe taken into account.if we confineour attention to what is going on among the natives absolutelyneutralise residingwithin the boundaries of the country.] Laws of Migration.

. or had acquired the privilege of calling themselves "British subjects.. I shall place beforeyou a summaryof the migration statistics for the United Kingdom. The reduction is therefore proportional to the reduction in the extent of the line of contact with adjoining outlying parishes.095.Tie Laws of Migration. If instead of consolidating four parishes. of the consolidated populationas compared with 20 per cent. exists in nature. These latter however included all persons born in British colonies.we consolidate nine. counted for each parish separately. referringyou for furtherdetails to my formerpaper. or 0-39 per cent. The United Kingdom in 1881 had a population of 34. whilst in a consolidated Thuringia it rises to 88-82 per cent. you will findthat in the separate States of Thuringia the native element varies between 7f+2 and 84+4 per cent.I45 of them had been born to.. placing three to each row. a very small number compared with the number of foreignersto be found in most other States. would number 9 X 20 = i8o.. The UnitedKingdom. per cent.having been strengthenedin consequence of the natives of one State not being accounted strangersin the others. were natives.. Before proceeding to the substance of my paper.884.99 per cent. for it is applicable only where these divisions admit of a certain symmetrical arrangement. of whom 34. if ever. viz.800. [June. or i-O1per cent. If for instance you will look at Table I of the Appendix. This no doubt is to be accounted for by the insular position of the United Kingdom. I very much doubt whether any of our mathematical members would be more successfulthan I have been.. but those in the consolidated parish would only number 6o. withoutdistinctionof race. As such an arrangement rarely.535. or 6&66 . and as many as 2I4. Nevertheless the illustrationswhich I have made use of illustrate sufficiently the facts of the case.848.. and 350. in the individual parishes.or 98.but in this I failed. that of the consolidated parish = 3." The number of "foreigners" was thereforeonly I36.. were persons born abroad. all attempts to deduce the migrationof any division from that which is going on in another division having a different population must lead to quite misleading results. at the rate of 9: 3 = 3: I = 20: 6-66 .655. .. the result will still be the same if we arrange them symmetrically. The boundaries of the individual parishes would be = 9. The strangers.. published in our Journalfor 1886. I had hoped to have been able to utilize this simple mathematical illustration for the purpose of reducing the multiplicityof parishes and other divisions with which I have to deal to standard divisions of the same number of inhabitants.246 RAVENSTEIN..

279.1889...... Per clit..7io natives of England. of dispersion.of whom havingabsorbedas many for which thecounter 562. to a smallerextent.. is thus a vast its population in 1871. notwithstanding to Io-8 per cent..and ScotlandintoIreland.421. I oughtto statethat. between1871-81to the extent and as theactual an activeinflow of personsbornabroad.Scotlandhave been the gainers. number by a similar ourselves to migration within thelimits of theUnited Confining we findthatEngland.855....179 99-07 093 region of dispersion.J. parish they in the 42. had a population The German Empireon 31st December.. and.. The German Empire. Kingdom.of amounting thus to 689.they as 78I.Still.434. Ireland. of 46.S.inreturn only carried91. 247 of theseforeigners... and amongst the courseof ten years. as follows: distributed Parochial in the 28. we take account If howeverin additionto home migration it will be found thateach of the three of international migration..OOO3 603Z3 enumerated element (persons in which wereborn) .forobviousreasons.523 in 1871... . exchangehas this international only amounted resulted in the seriousloss of 2z9 per cent." 188. Foreignelement(bornabroad).409persons. kingdomsmust be placed among those countries the emigration fromwhich is far in excessof the immigration. several I haveformed " States" into" geographical of thesmaller provinces. I begin my surveyof continental Europe with the German Empire. merely land frontiers.I I 9 nativesof Ireland.the absolute equivalent to 12-7percent. which whichaccountstoo forthe distribution in countries differs muchfrom whatis to be found havingextended count heads.] RAVENSTEINT-Tze Laws of our census officials of these it is possible thattheinfluence and do notweighqualities. By naturalgrowthalone. takenas a whole. the United Kingdomwould have increasedits population of 13-7per cent. currents of migration lossofthatcountry Wales.. forgoodorevilmaybe muchgreater thanthatexercised foreigners enumerated in other countries.374 fellto theshareof England.325 90z 3 enumerated Provincial element (persons in which were born) . At thepresent taken 3This is an estimate baseduponthecensus weaker... province they National in German} born element (all persons 46. is probably somewhat time theparochial element ..704. that is by the excess of birthsover deaths. Empire). increase. as statistics available for that purposeare exceptionally complete..263.

but would exhibit a loss of 12X2 per cent. and Mecklenburg have suffered the severest lossesin their natives. Schleswig-Holstein.exhibitsa loss of 6-4 per cent. It is obvious.000.PrussianSaxony.4 thus exhibiting a loss due to the excessof emigration to 0-43 percent. per annum between1880-85.and the loss to 0.Brandenburg (without Berlin). realised at the expense of all otherprovinces as wellas of someforeign countries. and Westphalia have mostlargely profited by an importation of thesurplus population ofother provinces and by the immigration of foreigners. so also will the losses of frontier provinces be intensified.Fromother datawe learn thattrans-Atlantic hasbeen emigration . as also the gains or losses if emigration into foreign countries be takeninto account.West Prussia (IxIS per cent. whilstSilesia. Posen (ow87per cent..would reveala loss of 2z8 per cent. Posen. If international migration be takenintoaccount.248 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. 443. I have been able to indicatethe resultsof migration withinthe empire. Between1872 and 1881 the annual increaseamountedto I107. Schleswig-Holstein (o8 7 per cent. thegeographical provinces willfollow each other in a very different orderto that which theyoccupy in mytable. thatif we assumethe number ofnativeAlsatians at present in Franceto amountto 200. Mecklenburg and Pomerania will be foundat the bottom of the list.212 of whom souls. Elsass.. Had therebeen neither emigration nor immigration the population of the German Empirewouldhave increased at the rate of iU13 per cent. whilst Posen.EasternPrussia. Royal Saxony.535 were females. amounting abound in Germany Short-journey migrants as theydo elsegoing on (1880-84) most activelyfromPomerania(x122 per cent. if we assumed ioo. In Table I appendedto this paper the resultsof migration throughout Germany can be clearly native Posenersto have emigrated intotheneighbouring Poland. And as thegains of all theseprovinces willbe reduced if emigration intoneighbouring foreign partsbe takeninto account. West Piussia. as an integralpart of the GermanEmpire.forin that case Berlinand Royal Saxony alone will exhibita gain.. If we do not look beyondthe limitsof the empire it will be found that Berlin.). [June.).of population per annum).17 per cent.and Mecklenburg. It shouldhowever be noted that some of the provinces namedabove are frontier provinces.Rhineland. of its population. thatprovince.Posen.Pomerania.and that we have not therefore taken into accountthe migrants which have gone fromtheminto neighbouring foreign countries. insteadof exhibiting a gain of io per cent. the natural growthto i24 per cent.). consequently 4 The actual loss (1880-85) amounted to 980. forinstance. notwithstanding an inflow offoreign elements whichhas beenvery considerable in some of these provinces..instead of increasing at the reducedrateof 0o70per cent.theyhavingsuffered the severest losses.

which the advantage of beingmostaccessible in additionto enjoying to .ooo inhabitants whilst at the rate of 2 41 per cent.whilst in 1885 they contained43 7 per cent.. examination further is concerned. Thus. for out of 1.whilst the proportion among men similarly was io6. There are of course thefarther to thisrule. Bautzen (2 28) and others. as in Schleswig-Holstein distances.000 inhabitants onlycontained32-1 per cent. as faras the UnitedKingdom thosemigrants Femalespredominate who go onlyshort among and even in entireprovinces. of PrussianSaxonyand Silesia. and currents aremost thattheinflowing wherever powerful geographical orinvite andthatthey facilitate features losein strength intercourse. annually villagesor parishes of under 2. we tracethemintotheinterior.and cannot without be ascribedto the actionof the land laws.. in Berlinit onlyconstitutes I135percent.and theydo so at an increasing pace. phenomena the map preparedby me.. whence are drawn to theneighbouring and Oldenburg. you will findthat this If youexamine all sides.whichis not.784 Royal Saxonswho German as manyas 37. 249 where. districts therthanthefivenearest in consequence of thismigration townsincrease Thatthelarger at townsand theruralpartsis an a quickerrate thando the smaller undoubted fact. of the population.) Hamburg (3 62). elementis far to what it is in some of the frontier inferior forwhilst districts. and it risesto farhigher in WiesbadenI 04 per cent.of the population. verymuchlike a depopulation however.butthe onlyones of any importance a fewexceptions are the capitalof the empire (Berlin).] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.).o8 per cent. towns.1889. This looks of the rural parts. Upper Alsatia (3-4I). between 1880-85increased Towns of over ioo. whether from has invadedGermany element foreign the be formed boundary by thesea or be drawnacrossthe land. In 1871 townsof over 2.000 inhabitants decreased0o02 per cent. Upper Bavaria (2 43). This is amplyprovedby many instances given in the censusreturns.057 had goneno furmigrated intoother provinces. Aix la Chapelle (2-40 per women outsidetheir enumerated. out of 120. they Hanse fordomestic in whichthe demand servants is considerable. and thedistricts of which are the centres. situated of persons of foreign birthis not so large as for The number so to illustrateby its instancein France. But even in these Wiesbaden and Frankfurt places. peculiarto Germany therefore alone. proportions in such districtsas GermainLorraine (5.whichattracted many foreign settlers notwithstanding that the foreign the census was taken in midwinter. only88 werefound native province. but it is sufficiently the migratory distribution geographical underreview. Amonglong-journey migrants theyforma decidedminority.

11.270 Dutch. Irish. G Theseare persons bornin France. 36.5Z5. that they go no further from their homes in search of work than is absolutelynecessary. of the 48.Belgians. Only those immigrants who have travelled long distances to reach Germany. The Swiss abound most in Baden and Elsass. including . [June. Hence the bulk of the persons of foreign birth is to be found in the provincesborderingupon the countries fromwhich they came. 20. whilst the second part shows to what extent natives of Berlin have found their way into all parts of Germany: x Austrians. 5 Totalnumber of persons of foreign birth in Germany.thus largely compensatingfor the loss of the Alsatians who have migratedinto France. the great centre of absorption.844.848 Danes. In further illustrationof the process of migrationgoing on in Germany.853 Russians. 8. &c. foreigners.785 were resident in Rhineland.5 Thus of 155.36. x. such as the English and Americans.33i Austrians.067 Luxemburgers. the French6 in Elsass and Lorraine.are more widely distributedover the country. of the 45.go2 Swiss. Posen.11. The following table furnishesthe informationfor Berlin.I propose to present some details for Berlin.708 have made theirhomes.but the great bulk of them neverthelessshares the peculiarity of all migrants.007 Americans.585 in Westphalia.250 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.45. are in some instances also great seats of commerceor industry. its firstpart exhibitingthe elements representedin the population of Berlin. I 19.865 Norwegians. Thenumber of Frenchmen in Germany whobave retained theirnationality onlyamounts to 24. and Scotch. r55. where 20.and for East Prussia.. and 5.345 out of a total of 36. 30. 14. the Danes are most numerousin Schleswig-Holstein and at Hamburg and so on.708 Frenclh.viz.802 were enumerated in Prussia. 434. Of course a large proportionof these foreign migrants may be classed as long-journeymigrants. 8.775 Hungarians.853 Russians.6.35 48. and Silesia.Z70 Dutch. Saxony (Royal).464were found in the frontierprovinces of Bavaria. and Silesia. 31. 15. a province fromwhich migrationproceeds most actively.889 English.309 Swedes.234 Italians.24I.

Province.11I Hanover. is curtailed by diverting We learnfrom this table thatwhilstBerlin absorbed740. Berlin. Prussian .425 1'46 2'04 8X19 1-17 3 46 0oI9 O*33 o I2 . PerCent.. Silesia.821 Schleswig Holstein 1X85 040 0-42 0-25 035 2-75 231 2-92 3-42 74 5-42 2-42 1o26 3-2z 2. Natives of PerCent.315.15 2 2-3 5'04 5600 35-10 27-55 22-28 22-26 59.610 5.776 6:z I 7 59 4-47 3'44 5 93 0-95 0-97 0o46 0-97 313 77.038 703 395 _ 062 0 35 1-19 1-40 2-00 0 92 0-80 o-o8 0'07 OI 3 Oo04 0-09 o0oz 0. Distribution of Native Berliners Geographical Provinces.1889. The supply from Thuringia and Westphalia.3P6 3. 12..2X11 I.306 7.1.624 17.058 24-59 11-01 9-68 9-20 5'98 5-25 z-83 z.705 Rhineland. PerCent.571 Wiirtemberg Foreignparts Total . Berlin. Berlin. ElementsinthePopulationof 251 throughoutGermany.532 905 2.3. the counter-currents emanating . and this is a higher proportion than the average for all Germany: and all the more remarkable.571 nativesof other partsof Germany.516 Baden . 42'3 7 Berlin. Berlin constitutes thus undoubtedly a great and important centre of absorption. I6-70 per cent.04 c o0 C33 - 1.105 1.although the currentsflowing into it give rise to countercurrentsof no inconsiderable strength: in fact.570 3.53 Hesse and Nassau.58 i 68 0-43 0. Kingdom. of the native Berliners live outside Berlin. each of of of of of of Province Population of Migrants Number. MigrantsPopulation PopulationNatives Enumerated of of each each from each outside ofeach in Berlin.I7 oI6 o'o8 o0i6 11-63 9.324 41.663 45. Per Cent.496 1. Province. Westphalia 6. Per Cent. as Berlin is growingat a rate farin excess of its natural growth. Saxony Mecklenburg Posen .130 7. this is due to their being frontierprovinces.58.155 7.705 100-00 |145 fromit onlyCarried awaywith themI 12.93 3'11 3-14 oz6 1-58 1.183 42-37 83'o5 - 557. Per Cent.984 1.857 12.99.557.276 5299 4-56 6-27 2-40 Z 54 O034 0. By farthe largestcontingent of strangers enumerated in Berlin is furnished by the provinces immediately surrounding the capital.42 0-09 030 04I 2 702 1. o0-o 0-27 O I2 0-53 0-08 0-68 031 0-27 006 0110 0-09 o0z6 o065 o-o6 o-o8 0 I0 02z7 4*44 4'10 319 2-03 1'79 _ 4-67 3.335 1.479 ..101 Saxony. is in excess to what might be expected from their geographical position. on the other hand. Thuringia 11.479 native Berliners.12.. Province. Province. and if the supply from some more distant provinces.2zz6 42'3 7 19-13 East Prussia West . It appears to show that the natives of large towns are as a rule more enterprising.such as Prussia.646 81. . Elsass-Lorraine.89I 4. Bavaria .243 3.012 o084 0o10 054 0.287 I00o00 2|79 1570 669.644 2.226 Brandenburg.] RAVENSTEIN -The Laws of Migration. and consequentlymore ready to migrate than are the nativesof smaller towns.450 6.743 251. Pomerania . Elements in thePopulation ofBerlin.

................... RAVENSTEiN-The [June.5 Bavaria ...... Pomerania.. but that large manufacturingcentres like Westphalia and the Rhineland do not fail in their attractive power......................... Hesse and Nassau ..... notwithstanding their distance from the centre of dispersion.. of Migrants..............Kingdom..... ... Berlin ...125 2.......... In the next table we show the dispersion of the migrantsfrom Eastern Prussia: Natives of East Prussia in each....420 7.903......... Silesia ........ ..900 4... the bulk of the migrants who have swelled the population of Berlin have come from the neighbouring provinces........ currents which draw many of the migrants from these provinces into the more accessible manufacturingdistricts of Saxony and Westphalia.....Prussian ....323 6. Saxony..043 54... ....84 3 44 0-76 17........794 6.......... Baden..51 0............. Females too form a majority among the native Berlinerswho have gone to residein otherpartsof Germany............. Wiirtemberg.......... but this majority has been secured solely at the expense of the more accessible provinces................ Mecklenburg.. Westphalia Schleswig-Holstein...324 13.............417 70 3'8i I34 0-61 15.735 9...... .....5169 4-63 3x34 I14 2x02 1*32 0-37 0-31 0-15 0. There is also a disturbing element in the large garrison maintained at Berlin...334 2. . ......575 598 82 747 283 z6 0. includes natives fromall parts of the empire... Speaking generally.... Brandenbur ... of them being found in rural Brandenburg.... Females form a majority of the migrants who have settled in Berlin..... Thuringia ..60 2-54 0... Total ... 1..794 14. as many as 53 per cent.... Elsass ..324 26 63 22z26 8*74 705 97-12 3.24 0 30 2... Percentage of Population of each Province. Posen . however..... West .413 There too we find that the bulk of the migrants have not proceeded very far.. and similarly the Berliners who have forsakentheir native place for other parts of Germanyhave gone no furtherthan the neighbouring provinces.....753 2.. East Prussia ........41 0..... Rhineland .173 45...... .... which notwithstandingthe local character of the military forces of Germany..... .... Province....... Per Cent...30 oz8 o036 014 I00 00 V14 0 09 0-08 006 004 0 01 0 01 010 2)106.252 Laws of Migration. Saxony... Hanover ......

Belgium..700 souls....on 31st December. 42...and the number of Dutchmen in Germany. 2. whilst Limburg. An examination of Table II in the Appendix clearly shows that Holland proper. ..i64 souls..495 67r2z per cent.195 birthplace The foreign element included.. and France.380 91 Of unknown 1. i.697.. 4. Dutcb emigrationis directedmainlyto European countries. have been the most active centres of dispersion..Belgium... 3. The parochial element. 17-25 per cent. whilst the natural growthwould have yielded an increase of 449.012. I8. had a population of souls.8i6 Belgians. PART II..748 99 7. 3.. and in the maritime province of Zeeland. National ..118 98C ... Foreign . Foreign 75. Belgium..... 1880.. of the population. Provincial ..864. 1879.... has been the great absorbentof population. there resulted a small loss of i6. with its big and growing towns. is double that of the Dutchmen enumeratedin the United States......693 The Netherlands. as we have seen... by 1879.. 5...977 67'zo per cent.. .......6i4 English. and Gelderland.009 inhabitants... but we are safe in assuming that home-migration flows VOL.. S ...709. Migration is steadily increasing....o26 Germans. it had been reduced to 67-22 per cent.....320 personsof other nationalities. 143.976 88-51 ... in 1849..... forwhilst throughoutthe kingdom the two sexes are equal.3 RAYENSTEIN-T7he Laws of Migration.. which is due to international migration..520. proportionswhich tell their own tale.. there are only 94 females to o00 males among those persons who were found to live in their native parishes... Overyssel...1889......604 natives of Dutch colonies.... had 5.261 ohz6 No details as to the distribution of the natives of each province are given.. .. The towns throughoutthe country increased (1870-79).. Females are as usual greater migrants than men. LII. National .. As the increase of population between 1869 and 1879 amounted to 433. in addition to 7.. in population.. distributedas follows: Parochial element ....936.376.... 3.. the rural parts only 6-8 per cent.. and 5.. 253 -The Netherlands..551. distributed according to place of birth and residence in the followingmanner:Parochialelement. on 31st December.. still mustered69 og per cent.. a German border province of great length and little width. notwithstandingtheir strong foreign elements... Foreigners are most numerous in Limburg.

8. Antwerp the only two towns for which information and Brussels. 8.this is solely due to an inflow lation from beyond its borders.220 natives of Germany in the Grand Duchy. the foreign elements attaining at the same time the high percentagesof 8-47 and 8-53 per cent. namely. This is clearly proved by the fact of there being only 97 females to ioo males in the parochial element.027 (940oo per cent.) to i95. 7 51. Belgium is a loser by emigration. whilst among the total population of the countrythe two sexes exactly balance each other. to 67-2 per cent. The federal census taken in in Belgiam.602. &c. Brabant (with Brussels).ooo in Germany. For detailed information Appendix. in 1885.proportionately the population.. respectively.).863.8 In 1871 there were 3.227 in BelgianLuxemburg).196 Germans(I8.68 Dutch. Luxemburg. 1880. 7. I i. where 432. Luxemburg. and if its population is of popuneverthelessstill increasing.34 English. The number of native Luxemburgers residing in other European States probably reaches 50.265 " Belgians " were enumeratedin 1881. for the parochial element has fallen from69-4 per cent. Switzerland. Austrians 745 Swiss. I[. 41S and Hungarians." 34. This emigrationhoweveris not countriesas to the neighbouring so much directedto trans-Atlantic countryof France. and women exceed the men among short-journeymigrants. 1880. towards the provinces which increase most rapidly in population.011 others.254 Laws of Mligration. and Brabant. in 1886. Antwerp. 3.000 (?) in France. to Persons of foreignbirth"are most numerous.085 in Brabant).000. The parochial element in is given.68i (91 74 per cent. although all the natives of Belgium living outside Belgium did not probably exceed half a million. 1. the firstthree being frontierprovinces. viz.412.z68 in Liege). only distinguishes the inhabitantsaccording to civil rights or " place of settlement. As the natural growth exceeds the actual increase of the population. whilst the foreign element rose from 12.028 Belgians. Between 31st December. 41. 12.391 Dutch .z63 in Antwerp).104 Frenclh (16.863 Germans. the last the see Table III in the seat of the capital. Antwerp. 1885.799 English. the number of natives enumerated in Luxemburg actually fell from I97.5. The Grand Duchy of Luxemburg has within recent years become a great centre of dispersion.496 Italians. 3. Migration is increasing.735 in Hainant. RAVENSTEIN-Tlte [June.313 French.543 to 17. (4.760 Luxemburgers (i4. mustering 66-ii and 5I'03 per cent.. is exceptionally strong. and the provinces of Liege. in 1880. in 1880. including zs. 8 Viz. and 1st December. I1.

): 1850.930 natives of Switzerland emigrated. The results for three recent censuses are as follows (in per cent. ..who settle in Vienna. The numberof natives of Switzerland in other European countries appears to be larger than that of the Swiss in the resb of the world. Bohemians.3 90A4 30 833 943 5. In the four States borderingupon Switzerland the ascertained numberof Swiss amounted about 1880 to 132. the actual loss amounting thus to I2.64-5 element Parochial Cantonal . and thus it happens. and acquire the privileges of citizens there.852 dependents.989 persons. bult this included 4. 546 1880. 6.94i foreignerstook up their residence in Switzerland. and enjoyed only by a minority local taxes are voted and expended without the majority of taxpayers being in any way consulted.6oo. 49-3 79.244 souls.whilst in the United States they numberedonly 88. Austria. We are justifiedin believing that the bulk of the migrantsdo not trouble themselvesabout these civic rights.6 74 Comparing the natural with the actual growth. forinstance. are counted as Viennese. the figurespresented give a most distorted picture of the migration that is going on. Austria. Still the number of those who do must be sufficiently large to materially tone down the picture of migrationwhich we present. it would appear that between 1870 and 1880 69. and vary fromcanton to canton. had a populationof 12. Birth in a canton gives no claims to citizenship in that canton. 255 in Switzerland are perhaps to settlement and as the laws referring the most illiberal in all the world. 1880. that full civic rights are of the inhabitantsof Switzerland. distributedas follows:s2 . 1870. "Foreigners 92.973 All Swiss citizens ".many of whom may of course have been Viennese by birth.] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.on 31st December.000. In Vienna."that is place of settlement.7 . The Census Returns for Austria furnish no informationon the place of birth of the inhabitants. but merely classify them according to their " Zustiindigkeit.755 persons were granted the rights of citizenship in 1884. and that 56.144. for instance.1889.

0-33 Romanians.for they have gained only if we do not look beyond the political boundaries of the empire.... Provincial .. which cross the Austrian boundaries at the same places and elsewhere.2....794. the one down the valley of the Danube towards Budapest... 69.790.4z o...422 Hungarians .654 Russians. [June.331 183. whilst the whole of the United States only contain 124.442 73.....7z 8 1C25 98.. the births between the last censuses having exhibitedan excess over deaths of I...241 ... 21.the Tyrol.. The main currentsof this frontiermigration flowinto Germany and Hungary..... Parochial element ..8i8.. 5. Vorarlberg.. Percentage of Population ofAustria. it should not be forgotten that they would occupy a different position were we able to trace the migrants who have gone from them to foreign parts.... 93..287 French. Number. In the case of frontier provinces. Germans . * Among whom were 40..988English.264 souls. 15..398.256 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.. District .237. 2....149* I i.. are almost if not wholly neutralised by contrarycurrents..347 Turks....343 17.2.. but especiallyinto Germany. This is exhibited by the not merelyto be gathered from the differences parochial element......885 Swiss. and the Bukowina would not then rank among provinces which have gained frommigration. down that of the Weser... but this excess is not very considerable..749..152 Italians.. And whilst other countries send their surplus population across the ocean..but more especially fromthe numbersbelonging to each province who were enumeratedin provinces in which they had not acquired civic rights at the time the census was taken.667 An examination of Table IV (in the Appendix) shows very rates in the distinctlythat migrationproceeds at vastly different various provinces constituting the Austrian monarchy. either up the valley of the Danube. The two currents which flowinto Hungary. Hungary and the German Empire alone containing 354. however.. Austria at large may fairly be classed among those countries whose natural incrementis in excess of the actual growth of its population...&c.. Austria sends hers mainlyto neighbouringStates..83 0-42 93o0Z Otherforeigners ... even though it be merelyto the nearest parish lying beyond the frontier. and which result in the exchanges of natives almost balancing each .ooo residents of Austrian birth..000..ooI.228 National .. the otherbetweenthe valleys of the Drave and the Save. or across the Ore mountains into Saxony. 1. as compared with an actual increase of 1.. 20..

lies to the north and the northeast. The bulk of the foreigners the frontier districts.but it may safely be assumed that their numbers would not materially change these relative in othercountries. The map exhibiting the foreignelementsof the population clearly exhibits the manner migration is going on: how the in which this trans-frontier they penetrateinto migratorycurrentslose in strengththe further until at lengththeydie away is struck with the fact that the migratorymovement appears to be more most and industry are flourishing actively going on wherecommerce freely. were found outside their native province.but the greater part of Bohemia is an agricultural country.139 enumeratedthroughoutAustria. Comparing the various provincesof the empire. having increased but slowly.whilst in the Italian . only24.we find that the Germans are less sedentaryin their habits than their Italian countrymen. instead of Hungarians by nationality.I I4 Austrians having been enumeratedin Hungary. and is because of its heterogeneouscomposition. Poland. notwithstandingthe retentionof a very considerable provincial element. the interiorof the country. occupies in Austria. Moravia and Silesia occupy prettymuch the same positionas Bohemia. Comparing the German half of the Tyrol with the Italian half. and their losses would be more considerable still. on the the total population. Apart from portionsof other provinces.amounting to 97 per cent.though both enjoy the advantage of being able to cross the frontierinto provinceswhere their respective languages are spoken. appear to bear out the general belief that the Tyrolese cling with especial love to their mountainhome. Tyrolese. are centresof commerce and attractwhat I have called long-journeymigrants. with its factoriesand glass works. of featuresof the Tyrol. were found living outside Bohemia.which sends forthswarmsofmigrantsto otherparts ofthe empireand beyondits borders. 237 other. Had Hungarians by birth been counted in Austria. The Bohemia of popular imagination.a much closer balance would have been foundto exist.036 or 3 per cent. and Hungary.but withinwhich migrationgoes on but slowly. forout of 801. Of course. of the population. The migratory other hand. If Bohemia is not among these provinces.] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of neither case have we been able to take account of the natives of these provinceswho have migrated beyond the borders of the empire.the onlyexceptionsbeing certaintownswhich and industry. had they not largely been balanced by an inflow of foreign elements from Prussian Silesia. The parochial element in the German Tyrol only amounts to 66-5 per cent.422 Hungarians in Austria.198. and is no doubt a region which absorbs migrants.whilst of Bohemians as many as 7-7 per cent. Carniola is perhaps most typical as a centre of dispersion.

.... Salzburg...115 44...22... eachProvince in Lower Austria..............0 67-7 14-9 22-9 32-6 43-3 20-2 13-2 I | Salzburg.................................. &c..................... 4.......479 19.......or ought to the greatersterility and we not..... ......Styria.077 Oarniola ...... rCarinthia t {Dalmatia .. 486 ..... Germany .........578) and Germans (i8..1i5 inhabitants....) had their "legal settlement" in other parts of Lower Austria.. 0-27 O-I4 0..... Bohemia..........992 Hungary I 96. &c... .. ........258 RAVENSTEIN-TDie Laws of Migration........ and immigration the city of Trieste........................025 ....... |Silesia .......... The " Wandertrieb........ of Percentage all Natives of eachProvince..therefore makes itself feltalso in the Tyrolesehills.581 Tyrol........74 0-37 1. 113..... Every province of Austria furnished a contingent to swell its " (i2@9 per cent. 176.787 982 Trieste . Lower Austria ..... Vorarlberg Croatia.............. But as Vienna shorn of its suburbs presents a less favourable object for tracing the currents of migrationin Austria than does the province at large of which it formspart...024 11915 1 391 o-o8 5-1 ...... 5. Foreign parts (excluding Hungaryand Germany) I-33 5-6i 1I3 ...9 ri69 4-60 5-2Z - 34.................935 ~alicia ........) the population..... CStyria C Upper Austria ..330......201) were most largely represented... 309..455 32... 1..whilst94. 5..... Vienna. which shares with other large cities the peculiarityof growing largely at the expense of the surrounding country......... the provincial elements being respectively95-4 and 97-9 per cent.) were Viennese citizens....872 (34-5 per cent...... [ ascribe this difference smaller resources of the German Tyrol ? Those provinces of Austria which appear to profit most largely from the migration going on within the empire.0 7z 6 5514 68-1 73.......691 . Lower Austria owes this position mainlyto the Kaiserstadt..............960 Moravia ..." which the Teutonic race sometimesclaims as a characteristicpeculiar to itself......... rather.70 34 15-3 2-9 23-3 151 31-6 12-8 16*3 2-1 0-48 5 019 1 1..... Vienna in 1881 had 726.......654 2. Istria ...... are Lower Austria........... as well as from fromabroad. The population of this province (2..178 Bukowina ..... ..... Tyrol it reaches 87-5 per cent..........551.62 i) included the followingelements: Natives from Provinces...510 30.... whilst among " foreigners Hungarians (66. 406 ...439 (X3 per cent..of whom 250.... 630 Gorz . I preferdealing with the whole of Lower Austria at once...... of Migrants Percentage eachProvince from Austria.. .

460 90g30 county .653. 11.392 74-6oper cent. absolutely.677 9855 198.. We can take into account only those Bohemians who have been enumerated in Austria..... .....] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.. even in the face of divertingcurrentsproduced by other centres of attraction.... and that distance and facilities of access are important factors.400..102 souls. but not the large numberto be foundin the neighbouring districts of Bavaria....... which have been the most liberal contributaries. however. the Tyrol. for 73 per cent..114 I-27 Born in Austria. If Bohemia contributedso much more largely than otherprovinces which apparentlyenjoy greater geographical facilities..... Unfortunately......this is due to the positionof that countryon the frontier...... Among migrants going longer distances.... Carniola.. By doing this the Styrians enumerated in Lower Austria would form 75 8 per well as relatively to the numberof migrantswhich theyhave sent forthaltogether. Carinthia.. of the migrants from that province. At all events our table.. 259 It will thus be seen that the bulk of the migrants to be found in Vienna have come from the adjoining provinces.. I have given the details for each countyor " comitat" in the Appendix (Table V). 14. although presenting a distorted picture of the facts. of the Austrian males were enumerated in their own parish.... 15...... and Prussian Silesia.. Total bornin Hungary. whilst the proportionof -womenin a similar position was only 7i.. and Galicia.. Silesia.103. And what applies to Bohemia applies equally to other frontierprovinces.... neverthelessproves that the bulk of the migrantsfromthe border provincesfindtheir way into Lower Austria.instead of formingonly 44 per cent. Saxony.1889.and more especially to Salzburg.. The percentages allotted to these provinces would have been lower had we been able to take account of the whole of the natives of these provinces.898 Birthplace not known .. That such is really the fact is amply proved if we convert Styria into a frontierprovince.. The kingdom of Hungary.. Born in the parishin whichenumerated . instead of only those among them who resided in Austria when the census was taken.... 15.. constituted as to birthplaces in the followingmanner: .. As to femalemigration........ although the inquiries as to ... otherforeign countries ... including Croatia and Slavonia. by looking upon.... had in 1880 a population of 15. and all outside them as a foreign border land.... the females are in a decided minority....... Htungary..413 o-i8 .642.. 27.the Austrian statistics show once more that females form a majority among short-journey migrants. ..

The numberof " foreigners. One stream. the results. another stream enters the country to the south-west. gradual Magyarization of the country. birth places were exceedingly minute. This outflowof natives is in a large measure made lp by an inflowof foreigners. If am inclined to believe that the majorityof these emigrantsmust have been Non-Magyars.unless.and that the principal one. The natural growth between 1870-80 amounted to 486.260 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.013."and especially of natives of the neighbouring provinces of Austria.too. until the absorbent powerof the capital weakens its strength.speaking the same language and observing similar customs. notwithstandingaui extraordinarysevere visitation of cholera9in 1872-73.beingat the annualrate of o07Z per cent. Not so the Magyars of Central Hungary. I am inclined. the recorded number of births and deaths justifies us in placing Hungary among regions of dispersion. The preponderance of the Austrians amongst 9 Th 6 natural epidemic. Hungary thus sufferedan absolute loss of 256. whilst the actual growthonly reached 229. between 1870-80exceeded theactualgrowth at all events. of absorption. prove but a halting guide when inquiring into the laws which govern migration.nor as to their dispersionthroughoutthe kingdom. notwithstandinga very remarkable inflow of foreign elements. we shall find that Slavs. and throughthe "Wiron of the TransylvanianAlps otherforeignershave found their way into the country.10 The Carpathians form no obstacle to an overflow gate " and the passes lation from Galicia.265. If I am correct in this supposition.359 souls. 10 In Croatia-Slavonia.932 souls. had there to z. which is not probable. indeed.but theyneitherinform as to the total number of natives of each county.000 souls.346 of her children. Nevertheless. as published. Our map shows very clearly the method of this foreign invasion.and this home-rule province.and spreads over the kingdom of Croatia and system Slavonia. Germans. appears to follow the broad valley of the Danube. constitutes a of the empire. to owo6 its gain amounting . the process of migration should result in a. is very considerable.consequently on the frontier standingits situation centre percent. to believe that this outflowingcurrent largely sets in the directionof the Balkan peninsula. and that by merelycrossing the boundary they will findthemselvesamong kinsmen. wouldhaveamounted beenno cholera growth. notwiththe natural to the extentof 5. [June. we assume that the Magyars migrating into other districts of the same kingdom become denationalised. The census publicationsenable us to determine us the elements of the countypopulations. occupy more especially the periphery of the kingdom. for if we examine an ethnological map of Hungary. which since the abolition of the militaryfrontier appears to have made considerable progressin wealth and populaof popution. and Romanians.

which is very small indeed. The counties which appear to have furnishedthe largest number of migrants are those lying in the mountainousregionsof the Carpathians and of Transylvania. and which at the same time muster a strong native county element. Women certainly are greater migrants than men.1889. must be numbered among "counties of absorption. The formerclass has increased its population far in excess of what could have been the result of natural growth. whilst the rural districtsactually suffered a loss of 318. Men actually constitute a majority of the parochial element. Only in five countiesof distantTransylvania are theyoutnumbered by foreigners of other nationalities. whilst in the latter natural growthhas been outstripped by migration into neighbouring counties holding out greater material prospects." whilst those. Kronstadt in Transylvania mightperhaps be added to these as a minor centre of attraction. Its population between 1869 and 1880 increased 33-3 per cent.all but independent of Vienna. The capital has grown with surprising rapidity since it became the centre of a kingdom. whose population has been dwindling. We are however safe in assuming that those counties which have increased their populations at an exceptional rate. in the majority. 261 these foreign residents in Hungary is very marked.our available information does not enable us to divide the kingdominto regions of absorptionand dispersion. as far eastwards as Peterwardein.provingonce morethat geographical features constitute a very important element in determiningthe directionof migratory currents. as a rule.] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. Budapest calls for special notice. The tendency of this foreigninvasion is in the directionof the lower Danube and towards the Balkan peninsula. We shall then findthat there exist two great regions of attraction in Hungary.244 souls in population. but they go shorter distances. for between 1869-80 the towns of Hungary increased 457.are foremostamong counties of dispersion. clearly showing that many more women than men must have left their native places to seek theirfortuneselsewhere. but almost exclusively to an inflowof strangersfromall parts of the kingdom.. viz. The townsthroughoutthe country have grownat the expense of the surrounding rural districts. The Hungarian census returns do . at the other extremity. But if we are pretty safe as to the character of the whole country. the counties bordering -uponthe Danube as far as and even beyond Budapest.. by also from the neighbouring provinces of Austria.484 souls. and the more fertile portionof Croatia. namely. Among migrantshoweverwho have gone longer distances the men are. and if we examine into its elements we discover at once that this increase is not due to natural growth.



of Migration.


not enable me to analyse this population as I have been able to do in the case of many English towns, and I must therefore content myself with presenting the following summary, based upon information published in M. Joseph K6r6si's admirable "Die " Hauptstadt Budapest in Jahre 1881," where also a map is to be found illustratingthis process of recruiting:
Counties, &c. Natives of each in Residing Budapest. Budapest. Percentage a of Population of Budapest. Percentage of fPopulation Counties, &c.,named in the FirstColumn.

Budapest............ ....... 151,981 Pest, rural ................... 27,496 Srvuhlweissenburg (Feher).... 12,710 Komorn ........... ........ 6,292 Gran (Esztergom).2 . 2.449 Hont ......... .......... ,474 Raab (Gydr) ................... 3,516 . .................... Lipt Tur6cz ................... 4,628 1,480

4z-7 7'73

4-35 6-06

o269 0o98


4-12 3148 3 00




Rest of Hungary ................ 102,216 AustrianEmpire .......... 33,004 Otherforeign parts ........... 5,200 Not known............................ 1,236 Total ..............

z8.74 9.z7

0 73

r46 036


* This is the "residential" population(Wohnbev6lkerung), whichdiffers to some extent fromthe actual civil populationgivenin the appendix.

easterly current is losingin intensity.

On examining this table it will be seen that the bulk of the migrants are derived from the counties immediatelysurrounding the capital, with a decided tendencyof the counties lying westward a larger contingent than the counties lying to the east furnishing and south-east. This only illustratesthe fact of a main currentof migration flowing from Austria down the Danube as far as Budapest, where its strength becomes exhausted." There are however, two counties (Lipt6 and Turocz) which lie far away in the Carpathians, but which nevertheless furnish a much larger contingent, proportionatelyto their population, than other counties which are geographicallymuch more accessible. This circumstance has led M. K6r6si to make the assertion that geographical position, that is to say distance from the centre of attraction, has nothing to do with migration. In this I believe he is mistaken. There are, of course, exceptional circumstances, but distance from the centre of attraction,modified by facilities of access, and the 11 A comparison of the censuses taken in 1869 and 1880 shows that this


RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.


would appear to be in all existence of rival centresof attraction, cases the principal factorto be taken into account. It is not with the population of these distant counties with which we ought to compare the migrantsfromthemwhich are to be found in Budapest, who have left these counties but withthe total numberof migrants to seek their fortuneselsewhere. As to sexes, we findthat the females preponderate among the Hungarian migrantswho come to Budapest-there are i i i females to ioo males-and that this is more especially the case with reference to the counties in the more immediatevicinity of the capital, which furnish the largest contingents of domestic servants. Among foreigners,on the other hand, the males preponderate largely, the only exceptions being the English, Swiss, and French migrants,amongst whom governessesare verynumerous. The huge currents of migrationwhich set in the direction of Budapest have naturallyproduced countercurrentsof weaker force, but still traceable. And these currents even Lipto and Turocz have experienced, notwithstandingtheir obscure position in the natives of Budapest, as many Carpathian hills. Out of I75,223 as 23,242 (I3yz6 per cent.) resided in 1880 outside their native town. The Balkan Peninsula. Our knowledge of the population of the States occupying the Balkan peninsula has very considerablyincreased since the great detailed to enable us war of liberation,but is not yet sufficiently to gain an insight into the currents of migration which are traversing it in various directions. Still, making the best use of the materials extant and within my reach, I do not hesitate to say that all these countries(with the exception of the provinces still under Turkish rule, concerningwhich we have no trustworthy knowledge) increase their populationat the expense of the neighbouring countries. The increase of the actual population of late years has throughoutbeen very considerable,and far in excess of the natural growth,as ascertained by a registrationof births and deaths:AnnuialIncrease. Countries. Actual Growth. Natural Growth Per cnt. Gain.

Bosnia and Herzegowina (1879-85).... Servia (1879-84) ........................... Romania (1860-84) ........................... Bulgariaand EastRoumelia(1881-87) Greece (1870-79) ...........................

Per cnt.

2-41 2-22

Per cnt.

0 73 1-59 1-59

o-68 o083







RAVENSTEIN-TThe Laws of Migration.


If these statisticscan be trusted,the provinces recently freed fromthe governmentby the Turks are more rapidlyincreasing in population than any other part of Europe, and this increase, at least in some of them,is undoubtedlydue to an inflowof population fromabroad. Bulgaria. Bulgaria, on 13th January,1881, had a population of 2,007,919 souls, of whom 37,635, or i-88 per cent., are stated to have been born abroad. This comparativelylarge proportionof persons of foreignbirth,in a country as yet so little developed, is accounted for by its extended boundaries,which bring it into contact with many foreign countries. The foreign element varies, in the between 1io and 9-9 per cent. It is smallest in districts, different the remote and least accessible regions of the Central Balkans, and most considerablein the east, where Bulgaria opens upon the Black Sea and along the Danube. The foreign element amounts to 9g9 per cent. in Varna, to 5 5 per cent. in the adjoining districtof Provadnaye (Provady), to .6 per cent. in Russe (Rushchuk), 4+6 per cent. in Silistria, to 2 and to 2V3 per cent. in Vidin. No details as to the origin of this foreign element are given, but we may safely conclude that it includes a large proportionof Austrians and Hungarians. Romania. Our informationrespecting the population of this interesting State is most incomplete. Births and deaths are registered,but no census has been taken since 1859-60, in which year the two principalitiesare supposed to have had a population of 4,424,96i souls. As 786,768 more persons were born between 1860 and 1884 than died, the population at the close of 1884 ought to have amounted to 5,2II,729 souls, if its increase had depended upon natural growthalone. If we can trust an estimateof the population made for1884, which places it at 5,268,ooosouls, the immigration between 1860 and 188-1must have much exceeded emigration. We are inclined to think that Romania is a countryof absorption, which receives large accessions to its population fromthe neighbouring States of Hungary, Austria, Bulgaria, and perhaps also fromRussia, but in the absence of a census, it is quite impossible to fixthe amount.'2
12 M. L. Cretzulesco(" Bulletin" of the Romanian Geographical Society, 1876) estimates the natural growthbetween1860 and 1873 at 365,900, the a gain of 282,ioo by immiat 648,ooo souls,and therefore actualgrowth assumes whichappearsto us to be far in excessof the truth. According to him gration, therelived in Romania,exclusiveof the Dobruja (1873) 85,ooo Slavs, 29,500 Hungarians,39,ooo Germans,8,ooo Armenians, &c. Many of 5,ooo Greeks, theseare,however, nativesof Romaniaand notmigrants.

433. . I .. Amongst persons of foreignbirth there were 24..319. during this decade. 1..22o Russians.. 1... .. 1. Norwegiansin Sweden 4.. .... and consequently takes rank among regions of dispersion... Germanyx. .. was divided as followsas to place of birth and residence (see Table VI):22....969. 145 other Germans.983 Iceland....... had x... . British ..823. .1.&c..... of the total population (nearly one-half Swedes).750 96-79 percent. Scbleswigers.148 Swedes........ As the natural growth (1870-80) amounted to 224.298. and they are least so in the rural parts of the kingdom (2-12 per cent....... Total. but it is quite impossible to say how many of In the Dobraja therewere enumeratedin 1878 i6. Denmark...823 Norwegians.Sweden. in the UnitedStates 18 1.. countries 3-16 it foreign .900 ioooo .. and Norway. 37. and whilst the numberof Danes in Germany.... Norway.and how many immigrants..729...471 Germans... and the vast majority of Norwegians who have left their native country have found a new home in the United States....865..007 District National Foreign Parochial element.] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.. The population of Norway on 31st December.. Foreigners are most numerous in the capital. Norway must take its place amongst regions of dispersion.. 1. The goal of a majority among the Danish emigrants is North America....039 inhabitants..769.625.. Denmark 2......902 natives.. 2......123... 265 these were natives of that district. whilst the actual growthonly reached o-6o per cent..200... distributedaccording to places of birth as follows: of Denmark Natives .1875...904. Denmark on 1st February...640 .1889..806...... The inflowv of natives of neighbouringcountriesis far larger than are the counter currents of migrantsissuing fromDenmark.and 2.306 o o5 . 1880.'3 Migration within Norway itself (see Table VI in the Appendix) has yielded the largest profits to the two cities of Kristiania and 13 Isles3.916 1.. Denmark. where they form 7-96 per cent.... that of natives of these countries in Denmark amounts to 60.. is only 27. whilst the actual increase of the population only reached i84..260 87'zI 98-94 z2o6 .575......... As the natural growth of the population (1866-75) amounted annually to I-22 per cent.912 73'o5percent.)..Danish colonies ...203. .62. suffereda loss of 39...

.). iooC0 .565.340 were natives of Sweden. The greatest loss....... Sweden therefore is a centre of dispersion... and throughout the countryas 1o6: 100..143 souls. and the districts immediately adjoining the capital.. District(Liin) element . 4..3. which owe their position mainly to an inflowof migrantsfromthe neighbouringdistrictsof Sweden and Finland. takes its place among regions of dispersion.266 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration..... the followingelements: Parochial element...260 foreigners.. 24.....035....040 4. was sufferedby Kristiansamt. like the greater part of Europe..352 National element .642.. forthe parochial element only includes 104 females to ioo males.337 were enumeratedin the United States. and next to it in Kristiania (6 i9 per cent.... a district shut off from the sea. 28..582 Not ascertained . The firstof these includes the maritimeregion from the Sound to the .539.. 1880. Bergen... 1870.. and next to these rank the two northern districts of Tromsoe and Finmark.668 88..046 ...... whilst the outgoing currentsare strongerthan the inflowing ones as regards Denmark..... As the population of Sweden. That the towns are the largest gainers is most clearly shown by comparing the city of Bergen with the rural districtof Bergenhus which surroundsit. and ii. we shall discover (see Table VII in the Appendix) that there exist four districts of absorption.even though we take account only of her European neighbours... 99-59 . of whom 194..... It is supposed that 275.150 in Denmark.... 18.....885 in Germany.. whilst the natural growth yielded a surplus of 535....). and having no contact with foreign countries. Foreign . between 31st December.for the number of persons of foreign birth who have taken up their abode in Sweden is relatively very small.. [June..826 in Norway. and 31st December.. The population of Sweden included on 31st December. 8.... natives of Sweden resided at the time of the last census in foreign countries. increased many as 29....54 04I .. whilst among the rest of the population the proportionis as II 2 100.514 79'9zpercent. Sweden. 1880.... Germany. Females are greater migrantsthan the males. Of the 37. The foreignelement is strongestin Finmark (I1232 per cent.897 souls..and all other countries. on the other hand. that country... A very strong current of migration sets fromSweden into Norway. If we confineourselves to that migration which is going on within the limits of Sweden..

naturalgrowth531. has come fromthe neighbouring Norway (4.693 Swedes.and that many of their natives have crossed into Norway. and the bulk of them As to foreigners. who did so in 1880. these two " ians " would take their place among regions of " dispersion.730 inhabitants.and io6-i5 in the national element.including 7.] RAVEKSTEiN-The Laws of Miigration.for between 1870 and 1880 it amounted to I '49 per cent.575). namelyDenmark (4.' the towns actually made a gain of i00. Migrationhas undoubtedlyincreased since the development of means of communication.897. 1880. greater a correspondingly suffering parts 14 Actual growth397. The natural growth of the population is considerable. Finland. They are most numerousin such towns as Stockholm. districts. whilst there are Io6-I7 in the district element." by migrationat the expense of the rural parts of Towns profit the country. for there are only 10o48 females to ioo males in the parochial element. had 2. and Goteborg. for whilst between 1871 and 1880 the loss due to home and internationalmigrationamounted to I38.Malm6.905 souls.947 Russians. loss 138. Finland. having amounted between 1870 and 1880 to only 10. to put it differently. yearly. their number is small.875 souls. 3.890 others. Female migrants are more numerous than male migrants. however. of the population. It should however he fourthis confined observed that the "hins " of Jomtland and North Bothnia lie on the frontier. Or.1889. is not very large.046. whilst in 1880 it only in 1860 only 7 per formed88-4 per cent. the (Stockholm). therural . By adding these emigrants to the migrants actually enumeratedin Sweden. Finland ( one of those countrieswhich increase to some extent at the expense of their neighbours.) were of foreignbirth.629 souls.052 (o-68 per cent. The gain.401). and i. the second includes the capital to the north-westof it. cent.754. and apparent poverty in natural resources. and the to the island of Gotland. Russia. on 31st December. 522 Germans.for in 1860 the district element still formed 92-8 per cent. and Germany (3. but as the actual growth is larger still (i *S per compared with i i I per cent. The population returns from the Russian Empire still leave lossof 239.289). as also in the frontier Finland.433).754 souls.of whom only 14. notwitbstanding its remote position. 267 Norwegianborder(with Gbteborg).143. and the "h1ns " lyingf third is represented by North Bothnia (Norrbotten). of the native population lived outside their native district. countries.).

1z5 Total.931 more Russians left their native countryduring the period under review than entered it... and these afford us some insight into the " exchange " which is going on between European Russia on the one hand.304 .302 609..765 towards that residue. These gains (or losses) fluctuate considerably during different epochs. 260.733. On the otherhand.998 349.73344I 846..347 3I3... 846.. [June..50 These figuresshow very plainly that Russia in Europe is one of the countrieswhich absorb population.. for trans-oceanic emigration from Russia is still in its infancy. .863 531..504 Loss 1O2. only 175. Russians or foreigners. I.z66 Gain4i6..o83 Romanians... and the outer world on the other. . not only fromthe Russian returns. and our expectation that the elements absorbed should in the main be derived from the border countries is fully borne out by the available statistical for among the foreign immigrants in excess of the emireturns...408 for the rest of the world. Ultimate .896 were Germans. grants of foreignbirth (or nationality?) as many as 95i. whilst 391.054 were Austrians. we thus find that Russia in the course of these thirty-six years gained an accession of 886. as may be seen fromthe followingtabular statement:Gainfrom Foreign Immigration. but also from those of other countries. . We gather from these returns that the number of foreigners who enteredEuropean Ruqssiabetween 1851 and 1886 was greater who left that empire. Of the net loss in native population which Russia suffered in 1871-86. by I. 1851-60 '61-70 '71-80 '81-86 . We are however in possession of apparently trustworthyreturns of those persons.5io souls to her population......516 218.96i persons found a home elsewhere. and 41..379 Result.the British Islands furnishinog 12. 234.934 persons are recorded as having arrived in the United States..038 44. much to be desired. whether who have openly crossed the frontiers. That this inflow of migrants should of migration or "out-flow" is plainly create a counter-current seen... 'I7772 Lossfrom Russian Emigration.931 Gain 886.forwhilst the actual growthbetween . An inquiryinto the natural growthof the population of Russia leads to the same conclusion.268 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. The bulk appear to have settled in the neighbouring countries (Germany and Austria).677..and theyleave us altogetherin doubt as to the birth-places of the inhabitants. 461. Balancing profitsand losses.. leaving only 63...44I than the number of foreigners thus exhibitinga very considerableinflow of population.

... but many of whom have nevertheless become merged in the general population.....258 Foreign ..245.342 NaturalisedFrenchcitizens .. and I feel no doubt that if we could trace these migratorycurrentsto their ultimate destinations.. and the re-peopledvalleys of the Caucasus...... LMI. 31.. we should find that as steady a flowof migrantsleaves it on its eastern frontiers.413 natives of France or of French colonies-the children of foreignparents who have not sought naturalisation. Whatever errors there may exist in these figures. and place on record the migration which is going on within the limits of the Empire...] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.. as is that which enters it from the west.. 36. 120.482 element .. These "foreigners" however include 431...531 96-76per cent....'5 The populationof France amounted in May to 37.. they appear to me to point plainly to the fact..393) there are many Alsatians born since the loss of that province in 1871.... France....... 1885.......that a steady stream of immigrants flows into Russia.700. make their influencefelt even in the heart of Europe...... notwithstanding irksome police regulations and the unattractivepolitical conditionof that country. Of a flowof Russian migrants into the Balkan Peninsula I can findbut little trace...908 Departmental National element. 1... It appears to be assumed in France that this home migrationflows 15 For an account of Frenchmigration between 1876 and 1881... T ..... divided according to place of birth into the following elements:Parochial element .. 7 2-53 The national element as here given includes the natives of French colonies.......... annually.the difference (amounting to I... 22.501 56-6oper cent.969.. .... see M. 103.. Among " French citizens by origin" born abroad (266...000 souls) having been made up by immigration. 9... 961. O27 2-97 . p.... was a larger gainer fromthis immigrationthan Russia proper... According to " nationality" there were: French citizensby origin ..886 Foreigners.... the natural growth would only have yielded an increase of 133 per cent....... Toussaint Loua's paperin Journat of theStatistical Society..930.70 .. 36... VOL.. An examinationinto the results of home migrationis rendered next to impossible.. 79. owing to its geographical position. PART 11... 269 1871-82 amounted to I-46 per cent.... Poland.759 souls.1889...490.126...... It is thus the vast and promising territories of Siberia...... This element of the population is especially numerous in the frontier departments.. as the census returns do not furnishus with the natives of each department enumerated throughout France. 652.

to 376.or by an inflow departure of to trace the currents But if we are unable satisfactorily to estimate the gain and loss we are in a position homemigration.the naturalgrowth December. 80 of the introducdu d6nombrement . an ever increasing be the mostof its women.1886. enlighten of thetownsand ofthe ruralpartsof the country.36i souls.and it will there be seen that the great regionsof clusterround Paris and Lyons.that the as distances males take the lead in migration evenforsuchshort to another. thepopulation growth a natural 1881-86exhibited The townsof Francebetween of 43. whilstthe remotely in the direction Mediterranean as regionsof disperare most prominent situated departments sion..30Isouls..io8 souls had therebeen wouldhave amounted population to 525.yet when the were countedin 1886 the townswere foundto have inhabitants madea gain of 626. Such no doubt is the those fromone department which case in some departments. of the Seine amounted partsof the department of France reached 53-9I but the contributions of the remainder tion.whilstthe ruralpartshad sustained to the a loss of 455.554. Full detailsas to the gainsor profit handsome will be found in Table VIII of the losses of each department Appendix. amounted no emigration. the Seine. It cannothowever whilstretaining of notin the case of the department and notably case everywhere. migration jointly. ofthemales.443 souls. butwhich are slightly in excess.whether time how this preponderance offemales. exports numberof men into otherpartsof France. theactual growth whilst theimmigration of personsbornabroadthus balancingnot only but leaving in additiona all losses resultingfromemigration.and the coast of the absorption of Marseille.665 souls. In manyof thelargetownsthe a minority. population raral partsreachediP87per cent. in other of the femalesex is mostmarked. In fact the preponderance unless we learn at the same explainsnothing. censusresults the published On one other resultof migration upon to its effects withreference namely. the accessionsfromthe outlying to 3-I per cent. as in thatof the Creuse. la " Rdsultatsstatistiques de 1886.469 souls. in a department by a was broughtabout.. The gain of the townsproportionately of the loss of the amounted to 1881. 4f78 per cent. the rural parts of whichthe females of absorption and not one of thisfactis a centre notwithstanding of one sex or of theother dispersion.16 words. of I49.and 30th May." p. us sufficiently.270 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.In Paris the nativetownelement nativesmustform only mustered349 per cent. inwhichthepreponderance outofthosedepartments mostactively or. Between homeand international from resulting of the 1881. [June.

Persons born abroad are more numerous in France than in any othercountryof reaches 9-33 per cent. has attracted more foreign settlers (proportionatelyto its population) than many of the frontier departments. thus exhibiting a steady decrease. though slow. mycommand T 2 . 88-24 per cent.452. which can onlyhave been broughtabout througha correspondingincrease in the number of migrants.395)...appears to be greater than that of the native population. donotadmit ofthis. in 1872 it had fallen to 86-25 per cent. If there existed statistics as to the parentage of all natives of France. should not be underrated. In 1866 the departmentalelementof the population still amounted to.. such as we have for Canada and the United States. as concerns migration. the result would possibly surprisein morethan one respect. in Meurthe-et-Moselle. Paris. the influenceof these foreign elementsis sufficiently apparent in the foreignnames of many personswho have achieved eminencein France. whilst natives of France have not allowed themselvesto be deterred by rigorouspassportregulationsfromcrossingthe French boundary into neighbouringparts of Germany..persons of foreign birth are most numerous in the frontier departments and in certain maritime towns. notwithstanding the hostile feeling supposed to be entertained towards them.] RAYENSTEN-The Laws of M7igration.nottheir influence withstandingthe preponderanceof men among them. ioN5 in the 17 I should withtheelements ofthepopulation havelikedto havedealt of in thecaseofother as I havedone butthematerials Parisas fully at large towns.political boundaries do not appear to exist: Germans. have nevertheless crossed the frontiersin considerable to whethermigration is fact. The number of these foreignmigrantsis increasing.and is all the more potent as theirnatural growth. the rural parts have absolutely decreased in population (from 24. Their nationalityin these localities corresponds with that of the nearest foreign country.1889. and in 1886 to 840oo per cent.17 Between 1881 and 1886. with its manifoldattractionsto migrantsof a more select type. But whilst the foreign element in Paris only amounts to 8-og per cent. On one other point the French census reports furnisha satisfactory answer.namely. Their influence in modifyingthe character of the people.and the population of France would exhibit only a very small increase were it not for these formidable reinforcementsreceived from abroad. 271 per cent.506 to 24. and those from foreignparts 89og per cent.575. but I am not yet prepared to describe the loss by so ugly a word as " depopulation" of the rural districts.. Speaking broadly. no doubt. But even withoutthese statistics.

which enjoys the advantage of being near the frontier.. As the population of Italy increased 1. in the frontier departmentof Meurthe-et-Moselle.467). of the population (due. 1881.628) included:Personsbornin Italy ...1i4 Germans.134 English. &c.459.formsan exception..714 (48'38 per cent. 264. We thus learn that these "foreigners" included 482. a massing of these foreign migrants in the frontierprovinces.358.584 Swiss. in that of the Seine-et-Marne.. at certain sea ports (Leghorn... abroad . of persons of foreignbirth...) were born abroad. lovers of art and religious pilgrims. 134.272 Laws of Migration.and to 7-72 per cent. notwithstandingLeghorn and Florence.807 . in that of the Marne. According to the census taken in Italy on 31st December. in a measure.and in Tuscany. Persons born abroad are not classified according to their place of birth: instead of this we are furnishedwith the number of " foreigners " distinguished according to nationalities. This distribution exhibits the usual features. whilst the recordednatural growth 18 of Rome (300. 78.and 7. o36 Of these latter only 59. in that of the Meuse.. to 3-0I per cent. and I9z98 in Belfort. Naples). In Milan (population 32x. with 2-34 per cent.. 100. 28." No details are given which would enable us to trace the migratory movements going on.36.. Nord.) wereborn in Rome. Thus in Liguria persons of foreign birth constituteI 33 per cent.149 Dutch and Luxemburgers.. to 3-74 per cent.568 Italians.. 79. Ofthe total ofRome infavour made were Exceptions population .....821 99-64per cent.... RAVENSTEIN-The [June.) were 7.... in Piedmont o055 per cent. andMilan. the presence of wintervisitors on the Riviera) .). and at a few favoured localities in the interior (Rome and Florence).. but notwithstanding its attractions to holiday makers.. in Lombardy 0-53 per ceut. the foreign element amounts to 9-33 per cent.028 (2I8 per cent.037 (2X34 per cent. Passing fromGerman Lorraine in the directionof Paris.956 were "foreigners.. the population of that kingdom (28.) werenativesof foreign parts.18 but we are furnishedwith ample informationon the geographical distributionof persons of foreignbirth. viz. to 2-72 per cent. .26I Belgians. whilst natives 1I55. it scarcely ranks before Milan (2-i8 per cent. 37. *Italy.658.156 persons (44-65 per cent.whilst in the rural parts of Italy it did not rise higher than o1i9 per cent.474 souls between the censuses of 1871 and 1881.. A majority of settle in the towns....839) ofMilan.550 Spaniards. in that of the Seine. in Venetia they formo64 per cent.for the foreign element in the these foreigners populationof the districtcapitals mustered I-22 per cent. The city of Rome. only 044 per cent.

302 in Egypt.and that the Italians who migrateinto northernAfrica are largely natives of Sicily and of Southern Italy generally.954 510.990 14. of Italians in all the neighbouring Switzerland. A distributionof these emigrants amongst the provinces in which theywere born is scarcelypracticable.388in the Argentina.. and this preponderanceincreases generallyspeaking with the distance fromItaly..877 1.6z5 2. birthplace} is not known 311. In this exchange Italy is generally the loser.. Europe. is steadily rising..203* 579.373 226. 273 amounted to 2.234 in 1885..806 3. France.057 Total.789 souls. especially in the Argentina and Brazil.. Austria.335t 7.. including Spain. Italian emigration is annually and the Italian element in America. America.having risen from at most 5.. The same may be said of the countries constituting the African and Asiatic seaboards of the Mediterranean.io6 in Tunis.Ii..618 1.618 2. Australasia.and the Italian migrantsenumeratedin Germanyare almost visiblyincreasing.145 160.000 (?) in the United States. Italy must be classed with those countries which send forthlarger numberof emigrantsthan they receive in return. For further particularson this subject I must referto the work quoted above....and 82. and Hungary. Amongst these Italian emigrants the male sex preponderates throughout....032. 380.167 232 I 2.907 62. bornabroad . is larger than that of natives of these States in Italy.604 in 1880.. to 8.1889. owing to defective returns.there being only 65 females to every loo males.the number -States.031 234... as far as European States are concerned: in other words. i70. t Of whomz54.392 # Of whom33.73 655 191..693in Algeria. 42. In an officialvolume entitled " Censimento degli Italiani all' estero " (Rome. even the Italian contingentssent across the Alps into Germanyand other remote regions appear to be larger than those received in return. we are furnished with the following estimate of Italians residing outside Italy: Total.314 . .but as far as our informationgoes it would appear that those provinces which receive the largest accession of migrants fromabroad furnishthe heaviest contingents.981 whose .685 287.020. assuming vaster proportions. 1884).] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.and i6.722 35. 26. Nay.352 6 1.196 in Brazil. Africa Italians by birth . Asia...

497. i per cent.if notthe majority. 39.94i.771. I computed per cent. the large sea-port theocean. plainlyindicated but As to Portugal. Huelva.657.860 souls.625. There. are Cadiz. and Guipuzcoa. crossing currents further by migratory of Europe.or is carried towns. are scantyin the extreme.1888) estimates the Spaniards residingabroadat 346. BeforeleavingEuropeforNorth thus far.741. to drifts the ruralpopulation o073per cent.485. Portuguese 7.20 Our map showsthattheseforeigners in whichtheyexceeded and that the only provinces numerous.320in Algeria. A General Survey it seemsonlyproper America. This I have donein the resultsobtained to summarise table: thefollowing 19 Ibaiez (Espafia.673. That the and industry of muchcommerce the centres is currents barrierto migratory formidable Pyreneesforma very on our map. amounted data. [June.274 RAVENSTEIN-lTe Laws of Migration. The annual increase of the population between1864 and 1878 only amountedto o059 per cent. of the vital and emigration examination aftera careful annuallysustainssevere therecan be no doubtthat this country losses by emigration.781 in France. Italians 3.730 &c. our statistics statistics. including 114. Spain and Portugal."' The Spanishcensusfor1877 onlydistinguishes nativesof Spain and personsborn abroad.Many. Duringthe same period the naturalgrowth. These are not but they are at the same time onlyreadilyaccessibleprovinces. English4. imperfect from o038 very the gains exceeding slightly a loss in herchildren sustained Spainof immigration. foreign derivedfrom a homein Franceand in northern find theseSpanishimmigrants Africa (Algeria). that to showing per cent. 59. ratherthan in Spanish coloniesand daughter between States.536 to I6. 20 French17. and eitherremainsthere. of whomthere were very are nowhere in the Argentina.73..being an annual increaseof o034 from Spain between1860 and 1877 increasedin population . in elsewhere. per have been less than thenaturalgrowthcan hardly whilst annum. (mining). 5.

.. 90 30 4_ Italy. 1880 . 1881..59i persons of French " origin... 69-72 81l25 Switzerland. Natural Migration)....I6 8854 73... It should never be forgottenthat there exists in Algeria (1886) a French colony of 26i.1880..'64-77 United Kingdom.....Servia ... that is from natural growth. by drawing within her borders the outflow populationfromneighbouringcountries.... 49 30 79'30 Spain.. with Finland. 1881. In nearly every case the natural growth has been considerable.. is thus compelled to make up for her losses.... _ Finland.. 1877. '71-90 '82-86 1879-84 '79-85 '70-79 I55 0-. States.. In these States the actual growth of the population has been greater than would have resulted from an excess of births over deaths..... 73 05 9174 87'21 - 8-26 0..Bosnia ... Percut.. Portugal. Per cut..... in the very heart of Western Europe.. orDistrict... ....... and France.... - '77-80 '70-80 '70-80 '71-81 '70-80 '70-80 '70-79 '60-77 '71-81 o-6o 1.. trifling though they are...'71-82 Russia..... France..Z 146 021 1-49 o o6 013 - 9 I- . . 4 0-75 I..... having no considerable surplus population to draw upon... 84-0 Luxemburg.Hungary.5p9 On glancing throughthis table it will be seen that the States of a loss from Europe form two groups.. not to say excessive......8 740 i*9i 0_z4 - o-6o o0l5 0lI3 005 0o05 0-04 o-68 0'38 1-19 0-68 1-33 1o84 0Q83 o004 Gain o0o5 o-11 Romania ...1877. -... 1886 .. Norway....o5 o z2 z 2-4 -1 0'38 o076 - i.... of which one has suffered combined European and extra-European migration... Belgium.-." though not all natives of France.. 1880 . Austria.... o 6o 0... 1885. 1880 .. the demands upon the population are nevertheless more considerable than is generally supposed.... and if there are no great currents of emigration crossing the Atlantic... Elements of thePopulation.-... 60(32 1885 ..15 0-34 0-73 0173 1-29 1'00 0-29 0073 080 0-73 1119 o0z8 zo 1 19 I5 93-02 1879.. 67'20 German Empire....93 roI o6 3.... 275 Difference (Result States.1875... and that the maintenanceof this colonyhas until recentlydemanded heavy sacrifices..whilst the other has been a gainer. 1882........43 0-27 0-26 00-20 0-75 041 0 Dennmark..Foreign... 88-51 - 0-36 I.... Actual.... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 79-92 Sweden.. France. But in France the birthrate is low.. Very .... 7970 - -? o68 _ -3 1860-84 ............... occupies quite an exceptionalposition among these States.. chial... Percnt.....-. Paro...1880 ..80 -2 90 23 - z2o6 1881-85 o03 5 '65-75 o 6o '81-85 '70-80 070 o-901 1-10 1-22 1-13 Loss. The latter group includes the Russian Empire..vincial... 67-22 Netherlands.. 1880 ..........1889. France... the whole of the Balkan peninsula.... Annual Increase.1880 .03 o-8o o99 0....... 56-60 -.... Period.] RAvENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.County Pro.... . Greece..

of which the first includes those States which have gained in population as a result of the migration going on within the limits of Western Europe. There the population increases rapidly. 30.or they are at all events aggravated by it.276 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of M1tigration. seeing that our statistics are so veryimperfect.800 Belgians.and Hungary are ascribable mainly to an emigration to neighbouringEuropean States. 126.300 Germans. Of course these losses were in many instances more than made up by an inflowof migrantsfromother parts of Europe. we shall find that some countries have lost in this exchange of natives of the soil.21 Among this total therewere 452.900 Netherlanders. If we confine ourselves to migration within the limits of Europe. to this is the position in which Russia and the countries different of the Balkan peninsula find themselves. case as regards the United Kingdom. although not equal to those of some favouritetrans-oceanicfields of emigration.200 Danes. are such as to produce a considerable inflow of population fromthe rest of Europe.700 Swedes. The number of natives of Italy who live in other parts of Europe is about 342. and where this was not the case they were at least considerably reduced in amount.900 Luxemburgers. 404. 34.but the undeveloped resources of these countries. under of thefacts representative fairly 21 The figures I give are merely rough estimates.200 Spaniards. whilstothershave been the gainers. The " losses " recorded in our table are largely due to transoceanic emigration.1oo Austrians. but I believe themto be . Whether Italy's losses are more largely due to migrationwithin the borders of Europe than to trans-oceanicemigration I am not prepared to decide. As no data for Russia and the Balkan States are available. and Scandinavia. 2. In the followingstatement I have arranged the various States of Western Europe into two groups. whilst the second group is formed of States which have been the consideration. 447. 74.700 natives of Western Europe lived outside the State in which theyhad been born. It will then be found that about the time the latest censuses were taken. the German Empire. [June. and Italy gradually gains upon other countries which send of migrantsinto other parts of the world. Luxemburg. 97. & I am compelled to confinemyselfto Western Europe.900 Swiss. 327.700 Frenchmen. Italian emigration is however assuming ever increasing proportions. There huge contingents can be no doubt however that the losses sustained by Belgium. This is more especially the. 194.100 Hungarians. 46. 91. 95. and I believe this exceeds the natives of Italy who live outside Europe.655.900 natives of the United Kingdom.600 Italians.500 natives of Man and the Channel Islands. 202.

200 ManandChannel Isles 58. 13-7 o'8 Sweden(23....000 X 0-3 o0 2-4 34 8i 87 1 Switzerland United Kingdom _ (26.. are pouring their thousands annually into France.400 Denmark ...000 Austria .400) France (49..300 Spain .23. being the Emigration..732.. the being Immigration.800 . United (i8..700 GermanEmpire .800) Belgium Switzerland owes its position at the head of this list no less to its character as a region of transit.. Gains and losses are expressed pro mile of the actual populationat the time of the last census. are fair representativesof West European extremes. over Per Mille Excess ofEmigration Countries.. Net Gains.800) France (350.700)...400 2617 Germany(51. haveGainedfrom First Group. Stateswhich Loss...1889.. . Germany (2... . (I 9. Germany(49. Population.. JNorway(23 (I 9500).. Luxemburg (26.000) [Germanv(26.900 France. whilst Belgium...100) Luxemburg Belgium.....600) Switzerland France (207.76.10 In7 4.... ( I 96 I3 9 Iz 2-Y L Belgium(350.. Hungary (49. (5i. of Population.900) .300).800). Contributory Principal Number.Germany(i 2.400) Lossesthrough Migration. however.the Mosaic injunction.. whose inhabitants are fairly obeying.9oo).. over Per Mille Excessof Immigration of Countries. ..700 Portugal Hungary.i00) France Sweden Sweden . Denmark lGerman Empire (7.247.308... than to its small size. (14.100 Netherlands ... which intensifiesall migratorysymptoms..900) (z6..700 United Kingdom 27..700). 30-3 Belgium'(22.400) l(2z.... France and Belgium. roo)...Italy (207.8.800) Kingdom I39*0 (4. Man and Channel islands (i8..700).800).400 Italy.300 83..900)..26.100).. Belgium (25.300) German Empire(62...32... NetherI lands (4...... 00) Austria(14.7oo) 1Austria (6.. Finland ......... suffered SecondGroup.300)..i00)..41.I00).....8oo)...13. 92.] Laws of Migration. Migration.....500).the one being a receptacle into which flows the surplus population from surroundingStates.....100 .. Austria(13. ....300 Norway..400) Spain (I2. RAVENSTEIN-The 277 losers.. ioo) Italy (zz. Switzerland ... Stateswhich betweenfourgreat States. NetLosses.. Recipient Principal Number.. Switzerland (

. of emigrants... different places in our list were we to embraceRussia and the Earope.. however.715.. European regions of the new world from our old-established States. whichdistinguish these attention to severalpointsof difference.." Balkan Stateswithin these " United States of Western for the number QfWestern Europeansin theEast is undoubtedly " in thewest.......... elements. muchlargerthanis thatof " Easterlings America. ......... Here in Europe it assumesvast proportions by an everyinflow of foreign elementsis largelycompensated butin thenewworldtheinflowing currents are outflow ofnatives...Austria. 3..nearly all the land capable of being cultivatedhas been occupiedand of this. "foreign element a merefraction in the new world. V79 ..753 531........... [June. and Germanywould of course occupy Hungary......... world shall have becomeassimilated to the old in its migratory no less thanin other uponthepopucurrents respectsdepending lation havingattaineda densitycommensurate with the natural ofthe country.. In Europe. ..8z88percent.and are verystriking still.266 . of Canada at the timeof the of the Dominion The population last census(1881) was composed as follows:Dominion Provincial element . or at all events in WesternEurope. ... Theyhave been discussingthe statistics of American mostmarked in the past. 14'o9 American . whoseplaces or by an outflow are filled make up bylocal currents of migration... of the migration statistics BeforeI proceed to a consideration of Canada and the United States...492 77. Otherforeign .. theywill becomeless glaring..our greatmigratory currents peopled. resources TheDominion of Canada.... are ofthefeeblest proportions....565 85z9l ..3... be bornein mind when should constantly These differences migration. whilstthe compensatory countercurrents overpoweringly strong....withwhichI proposeto close it appears to me to be desirable 'thatI shoulddraw my survey........ As a consequence of commerce and industry are produced either by thedevelopment in certainlocalities....but in additionto them themselves knownin Europe. whosepoweris hardly thereexistsone factor attraction the powerful exercised by vast areasof cultivnamely......584. 8. These agencies feltalso in NorthAmerica... of bycultivators. able land notyettakenpossession Another difference is this: whilst with us in Europe the " constitutes of the population.278 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. In courseof untilat last thenew time....

... and Prince Edward Island. and next to it rank British Columbia (7-20 per cent. PrinceEdward Island . This at least would appear to be shown by tracing the 58. Nova Scotia.. 4.6. inwhich Ontario . who at the same time.... of absorption exhibited by the several provincesof Canada... Manitoba .. in the power considerable difference There exist........ and that the more migrantsprefersa short Journey long-journeymigrants are the exceptionsand not the enterprising rule. and if we exclude the accessions received from foreign parts... The Dominion as a whole absorbs the surplus population of other parts of the world.596 Newfoundlanders... whose native (Dominion) element is smaller in numbersthan are their natives scatteredthroughoutthe Dominion.376 Russians... in which 3'83 o0XI Io8 New Brunswick ... whilst the " otherforeignelements" include all personsborn outside the Dominion who are not " Americans" as defined by me....1z7 Per Cent....) These provinces. there are even some amongst them. BritishColumbia . oalMirns from Quebec...).] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. Numbthe Nme.. is much more favoured by geographical positionand physical features. and fractionsof many other nationalities.. manyIndians to reservations.....)........... The double effects of geographical distance and facilityof proare very clearly brought out by these curing land for settlement. Canadian Population of theProvinces Enumerated... although we shall see them more freely at play in the wider area of the United States.092 natives of the United Kingdom..... nevertheless....25.. Territories .... named in the order of their losses.. Canadian statistics..839 French..). 44 I 177 5.o85 396 0 1C13 019 83 3 .....).)..32 074 0 30 6.. The greatestgainer has been Manitoba (6ooz per cent.. owing apparentlyto the removal of suffered Quebec (3 55 per cent. Ontario (1-71 per cent.17 oi8 4. 50... These foreignelementsinclude consequently470...328 Germans.1889.95 0. and New Brunswick..... 85-85 of PerCent. 279 By the term "American" elementI mean natives of the United States.734 natives of Quebec who were enumerated in 1881 outside their native province. Still the underlying principle of all this migration appears to be that the bulk of to a long one.407 3...67 0.. are the Territorieswhich have most (8-43 per cent..... Provinces Enumerated.. 4. (See Table IX in the Appendix... and notwithstandingthat the shortest route from Europe to the East passes throughCanada.. Nova Scotia 0. although not to the same extent as is done by her more powerfuland pushing neighbour..

....6. 86 69 . The population of the United States. than are the inhabitantsof Europe... it shows at the same time that a minor currentproceeds from Quebec towards Nova Scotia.498 43. it was found that the natives of the otherprovinces had increased considerably..... [June. This fact is sufficiently accounted for by the vast extent of unoccupied land. They are greater wanderers.. 13*31 .. sweep along more impetuously.280 RAvENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration..020 were natives of Manitoba itself.789. .475.which flowalong slowly at the outset.but the furnishedby each provincehad hardly contingentsproportionately which had themselvesbecome changed. 33. Of the 98.840 6. .1 Full details for each State and territorywill be found in Table X of the Appendix. That which strikes us most in examining this table is not so much the large numberof persons of foreignbirth.and 4. In 1885. Nationalelement.. that most of the migrants Whilst the table shows very distinctly from Quebec went no furtherthan the neighbouring province of Ontario. more desirable places for agricultural settlers. though with diminished force.. They are like mightyrivers..125 had come from Ontario.. and that the main current which carries so many of its sons and daughters into Ontario has not lost all strengthwhen it has reached the westernextremityof that province. In other words. and after depositing most of the human beings whom they hold in suspension. on leaving which they are nearly limpid.679. until they enter one of the great westernlake reservoirs(in our case Manitoba).furnished a much smaller contingent.422 fromthe Territories. classified according to birth places. migrantsthan formerly The United States.and only dies away when it reaches the shore of the Pacific.. carryingmore beyond it..19. less tied to home associations.o85 fromQuebec. and the great natural resources of the country.. included the followingelementsin (1880):State element . This is the nature of all these westerlycurrentsin North America. Foreign ..the answer is once more fromthe nearest available surplus population. when another census was taken. except that the Territories...than the great mobilityof the native Americans. but still sweeps onward.992 natives of Canada enumerated in Manitoba in 1881. 18... If on the other band we inquire whence a province like Manitoba has drawn the many migrants which entitle her to so prominent a place as a centre of absorption.. the migratorycurrent bad retained its strengthwhilst passing over Manitoba..943 67 37 per cent.

Have we not witnessed on an equallysurprising migrations scale whenthe value of the ironoresof Furnessand of Cleveland first cameto be recognised ? Puttingaside personsof foreign birth. viz. viz. to foreign immigration. the provincial element reaches93 and go per cent. The losses have been most severe in Vermont.150 souls to the population. but. If we compare the censusreturns for1870withthosefor1880. have recovered their loss in consequence of the arrival of numerous foreign immigrants.000 souls. If we divide the United States into two regions.whilst fairly comparable. If we include the foreignelement it will be found that fourof these States. Had we any trustworthy statisticsof birthsand marriages for everyState of the it would be found that the actual increase of Federal territory. growth during the period under consideration must have amounted to 46. and a largemeasure.886 were due to an excess of births over deaths. we shall be able to estimatethe foreignelementat its full value. whilst immigrationfrom other States added 182. and map). Connecticut. and foreignimmigrationI25.Thus the StatesofMassachusetts.who at the time of the last census resided within their boundaries. it will at oncebecomeapparent thatit is due.and New York.] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. one of dispersion and the otherof absorption.158souls. whichhave as yethardly souls. If we bear in mind that the natural growthwould have been much slower had there been no foreign immigrantsto contributetowards it. 281 only i62. In that State the actual increase of population between 1870 and 1880 amounted to 22. New Hampshire. we shallfindthat everyState and territory in popuhas increased lation.respectively. clearly showing that in the case of Maine the time when its population shall cease to increase must be close at hand.Pennsylvania. of the totalnative populationof in Austriaand Germany.000 natives of the United States. the will be found that the former includes eighteen States and territories. withprovinces theUnitedStates. New Hampshire.of which Rhode'Island exhibit an actualgrowth .ooo foreigners. Assuming the excess of births over deaths to have been the same as in the three States of New England for which we have vital statistics. whilst the gains in the North were most considerablein the newlyopened territories West (see Table X. and Maine.on examining intothecausesof thisincrease. with the exception of New Mexico. and of 470.122 only. 12.Virginia. Connecticut.all of them.we findthatthe State element includes75-4 per cent. lying to the east of the Mississippi. This is taking account of the native element only. population in some of them is virtually dependent upon foreign immigration. Take Maine as an instance.

. If we examine of thesemigrants. A thirdcurrent Mississippi thatwhilst CarolinaintoGeorgia. The leading numerical facts in connectionwith this migration fromVirginia are exhibited in the followingtabular statement: 22 Kentucky. and only 3 per cent. in factthe samefeatures we findthat nearlyone half of the Tracingthewesterly current. [June. Virginian have verymaterially migration presents ofthenatives as the migration of Quebec. modified these. and followsthe valley of the swervesroundto the south-west. of the processof dispersion In illustration going on in the whose exhausted soil appearsno UnitedStates. of whomas manyas 683.422(41v74per thanone of the border cent. Indiana and Southern Illinoislie on the western Southern for Illinoisand As I have no figures Tennessee forpartsof States.1 a home i8.I selectVirginia. It is quiteobvious geographical influence featureshave exerciseda preponderating upon these ofacquiring economical suchas the facility currents. Of these migrants 285. 5 per cent.460. track. land.) settledin Western in Kentuckyand Tennessee.282 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. a rapidly longerto be able to support increasing population. Of nativeVirginianstherewere enumerated throughout the United States2. Anothercurrent west of the Mississippi. in Kansas. reasons. 26 per cent. (47 per cent.2n were enumerated 19 per cent.that which flowsin a of migration towardsthe thinlypeopled territories to the westerly direction. crossesSouth to the Gulf of Mexico. 268. we shall findthat of the currents distribution whichpass out of Virginia. is the most powerful.) had gone a mapexhibiting to other the partsof the Union. in Missouri.818 a borderState and had settledin a (39 33 percent.I substituted Ohio. whilst 129.096 (x8'93 per cent.) had crossed State just beyondit. migrants Virginia.) had goneno further States.336had found outsidetheirnptiveState. further westward.

.614...27.54.624.. by the nearest States. Indiana..998 .has been included.. Per cnt. 642 4. New Jersey.599 . ...55 91 40 173 9I 271 Ohio..058 Arkansas... 38.the proportions would have comeout verydifferently. of the total American born population.306were .. There is not a State or a territory which has not contributedtowards these inflowing currentsof migrants......1889.52. 36.486 BorderStates . 29..but the largest contributions proportionately to their means of supply were made.z2 7-91 1.....058 . The migrantsof American birth thus constituted54 per cent.94 21I4 0?59 39 35 6-67 7-65 683.904 Missouri..... .] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration..24..529 302 0-96 1P62 natives of Iowa.... 135.14. with one exception. Z Maryland...059 NorthCarolina .....10.524 20. PacificStates . 285.56 2'95 127 33 64 45 68 50 3-55 268.24......538 Illinois..... and 62 5.. of whom 737........515 Kentucky Tennessee... .49 78 25 62 47 25 13 54 I n 5 14 24 9 NorthEasternStates.776 45. especially in the case of thePacific Statesand territories. 19.. Mississippi...292 410 3 59 7... Pennsylvania .4.26........ Per cut. 51..659 natives of other parts of the federal territory..009 West Virginia.422 Delaware .... Western ... 283 StatesandTerritories..... of Land. States Miles Migrants Migrants...... which lies in the very On examining theproportions in the last column..816 Alabama .818 4.whether fitforcultivation or not.I have selected proceeding Iowa..754 DistrictColumbia...... .336 Ioo000 1. That State in 1880 had a populationof 1.......647 13.....189 19-84 5-34 5'57 2z85 41-74 010 0?70 424 390 3-14 18-07 22 51 2-28 2 49 1-39 4 66 0447 0-53 0-55 1-18 1-44 1-12 2-76 2-57 1l94 095 0-41 1-39 029 0-82 0'20 1l68 225. Per cnt.789 20.. that exception is Missouri. it shouldbe bornein mindthatall land.....279 ..... Had I been in thepossession of data enabling me to eliminate unoccupied but cultivable land.28..... were Enumerated.267 SouthernStates...606 Georgia South Carolina . In illustration of the process of absorption of migrants as in theUnitedStates. of Number Proportion of Proportion Americans ofMigrants Proportion Native Native to oftall ofal iii the every in which the J0 quare Virginian Migrants.

3i8 or 8 3 per cent. In America. The featuresare exactly the same as have been found to exist in European provinces. This preponderanceis most strikingin the westernmostcounties. it will be seen at once that the number of immigrants. It is obvious.) in Iowa. Looking at my small diagram illustrating the migration of native Americans into considerablein the border counties. however. out of 4. If any further proofwere wanted that migrationin the United States proceeds on the same lines as in Europe. for instance. and no mere change of this fact. It will be found.202.and whose resources have so largely been drawn upon in the peopling of the neighbouring migrants who went forth State of Kansas.but it affords tive migratoriness into migration as it affectsthe large cities. or 4-4 per cent.662 (14-4 per cent. which forma kind of pan-handle. For further details I refer to the accompanying map. as with us. as many as 173.284 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migrahtor. If we examine into the details of each zone we shall findthat there exist considerable differences. it is furnishedby considering the interstate migration.267. that the frontierand maritime States furnish larger contingents than might be expected from their distance fromthe centre of absorption. were but enumeratedin Iowa. as with us. Including withinthe next zone all those States and territories any portion of which lies within 300 geographical miles fromthe Iowa border. the proportionrises to I6'7 per cent.) were found at the last census to have taken up their residence in Iowa.that the proportions of these States would be reduced considerablyif we took account of the migrantswho have left them forthe neighbouringprovinces of Canada. lying outside the former.984 (3 7 per cent. This is more especially noticeable in the case of those New England States which are centresof dispersion.606. centre of the great westerly current.. within 600 miles of Iowa.371 from the six border States. political boundaries would affect on the comparano information The American census furnishes us an insight of men and women. Lastly.524. If Missouri be excluded. and that the migratory most. including 46. currents flow along certain well defined geographical channels. there remains an outer zone. I think I am safe in assuming that the time has not yet arrived in the United States when the cities. the shortjourney migrants constitute a majority. we find that they sent forth 2.763 migrantscontributed 201. of whom 2I3. towards the population of that State. Out of i. are being fed at the expense of the . [June. of whose natives 1. proportionatelyto the whole of the American-bornpopulation.and are accessible from three directions. A third zone.728 were enumerated in other parts of the union.26i migrants (who were alive in 1880).

New York ..... illustrate thisfact: examples outthe State. This decrease... But forthe present.)......... Cincinnati .and the Canadians.] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration...... butas the censusreturns theState.... Of courseeveryone of theAmerican its boundaries nativesof the rural parts of citiescontainswithin onlygive thenativesof States.. 40 7 39 7 25-0 314 z238 13......there theother than are the immigration lationsare morelargelyfed by foreign ruralpartsof the country.. of cities.theIrish (45 26 per cent...... Among the are the Poles (52-43 per cent..7 27z i8'9 16-9 316 30 0 291 191 9.. lie between which thatthe citypopucan be no doubtwhatever hand.... In 1870 the citiescontained national 34+8 theUnited enumerated bornpersons throughout cent.).7 96 33:9 overall partsof the Union... Brooklyn Baltimore ... St. San Francisco Chicago . Philadelphia . If we are toldthatthe inhabirestof the State-born in 188022V5 per cent... U .... L1I.. Boston.. who are mostlargelyattracted immigrants foreign the hometQus if we compare brought This factis mostdistinctly element throughout of the citieswiththe foreign element foreign thatthe the Statein whichtheyare situated. Least inclinedfor a city the Swedes..of all enumerated throughout (38 7I per cent.. towardsthem.. .. theproportion whichtheybear to the we are notable to determine population.. are beginning to appearsto pointto the factthat ruralAmericans it is the at all events...7 4646 8-8 Z4 9 Iz3 9-8 5...... The following ........ofall foreign slightas it is..1889. moveintothecities.... VOL...... lifeare theNorwegians..... . Percnt.oftheAmerican tantsofthetownsnumbered withonly209 per cent. Rural Americais far moreintensely per thanare thecities. 285 ruralpartsof the country.. .and may These citiesare dispersed the existingconditions.. throughout 1870. Element in eachCity.we as compared bornpopulation.... PART 11. be looked upon as fairly representing thosewho are mostinclinedto settlein cities foreigners.and in 1880 34+2 per cent... On increased thetwocensuses.... Union)..during the tenyears mast bearin mindthatthenumber from 226 to 286.. Citis. Element Foreign eachState. We shallthenfind in the cities (proportionately to the total numberof foreigners offoreigners throughis muchlargerthanthenumber population)....Foreign Cities. Washington .the Germans and the Bohemians(38-71 per cent.. Louis .)... States.... New Orleans ..

and that they really do this even in America. no! the immediateneighbourhood. all have produced and even compulsion(slave trade. [June. been pointed out in the case of the United States. normal conditionsthe migratory fromprovince it will proceed step by step. though not the only cause of has to be sought forin over-populationin one part of the migration. No better proof of it could be found than in among whom long-journey the invasion of a countryby foreigners. I ventureto deduce from them certain principles or laws which movements. then the bulk of the migrants ought to travel short distances only. Tf this really is so. but none of these currents can compare in volume with that which arises fromthe desire inherentin most men to "better" themselves in material respects. and will be transmitted to province. It is obvious that this is not the only cause. Will the labourer. The want will be supplied from and its effect will travel from province to provinceuntil it makes itself felt in the most remote among them. call for more hands to labour. heavy taxation. I may be permitted to liken this movementto that which is produced in a cistern of water after the tap has been turned on. It is thus that the surplus population of one part of the countrydriftsinto anotherpart. you will find that foreign emigrantsare for the most part content with going no further than the nearest foreign province or the most convenientcentre of absorption. travel across these interveningprovinces. General Conclusions. 2.transportation). where the conditions are quite exceptional. an unattractiveclimate.where the developmentof industry and commerce.whilst there exist elsewhere undeveloped resourceswhich hold out greater promise for remunerative labour. If you will carefullyexamine my tables and the illustrativemaps. but under movementwill be a gradual one. Of course there arise such as have exceptional wants as also exceptional search of work. and are still producing currents of migration. If . Having thus placed beforeyou a vast array of facts and figures. I believe to have amply proved.whilst the intervening provinces are able to find remunerativeoccupation for all their inhabitants. migrants must obviously be more numerous than among other classes of migrants. uncongenial social surroundings. But how is this call supplied? Suppose there exists a surplus of labour in one province and a deficiencyin another. order to supply the deficiency? I say. I do not question appear to me to guide all migratory for a moment that the principal.or the possibilityof procuringproductive land still in a state of nature. Bad or oppressive laws.286 RAVENSTEIN-Th eLaws of Migration. 1.

... Of coursetheremayoccureddiesand shallows source and localities in sucha current......... As I have dealtat of myinquiry withthisbranch in myformer length paper......if dependentupon natural Kristiania .. butits broadfeatures are carried are such as I have wouldbe stillclearer described. I also believethat I have provedthat each main current a counter current offeebler produces strength. a " depopulation has recently been dealtwith beforethis Societyin an able manner.. 629 Hamburg .1889...... The phenomenon to thebeholder if theredid notexistin mostcountries scattered centres ofabsorptionwhichgive rise to currents of theirown. The local streams whichcarrythe ruralpopulations iito our u2 .Nothingcan provethis more clearly than the proportion whichthe native townelement of ourlarge towns.. But althoughlong-journey migrants moveby preference into our large cities.. 287 a mapwereto be drawn of migrants exhibiting thestream passing into another...Stockholm.and thisaccounts forthefactthateventhe largestcitiesof Europepartakeof provincial characteristics.. .. Antwerp London ....... Rome ......... 4.. My inquiriesjustifyme in asserting thatin all settledcountries the townsdo increasein increment only.. If left to their own resources..they would increasevery slowly...... whereit hurries alongor slackens its speed to deposita largernumberof the humanbeings who alongby it..... 349 345 We shall be prettysafe in assumingthat one half of the of our large towns are not natives of the town in inhabitants which they dwell. 425 424 424 46 49 ..and divertothers... difficult 3. If the rest of the inhabitants had been supplied in equal proportions by all the provincesof a State.. Vienna .. untilit becomes to tracethem..543 . Budapest . Berlin . evento the extent of producing " of theruralparts....still the largershareof the increment is due to an inflow of the surrounding ruralpopulation....and in some instancestheywould even retrograde.. Stockholm .I need say no moreaboutit on the present occasion. then our capitals might be fairlydescribedas presenting an epitome of a would clearlyshow that the fromone country lost in strength in proportion current to its distancefromthe of supply.] RAYENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration....... 513 Glasgow Milan.... The question ofwhether ourlargetowns growat theexpense of theruralpartsof thecountry.. 446 this way. Copenhagen 54 ....... The number bearsto the totalpopulation of in someof the inhabitants is as follows nativesamonga thousand principal townsof Europe 66i ....

and commerce manufactures within of a country In factyouneedonlyseekout thoseprovinces and you will either an exception with the normalprocessof of Irish immigrants the interference I was able to make a comparison I found migration. havinglargeagricultural countries towardsthe towns is hardlyperceptible. Migration meanslife and progress. These migrants reached their present homes in the normal course of migration. in wherethe county England. Southern Frenchmen. with reference to the colonisation of tropical regions? 1 believe that it does. as. appear to predominate Paris. however. they " migrants.Vienna. accountedforby 1871 to 75'I9 per cent.and whichis so justlydeplored. Femalesappear to thisrule. Concluding One other remarkbeforeI conclude. and Greeks. branches in increase? I believe so! The exception 6.p. 51. and I suppose in othernewlysettled United States. ofindustry.288 RAvENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. In the but generally migration. utility. In exchanging their native land are " short-journey 23 iv. countercurrents in certain I am sure. andWales. Does the process of as illustrated by me. conveyany lesson of practical migration. among females born in large towns. is proceeding whichmigration or in a part of humanindustry. I have pointed out in the of Italians who have course of mypaper how large is the proportion settled in Northern Africa.are soughtfortheiraccomplishments many. including abroadby manyothers. all thegreat Scotch towns. largely townsthereincrease in the If it were possibleto createor open up similarresources youwouldat onceputa stop countries. Remarks.a sedentary stagnation. that is to say. The rural population offoreign in consequence immigration. Does migration elementrose from74 o0 per cent.and London. of the thistendency resources. Someof theseladies are no doubtcarried but witha viewto theiradorningruralhomes. [June.but numerically to exceptions I have drawnattention migrants On the otherhand long-journey theyare insignificant. as also is that of Spaniards. among short-journey topredominate 5. in 1881. of the larger streamsof quite independent towns arc sometimes theybecomemergedin them. of England Census . nearly migrants.nWherever of and a development in themeansof locomotion thatan increase have led to an increaseof migration. in the greatcentres find yourself becomeavailhave onlyrecently of the country whoseresources population able. ruralpartsof ourEuropean to the rural exodus whichhas been proved to be going on in all partsof Europe. for instance.

1889. who left Alsatia and Germany for Algeria.bat theyalso become the foundersof families. . 289 for the new countryin which they have settled down. and we are justified in asserting that they will thrive and flourish there. Working their appear to me to be most fitfor this difficult way inland. It strikesme that if tropical Africa or other tropical regions are ever to be " colonised " by European races. As regards northernAfrica in particular. That world can be won only. these European coloniserswould followthe Nile valley and other available highroads traced out by nature.] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. fromstage to stage.those Europeans who are already seated upon the shores of the Mediterranean task. each stage marking a generation of men. And what is more.if it is to be won. already availed of by their predecessors. they underwent no violent alterations of climatic conditions. these natives of southern Europe not only attain a high age in their African homes. migrants.until even the terrorsof a tropical climate would cease to be terrors to the far-off descendants of the men who first startedupon this mightyenterprise. by a deliberate invasion persisted in during many generations of men. the rules instinctively followed by most of the migrantsshould be adhered to. A sudden transition from the temperate to the tropical world can yield no permanentresults. as have thelong-journey insteadof perishingprematurely.

284 1.959.322 2.647 244.1. 1.. the Province.219 Silesia.313.585 Schleswig-Holstein 1.611 Waldeck.575 .52 88'60 76-57 82 97 84-15 92 47 97-12 92A49 92-97 90.IO6.407.3..165.69.I87.372. APPENDIX. Meiningen 214.523 Mecklenburg .751 4. . 6 xI.704 2.833.. Anhalt .7CI 2..645 3 I7.2...897 4.1..193 74'98 65.287 .290 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. ~Per cut.229 Thuringia.420.618 East Prussia. 669.212 .. [June.866 38.327 2.238 352.511....606 Rudol 83.673.836 .955 3.575 ..172..150..905 Wiirtemberg Hohenzollern .248.. .2.644 1.o6o 7-04 10'80 16-70 4-38 11 10 2-1 26-3 2-10 4'30 5-10 7-45 16-10 17-90 6-10 4-3 14-40 3-8 3-20 46-58 6z.. .14 i i6.451..007.82 5..932 72-82 54'30 2.061.428..421..984 1.884 161..34.* Provincxial.640 Hesse-Nassau .166 ...855.1.Sond. throughout outside I Native their 1885.525 Oldenburg Bremen.70 72i16 78..3..596.658 Elsass-Lorraine .296.139 I99. .o69 346.93 88-20 89-92 91-52 91-64 91-90 92 83 91-87 78-74 86 78 60'37 96-46 92-43 88-45 90 78 89-77 96-71 89-10 90 18 88-82 84-08 85-82 82-21 84-88 77O07 74-49 95-68 85 50 82..452 . .946 Saxe-Weimar .71 70..505.1.2. Posen .628 Bavaria .. jun.37.Kingdom Rhineland..996 Westphalia Lippe .65 7 I1 8 74 98 7340 72-07 472 2. 1.40 84'82 42 37 75 93 6O094 6oc85 6O'23 I 64-8 5)399.975 PrussianSaxony 2.628. Schwarzb.4.201.829 55.475 Pomerania .25 16-60 22'50 25'60 21. No.255 Hanover..797 46.993.67.670 3.2.1..413 1I.411 Brandenburg .. ofa Parish Population Average of Proportion of Natives Elements of the eachProvince Enumerated lnumeatives eachuProvince .1.720 West Prussia. .76o 1.003 Saxony.-GERMAN Provinces.717 8I.055.930 962.454 Hesse-Darmstadt 956.590.o16. Percnt.374 54. Empire..367 Saxonyproper.. Parochial. No.598 4.56.342.2..114. .679 111.60 12-80 14 66 21-90 15 60 24 20 15.71 6o'3z 59'I5 89.079 53-94 6o-86 72.110.2. 73.736.988 175.79 74-10 7I.705 I TABLE I.052.393 2..341.460 Altenburg Cob-Gotha 198.408.620 Ldbeck ..605.23 90.592..355 ...854 2..10 9 60 14 10 15 28 8-92 8 40 5.344.656 .307 Hanover.204 Schaumburg Baden.527 . Province Empire.682 1.1..67 It 7I-88 55.904 ReUis.353 2.50 23 10 25 80 18-30 22. GermanEmpire 46.199 Hesse ..564. Geographical Berlin.099.963 8'35 11-80 9 80 27A40 15...574.518.713 134.I12 1.182..846 52-33 6153 6O076 75 39 76-43 49'7I 47 4It 49*94 62.454..364.875 2I8.315.844 739. Per cot.049 69.1...2.024 337.702 Brunswick .601. sen .306 Schleswig-Holstein Hamburg..80 13.5.123..179 # :stimated fromthe censustakenin 1871..715.75 7o-69 59'76 66 oz 64 27 79-6o 71I66 5163 5OiO 83-21 87-13 63-73 59.

Increase _ of Population. jun. Rudol. Foreign.44 Io5 ?.40 0oJ7 - o-66 0o36 o033 02I - o024 o6 23-7 Z-57 4..1889. Percnt..51 049 039 0. Geographical 49-1 z o7 19-2 10 0 3-60 3'26 107 5-1 37-6 12'8 1-4 - 1'25 dec. Gain. Cob-Gotha Reuss. Per cnt. . Loss.93 0 93 J9 7-5 7. sen.50 105 - - _ 6- 8.74 o0z8 0o23 0o23 o0z6 0o24 0o2 0o52 ? - 0. Loss.3 14 _ 08 7 o023 0-61 0-51 059 086 017 0 39 053 0-49 0 56 1 l14 0 82 105 142 0 44 0 79 0 45 0-29 0-62 0 26 0-42 0-45 0-29 0-29 0 10 057 0 37 1-33 0 81 1-72 1-42 043 - 0191 0-27 Berlin Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein Hamburg Libeck Elsass-Lorraine Saxony.. Percnt. . toTotalPopulation. Silesia Brandenburg PrussianSaxony Saxonyproper Anhalt Schwarzb.784.8 - Pomerania Mecklenburg GermanEmpire.7 - _ 9 - 24 _ - 045 0?3 7 P zO I*I3 O. 291 APPENDIX.17 2-48 3-I6 I 51 I2Z 02I Provinces. EMPIRE. .^9 2-. I I 3-3 6 *19 5 - 7- 0o33 0.5 1 0'94 1'2 - 30 0 0-9 - - 5. Posen East Prussia 0?38 _ 0.7 I 7.5 . Altenburg .55 6-9 6-4 Hesse Hesse-Nassau Hesse-Darmstadt Waldeck Wuirtemberg Hohenzollern West Prussia Thuringia Saxe-Weimar .59 0 49 1'28 0-24 1 11 0-51 0-46 0 48 0 43 0 02 0-23 dec.33 2. 0-27 0 03 0-72 0-28 0 74 0-81 0-42 1.] RAvENSTEIN-The Laws of Miigration.Kingdom Rhineland Westpbalia Lippe Baden Hanover Hanover Brunswick Oldenburg Bremen Bavaria Schaumburg _ _ _ o'56 o064 o-46 o-6o 0.6 9. Meiningen .342.. Percnt. 0 03 1-29 1.20 1-75 0-51 0-65 1-02 0-98 1-29 0-69 0-86 0-14 0-26 dec. 011 1-01 1-36 2-66 1-12 0-41 3'16 zsI 6 _ 010 0 81 071 _ 0 05 0 04 o I4 o o6 - -52 0. Percnt.5 o5o 005 051 45 4. Results of Difference between Migration Actual Annual NaturalandActual Population. Gain.Sond.. Of a Pravznce 2. Per cnt. 070 - t Includes both East and West Prussia.1 0.44 1-3 - 109 - - 0. 1. Home in proportion Growth of Population. 0 45 dec.37 0.

118.764 322.136 466..-NETHERLANDS..990 188.877 239.. Antwerp .735 577.-BELGIUM.5 OII OxO 1-2 112 17 0..210...118 Belgium . Annual Population.........o 67'2 0-23 o.520..009 07 ..88!.815 59 z 6z.......7 98 ?9 ..805 466.63 98 39 98-OI 98.693 Netherlands 11I4........292 RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration....... Overyssel .38 5. of Population. Brabant (Brussels) Li6ge..I36... Drenthe .67 69 5z 69-8I 70oi8 71 IO 67-z 86 2... Groningen........ Foreign. of eachParish 3........Foreign.. Percnt.635 274..National.... Percut. Provinces... Percnt.. PerCnt.274 663... NorthBrabant ...845 191... Flanders(Bruges) Namur .851 Luxemburg .38 6z9 z 64:89 67'o3 67'7I 68*87 8180 79'87 91-68 85-04 84-81 93-58 86-51 88 67 92-55 95-62 89-73 1 88-51 98 3Z 98 78 98 47 98-47 98'z1 97'19 168 1-22 1 53 1 53 1-79 2 81 1-61 1..... 1880..... Per cut. South Holland *North .246 803..80. Parochial.. Average Population of each Province 373. Flanders (Ghent).. II. Friesland .. Parochial.......012.. Gelderland ... Provinces........... E..679 253..497 329.... Annual Elements Increase . Average Population of eachParish 2.... . Limburg... ofthePopulation... December. Foreign.Provincial.453 6I..3 66-o 68*o 68 5 7CI6 99-66 99 50 99-61 99 80 99-85 99 89 99 90 99'77 99 62 99u24 o-z6 o034 o.... Elements of thePopulation......636 881. 31stDecember. TABIX [June.1 76...z.5o O'38 O02O 0 ..530 679..561. Limburg.... 1870-79....232 977..209. 985. W. 4. 1880.. Hainaut . Increase of -____ -____ 8:1st 31stPopulation. Per cnt... Paochial.. National... Population...53 6......84 I-ZI o. ational. Provinces.. TABTEIII... 1879..565 694.. Zeeland .....99 1-61 o040 6 73 1 91 ri8 099 I*I 7 I'55 1.. Percnt. Utrecht ..39 99-6o o-6o O 76 o-76 o. Per cnt...5 02 05 05 07 05 73'4 74.. Percnt.... 1876.

435 350. 292.308 1.646 586. l 565....2.602.348.213.. Trieste ..996 747.805.819 211.845 5..TABLE IV..084 22.. Per cnt. Enumerated 31stDecember...5.935.46 56'5I 473. eachProvince outsideei Parochial..373 Vorarlberg Bukowina. Citizens Population.570 Salzburg .1. Provini Eloha.163.144..907 Carinthia ..475 5...132.597 Styria .268..476.PoicilNtoa. | District.786 230.329 511.486 100.107..844 Lower Austria ..621 .950 80iI39 ..407 Carniola.481..453 549.243 Bohemia .571..144.. Per cnt.730 Silesia.. of of eachDistrict 6 of Proportion Citizens Elements of th Provinces.Dsrc..985.671 Istria ....Hnain the ownProvince. Moravia...958.. Average Population of eachProvince 1.99 98'54 95-00 02 1|.988 2...244 l 73.302...680.794.697 No.6I 6.143...505 3 00 759 3 89g03 8577 56-53 1-62 l 94 I9 7586 51-31 76-72 75-27 8651 91-56 87-97 76-53 6658 89'75 8i o6 92'50 9028 94-73 96'51 97 92 I 9922Z 9I16 I 9450 go968 8678 95 93 l 1-22 8-88 12'94 10-63 8 54 7 67 13-00 6549 89 44 6 2z 63 88 69-oo 8z'8i 5958 84+63 697z2 I 93 78 81 10 82 72 82 46 90 10 7-69 91-11 I 90?37 96. Per cnt..23 | 81-25 | 980 . 2... Gtlrzand Gradisca Empire ..657 1.101 Galicia.486 5..330.620 Upper Austria Dalmatia.. Per cnt.. throughout Empire.535 283.-AUSTRIA..176 Tyrol 8478 4'02 3 83 7 66 3-07 1-45 4 89 8-32 46 85 42 o8 56. 1880...006 759. 143..

.115 Brod* ............173 Sohi (Z61yom).....5 69-6 85-3 73-2 62-5 70 3 77-1 777 82-5 69-3 74-4 81'4 5O03 77 4 78-9 9 14 94 7 go-6 91-3 10 86 2 47 2-16 1-59 0-28 0-51 308 285 1..139 ... Increase......443 B6kes .. Percnt..984 Wieselburg (Moson) *....... 360.... Marmaros* .. .zI o-89 2.....590 Yazygia .......I4 1-51 9-35 I76 83.......... 102....... 359... 195..793 .410 293. 114............962 Komorn .234.... Percnt....... 86............Foreign...... 151.. 6 4. . . rural ... 134. 88..oo0.173.......... EOnt ...311 * 33-3 205 I I 13 8.. Per cnt. Budapest (capital) .... Parochial.109.......304 ra'sso* . Average PopuZation of each County Parish87.. 307... 245...76 31 2 I..069 Xronstadt(Brasso)* ...929 381.. 220..413 Raab (Gy~3r). 360... Increased 1880....699 Somogy(Simeg) ...... 627.....Austrian... 120...... 278........... ..... 45....787 Borsod ....166 Belovir. 135...-EUNQARY...663 ajdu .. 61........063 .......... 227..487 Veszpr6m..........551 Peterwardein* . which Counties Population..... 1stJanuary......9 92 O 84-O 92-6 86-6 88-4 OI 0-98 3-40 1-27 2-90 1 08 0-68 2-32 0-80 1-79 038 2-37 0-54 0-76 1-16 4-04 0-86 5-74 0-41 0 44 0-83 1-23 0-48 1-08 1-95 8-77 1-12 0 89 2 00 1-49 0-80 0-69 2'31 0-58 2.. TABLI V.7 90g9 86 8 86-o 96-9 87-8 93 0 89-9 9* 6 92'0 90o5 95 Z 88. 198............... Percut.725 }reuz (K6ros) ........7 8-6 8i 8-1 8'o 7-8 7-7 7-7 73 6-9 6-8 6-7 6-6 6... 228...6 5-o 4...225 208. 142............................ Petrinia(Bni)* .......416 Eisenburg(Vas)* . Percnt.....294 RAvENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.95 oz_3 0-46 2..... .329 Csongrd .448 (Odenburg*.... 81.......493 Pressburg* ...... 75....... 638.. 1869-80. in Population......I 2-7 2-5 424 67-3 68-4 78-2 68-6 81-3 70-6 67-2 72-1 72-2 79 5 71-2 60-1 75-5 67-1 68-8 75-7 82-9 81-2 81-9 66-0 67-6 77-1 73-4 79-8 71-3 71-2 79.. Csanad ......257 TurOcz ...........643 Varasdin* ..... 314.........011 Bars ...... 72.370 Gran (Esztergom) .County.............933 Pest......3 9-z3 90'4 I*z 1o07 0-4 IcO 76..691 Agram* Bacs-Bodrog .3 6-i 59 5-8 5-6 5...6 78.699 Zala* ... 109.414 Baranya ..74 I o4j O069 o 6I vI5 or maritime Frontier county.3 85... ofeach Civilian :Elements of thePopulation.....6 3-6 3-6 3*5 3.......... 258.8 4........o 9z 8 86-7 957 8z25 902 90-7 94:3 88-7 96.....15 0 9Z 0 70 i 6i 2 0-3 0o46 054 1-00 Z-29 o075 0-43 o'38 0-75 541 3I 3*74 v 16 o g8 r183 8-55 1-o6 o.651 Poiega ........436 * Neutra (Nyitra) 370........ 229...... [June.787 Stuhlweissenburg(Feher) 209... Tolna. 115.....757 Gradiska* ..

..6 5...590 N6grad ..5 a*6 1-7 81-8 80 0 65-1 77-6 87 3 82 5 81-0 65-2 63 9 82-0 74-8 88-4 87-9 77-4 64 8 76-5 78'6 74 6 83-2 75. Fiume* ......913 446. 74..5 77.. Syrmia ... Szabolcs ... 293..............34 o0 9 O..045 I42............ Szatmar ..999 126. ........... 150. Lipt6 (Liptau)* ....44 O...964 Arad ....051 153..........763 163... Civilian Population...... Elausenburg (Kolozs) .758 Csik*.......... TUng*... Decreased 1880.615 248.. Arva* ........I 2-9 83-8 88.......... Hermannstadt* ... Gospic (Lika)* .... Torda . 1869-81.....7 88.919 180.520 125....... Per clt..988 84.................214 193.......... ............5 94-5 97.. 5 1 777 I 66-8 71P5 73-4 82-9 75-9 87-8 85-9 82-2 80-1 71-4 76-2 79-1 70 3 85-4 94 I 88-I 92...... Per cut.643 95.....5 74-1 84-9 70 5 75>3 94*9 97 3 96 1 929 9V23 97-2 95 9 0-22 0 29 1*31 1-38 1 06 1 05 1-58 017 OIO9 i o087 I......6 86z> 0-52 036 0-55 0-60 0-67 0-31 7-41 1-04 0'71 1-39 0 37 0 50 0 33 1-24 0-39 0 44 0-29 1-00 0-57 1'04 0-14 0-20 0-20 0 49 0 10 0*35 1-45 187 0 38 0 34 0-13 1'22 3 21 1-32 I*I6 O037 o0I4 03 1 0.....8 95 7 87....0 92-5 ro6 I 034 039 O2 3 o083 o052... Abauj .. .o 92-9 151........307 214. 273....... 91I0 192... 105.. Total . 92......7 2-7 2-7 2..268 Glm6or.278 39 4-7 5.......045 132... ........889 208.County. Nagy-KiikIll6 ... Foreign...3 93 8 960o 94-2 90g0 952............98 0o6o I -9 1-29 I103 79 4 85 4 90g2 95'* 95 8 89 1 94-3 Temes*........6 57 5-9 79 8-o 97 6.....55 2.. Udclvarhely Haromszek* .... 034 0-71 ioIO Szilggy .... .......... 86 7 74-6 95-o 98-9 90?3 o0og o-i6 0oig o04Z 0o0 7 0-33 V2 15....102 5. 1stJanuary....021 303......454 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-7 3.......893 173..........25 Kis-akuI. Saros* .... Torontal*. Bihar .... Percnt....008 65.017 244...... Bereg* ..........627 196.....102 +iO144 7 Frontieror maritime county......... Parochial.377 102........... . 110.] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.. Percut.... Fogaras* ....... Elements of thePopulation.... Maros .8 38 38 3-9 3-0 3.777 171....627 20.. Torna ................... Decre1se............. .. ....... 165... Ugocsa ..48 o-6I o02Z o099 6.957 81.... which Counties in Population............. . ........ ..........Austrian... 396....... . Zips (Szepes)* ...ll .......571 141......1889.420 158..092 Weissenburg ... Szolnok .. ............786 137................6 90?9 97 7 94..464 168....940 Zemplen Ogulin* ................079 io07 jz21 93..031 530.. ...277 121... Hunyad* .....700 O04 0o5 o6 oc8 1*3 I>3 0-7 z26 2. ........... Heves ...52 I *33 03I 0. :Bistritz Trencsen* ... ......... ... Percnt......642.... 295 TABLE V-COntd... Verocze ..... 178.........

....23 99 95 85..44 972 9 771I3 89 89 988 8.. Result of increase Iristiania (city) ...070 67...814 8 1-46 93-80 99 45 86-85 97. Districts (Amts)...965 SouthTrondhjem. Population.904 83... 3-19 2-10 1-84 1-74 0-82 1P48 0-80 0-24 0-56 0-67 0-89 0-14 0-51 1-17 dec.. 76...850 io8.. Finmark.84 0-16 0-65 1-39 0-79 1-55 0 05 75o01 90-88 99 35 75?00 88-94 99..121 82zo6 93-33 99-76 0-24 77'03 115..o 2.. Annual of 31st per District outside Pion theDistrictParo Cent. Percot.. 0-03 75-82 85-52 97-z8 2-72 9-3 6A246 73-60 87-68 12-32 20z0 60-48 75..806.-NORWAY......104 Io6..332 128.208 115... 86.186 Lister and Mandal 75.8I 93-0 199 35 73-96 88-96 99 45 63..515..965 1. 102.. Percnt.....98I I9. 73....467 114....171 73. P1oula' December.. 83..769.640 99-69 0-31 0-71 0-59 Norway .92 85-50 9229 74-z6 92'44 9821 0-65 0-55 IV9 7-71 1-69 o-8 o-I Loss.82 9583 93... 287 25-2 5-8 8-2 18'2 4. 120. Natives of Pro ortion ofNatives Elements of thePopulation..618 NorthBergenhus Xristians ..IN-The Laws of Migration.. Tromsoe.... each enumerated Migra. 104. 1I9 C9 2-2 South Bergenhus 119...365 44. Nati-I opa 1875. n. [June....3 Nordland .....7 42.....599 I26...506 98. Akershus . 110. Hedemarken. 77'15 93-39 99 21 4'3 6.750 93-11 99... o 1866-75 Born.830 54...o8 - 93*81 6-19 40-8 98-62 1-38 I8-8 Gain.962 84.. Pe Percnt......302 No.395. TABLE VI.... in throughout I Foreign..075 116...-1.220 NorthTronddhjem 82. Jarlsberg ..019 24. Percnt.....which Perent.054 33...738 78.. .634 1o6.151 Nedenaes ....296 RAVENSTF... thial District..8 5-8 47 3.5 9. Norway. 107.... Per cnt. 117. Bergen (city). 0 01 ..........804 Bratsberg .. Average Populationof eachDistrict or "Amt" 90..976 28)479 48.804 Smaalenene ... 116.....415 87.900 73o05 87-21 98-94 2-06 zct ...271 Buskerud .499 7.9 12-7 2-1 914 14-2 7-4 8-6 15-2 11-1 95 47 Stavanger ..5I 15-0 10-4 12-1 10-5 12-6 11-6 2-4 0-18 0-17 0Q02 dec...303 Romsdal...48 63. 69-80 86-65 97 49 642z I 84-61 3-71 115 2-51 4-43 7...283 107........048 84..6 Gain. Population.o67 121...7 8. of eachParish 3..

Skaraborg . 54.984 190...........753 T34.. 1880..... onal..756 3-6 85..676 268..... Born.. 168.182 83...539........432 147.348....13 1.1 760o7 6-3 8I*63 18-8 6-6 20 80 90 12-0 10 1 11 6 5-8 18-0 12 0 13'5 16'3 12 4 11-7 11-7 13 9 11-1 88 70 991i6 99-69 98'93 99-9I 991I8 299 73 33 79*40 99 82 86-z6 91-88 99'87 971I6 96B95 99..971 I 94... 1871-80. Vestmanland..........360 137......866 235...550 Norrbotten ........... Elfsborg.......88 5....366 289... Foreign. Percnt.847 Gefleborg .. Proportion of Natives ofthePopulation...048 257..193 288...342 Malmbhus .41 4..67 0?88 029 0-26 0-14 021 039 0 15 0..474 106. Kronoberg..521 2'77 3 07 31I 7 3. Kristianstad .... Per cnt.. 137... Elements niiua_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- Districts Districts (Lin)..627. Stockholm(city) 167.. Sweden. chial..639 89..41 92 78 79 92 99 85 99 9 I 99 86 99*92 0 82 2-6O 0-18 Z 20 0..1889.. Jbnk6ping Orebro ..749 Uppsala .131 Stockholm(rural) 146..077 BOhUS. 297 1. 266.. 90..040 personswhosebirth-place .159 182...076 244...018 I154.703 274...68O 108.. 128. Per wlrdgD...O46 88-54 99-59 is not kown....628* 4.91 Dispersion.. ~ outside the District Paro. No..059 230...27 207.. Absorption.. Vesterbotten .753 Halland ..997 196.3I1 53.. Average 182.282 Jemtland . 0.....7 78-I8 85-89 76-36 92-58 81-40 91-54 99-25 198 0 29 075 0 84 0-31 1-07 0-09 44 59 O173 2-18 1-94 1-18 2-31 1. cut..24 99-86 88-04 93 24 99 88 820O9 91 70 85'40 89 39 93 69 9107 9o 84 94 73 91i68 95 07 91..738 110.. PopulaPercnt...373 195.043 I 82..684 136..I2 88-O9 91 80 99 7I 85-26 91-22 99-74 8z 98 9043 99 86 90o18 92 69 99-79 88-95 91 22 99'6i 96-38 97-93 99-85 79 95 86..920 276..-SWEDEN... . TABLE VII....... Gain.b 260... # Exclusiveof 8. Blekinge.. 0 11 1-78 0-62 0 87 049 0 80 038 1'48 0-78 0 50 0-87 0-84 0 34 0-57 0 30 0 66 0...... 5I 3 339.. Gotland .77 I 259...603 124. .483 93...] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration..DitittionNati- enumerated Result of Home Anua s Migra- ofre per ptpnla ofu Cent. e 31st December District llecember..5z 322 Vesternorriand.171 25-0 5-8 4-9 41'56 41-56 990o2 1 8o049 83 98 99.792 110....... tion.. Eopparsberg .. Percnt...902 237.01I 158.. 178.14 1173 1-20 1-01 1101 9...315 169... which Percnt.71 18-4 74 24 4-3 91*28 16. . SWdermanland Kalmar ...557..810 033 Ostergbt]and ...567 154... ofeachParish ofeachDistrict Population of Natives Population...72 8-oo 6.. 135.14 012 0 15 0'09 I'Io 0O19 Loss...818.475 307..895 99-57 99-65 014 0 08 0-43 035 0 41 5 93 6 oz 6 74 6 9O 7'26 7-73 7 77 Gain.... Vermland .653 8o..

. 1881-86.7 65. or Decrease Increase by Home and GainorLoss Seine-et-Oise. C6te d'Or . . Eure-et-Loire Marne . . . Sarthe .56 0-53 085 o. o o6 0o09 Oro 0O10 0. ...05 o 65 272 0.1-38 0-35 . Creuse Corsica -85-6 Aisne -55-2 Somme -64-5 Indre . .058. Meurtheet Moselle Aube . Iioiret . Percnt. . . Elements of thePopulation. Haute Garonne .52 148 0. Cantal .15 0-47 OO OO OO 61-2 60-4 68-3 950o 82-5 94'4 87'I 92-2 99-28 89-48 96-63 98-52 99-84 97-39 99-92 60-6 69-7 89o 89-6 89-9 84. ~~~ ~~~~~~of Departments. . Oise . Lot-et-Garonne Tarn-et-Garonne Gard ..I 99-67 99-20 99-23 97-23 99-82 99-62 99-91 98-49 c075 z-6I o8o 2V77 oii8 0-38 oop 0... Calvados. ... . Loire Inf6rieure Maine-et-Loire Pas-de-Calais .59 094 0.14 2-22 99-41 ox 6 z6i -- 0-34 -1-84 0o29 0. . 41-1 31-4 46-9 64-1 48-1 54-6 543 49-8 49-1 55-20 48-8 50-3 474 73-4 44-8 8-1 60-6 64-3 599 71-6 745 744 70-1 56-5 64-7 88-3 53-8 58-0 68-1 86-8 46-2 46-4 6o5 38.1-44 . Parochial.. N1881-86.45 4z 0o99 0'97 48-9 55-0 64-0 53-5 61-9 77 1 87o 8z 8 8o-6 87. Haute Vienne. . .6 90. 1886.1-68 0-93 0-87 2 35 2-92 2-78 4-21 Gain. . . Rh6ne . Per Cut. Vo ses . Average Population of a Department 435. Seine-et-Marne . Indre-et-Loire . Dmepnata National.93 98-95 99 35 98-28 99-01 95-83 93-71 97-26 99-83 99-82 99 79 99-80 98-16 3.58-0 Ain . Manche .1-50 . .. (Paris) .9 726 79-2 73 0 80-5 73'5 828 74'o 83. TABLE [June.' Per cnt.01 41I7 0o99 9947 8z8 89'2 85.i6 3-68 3'04 227 z2oo tc8z I8 I I17 1.14 7A72 2. .6 98-84 99i25 97-39 o-I8 ozI o0:o I-84 05 3 01I7 6-29 2-74 i i6 .. Finistsre.4 9686 92-28 9729 8650 70-02 91'04 90'07 99-58 90-67 98-64 96-99 99-42 99'26 99. Vaucluse .71 I3..o 86... . Per cut.9o 4.. Foreign. &cc..84 o83 o 8z o 8e o-8r o-69 o63 o047 041 o024 0-20 0OI9 0o41 0O0 0. Population. ..43 2-69 3-68 3-58 2-95 0-60 1-76 1-29 1'82 3-86 2-38 0'27 073 0-66 1-68 . .STEIN-The Laws of Migration.05 09I 1. .87 4'74 4'73 4'35 4. .. 95'4 84. . Yonne . Nord .985. 7. International Departments.. Basses Alpes .0-33 1-72 3-96 o-6 I o. Haute Rhin (Belfort) ]Bouches-du-Rhbne Gironde . Percut. Puy du Dbme..31 0-29 o027 . Percuit. Drome .056 - - 6-98 5678 4-22 5-06 7. Meuse .58-9 Hautes Alpes. Seine Inferieure ..9 652 777 63._______ - VIII.105 4-16 2-16 0-17 2-94 Loss.... Deptart.I 95z 67-7 53-1 85z 87-o 87.77 033 1/51 99-06 90-7 99-51 98-61 - 0i59 1-26 . Aude .6 8zz 84. Maritime Alpes.. Migration. . ofa Parish 1. .8 oo8 3 37 0-26 ..41 I9*98 8 96 9 93 0 4z 9'33 1V36 0o58 3'74 1. ...z 94 5 9 21 77..6 85.4 8 7.49 I*39 o022 1o.3 93'9 79.1-35 -0-64 . Herault . Eure . . Var .298 RAVEN.07 3..-FRANCE.

...............12 Gain.......93 99 81 99 83 96 87 96 95 99....I4 o o9 O-14 I 4z z*69 1I59 1-04 188 .......6 94 1 90g0 92'3 90g0 93.o 014 oi 6 0o09 i49 Ir8i I*8z I*89 I*91 I - o5o 300 94 _o-z 2V04 2. Mayenne 54-6 Cher . SAone-et-Loire ... ...2178 0 05 .. Percnt.......51 5... Arihge Landes .....46 3o00 3.43 99-68 99 94 96-76 93-12 99 82 99 78 98 93 99 82 98-41 97-31 99-86 99 91 99 95 99 88 99 99 o0o7 O? I oI7 3. Departments....... 58-4 551 76-5 67-9 67-5 77-9 8z 8 99-62 98 71 99-88 98-66 99-78 99-83 99172 99-22 99-20 97 47 o038 39 oIz ... Per cnt...... 42 59 8 Nibvre ..........1889.5 I 1 O05 `5 2 o08z O093 r ...... Dordogne .. Percnt................020 0-02 2-54 0 04 ........8 87..... Migration... 6141 Jura ...027 O034 2-61 86-5 85.......8 99 4 88. 681..... &c..0 37 0-11 0 77 018 ...... I 88 4 0.....45 56 6 79*7 2....4 56-9 86 3 99.. Deptart. 55-4 59 6 Doubs ............... 61P0 Vienne ...3-12 .... Savoie . 83'o oo6 o032 3-24 0-05 o0I 2 -1-14 36 1 14 0-37 0-24 0-96 O45 o.......... Ile-et-Vilaine . 83. Depart..1-28 -1 2 2I 2z26 o78 0-38 0 57 60 2z42 2... Population.1-68 ..3 876 87.... 72 1 CharenteInf6rieure.. Haute Loire ........National...........8 9Z 7 by Home and Vendee ..140 1P14 o099 I.... Foreign.. 72-0 . PyreneesOrientale.. Per cnt. 57 0 52-1 Allier.. Charente 52-4 52-1 ...... Isere ..............9 go.......... Ardeche .. Increase GainorLoss of International Parochial..... Hautes Pyrenees 74...45 2-46 2. 58-2 Deux-Sevres ... ..41 o4 o 62 o 68 o 85 og98 0o4 Ardennes ........ Percnt.......53 1-40 . Aveyron COte du Nord............. Orne .. Lozbre ...... ........5 91I1 927 6 88 oa 8 o02 2 .....0-32 0-32 o0I7 O-28 o-8o 1r34 0-59 ... 63'8 94f0 95..o3 I07 I o.I4 8o o 88'9 90?3 94 0 85-0 9CI0 951....] RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration. 0. 53-2 82 3 73-8 67 6 62 8 77-1 76A4 71P3 66f1 84... l Savoie .N1881-86.. 97-1 14 2 26 961i 92....I 8 3*05 0-5 7 0oI9 3814 1 27 -2 2-97 Loss..................84 9986 99-91 99 50 97-00 o......z 8 7-I 88'9 88-i 8.......4 93*3 99-80 99. Loir-et-Cher... Correze .........117 1-39 0 73 ........1881-86...........I4 21 124 133 o ...... Percot. Gers. .... or Decrease Elements of thePopulation......... France............ 65-1 Haute Marne..... Morbihan ... Lot .. 299 TABLE VIII-Contd.. Haute SAone................. Tarn ...013 .....07 oxI8 99-86 98-58 56-7 Loire . 681 Basses Pyrenees 71....

.... Manitoba 65...954 2- 26 ....228 .... Nova Sootia ..TDLEI IX.....275 95'91 9027 94'65 77 65 274'34 01 1 Ontario..... Per cut..... each Province ec Poice-p Provincial....572 321.467......o88 z288.047 87-46 92-08 86A43 93 39 74 65 2732 0 420....359....810 | 6506 24684 | 9174 8288 706 95-54 | 4 58.. 9TC25 (Unite (Unite Per PrinceEdward Island .. of Natives Provinces.446 4. 108.5 Dominion ........238 1..........324.......459 |6.60o...... New Brunswick ..988 19.027 101... Provinces1881..... Quebeo.923...-DOMINION OF CANADA....891 440....American Dominion.430 0- 3....715. BritishColumbia.49.............. .z65 1. Average Population of each Province 540.327...809 1... 1. throughout the Dominion........492 85-91 11 . Population.590 32. Territories ..... Nativ of thePopu Elements _ _ _ _ _ _ _-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ P plto.. Per cnt..*.

B -So3--C.p& o ." ' Propoorion I 2. Toa oDo Pe'd 'JOp .N ES. Le DR PE. 7. to. . FO R El G. WESTERN DI6TR IB UT IO N AU Asor.ep So .2?'2. -'ep - 77 Art A S~ 0 og 1&aLW'?0 ?. Pd- Ptp. VAJ to-*3j. a. ofi v-fA E OF &sX a.lee0 r*C 1 .tav enstzsn* laws o*Fi&r&tion.. 3. 4..

Rasvexstein s laws of MiAraon- 2. am" Ste nMAuiu Aeapat adwo Aas Staics I>h14L sae. AND a ?Mrs nLAa. L XGqO9 Nhp & So =& o& Lwnpoo . WESTERN COuNrRIE$ OF DISPERSION jJ E UROPE. Ma-Age ' 4-'. ASSOIIPTIO .

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ppl K eaX.\ eSulfl -.. C0 . ' i.^ Y d& a'-' xS I a\ e obwL1 - Hdornt *1_ _ _fS +.~ iob3 ~ tb.ta ~22 X O. 't?'.- -.eor~p .usL 1%-. | I a nJ *m*USS~~umS~gpam~~aimg. t -.. '71w Co- J.18M > ~~ / Id WM a.. es $1-ddo It : D1 Da Joa tnakgve s _bS * tisws~~~~~~~~~~Ak~ss ^eii 9q Argj . T * X z.c .

. * Texas . Ohio . I94. natives theUnion.. ... Gain or Loss X.... . Per cnt. Alabama . Oregon California ... Elements of thePopulation.. . New Hampshire.. .. .. Montana . . Mississippi Indiana .total population... . State aeor or..187 I9-8 .] TABLE RAVENSTEIN-The Laws of Migration.Washington . PART II.6'1 + 2..... .... Nebraska . Tennessee .. Idaho . Kentucky ... x ...144. . New Jersey . .. orTerritory. Results ofMigration. nativeAmerican of Colorado population.. Natives IncludingPersons ofForeign Birth.... NorthCarolinar.9 8417 378 36'2 34'2 33*4 29'9 z6'7 z6'z I Z........ hence.. Delaware Pennsylvania . 154.. -SouthCarolina.710 = 79 4 percent.. 93' 99'3 79-1 993 912 93..... Colorado .1 23'8 03 12 3 0'7 9'1 13-4 1-0 12'3 13-71 38-3 72'8 68'7 68. New York ... Per cnt. Per cnt.... .5 68'o 65'9 6 '7 5O'1 45'4 43 4 381I 752Z 794 Gain..4-5 + 13-4 -11-5 2'4 .. .. 78 7'8 58 2o 76-2 77.327.3 13'3 i6'8 . . .23-9 71l9 75-0 86-69 Computed as follows:Colorado....17-0 17'3 ..827.490 = 83'6 percent. Maryland .. 6 86'3 96'7 989 76-z 997 87'7 993 90g9 86-6 99'0 87'7 + 4'8 . Arizona ... gainn22. .15'9 17-2 + 6-5 17-3 . VOL.5 70-6 70-2 53-3 42'5 58-7 42-4 351 56-2 41-3 23'8 43'8 27-5 27-7 26'4 13-2 36-0 6-6 %93 32-0 27-0 19 9 .. Columbia (district) Arkansas . only.5I 9'9 9'Z 92-7 69z 72'8 80'3 75'I Georgia .. Or.....7 O04 O3 Loss.. Louisiana Utah .. .827.. . Illinois .14'7 z6'3 7 29-4 79 ..067.* Among National. ..... Sassachusetts ...... of thenative popuation of 1880... ... Rhode Island. . .. New Mexico .... . natives a gainof I62.... Virginia Vermont . 301 Averaye Population of eachStateor Territory 1. Wisconsin .... 1880.. . Missouri .....12'6 .1889..3-2 17'8 . Foreign. ... throughout 3I........ . Nevada .. 29 0 + 13'71 1'z z'o 5'4 9'5 iz'z 1z4 iz'8 I..537. State. Connecticut . . Michigan Florida .40-1 41I4 47 6 _ . Iowa West Virginia .. Dakota Wyoming . .. 83-6 82-6 77. LiI....7 8'8 6-4 13-7 3-3 1.. .. . . Kansas . hence. STATES OF AMERICA. 120 184 23 5 21-2 18-4 20 22 0 25-8 389 54-7 37-7 454 54 4 38-7 454 64-2 492 64-4 585 556 77-5 567 76-3 68-4 527 55'2 64-1 610 84-5 604 639 905 81'5 754 790 850 8469-9 961 70'7 956 877 69'9 94-8 75-7 67'37 13'6 13'1 79'5 719 7o'6 88 9 77-I 69'4 6O3 58-8 79o 8z'5 9z8 66' 98'7 957 76'3 96'3 943 69-4 99'2 902 8 ril 839 97"I 90'4 6I*7 20'5 28 1 29-4 11'1 22-9 30-6 39-7 41-2 21-0 175 7-2 339 9'6 1'3 43 16'1 29 23'7 3-7 98 18-9 5-7 30'6 08 73 30-8 27-2 197 249 6-7 0'7 209 0. Minnesota ... 31. of Colorado.. .-THE UNITED Percnt. Maine.... Per cnt. ...

on the otherhand. A. Aftercarefullyreading Mr. the United Kingdom lost on the balance by migration between 1871 and 1881 164. whereas nearly 3 millions were living in the United States. Ravenstein had submittedto them. Where. N. and especially fromthe United Kingdom. The difficulty however of establishing the existence of a law of migration did not detract from the great value of the figures which Mr. Mr. He could not recogniseany law fromthe figuresthat Mr. Ravenstein's former paper.000. T. One peculiaritywith regard to the emigrationfromEngland was that. and listeningto the presentone. Ravenstein had brought beforethem otherthan the simple fact that overcrowdingof population was a prelude to dispersion. HUMPHREYS said that the paper to which they had just listened was one to be studied ratherthan discussed. the destination of all the emigrants from Europe. The last census report showed that nearly 4 millions of the natives of the United Kingdom were known to be in 1881 living elsewhere. ELLIOTT said that the paper had ratherwhetted than appeased his curiosity. There was however one point of interestwhich had not been dealt with in the paper. so far as the census authorities had been able to find out. and nearly another million in the colonies. No doubt Mr. as in America the attractionsof virgin soil are existing.and it therefore by no means followed that a countryof dispersion might not be in a better position than a country of of the natives of the United Kingdom were in 1881 living in Europe.447 persons. in part compensationfor the low birth-rate. she really only contributedto the populationof France the small amount of 36. he arrived at the conclusionthat migration was ratherdistinguished for its lawlessness than for having any definite law. MR. Of course in any considerationof the laws of migration the economic conditionsof a countrymust also be taken into account. Ravenstein was correct in assuming that one of the reasons why England contained such a small proportion of foreignerswas its insular position.302 [June. H. namely. RAVENSTEIN'S PAPER. With regard to the contrastbetween England and France. DiscusSION ons MuR. actually increased its population by the balance of migration to the extent of 149.inasmuch as any laws of migration could probably be supported by a much larger number of proofs than were as yet available.while France. It was an interestingfact that whereas England had supplied prior to 1881 4 millions to the population of different parts of the world.000 persons. only ioo. It ought he thought to be remembered that in a countrywith a high birth-rate it was possible that there might be both a considerable increase in the population and a large amount of emigrationto other countries.the population would of .

He could understand that they did not go long distances as a rule. but the reason why females migrated from large towns into the country was because the facilities of education and association attracted them from outlying districts. The theory that tropical Africa must be colonised from the old countrieson its borderswas not consonantwith the historyof the case. of course people would be attracted there. No doubt the firstinstinct of persons who migrated was to choose the countrywhich involved the least amount of labour and expense in travelling.there would be something that they could investigate critically. Mr.] Discussion on M3r. The only law with which they were conversant was that where a population treads upon each other's toes. except down the Nile. Tropical Africa was not at all likelyto be settledfromthe borderingnations of Europe. He did not quite gather any general law as to why female migrants were increasing so much. or the virgin soil of the west of America. because they were not so qualifiedfortravel as the male sex. W.rather than from the old and decaying nations that bordered the Mediterranean. Ravenstein had pointedly asked him (MIr. The Sahara would be a barrier to the extension of population southward. they followedthe general rule and migratedtowards the otherseaboard. RAWSON thought it was very doubtful that the peopling of Africawas likely to proceed fromthe northsouthward. emigration was not confined to any particular locality. if Mr.those of dispersion and those of absorption. He agreed with Mr. but by the length of that borderline. and as the inhabitants were prone to seek for unexhausted lands. STEPHEN BOURNE said that although Mr. Rtvenstein'sPaper. A great many facts had been submittedto the meeting. 303 course flowthereto. having portions of the empire all over the world. and that was the reason why England sent forth so many of her inhabitants.such as the gold fieldsof Australia. Ravenstein would on a future occasion analyse the causes which led to the existence of those facts. Ravenstein would kindly collect together and give a tabular statementof the two classes of countries. Our insular position too affordedmore easy transit to far distances. Sir R. Mr. Ravenstein had spoken of " Laws of Migration. there was a disposition to seek more open spaces. It was quite clear that the migrationmust be governed not by the size of the space included within the border line." he had not formulated them in such a categorical order that they could be criticised. He thought that tropical Africa would be reached fromthe Cape of Good Hope and the western and eastern coasts. Elliott x2 . He thought that too much importance had been attached to the blue patches on the border line. If there was any peculiarity.1889.and he hoped that Mr. but in a country like England.Bourne) why it was that Maine was a country of great dispersion? The real reason was that Maine was one of the earliest settled provinces of America. followingthe streams into the interior. because those were not the nations in which the migratoryspirit was most prominent.

. It was drawthelinein preliminary investigations to note how easy means of communication between satisfactory countries intercourse in different was leading to more intimate verymanyways. because thedivision with the such lines mightbe made on any part of any country thelaws of migration were discovered the sameresults. Mostpeoplewouldthink spilling and yet therewas a verylargeinflux. pushedfromprovince intoEngland as one of the causes of the of foreigners theinflux of Englishmen. similarstate of thingsprevailedin other capital Germany. It was a very did notgo very fact that as a generalrule emigrants interesting to province. Ravenstein whether he Mr. influence wishedto ask Mr. of absorption was a country must in regardto its politicstake into consideration mentthere in the socialcondition of itspopulation.whileon the thechanges it was sending of dispersion. He did their but the amount notmeanthatnominally wageswereas much. The emigration thathe had understated of opinion mustto France. in theconsideration of thepolitics of Italy and Europe. Too muchhad beenmadein thepaper of linesas showing anything veryextraordinary. emigration that Mr. A Londonoverpopulated.thispointed to but simply far. livingwas dear. Germans existing the number. have an of Italy to South America. theinterior within of be goingon as actively thatmigration might as acrossthe borders. Ravensteinwas then out of Germany. Ravenstein Mr. One of the was causedby over-poputo think thatmigration seemed speakers their latedcountries population. Before and he fancied mustbe known. HAmILTON considered had madea contribution to thatgeneralization and interesting very satisfactory them to makea law ofmigration whichwouldenable of particulars difficult hereafter. Four or out hundreds of thousands were tenand a half millionsof fiveyears ago he said that there and Mr. DONALD fromGermany was did not thinkthat the excessiveemigration service ofmilitary there ? He was of due to thestrain verylargely thatmostof theartizanclass who leftGermany couldget opinion quiteas gooda livingthereas in Englandor in America. that thosein causesof emigration character. of practicalcomfort they had was quite as great. But the governments a county or country and countycouncilsand poor law boards of different countries. ofpersons that the governto such an extent.where often couldnotbe obtained. was a country handGermany other a yearintoforeign countries.andwhereemployment thatvery a spiritof adventure often He was undertheimpression as themeredesirefor had quiteas muchto do withthemigration morebreadand butter. R. It was an exceedingly thingto knowwhereto of thisnature. the first place would be foundto be of an economical extentdue to the spiritof adventure which and to a secondary mightexist in some races morethan in others. It sometimes happenpdthat the wantsof one countrywere curiouslysupplied by the workmenof another. and passedout oftheir whoentered France jurisdiction. in ascertaining the number wereinterested smaller within spheres. K.304 Discussion [June. A.

he had left the foreign element out of rules from the native otherwise he could not have computed the absolute loss and gain in the population of a country. and Germans throughout the world. It was next to impossible to trace Englishmen. and would bring forthsome very strange results. and important movements are going on in many other parts of the world. There was also a strong influx on the eastern coast of the same continentfrom various causes. Major CRAIGIE asked Mr. would furnishexcellent materials for a valuable paper. said that in preparing some of his maps of North America.1889. that was so large an inquiry that he must leave it to some othermember of the Society. English labourers are in their turn often required to do special kinds of work abroad. as compared with what was going on in rural parts. There was a strong migration from the north-westof Africa down by the valley of the Niger. and the migratory spirit. Mr. He thoughtthat an inquiryinto the birth-rates and natural growth of large towns.but to trace them back for generations. So large a portion of the population of the newly settled Western States was made up of European immigrants. The subject of migration is a broad one. However. Many different phenomena would have to be generalised before they could have what in the proper sense of the word could be called a law of migration. Ravenstein if it would not be possible to give some more informationwith regard to the movements of the foreignelementin the United States. That census pretended not only to give the elementsof population according to birth. 305 Thus for instance in the construction of the Forth Bridge. The object was to show that the invasion of a district decreased in strengthas the interiorwas approached. where the conditions of military service were even more onerous than they were in Germany. RAVENSTEIN.which was so prominentall over the world ages ago.] on illr.because it followed quite different population. He did not for one momentclaim to have discovered any great laws. Frenchmen. seemed to be very active at the presenttime. Of course he had considered birth-rates. All he had tried to show was how the firstimpulse was being broughtinto action. in reply. Some figures in the Canadian census had struck him as expressing impossibilities. notwithstandingthe large amount of excellent labour to be obtained in England. Ravenstein's Paper.but a large emigrationfromFrance. that a record of their primary destination and subsequent settlementwould add to the value of the paper. and he had expresslystated that the origin of migrationwas economical. He had no reason to thinkthat emigrationfrom Germany was largely due to military service. Italian workmen had the preference in laying in comparatively deep water the foundations of the enormous buttresses required for that great work. If it were there ought to be no emigration from this country. .