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Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. _______________is stimulation of the sense receptors; perception is an inner representation

of the world. a Adaptation

. b Organization .

c . d .

Sensation Cognition

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#. Sensation is to mechanical stimulation as __________ is to mental representation. a perception c moti/ation . . b unconscious d adaptation . .

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0. A mechanical process resulting in the stimulation of the senses and the transmission of

sensor1 information to the brain or spinal cord is called a perception. c absolute threshold.
. b sensation. . . d .

dar2 adaptation.

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&. ,he process b1 which sensations are organized to form inner representations of the world is

called a ps1choph1sical.
. b sensation. .

c . d .

adaptation. perception.

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5. ,he ________ __________ is the minimum amount of stimulation needed to produce a

sensation. a absolute threshold

4eber6s threshold 1

. b difference threshold .

. d .

dar2ness threshold

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7. ,he absolute threshold is detected b1 e8posing a participant to progressi/el1 stronger stimuli

until participant can detect the stimuli ________ of the time. a 199: c #5:
. b 59: . . d .

19:

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(. 4hich of the following statements is NOT true; a ,here are indi/idual differences in absolute thresholds. . b Our ears are particularl1 sensiti/e to sounds that are /er1 low in pitch. . c ,he measure of the absolute threshold for taste is the e<ui/alent of 1 teaspoon of . sugar dissol/ed in # gallons of water. d ,he police officer caught the =ust'speeding car on his radar because he was . moti/ated to reduce the number of speeders on his patrol> which illustrates the

signal detection theor1.


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@. ,he difference threshold for light is defined as the a wea2est amount of light the a/erage person can percei/e most of the time. . b ratio of the amplitude and wa/elength. . c difference in wa/elengths between analogous hues. . d smallest difference in intensit1 re<uired to percei/e a difference in intensit1 59: . of

the time.
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a 4ebster6s constant.

ifference threshold for /arious sensor1 s1stems is e8pressed as c 4eber6s constant.

. b "echner6s constant. .

. d .

Sensor1 constant.

ANS: C !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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19. 4eberBs constant for light is 2nown as _______. a 1C79th c 1C50rd . . b #: d 1C000 . .

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

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11. 4hich of the statements below is NOT true according to %rnst 4eber; a ,he constant for noticing differences in lifted weight is 1C50rd. . b De found that the jnd did not reall1 differ for each of the senses. . c .eople can tell when a tone rises or falls in pitch b1 one'third of l:. . d ,aste is the least sensiti/e of all the senses. .

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1#. 4hich of the following is a prediction of 4eberBs constant for noticing differences; a A person of #99 pounds would ha/e to lose twice as much weight as a person of . 199

pounds in order for the difference to be noticed.


b ,he ma8imum difference in stimuli that can be detected is the same for all senses. . c ,he constant is the same for all sense modalities. . d +oti/ation> attention> and past e8perience are factors in the constant. .

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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10. Signal detection theor1 incorporates all of the following EXCEPT the a acti/ation of feature detectors. . b percei/er6s moti/ation> e8pectations> and learning. . c contrast between signal and bac2ground noise. . d sharpness of one6s sensor1 capacit1. .

ANS: A 3%-: 444

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1&. 4hich factor listed below does NOT affect a personBs abilit1 to percei/e sensor1 stimuli or a

difference between stimuli; a ,he intensit1 of the stimuli.

. b ,he sharpness or acuteness of a person6s biological sensor1 s1stem. . c .s1chological factors> such as moti/ation> e8pectations> and learning. . d None of these. .

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15. ,he bac2ground noise> the percei/erBs moti/ation> and the sharpness of the percei/erBs sensor1

s1stem are among the /ariables incorporated in __________. a 4eberBs constant c opponents process theor1
. b ps1choph1sics theor1 . . d .

signal'detection theor1

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17. A ps1chological factor in signal detection is focusing 1our _________ on stimuli that 1ou

consider important. a attention

. b feature detectors .

c . d .

perception threshold

ANS: A

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1(. 4hat are feature detectors; a A mechanical process that in/ol/es the stimulation of sensor1 receptors. . b Neurons that fire in response to specific features of sensed stimuli. . c Eisible light that triggers /isual sensations. . d ,he lowest intensit1 at which the stimulus can be detected. .

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1@. +an1 cells fire in response to lines presented at /arious angles> while others fire in response

to specific colors. ,hese cells are termed a firing detectors. c


. b feature detectors. .

. d .

sensor1 corte8 detectors. /isual input detectors.

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1A. ,hrough the process of sensor1 adaptation we become _____ sensiti/e to stimuli that are low

in magnitude and ______ sensiti/e to unchanging stimuli. a less; more c less; less
. b more; less . . d .

more; more

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#9. !f 1ou become more sensiti/e to stimulation this is called ____________; and if 1ou are less

sensiti/e to stimulation this is called __________. a sensitization; desensitization


. b positi/e adaptation; negati/e adaptation .

c desensitization; sensitization . d )oth a and b .

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#1. 4allace li/es near a ma=or railroad changing station. De is desensitized to the noise of the

roaring trains. 4hat has ta2en place; a positi/e adaptation


. b negati/e adaptation .

c . d .

signal detection =ust noticeable difference

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##. After being in a dar2 room for a while> 1ou can see much better than 1ou could when 1ou

wal2ed in. ,his is 2nown as a desensitization.


. b sensitization. .

c . d .

/irtual stabilization. motion imaging.

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#0. ,he trash reall1 stin2s> but it doesn6t bother 1ou as much as it did when 1ou first came home>

so 1ou put off ta2ing it out for another da1. ____________ has probabl1 occurred. a .ositi/e adaptation c Sensor1 ad=ustment
. b Negati/e adaptation . . d .

Signal adaptation

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#&. 4hich sensor1 s1stem is dominant for most indi/iduals; a hearing c /ision . . b smelling d touch . .

ANS: C !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual #5. Eisible light is a electromagnetic energ1. . b chemical energ1. .

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c . d .

biochemical energ1. pressureC/acuum energ1.

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#7. %/en when he bloc2s out all /isible light wa/es from his field of /ision> .etros cannot see

infrared or ultra/iolet light wa/es because a his e1es adapted to the dar2ness.

. b most people ha/e ne/er seen ultra/iolet or infrared wa/es and are unable to . identif1

them.
c nobod1 can see in the dar2. . d onl1 one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum triggers /isual sensations. .

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#(. 4hich of the following colors is longest in wa/elength; a red c /iolet . . b 1ellow d green . .

ANS: A 3%-: 444

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#@. Fight first passes through the outer surface of the e1e called the ___________. a cornea c pupil . . b retina d iris . .

ANS: A !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual NO,:

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#A. As 1ou lea/e a dar2l1 lit mo/ie theater and enter the par2ing lot on a bright sunn1 da1> the

______ in 1our e1es ad=ust so 1ou are not blinded b1 the increase in light. a retina c pupils
. b fo/ea . . d .

optic ner/e

ANS: C !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

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09. Artemis is watching tele/ision with the lights out. Se1mour wal2s into the room and flips on

the light> which momentaril1 blinds Artemis because her a corneas are slow to adapt.

. b lenses ha/e not 1et thic2ened to accommodate the increased light. . c retina continues to hold afterimages of the tele/ision screen. . d pupils need a brief time to ad=ust to the increased light. .

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01. ,he part of the e1e that changes its thic2ness to ad=ust an image to ma2e it clearer is

the________. a lens
. b retina .

c . d .

iris cornea

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0#. 4hat is a photoreceptor; a ,he part of the spectrum that stimulates the e1e and produces /isual sensations. . b Cells of the retina that respond to light. . c Neurons whose a8ons form the optic ner/e. . d Neurons that conduct neural impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells. .

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00. $ods and cones respond to light and produce neural impulses that are collected b1 a ganglion cells. c at1pical cells. . . b bipolar cells. d helper cells. . .

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0&. ,he __________ of ganglion cells in the retina form the optic ner/e. a cell bodies c a8ons . . b dendrites d none of these . .

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05. ,he a8ons of the __________ ma2e up the optic ner/e> which e8its the e1e at the

__________. a bipolar cells; fo/ea

. b ganglion cells; blind spot .

c . d .

bipolar cell; blind spot horizontal cells; fo/ea

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07. Fight enters the e1e> stimulates the retina> and rela1s /isual information to the brain through

ner/e impulses. 4hat is the order of cell firing to the brain; a photoreceptors> ganglion cells> bipolar cells
. b ganglion cells> photoreceptors> bipolar cells . c bipolar cells> photoreceptors> ganglion cells . d photoreceptors> bipolar cells> ganglion cells .

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0(. ________ are the photoreceptors that allow us to see blac2 and white; ______ are the

photoreceptors that allow us to see colors. a Cones; rods c


. b $ods; cones .

. d .

Ganglion cells; bipolar cells )ipolar cells; ganglion cells

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0@. $ods and cones outnumber _______ b1 more than 199 to 1. a bipolar cells c amacrine cells . . b ganglion cells d horizontal cells . .

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0A. *im sees onl1 in white and blac2. After careful e8amination of his retina> the ophthalmologist

concludes that *imBs ___________ ha/e degenerated. a bipolar cells c horizontal cells
. b cones . . d .

ganglion cells

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&9. Dair cells are to hearing as ___________ are to /ision. a horizontal cells c bipolar cells . . b ganglion cells d rods and cones . .

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&1. 4hat is the most sensiti/e area of the retina; a blind spot c . . b fo/ea d . .

pupil presb1opia

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&#. -ou ha/e been at the beach all da1 and forgot 1our sunglasses. 4hat part of the e1e is most

li2el1 damaged; a peripheral area


. b blind spot .

c . d .

optic ner/e fo/ea

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&0. ,he blind spot is a an area of the retina that is insensiti/e to /isual stimulation. . b where the a8ons of ganglion cells con/erge and form the optic ner/e. . c both a and b . d an area of the retina that is /er1 sensiti/e to /isual stimulation. .

ANS: C !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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&&. *uliana is nearsighted; therefore images of distant ob=ects are focused _________ the retina. a behind c abo/e . . b in front of d below . .

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&5. -our good friend Agnes has difficult1 reading road signs when she dri/es. 4hat condition

does she li2el1 e8hibit; a Der e1eballs are too short.


. b She has presb1opia. .

c . d .

She is farsighted. She is nearsighted.

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&7. A /isual disorder caused b1 brittleness of the lens is 2nown as a astigmatism. c strabismus. . . b presb1opia. d binocular acuit1. . .

11

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&(. !n the e1e disorder presb1opia> the primar1 s1mptom is the a difficult1 in percei/ing near ob=ects. c e1e muscles not wor2ing in . . s1nchron1. b retina becoming detached. d tendenc1 toward e1estrain. . .

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&@. -our &5'1ear'old father was =ust told b1 his e1e doctor that he needs reading glasses. ,his

could be a macular degeneration.


. b retinitis pigmentosis. .

c . d .

presb1opia. nearsightedness.

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

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&A. ,he process of dar2 adaptation happens more <uic2l1 for _________which can ad=ust to lower

lighting in about _________ minutes. a cones; 19


. b rods; 19 .

c . d .

cones; &5 rods; &5

ANS: A !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual 59. 4a/elength of light determines its a brightness. . b hue. .

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c . d .

saturation. brightness adaptation.

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51. !t is 199 " outside; which of the following rooms would 1ou probabl1 find most appealing; a red c 1ellow . . b orange d blue . .

1#

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5#. ,he li/ing room of 1our new apartment seems cold and forbidding> and 1ou decide to remed1

the problem b1 adding color to the decorating scheme. ,o add warmth to the room> 1ou should consider using a 1ellow> blue> and red. c greens> blues> and /iolet.
. b orange> green> and blue. . . d .

1ellow> orange> and red.

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50. 4hat are complementar1 colors; a colors that are beside each other on the color wheel . b colors that are across from each other on the color wheel . c colors that are mi8ed together and dissol/e into light 1ellow . d colors that reflect /er1 little light .

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5&. Colors across from each other on the color wheel are labeled a complementar1. c primar1. . . b analogous. d trichromatic. . .

ANS: A !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual 55. 4hat is the source of all color; a light . b shadows .

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c . d .

hues pigment

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57. !f 1ou mi8 blue and 1ellow> 1ou get green. ,his is true onl1 when 1ou are mi8ing

10

a light. . b pigments. .

c . d .

afterimages. wa/elengths.

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5(. ,o a/oid the heat it is better to wear white clothing as opposed to blac2 when out in the sun.

,his is true because a blac2 reflects light whereas white reflects little light.

. b white absorbs the light. . c white reflects a lot of light whereas blac2 reflects little light. . d none of these. .

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5@. 4h1 does grass appear green; a ,he pigment in chloroph1ll absorbs most of the red> blue> and /iolet wa/elengths . of light> and the green is reflected. b ,he pigment in chloroph1ll reflects most of the red> blue> and /iolet wa/elengths . of light> and the green is absorbed. c ,he red pigment reflects all the wa/elengths of light> lea/ing onl1 /arious shades . of green. d ,he blue pigment absorbs all the wa/elengths of light> and /arious amounts of . green are absorbed.

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5A. 4hen mi8ing a blue pigment with a 1ellow pigment> the result is a green. c purple. . . b gra1. d orange. . .

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79. ,he complementar1 colors situated across from each other on the color wheel unite to produce

gra1 when combining __________ through aHnI __________ process. a pigments; additi/e c pigments; subtracti/e

1&

. b lights; additi/e .

. d .

lights; subtracti/e

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71. ,he blue automobile gains its color b1 __________ red> 1ellow> and /iolet wa/elengths and

__________ the blue wa/elengths. a absorbing; reflecting


. b adding; subtracting .

c . d .

reflecting; absorbing absorbing; complementing

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7#. __________ are the persistent sensations of color followed b1 the perception of the

complementar1 color when the first color is remo/ed. a Analogous hues c Afterimages
. b Complementar1 colors . . d .

Sensor1 impressions

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70. !f a man of normal color /ision loo2s at a green paper for about 09 seconds and then shifts his

gaze to a sheet of white paper> that paper will appear a 1ellow. c red.
. b blue. . . d .

gra1.

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual 7&. 4ho de/eloped the trichromatic theor1; a ,homas -oung . b Derman /on Delmholtz .

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c . d .

%wald Dering $oc2 .ec2

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15

75. ,homas -oung pro=ected three different colored lights onto a screen so the1 partiall1

o/erlapped. De found that he could produce ______________________ of the lights. a analogous colors b1 /ar1ing the c afterimages b1 /ar1ing the intensities . duration . b an1 color b1 /ar1ing the saturation d an1 color b1 /ar1ing the intensities
. .

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77. ,he idea that the e1e contains three 2inds of photoreceptors differentiall1 sensiti/e to red>

green> and blue that are responsible for color /ision was proposed b1 the German ph1siologist a Gusta/ "echner. c %rnest Deinrich 4eber.
. b %wald Dering. . . d .

Dermann /on Delmholtz.

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7(. According to trichromatic theor1> three t1pes of cones are differentiall1 sensiti/e to which of

the following colors; a red> 1ellow> and /iolet


. b blac2> white> and red .

c . d .

blue> red> and green orange> 1ellow> and red

ANS: C !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

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7@. Opponent'process theor1 of color /ision was proposed b1 a Dermann /on Delmholtz. c Georges Seurat. . . b ,homas -oung. d %wald Dering. . .

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7A. %wald Dering proposed the opponent'process theor1 of color /ision which claims: a ,hree t1pes of color receptors are responsible for afterimages. . b ,he four t1pes of color receptors are sensiti/e to red> green> blue and the . brightness of the light. c A red'green cone can transmit messages for red and green at the same time. . d Staring at a green> blac2> and 1ellow flag for 09 seconds will not disturb the . perception of color.

17

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(9. ,he opponent'process theor1 of color /ision is based on the idea that the retina contains a three t1pes of simple receptors sensiti/e to red> green> and blue. . b three t1pes of receptors> two sensiti/e to color and one to differences in . brightness. c three sets of cells responsi/e to brightness. . d three t1pes of receptors responsi/e to primar1 colors. .

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(1. According to opponent'process theor1> a __________ afterimage produced b1 a 1ellow sheet

of paper represents a process of reestablishing a neural __________ in the retina. a red; balance c blue; balance
. b blue; inhibition . . d .

green; rebound

ANS: C !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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(#. $esearch on the patterns of neural transmission from the cones to the bipolar and ganglion

cells> then to the brain> suggests that the messages are consistent with a trichromatic theor1. c neural rebound effect.
. b opponent'process theor1. . . d .

,homas -oungBs studies.

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(0. On theories of color /ision> the weight of e/idence tends to support a opponent'process theor1. . b trichromatic theor1. . c neural rebound effect. . d opponents process and trichromatic theories as partiall1 correct. .

1(

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(&. -our professor has =ust called 1ou a trichromat. 4hat does this mean; a -ou can onl1 percei/e three colors. c -ou ha/e damaged cones in 1our . . retina. b -ou ha/e normal color /ision. d -ou ha/e damaged rods in 1our . . retina.

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(5. George is partiall1 colorblind 1et his sister is not> but her sons are partiall1 colorblind. ,hese

famil1 traits are best described b1 which of the following statements; a .artial color blindness occurs onl1 in men.

. b ,he gene responsible for partial color blindness has nothing to do with gender. . c George6s and his sister6s e1e color chromosomes are different. . d .artial color blindness is a se8'lin2ed trait that affects mostl1 males. .

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(7. A perceptual tendenc1 to integrate disconnected pieces into a whole image is called a closure. c pro8imit1. . . b continuit1. d similarit1. . .

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((. Gestalt ps1chologists ha/e noted the rules in the wa1 humans integrate bits and pieces of

sensor1 stimulation into meaningful whole e8periences. ,he rules are referred to as the laws of a bottom'up processing. c perceptual organization.
. b figure'ground perception. . . d .

opponents process theor1.

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(@. ,he perceptual tendenc1 to separate ob=ects from the surroundings is called

1@

a figure'ground perception. . b closure. .

c . d .

Gestalt rules of perception. trichromatic theor1.

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(A. ,he Gestalt rule describing the perceptual tendenc1 to see ob=ects that are near each other as

belonging to a set is termed a pro8imit1.


. b closure. .

c . d .

continuit1. similarit1.

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@9. ,he Gestalt rule describing the perceptual tendenc1 to see li2e ob=ects as belonging together is

termed a pro8imit1.

. b continuit1. .

c . d .

similarit1. common fate.

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@1. A EalentineBs

a1 heart with an arrow point pro=ecting through the lower part and the shaft partiall1 shown in the upper part illustrates the Gestalt rule of a common fate. c pro8imit1.
. b continuit1. . . d .

similarit1.

ANS: ) !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

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@#. !f elements mo/e together> the1 are percei/ed as belonging together> which illustrates the law

of
a common fate. . b continuit1. c . d

similarit1. closure.

1A

ANS: A !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

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@0. 4hen 1ou obser/e a marching band formation that appears to ta2e on the shape of a letter

e/en though the members are not in direct contact with each other> 1ou are e8periencing the Gestalt grouping principle called _____________. a closure c continuit1
. b common fate . . d .

all of these

ANS: !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@&

O)*: 0

@&. !f 1ou are putting a puzzle together while loo2ing at a picture of the completed pro=ect> this

would illustrate __________. a bottom'up processing


. b top'down processing . c rule of continuit1 . d law of closure .

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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@5. !f 3imberl1 tells 1ou that she was surprised the shredded picture that she pieced together

turned out to be an image of herself> 1ou ma1 assume that she had used mostl1 __________ processing. a top'down c perceptual
. b bottom'up . . d .

patterned

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@&

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@7. ,he percei/ed mo/ement of a deer running through the woods is a termed the auto2inetic effect. . b mainl1 based on stroboscopic motion of the deer glimpsed through the trees. . c mainl1 based on the deerBs change of position relati/e to the trees. .

#9

d termed phi phenomenon. .

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@&

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@(. -ou are tr1ing to decide if the bus 1ou are in or the bus ad=acent to 1ou is mo/ing. ,his is

called _______. a apparent mo/ement

. b perception of real mo/ement .

c . d .

auto2inetic effect stroboscopic motion

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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@@. ,he rapid presentation of a progression of stationar1 images is a /isual illusion termed a real mo/ement. c stroboscopic motion. . . b auto2inetic effect. d phi phenomenon. . .

ANS: C !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

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@A. At the mo/ies> it appears to 1ou that the actors and ob=ects on the screen are actuall1 mo/ing.

,his e8perience is based on a stroboscopic motion.


. b motion paralla8. .

c . d .

the +eller'F1er illusion. the auto2inetic effect.

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

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A9. )rad hurt his left e1e in football practice and was gi/en an e1e patch to wear. )rad disco/ered

that his depth perception was not as good as usual> especiall1 when dri/ing in unlit roads at night. ,his is because he could ma2e use of onl1 a binocular cues. c perspecti/e.
. b monocular cues. . . d .

shadows.

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@5

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#1

A1. ,he distance between far off ob=ects appears to be smaller than the distance between nearb1

ob=ects. ,his is contributes to a perspecti/e.


. b o/erlapping. .

c . d .

clearness. phi phenomenon.

ANS: A !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual NO,:

$%": &'@5 ),C

O)*: 0

A#. !f 1ou were an artist and wanted an ob=ect to appear far awa1 in 1our drawing> what

monocular cue could 1ou use; a relati/e size


. b o/erlapping .

c . d .

clearness all of these

ANS: !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@5

O)*: 0

A0. ,he monocular cue of o/erlapping is based on our e8perience that partiall1 co/ered ob=ects

are
a . b . c . d .

farther awa1 than the ob=ects obscuring them. closer than the ob=ects obscuring them the same distance than the ob=ects obscuring them. the same shape as the ob=ects obscuring them.

ANS: A !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'@5

O)*: 0

A&. !n a painting that 1ou are obser/ing> one ob=ect is percei/ed as a two'dimensional circle> and

another appears to be a three dimensional sphere. 4hat monocular cue can account for this effect; a con/ergence c shadowing
. b relati/e size . . d .

shape constanc1

##

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'@5

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A5. ,he grain of wooden floor appearing rough nearb1 and smooth at greater distances illustrates

the monocular depth cue of a perspecti/e.


. b pro8imit1. .

c . d .

te8ture gradient. shadowing.

ANS: C 3%-: 444

!": 1 $%": &'@5 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

O)*: 0

A7. ,o represent three'dimensional ob=ects in his paintings> Fouis used a te8ture gradient. c shadows. . . b perspecti/e. d retinal disparit1. . .

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@5

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A(. 4hen we are dri/ing along a dar2 road at night> the moon ma1 appear to mo/e along with us.

,his perceptual e8perience is an e8ample of a the auto2inetic effect. c


. b the phi phenomenon. .

. d .

binocular depth cues. motion paralla8.

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@5

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A@. 4hen tra/eling> the monocular cue motion paralla8 produces the perception that a distant ob=ects are mo/ing along with us. . b ob=ects at intermediate distances are stationar1. . c ob=ects that are close mo/e past us /er1 <uic2l1 . d all of these. .

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'@5

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AA. )inocular cues for depth perception include _______.

#0

a retinal disparit1 and con/ergence . b con/ergence and closure .

c . d .

continuit1 and retinal disparit1 retinal disparit1 and pro8imit1

ANS: A !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual 199.

$%": &'@7

O)*: 0

epth perception is enhanced when each e1e pro=ects the image of an ob=ect to the brain from a slightl1 different perspecti/e. ,his cue for depth is called a con/ergence. c accommodation.
. b perspecti/e. . . d .

retinal disparit1.

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

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191. As a person gets closer to an ob=ect there is ___________ retinal disparit1. a less c e<ual . . b greater d wea2er . .

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied 19#. Nine'1ear'old

$%": &'@7

O)*: 0

ennis en=o1ed crossing his e1es for his friends. De was using the same e1e muscles that are used in a accommodation. c con/ergence.
. b retinal disparit1. . . d .

motion paralla8.

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@7

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190. ,he image of a cat from #9 feet awa1 occupies about the same amount of space on 1our retina

as an inch'long piece of cand1 in 1our hand. -et 1ou still percei/e the cat as larger than the piece of cand1 because of ______________. a shape constanc1 c size constanc1
. b retinal disparit1 . . d .

brightness constanc1

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'@7

O)*: 0

#&

19&. "rom a chair lift high abo/e the slopes> we percei/e the s2iers below as normal size e/en

though their images formed on our retinas are e8tremel1 small. ,his occurs because of a shape constanc1. c illusor1 constanc1.
. b size constanc1. . . d .

binocular cues.

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@7

O)*: 0

195. !f 3iobe> an African p1gm1 who grew up and li/ed all his life in a thic2 forest> told an

anthropologist that the distant buffalo on the open plain were insects> one might conclude that he a suffered from presb1opia.
. b lac2ed brightness constanc1. . c lac2ed shape constanc1 for great distance. . d lac2ed size constanc1 for great distance. .

ANS: !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@7

O)*: 0

197. Color constanc1 is based on percei/ing ob=ects as the same color despite changes in a lighting conditions. c the color of light. . . b the color of the pigment. d none of these. . .

ANS: A !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@7

O)*: 0

19(. ,he tendenc1 to percei/e an ob=ect as being =ust as bright in /ar1ing amounts of light is called a an illusion. c brightness constanc1. . . b a monocular cue. d color constanc1. . .

ANS: C

!": 1

$%": &'@7?@(

O)*: 0

#5

+SC: ,-.%: "actual 19@. 4hen a closet door is closed> its shape is percei/ed as rectangular. 4hen the same door is

opened> the retinal image is trapezoidal> but we realize the shape of the door has not changed due to a size constanc1. c shape constanc1.
. b interposition. . . d .

con/ergence.

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@(

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19A. 4hen loo2ing at the wall'mount telephone straight on> a rectangular image forms on 3irb1Bs

retinas; loo2ing at the same phone at an angle from the side> a trapezoidal shape forms in each e1e. -et the phone retains the same appearance despite the changing images. ,his is best e8plained b1 a size constanc1. c shape constanc1.
. b lateral /ision. . . d .

illusor1 contours.

ANS: C !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'@(

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119. 4hen principles of perceptual organization lead to distortions in the appearance of ob=ects>

__________ results. a an illusion


. b accommodation .

c . d .

retinal disparit1 a hallucination

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@(

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111. Dering'Delmholtz and +Jller'F1er both refer to a theories of hearing. c /isual disorders. . . b theories of color perception. d illusions. . .

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@(

O)*: 0

11#. !n which of the following situations are 1ou not able to hear the nearb1 frantic scream of a

scared child;

#7

a during a s21di/e . b while swimming underwater .

c . d .

in outer space standing ten feet awa1

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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O)*: &

110. ,he compression and e8pansion of air molecules is a source of a light wa/es. c hue. . . b pheromones. d sound wa/es. . .

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual NO,:

$%": &'@@ ),C

O)*: &

11&. ,he human ear is sensiti/e to sound wa/es with fre<uencies of a #9 to #>999 c1cles per second. c # to #99 c1cles per second. . . b #9 to #9>999 c1cles per second. d #99 to #9>999 c1cles per second. . .

ANS: ) !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@@

O)*: &

115. ,he loudness of a sound is determined b1 the __________ of sound wa/es. a fre<uenc1 c consonance . . b amplitude d dissonance . .

ANS: ) !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@@

O)*: &

117. "re<uenc1 of sound wa/es determines __________> and amplitude determines __________. a pitch; loudness c loudness; timbre . . b timbre; pitch d pitch; timbre . .

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@@

O)*: &

11(. ,he loudness of a sound is determined b1 the __________ of the sound wa/es and e8pressed

in __________ units of measurement. a wa/elength; decibel

amplitude; pounds pressure #(

. b amplitude; millimicrons .

. d .

amplitude; decibel

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@@

O)*: &

11@. -ou ha/e =ust returned from touring with a roc2 band.

uring the concerts 1ou had to stand directl1 in front of the spea2ers. -ou notice difficult1 hearing people in con/ersations. 4hat has most li2el1 happened; a -ou were e8posed to sounds of @5 to A9 d) for long periods of time> and ha/e . suffered hearing damage. b -ou were e8posed to sounds of 1@9 to ##9 d) for long periods of time> and 1our . hearing will return to normal in a few months. c -ou were e8posed to sounds of 59 d) for long periods of time> and 1ou will . become totall1 deaf. d -our eardrum was most li2el1 ruptured b1 the loud music.
.

ANS: A !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'@@

O)*: &

11A. ,he ph1sical correlates of pitch and loudness are __________ and __________> respecti/el1. a amplitude; fre<uenc1 c o/ertones; fre<uenc1 . . b fre<uenc1; amplitude d decibels; fre<uenc1 . .

ANS: ) !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@@

O)*: &

1#9. ,he membrane at the end of the outer ear> which /ibrates in response to sound wa/es> is the a eardrum. c organ of Corti. . . b o/al window. d round window. . .

ANS: A 3%-: 444

!": 1 $%": &'@A +SC: ,-.%: "actual

O)*: &

1#1. ,he function of the three bones in the middle ear is to a attenuate the amplitude of the sound wa/es. . b decrease the pressure of the air entering the ear.

#@

. c funnel the sound wa/es to the eardrum. . d increase the pressure of air entering the ear. .

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@A

O)*: &

1##. ,he tin1 bones that /ibrate to amplif1 the sound /ibrations are located in the a outer ear. c inner ear. . . b middle ear. d cochlea. . .

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@A

O)*: &

1#0. ,he coiled bon1 structure that ma2es up the inner ear is called the a organ of Corti. c cochlea. . . b an/il. d eardrum. . .

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual NO,:

$%": &'@A ),C

O)*: &

1#&. Dair'li2e receptors on the organ of Corti bend in response to /ibrations of the a eardrum. c round window. . . b o/al window. d basilar membrane. . .

ANS: !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@A

O)*: &

1#5. +o/ement of hair cells generates neural impulses that tra/el to the brain /ia the ________

_________. a optic ner/e

. b auditor1 ner/e .

c . d .

basilar membrane o/al window

ANS: ) !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'@A

O)*: &

#A

1#7. ,o locate the source of a sound> "ran2 turned his head a few degrees to the left. 4e ma1

conclude that the sound "ran2 heard was a directl1 o/erhead.


. b too low to hear clearl1. .

c . d .

to the left of him. to the right of him.

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

1#(. As *eannine turns up the /olume of the stereo s1stem> we ma1 conclude that a more auditor1 neurons fire. c auditor1 neurons fire less fre<uentl1. . . b fewer auditor1 neurons fire. d o/ertones are more consonant . .

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

1#@. .lace theor1 ad/ances the idea that pitch discrimination depends upon the a area of the middle ear stimulated. . b number of auditor1 neurons acti/ated. . c fre<uenc1 at which auditor1 neurons fire. . d area of the basilar membrane that /ibrates to the sound. .

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

1#A. "re<uenc1 theor1 of pitch discrimination predicts that high'pitched sounds fire __________

and low'pitched sounds fire __________. a more often; less often

. b less often; more often . c more sensor1 cells; fewer sensor1 cells . d nearer to the o/al window; farther from the o/al window .

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

09

109. ,he place theor1 is not able to completel1 e8plain pitch perception because people can sense

pitches as low as _________ 1et the .lace ,heor1 appears to appl1 onl1 to pitches greater than _________. a 99 Dz; 5>999 Dz c #9 Dz; 5>999 Dz
. b #9 Dz; 599 Dz . . d .

# Dz; 599 Dz

ANS: C !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

101. $esearch on deafness shows that a one percent of Americans are deaf. . b conducti/e deafness is most often found in children. . c sensorineural deafness usuall1 stems from damage to the structures of the middle . ear. d hearing aids pro/ide inner ear amplification of sound. .

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual 10#.

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

amage to the structure of the middle ear ta2es the form of __________ deafness> and damage to the structures of the inner ear results in __________ deafness. a sensorineural; conducti/e c conducti/e; sensorineural
. b monochromatic; dichromatic . . d .

sensorineural; presb1opia

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

100. "ollowing a long period of pla1ing lead guitar in his roc2 band> Orpheus showed diminished

hearing in particular fre<uencies. De most li2el1 suffers from a conducti/e deafness. c stimulation deafness.
. b strabismus. . . d .

sensorineural deafness.

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

01

10&. "ollowing a long career as an airplane mechanic> +i2e GoodwrenchBs hearing was

periodicall1 tested. !n the most recent test> the audiologist found e/idence of generalized hearing loss for detection of sounds at all fre<uencies. +i2e probabl1 suffers from a sensorineural deafness. c conducti/e deafness.
. b presb1opia. . . d .

ringing sensations.

ANS: C !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

105. Cochlear implants> or Kartificial ears>K restore hearing b1 a stimulating the bones of the middle ear. . b amplif1ing the /ibrations at the o/al window. . c amplif1ing the sounds through the bon1 cochlea. . d stimulating the auditor1 ner/e directl1. .

ANS: !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'A9

O)*: &

107. 4hich of the following are classified as chemical senses; a smell and taste c smell and /estibular sense . . b smell and olfactor1 sense d taste and 2inesthesis . .

ANS: A 3%-: 444

!": 1 $%": &'A1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

O)*: 5

10(. ,he receptor neurons for smell are located in the a olfactor1 ner/e. c organ of Corti. . . b olfactor1 membrane. d organ of pheromone. . .

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual NO,:

$%": &'A1 ),C

O)*: 5

10@. Odors are detected b1 sites on receptor neurons in the a olfactor1 membrane> which is located =ust inside each nostril. . b olfactor1 membrane> which is located deep within each nostril. . c olfactor1 ner/e.

0#

. d /omeronasal organ. .

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A1

O)*: 5

10A. ,he ___________ _________ transmits information about odors from the nose to the brain. a olfactor1 ner/e c organ of corti . . b olfactor1 membrane d o/al window . .

ANS: A !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A1

O)*: 5

1&9. ,he sense receptors for taste are _________> and these receptors are located on the

_________. a taste buds; taste cells


. b taste cells; taste buds .

c . d .

hair cells; taste cells taste buds; hair cells

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual 1&1. ,he four <ualities of taste are a bitter> spic1> sweet> and sour. . b salt1> bitter> sweet> and hot. .

$%": &'A1

O)*: 5

c . d .

sweet> sour> bitter> and salt1. sweet> sour> spic1> and hot.

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual 1&#. ,he s2in senses include a touch and pressure. . b cold and warmth. .

$%": &'A1

O)*: 5

c . d .

pain. all of these.

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual NO,:

$%": &'A1 ),C

O)*: 7

00

1&0. 4hich of the following statements is true about the process of acti/e touching; a Acti/e touching means continuall1 mo/ing 1our hand along an ob=ect to get . continuous sensor1 input. b !f one stops acti/e touching> the sensations will fade. . c Acti/e touching recei/es information about pressure> temperature> te8ture> and . muscle feedbac2. d All of these .

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual 1&&. a . b . c . d .

$%": &'A#

O)*: 7

ifferential sensiti/it1 to pressure and touch in different parts of the bod1 is a function of densit1 of ner/e endings and portion of sensor1 corte8. densit1 of ner/e endings in specific bod1 areas. parts of the bod1 and inborn traits. size of the brain and densit1 of ner/e endings.

ANS: A !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'A#

O)*: 7

1&5. -ou can feel that there are two rods touching 1our chee2s> but ha/e difficult1 feeling two rods

if 1ou are touched with them on 1our cal/es. ,his is because a touch receptors are more densel1 pac2ed in 1our cal/es.

. b touch receptors are more densel1 pac2ed in 1our chee2s. . c more of the sensor1 corte8 is de/oted to the perception of sensation on the face. . d )oth b and c. .

ANS: !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A#

O)*: 7

1&7. !f 1ou wash 1our hands in barel1 warm water after spending an hour sho/eling snow without

wearing glo/es> the water is li2el1 to seem uncomfortabl1 warm. ,his is because sensations for temperature are a true to outside temperatures.
. b produced b1 the warm receptors onl1. . c relati/e to the s2in temperature. .

0&

d not noticeable below &5 degrees Celsius. .

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

$%": &'A#

O)*: 7

1&(. 4hen neurons called nociceptors in the s2in are stimulated> the result is a pain c heat . . b pleasure d all of these . .

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'A#

O)*: 7

1&@. A pain message to the brain is initiated b1 the release of an1 or all of the chemicals EXCEPT a .. c pheromones. . . b brad12inin. d prostaglandins. . .

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'A#

O)*: 7

1&A. ____________ help transmit pain messages to the brain and stimulate circulation to an in=ured

area causing _____________. a .rostaglandins; inflammation


. b .heromones; blood thinning .

c . d .

.rostaglandins; blood thinning .heromones; inflammation

ANS: A !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A0

O)*: 7

159. All of the following are ps1chological factors that can influence our reaction to pain %LC%., a other senses such as /ision. . b emotional responses and how one handles stress. . c the amount of percei/ed control o/er the pain. . d an indi/idual6s pain tolerance. .

05

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A0

O)*: 7

151. -our grandfather lost a leg in 44!!. De sometimes complains of pain in his leg> e/en though

it was amputated. 4hich of the following statements is NOT true concerning this situation; a -our grandfather is not alone; # out of 0 combat /eteran amputees complain of . the same thing. b ,his is 2nown as phantom limb pain.
. c ,he pain might be from an acti/ation of the ner/es in the stump of the missing . limb. d ,his pain is not real> it is imaginar1. .

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A0

O)*: 7

15#. ,amm1 caught her thumb in the door. 4h1 did her friend tell her to rub and scratch the

thumb; a She wanted to distract ,amm1 from the pain.


. b . c . d .

)ased on the gate theor1> this can pre/ent the pain message from reaching the brain. ,his would promote the release of endorphins. )ased on the stimulation theor1> this would relie/e the pain.

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A0

O)*: 7

150. ,he /iew that pain messages ma1 not get through to the brain when the KswitchboardK Hthat

transmits pain messagesI becomes KfloodedK is termed a gate theor1. c fre<uenc1 theor1.
. b opponents process theor1. . . d .

acupuncture.

ANS: A !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'A0

O)*: 7

07

15&. $esearchers belie/e that acupuncture relie/es pain b1 a stimulating ner/es that reach the h1pothalamus . b causing the release of endorphins . c bloc2ing pain receptors . d a and b .

ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

$%": &'A0

O)*: 7

155. A weight lifter can show off his muscles when he poses because the sensation of muscle

tightness> and hardness is pro/ided b1 the a /estibular senses. c


. b 2inesthesis senses. .

. d .

photoreceptors. touch receptors.

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

$%": &'A0

O)*: (

157. ,he sensor1 receptors for 2inesthesis are located in the a tendons> muscles> and =oints. c bon1 frame of the bod1. . . b semicircular canals. d s2in and hair. . .

ANS: A 3%-: 444

!": # $%": &'A0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

O)*: (

15(. ,he abilit1 to percei/e whether 1our bod1 is falling or changing speed is due to 1our a /irtual realit1. c e8trasensor1 perception. . . b /estibular sense. d sensor1 positioning. . .

ANS: ) !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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15@. "i/e 1ear old )en> lo/es to spin around until he can6t stand up. ,his loss of balance is due to

receptors in his a e1es.


. b ears. .

c . d .

legs. =oints.

0(

ANS: ) !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

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15A. -ou accelerate as 1ou dri/e awa1 from a stop light that has turned green. -ou are able to

notice the change in speed because of receptors in the a cochlea. c =oints.


. b semicircular canals. . . d .

surface of the s2in.

ANS: ) !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

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179. After getting off a roller coaster ride 1ou ha/e difficult1 maintaining 1our balance. ,his is

due to _______. a /estibular senses

. b semicircular canals .

c . d .

both a and b neither a or b

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Applied

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171. %/en though some studies ha/e supported %S.> it nonetheless failed to gain credibilit1 among

ps1chologists because a the respected %S. researcher *. ). $hine of u2e Mni/ersit1 was not a . ps1chologist. b films ha/e sensationalized %S. phenomena.

. c from 1ears of research> not one person has been found who can show %S. . consistentl1 and from one researcher to another. d tele/ision ps1chics are frauds. .

ANS: C !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual

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17#. 4hich of the following is true regarding e8trasensor1 perception; a .s1chologists prefer to stud1 perception that in/ol/es sensation. . b %S. refers to perception of ob=ects or e/ents without the use of sensor1 organs. . c No one has reliabl1 demonstrated e8trasensor1 perception from one occasion to . another or with more than one researcher. d All of these. .

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ANS: !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual COMPLETION

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1. Sensation is the stimulation of sensor1 receptors and transmission of sensor1 information to

the_______ for processing.


ANS: brain !": 1 $%": &'(& O)*: 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

#. Gusta/ "echner used the term_______________ to refer to the wea2est amount of a stimulus

that can be distinguished from no stimulus at all.


ANS: absolute threshold !": 1 $%": &'(& O)*: 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

0. ,he smallest difference in intensit1 of two stimuli re<uired to percei/e a difference in

intensit1 59: of the time is called the ___________.


ANS: difference threshold !": # $%": &'(5 O)*: 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual &. ,he fraction of the intensit1 b1 which a source of ph1sical energ1 must be increased or

decreased so that a difference in intensit1 will be percei/ed> is the definition of ________________.


ANS: 4eberBs constant !": 1 $%": &'(5 O)*: 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

5. Negati/e adaptation is also called ___________. ANS: desensitization !": 1 $%": &'(7 O)*: 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

7. ,he wa/elength of /isible light determines color or ___________. ANS: hue !": 1 $%": &'(( O)*: # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

(. ,he transparent tissue that forms the outer surface of the e1eball is the ___________ . ANS: cornea

0A

!": 1

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+SC: ,-.%: "actual

@. ,he size of the _________ ad=usts automaticall1 to the amount of light present. ANS: pupil !": 1 $%": &'(@ O)*: # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

A. ,he colors across from one another on the color wheel are labeled _______________. ANS: complimentar1 colors !": 1 $%": &'@9 O)*: # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

19. ,he mi8ture of lights is aHanI ____________ process. ANS: additi/e !": # $%": &'@9 O)*: # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

11. Our abilit1 to percei/e color depends on the e1e6s transmission of different messages to the

brain when lights with different___________ stimulate the ______ in the retina.
ANS: wa/elengths; cones !": # $%": &'@1 O)*: # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

1#. A person who is sensiti/e to blac2'white and either red'green or blue'1ellow is partiall1

colorblind. ,he1 are called a ____________.


ANS: dichromat !": 1 $%": &'@# O)*: # +SC: ,-.%: "actual

10. ,he wa1 we integrate bits and pieces of sensor1 stimulation into meaningful wholes> is

refereed to as ________ ________.


ANS: perceptual organization !": # 1&. $%": &'@#?@0 O)*: 0 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

epth perception in/ol/es ______________ and _____________ cues.


ANS: monocular; binocular !": 1 $%": &'@& O)*: 0 +SC: ,-.%: Applied

15. ,he pitch of a sound is determined b1 its ____________> or the number of c1cles per second

as e8pressed in the unit _________.

&9

ANS: fre<uenc1; hertz !": # $%": &'@@ O)*: & +SC: ,-.%: "actual

17. ,he stirrup is attached to another /ibrating membrane called the _______________. ANS: o/al window !": 1 $%": &'@A O)*: & +SC: ,-.%: "actual

1(. !n locating sounds> sound coming from the right side reaches the _________ ear first. ANS: right !": 1 $%": &'@A?A9 O)*: & +SC: ,-.%: "actual

1@. Olfactor1 membrane receptor neurons fire when a few molecules of a substance in

_______________ form come into contact with them.


ANS: gaseous !": 1 $%": &'A1 O)*: 5 +SC: ,-.%: "actual

1A. _______ _______ proposes that producing a flood of sensations can pre/ent pain messages

from tra/eling to the brain.


ANS: Gate ,heor1 !": 1 $%": &'A0 O)*: 7 #9. ,he_______ _________ helps us to maintain our balance. ANS: /estibular sense !": 1 T UE!"#LSE 1. ,he iris is the muscle in the e1e that controls the size of the pupil. ANS: , !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual #. Cones are more sensiti/e to dim light. ANS: " !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual $%": &'(A O)*: # $%": &'(@ O)*: # $%": &'A& +SC: ,-.%: "actual +SC: ,-.%: "actual

0. !f 1ou ha/e difficult1 seeing ob=ects that are far awa1> 1ou are farsighted.

&1

ANS: " !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual &.

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ar2 adaptation is the process of increasing the sensiti/it1 of rods and cones in low light.
ANS: , !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual $%": &'(A O)*: #

5. ,he retina of a monochromat is sensiti/e onl1 to lightness and dar2ness. ANS: , !": # +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual $%": &'@# O)*: #

7. ,op down processing in/ol/es disco/ering a form b1 carefull1 considering patterns of

component parts.
ANS: " !": 0 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual $%": &'@& O)*: 0

(. )inocular cues allow us to percei/e depth. ANS: , !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual $%": &'@7 O)*: 0

@. Dearing damage ma1 occur if 1ou are e8posed to @5 to A9decibels for long periods of time. ANS: , !": # +SC: ,-.%: "actual $%": &'@@?@A O)*: &

A. Genetics does not contribute to an indi/idual6s sensiti/it1 to basic tastes. ANS: " !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual $%": &'A1 O)*: 5

19. .ain is sharpest in areas of the bod1 where ner/e endings are densel1 pac2ed. ANS: , !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: Conceptual $%": &'A#?A0 O)*: 7

11. ,here is reliable scientific e/idence for %S..

&#

ANS: " !": 1 +SC: ,-.%: "actual ESS#$ 1. aI

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efine sensation and perception e8plain the difference between the two terms. bI escribe signal detection theor1. cI efine sensor1 adaptation. Dow are sensitization and desensitization different;
ANS: %ssa1 should include:
aI

Sensation in/ol/es sense receptors; perception includes interpretations from e8perience. bI ,he interaction of detection and learning> moti/ation and ps1chological states; often we detect what we are loo2ing for and do not detect what we are not loo2ing for. cI Conditions in which sensor1 s1stems become more and less sensiti/e. ,he discussion of sensitization and desensitization should include the terms positi/e and negati/e adaptation> respecti/el1.

#. aI

escribe the order in which light passes through the e1e. )e sure to identif1 each of the parts of the e1e and their functions. bI escribe how the sense receptors recei/e light in the retina and how sensor1 information gets sent to the brain
ANS: %ssa1 should include:
a)

!n order: cornea> iris> pupil> lens> retina> and a discussion of their functions. bI escription and functions of the rods> cones> ganglion and bipolar cells> blind spot and the optic ner/e.

0. aI

efine the two t1pes of /isual cues that help with depth perception and bI select two e8amples of each t1pe and demonstrate how these cues facilitate depth perception.
ANS: %ssa1 should include:

aI ,he definitions of monocular and binocular cues. bI ,wo monocular cues from the following: perspecti/e> relati/e size> clearness> o/erlapping> shadowing> te8ture gradient> motion paralla8> and a description of how each cue represents depth; a description of the two binocular cues: retinal disparit1> con/ergence and how these cues rel1 on both e1es that pro/ide slightl1 different retinal images and muscle changes to represent depth.
&. aI

escribe the order in which sound wa/es enter the outer and middle ear. )e sure to describe each of the parts and their function. bI escribe how the sense receptors recei/e sound energ1 in the cochlea> and how sensor1 information gets sent to the brain. cI Compare two t1pes of deafness and the causes.
ANS: %ssa1 should include:

&0

aI !n order: outer ear> middle ear: eardrum> hammer> an/il> stirrup> o/al window> and a description of their functions. bI escriptions and functions of structures in the inner ear: cochlea> basilar membrane> organ of corti> auditor1 ner/e. cI escriptions of conducti/e deafness Hcaused b1 damage in the middle earI and sensorineural deafness Hcaused b1 damage in the inner earI.
5. aI Compare and contrast 2inesthesis and the /estibular sense. bI .ro/ide an e8ample of each

and describe wh1 it is important in human functioning.


ANS: %ssa1 should include:

aI efinitions of 2inesthesis and /estibular senses. Comparison: both pro/ide information about bod1 positions and mo/ement be1ond /ision. Contrast: 2inesthesis in/ol/es sensor1 information from the bod1 being sent to the brain; /estibular senses in/ol/e sensors in the semicircular canals of the ear sending information about bod1 position and speed. bI 3inesthesis: discussion of an athlete or other indi/idual who needs sensor1 feedbac2> including what would happen without this sense. Eestibular sense: an1 e8ample containing dizziness> including wh1 this sense is important to =udge bod1 position> gra/it1> speed.

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