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DU HIU NHN BIT CC TH TRONG TING ANH I Th hin ti n (The Present tense ) a ),Th HT c s dng din t hnh ng lp i lp li hoc

c din t mt thi quen. Cch dng ny thng i vi cc trng t ch tn xut nh : - always, usually , often, sometime, selldom , rarely , never . - every morning , every day , every month/year... - once/ twice/three times , a/per day , a week.... b) Ngoi ra THT cng c dng ni v tng lai( khi ni v t.gian biu v chng trnh n nh ) cch dng ny ta c th dng mt s trng t ch thi gian tng lai eg: Tomorrow is Friday ,the train leaves the station from Ha Noi to Viet Tri at 3p.m to 5 II. Th hin ti tip din (The Present Continous tense) a,Dng din t hnh ng ang xy ra thi im ni . Vi cch dng ny ta s c trng t nhn bit nh :now Ngoi ra cch use ny cn c th i vi cc ng t mnh lnh nh : - Look ! , listen !, Be quiet !, Becareful !, Don't make noise !, Keep silent!.... b, THTTD cn dng din t hnh ng xy ra xung quanh thi im ni . Vi cch dng ny cng c nhng trng t nhn bit nh : at the moment , at the present , to day ,... Note ; 1) .THTTD cn c cch dng din t d nh tng lai. eg: I am having a test to morrow 2. )THTTD cn c dng din t s phn nn v mt vic g lin tc xy ra quanh thi im ni . Cch dng ny s dng vi always. eg : Nam is always going to school late. - They are talking in class. 3. )THTTD i khi cng i km vi cc tnh hung khc nhau ; eg1: A: Where 's Mai ? B :She is in her room . eg2 : It's 9 o'clock in the morning . I am staying at home . eg3: It's lovely day.The sun is shining and the birds are singing III )Th hin ti hon thnh ( The Present perfect tense) Present perfect (1)

A Xt v d sau: Tom is looking for his key. He cant find it. ( Tom ang tm chic cha kha. Anh y khng tm thy n.) He has lost his key. ( Anh lm mt chic cha kha ca anh y ) He has lost his key = Anh y lm mt chic cha kha v n by gi vn cha tm ra. Have/ has lost l th Present perfect simple Th Present perfect simple = Have/has + past participle (qu kh phn t) thng tn cng bng -ed (finished/dicided) nhng nhiu ng t quan trng li l bt qui tc - irregular (lost/done/been/written). B ) Khi chng ta dng th present perfect th lun lun c mt s lin h ti hin ti. Hnh ng xy ra qu kh nhng kt qu ca n li hin ti: Wheres your key? I dont know. Ive lost it. (I havent got it now). He told me his name but Ive forgotten it. (I cant remember it now). Is Sally here? No, shes gone out. (she is out now). Chng ta thng dng th present perfect a ra mt thng tin mi hay cng b mt s vic va xy ra: Ow! Ive cut my finger. The road is closed. Theres been (=but has been) an accident. (from the news) The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery. ( Cnh st va bt hai ngi lin quan n mt v cp.) C) Bn c th dng th present perfect simple vi just, already v yet: Just = a short time ago (va mi xy ra trc ): Would you like something to eat? No, thanks. Ive just had lunch. Hello. Have you just arrived? ( Xin cho. Anh va mi n phi khng. ) Chng ta dng already ni v mt s vic xy ra sm hn d on Dont forget to post the letter, will you? Ive already posted it. ng qun gi th nh, bn s gi ch?. Ti va mi gi th ri. What time is Mark leaving? Hes already gone. Yet = until now - cho n by gi v din t ngi ni mong ch s vic no xy ra. Ch dng yet trong cu nghi vn v ph nh. (xem UNIT 110C).

Has it stopped raining yet? Ive written the letter but I havent posted it yet.

Ti vit xong l th nhng ti cha kp gi. D) Ch s khc nhau gia gone to v been to: Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Spain. (= he is there now or on his way there) Jim ang i ngh. Anh y i Ty Ban Nha. (= Anh y hin gi ang hay ang i trn... Jane is back home from holiday now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now comeback from Italy). ( Jane hin gi i ngh v. C y =C y v t Present perfect (2) A Hy xem mu i thoi di y: Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Jane? ( Bn c i du lch nhiu khng, Jane?) Jane: Yes, Ive been to a lot of a places. Dave: Really? Have you ever been to China? ( Tht ? Th bn tng n Trung Quc cha?) Jane: Yes, Ive been to China twice. Dave: What about India? Jane: No, Ive been to India. Khi chng ta cp ti mt khong thi gian lin tc t qu kh n hin ti, chng ta dng th present perfect (have been/ have travelled ) y Dave v Jane ang ni v nhng ni m Jane n trong cuc i c y (l khong thi gian ko di n hin ti) Have you ever eaten caviar? (in your life) Bn c bao gi n mn trng c mui cha? Weve never had a car. Chng ti cha bao gi c c mt chic xe hi. Have you read Hamlet? No, I havent read any of Shakespeares plays. Bn c Hamlet cha? Cha, ti cha c tc phm no ca Shakespear c. Susan really loves that film. Shes seen it eight times! Susan tht s thch cun phim . C y xem cun phim tm ln! What a boring film! Its the most boring film Ive ever seen. Cun phim mi chn lm sao! l mt cun phim d nht m ti tng xem. Trong nhng v d sau ngi din t ang ni v khong thi gian m lin tc n by gi (recently / in the last few days / so far / since breakfast v.v ) :

Have you heard from George recently? ( Gn y bn c c tin g v George khng?) Ive met a lot of people in the last few days. ( Ti gp nhiu ngi trong nhng ngy gn.. Everything is going well. We havent had any problems so far. ( Mi chuyn u tt p. Lu nay chng ti khng gp phin phc g. ) Im hungry. I havent eaten anything since breakfast. (= from breakfast until now) ( Mnh i ri. T sng ti gi mnh cha n g c.) Its nice to see you again. We havent seen each other for a long time. ( Tht l vui c gp li bn. Rt lu ri chng ta khng gp nhau.) B. Chng ta dng th present perfect vi today/ this morning/ this evening khi nhng khong thi gian ny cha kt thc vo thi im ni : Ive drunk four cups of coffee today. (perhaps Ill drink more before today finished). Hm nay ti ung bn ly c ph. (c th ti cn ung thm na trc khi ht ngy hm Have you had a holiday this year (yet)? ( Nm nay bn ngh php cha? I havent seen Tom this morning. Have you? (Sng nay ti khng gp Tom. Bn c gp k) Ron hasnt worked very hard this term.( Ron hc khng chm lm trong hc k ny.) C.) Ch l chng ta phi dng present perfect khi ni Its the first time somthing has happened ( l ln u tin mt s vic no xy ra). V d nh: Don is having a driving lesson. He is very nervous and unsure because it is the first lesson. Don ang c bi hc li xe. Anh y rt hi hp v lo lng bi v y l bi hc u tin. Its the first time he has driven a car.(not drive)y l ln u tin anh y li mt ci xe hoc He has never driven a car before.(Trc gi anh y cha bao gi li xe.) Linda has lost her pastport again. Its the second time this has happened. (not happen) Linda li lm mt h chiu. y l ln th hai xy ra chuyn ny. This is a lovely meal. Its the first good meal Ive had for ages. (not I have) Tht l mt ba n ngon. y l ba n ngon u tin ca ti trong nhiu nm. Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. Thats the third time hes phoned her this evening. Bill li ang gi in thoi cho c bn gi ca anh y. l ln th ba anh y gi in cho c y chiu nay. IV)Th hin ti hon thnh tip din (The Present perfect continuous ) A. Xem v d sau: Is it raining? No, but the ground is wet.

It has been raining. ( Tri mi va ma xong.) Have/has been -ing l th present perfect continuous. I/we/they/you have (=Ive etc.) been doing I/we/they/you have (=Ive etc.) been waiting I/we/they/you have (=Ive etc.) been playing he/she/it has (=hes ect.) been doing he/she/it has (=hes ect.) been waiting he/she/it has (=hes ect.) been playing etc. Ta dng th present perfect continuous khi ni v nhng hnh ng kt thc gn y hay mi va kt thc v kt qu ca n c s lin h hay nh hng ti hin ti: Youre out to breath. Have you been running? (you are out of breath now) Bn trng mt t hi. Bn va mi chy phi khng? (hin gi anh y nh t hi). Paul is very tired. Hes been working very hard. (hes tired now) Paul rt mt. Anh y va mi lm vic rt cng. (by gi anh y ang mt). Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing? Sao qun o bn bn th. Bn va mi lm g vy? Ive been talking to Carol about the problem and she thinks that Mnh va mi cp n vn ca Carol v c y ngh l B ) It has been raining for two hours. Xt v d sau: It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining. Tri ang ma. Tri ma c hai gi ri v by gi cn ang ma. How long has it been raining? It has been raining for two hours. Tri ma c hai ting ng h. Chng ta dng th present perfect contiuous cho nhng trng hp ny, c bit l dng vi how long, for v since Hnh ng l vn ang xy ra (nh v d trn) hay va mi chm dt. How long have you been learning English? (youre still learning English) ( Bn hc ting Anh c bao lu ri? (bn vn ang cn hc ting Anh) Tim is watching television. He has been watching television for two hours. ( Tim ang xem TV. Anh y xem TV c hai gi ri.)

Where have you been? I have been looking for you for the last half hour. ( Anh u vy? Ti tm anh na ting ng h ri.) George hasnt been feeling well recently. ( George va mi cm thy khe gn y.) Chng ta c th dng th present perfect continuous ch nhng hnh ng lp i lp li trong mt khong thi gian: Debbie is a very good player tennis. Shes been playing since she was eight. ( Debbie l mt vn ng vin qun vt rt gii. C y chi qun vt t khi ln tm.) Every morning they meet in the same caf. Theyve been going there for years. Mi sng h li gp nhau cng mt qun c ph. H n qun nhiu nm ri. Dont disturb me now. I am working . ( ng quy ry ti by gi. Ti ang lm vic.) Ive been working hard, so now Im going to have a rest. ( Ti lm vic nhiu ri nn by gi ti s i ngh.) We need an umbrella. Its raining. (Chng ti cn mt cy d. Tri ang ma.) The ground is wet. Its been raining. ( Mt t cn t. Tri ma.) Hurry up ! Were waiting. Weve been waiting for an hour. V ) Th qu kh n (The simple past tense) 1.i vi th ny th thng i km vi cc cm trng t hoc trng ng ch thi gian nh : yesterday, last ..., ago, two day / year/ ..+ago , number +year(s)+ago hoc l nm c th nh in 1996/1678/2008... 2. Dng th hin mong c hin ti : wish+ mnh dng qu kh 3. dng trong cu iu kin loi II : If+ M qu kh , would +V 4. dng vi cng thc Would you mind if I + M qu kh Would rather + M qu kh VI, Qu kh tip din (The Past progressive) 1.Thng din t hnh ng xy ra ti mt thi im nht nh trong qu kh thng i vi : at+ 8a.m/3p.m/5a.m...+yesterday/ last... at this/that time + yesterday/last... 2. Dng din t hnh ng ang xy ra gia 2 thi im gii hn v thi gian trong qu kh , thng i vi :between ...and ...last.../yesterday... ( from Monday to saturday) All ... ( all yesterday, all lastweek..)

The whole of ...( the whole of yesterday ) eg : From to 9p.m I was waching TV

3.Dng vi when ( din t hnh ng ang xy ra trong qu kh th hnh ng khc xy n ) Note : hnh ng xy n dng th QK . eg: When I came home , my parent was having a dinner . 4.Din t 2 hay nhiu hnh ng xy ra song song trong qu kh thng i vi while /as.. eg :My father was reading news paper while my mother was cooking dinner. VII )Th qu kh hon thnh (The Past Perfect) 1.Dng din t mt hnh ng hon tt ti mt thi im trong qu kh hoc trc hnh ng khc trong qu kh - Cch dng ny thng kt hp vi cc lin t nh ( after , before. when ,until , as soon as,by) eg : By 10 p.m yesterday I had finished my home work eg : She went to England after she had studied English. Note : Hai hnh ng xy ra trong qu kh , hnh ng no xy ra trc th dng qu kh hon thnh , hnh ng xy ra sau th dng th QK . 2.Dng vi gii t "for" ( din t hnh ng xy ra nhng cha hon tt trong qu kh th mt hnh dng khc xy n ) eg : By August last year he had worked in that factory for ten year . X , Th qu kh hon thnh tip din (The Past Perfect Continous) 1. Din t hnh ng ko di trong qu kh dn khi c hnh ng th hai xy ra . i vi "for" + time , before.. eg: When I left last job , I had been working there for four years. Eg : Before I came , they have been talking with each other. Khi s dng cc th ny c when ta phi thn trng v dch cu vn hay da vo mnh sau cng xc nh ng cc th III, Th Tng Lai n (The Simple Future tense) . 1. TTL c dng mt hnh ng s vic xy ra trong tng li Cch dng ny thng i vi cc trng t ch t/g nh: - tomorrow , next day/week/ year/ century.... 2. TTL cn dng d a ra cc d on v cc s vic trong tng lai vi nhng ng t

( du hiu nhn bit ) - think , besure, believe , expect , wonder, suppse... eg: A: She is working very hard . B: I think she will pass the exam easily - you must meet Lan . I'm sure you will like her 3. Th tng lai n cn c s dng trong cu iu kin loi 1cng vi th HH eg: If the weather is fine , we will go for a picnic . Note : trong trng hp ny nhn ra c th ca cu th phi da vo v trc hoc v sau ca cu xc nh y l cu iu kin loi 1 . V trong cu lai ny thThng v ngay sau If s chia th HT , v cn li s chia th TL . IV, Th tng lai hay cn li l "tng lai gn" (The Future tense) Th TLG c s dng din t mt hnh ng xy ra trong tng lai m c quyt nh t trc , hoc c k hoch t trc . eg: She's bought a planticket. Sheis going to fly to Lon don . Vi cch dng ny khng c u hiu nhn bit m ta phi da vo cu trc mang ngha nh th no , nu khng th ta s dng TL Note : Vic phn bit cc th TL, th HTTD , th TLG i khi l rt kh khn khi c ba u mang ngha tng lai v c th mang cc trng t t/g ch tng lainh trn ta ni. + ) Nhng lu l th TL ch dng khi hnh ng trong tng lai khng c quyt dnh hay c k hoch t trc m c quyt nh ngay lc eg : A: Would you like to have a drink? B: I willl have mineral water + ) Cn i vi th TL th hnh ng s xy ra trong tng lai ny c quyt nh t trc. Hoc n cn c s dng din t nhng hnh ng sp xy ra trong tng m hin tng ca n xut hin hin ti. eg: There are black clounds in the sky. Its going to rain + ) Vi th HTTD ta ch dng khi ni vic g c b tr , thu xp lm( din t mt s vic s xy ra trong tng lai gn ) eg: I'm visiting my grand mother tomorrow. V, Th Tng lai tip din (The Future Continous) i vi th ny th phn bit bn phi da vo cch s dng ca n v phi dch cu vn ra Tuy nhin bn c th lu mt s im nh sau :

1.Th TLTD thng i vi thi gian c th trong tng lai eg: At 10p.m tomorrow , I will be learning math information technology 2.Th TLTD cn c dng din t hnh ng hay s vic s xy rav ko di trong mt khong thi gian no trong tng lai .( thng i vi trng t all morning/day/ moth.....) eg:I will be staying at home all mning . VI , Th tng lai hon thnh (The Future Perfect) i vi th ny c cch dng l 1. ) Th TLHT dng din t hnh ng hon tt trc mt thi im trong tng lai . -Cch dng ny thng i vi gii t by +1 mc thi gian ( by 5p.m/by October/ by at the end of November / by the time ... ) eg: I will have finished t exercire by . 2 ) .Th tng lai hon thnh din t mt hnh ng s c hon tt trc mt hnh ng khc trong tng lai . - cch dng ny thng i vi ( when, before , after , as soon as ....) nhng vn i hi ta phi dch ngha nhn din y l hnh ng s xy ra trong tng lai . eg: I will have cooked dinner before my mother comes back home .