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A simple junction transistor consists of a crystal of one type of doped semiconductor which is sandwiched between two crystal of opposite type npn transistor p-type semiconductor sandwiched with n-type semiconductor pnp transistor n-type semiconductor sandwiched with ptype semiconductor
2. Current flows in transistor i. ii. iii. Based current, Ib controlled the collector current, Ic If Ib = 0, so Ic = 0 Small change on Ib caused the big changes in Ic.
3. transistor as current amplifier
Switch S is off Ib = 0, so Ic = 0 Ib = Base current Ic = Collector current
Switch S is on There is a small current at base Ib. This will cause a large current in the collector, Ic.
4. transistor as automatic switch Fire alarm system At room temperature When the fire is on, the temperature is increased
At room temperature Thermistor resistance is high Potential difference between XY is high Potential difference between YZ is low Ib is very small Ic is small Ic cannot turn on the relay Bell is not activated
Fire is on Temperature of thermistor increases Resistance of thermistor is reduced Vxy is low Vyz is high Ib increased Ic increased and turned on the relay Bell is ringing
ACTIVITY A: 1. The flow of the _______ current depends on __________ current. 2. Figure below shows a circuit which can be used as an early morning alarm. The alarm will activate when a light is detected.
Named component R1, L, M and N R1 : L : M : N : What is the function of the resistor R3? If the current flowing through N is 0.5 mA and potential difference crossing the terminals N is 1.0V. How many resistance of R3? What is the change to R3 resistance when it is exposed to a light? What is the changes to the potential difference crossing R1 when it is exposed to a light?
(b) (i) (ii)
SOLUTION ACTIVITY A: 1. collector, base 2. (a) (i) R1 L M N (ii) : : : : Light Dependent Resistors (LDR) Diode Relay switch npn transistor
limited base current
(iii) (b) (i) (ii)
1.0 V = = 2 x 10-3 Ω I 0.0005
R1 resistance decreases potential difference across R1 decreases
Figure above shows a transistor used in an electronic alarm system. (a) What is type of the transistor used? (b) At room temperature, the thermistor resistance is 2 k Ω. Calculate the potential difference between : (i) PR (ii) PQ (iii) QR
(c) Explain a relationship between thermistor resistance and temperature. (d) When a fire ccured, describe what will happened to : (i) potential difference across QR (ii) (iii) base current collector current
SOLUTION ACTIVITY B: (a) (b) npn transistor (i) 6 V (ii) (iii) potential difference PQ =
2kΩ x6V (10 + 2)kΩ potential difference QR =potential difference PR - potential difference PQ =6V–1V =5V
Thermistor resistance decreases when temperature increases (i) potential difference across QR increases (ii) base current increases (iii) collector current increases
ACTIVITY C In the circuit shown in figure below, a 4700Ω resistor is connected in series with a light-dependent resistor (LDR), which has a resistance of 3300Ω, and with a 12 V power supply.
(a) Calculate the current through the LDR. (b) Calculate the voltage across the LDR. (c) The resistance of the LDR decreases as brighter light falls on it. Describe and explain how the voltage across the LDR changes as the brightness of the light that falls on it increases.
(d) The LDR and resistor are connected to a transistor, as shown in Figure 1.2. (i) When the LDR is in the dark, lamp L glows brightly. Explain briefly why this happens. (ii) When the light on the LDR is bright enough, lamp L does not glow. Explain briefly why this happens.
SOLUTION ACTIVITY C:
(a) (b) (c)
12 V = = 1.5 × 10-3 A R 4700 + 3300
voltage = IR = 1.5 × 10-3 × 3300 = 5.0 V As brightness increases, the resistance of the LDR decreases. Since the arrangement is a potential divider, the voltage across the LDR decreases. (i) In the dark, the LDR has a high resistance. The transistor is ‘on’ and a voltage close to 12 V is now applied across the lamp. (ii) In the light, the LDR has a low resistance. The transistor is ‘off’ and a voltage close to 0 V is now applied across the lamp.
ASSESSMENT : Objective Question 1. The diagram shows the symbol for a transistor.
Which of the following shows the correct name of the electrode P and the type of the transistor? Electrode P Type of transistor A B C D Emitter Collector Emitter Collector pnp* pnp npn npn
2. The diagram shows a transistor used as an automatic switch. Bulb P will light up if potential difference across S is equal or more than 7.2V. In the beginning, resistance of the light-dependent resistor R is 1 M Q. When exposed to light, resistance of R decreases.
What is the value of R when P starts to light? A 200V B 400V* C 600V D 800V E 900V 3. In which circuit does the bulb light up?
4. In which circuit will the light-emitting diode (LED) light up when switch is on?
Structured Question 1. Name two main types of transistors and draw their symbols. (i) (ii)
2. State two uses of transistor. (i)____________________ (ii)_______________________ 3. If there are no flow of the base current, the current collector is___________
4. A change that __________ in the base current can caused changes that___________ in the collector current. 5. Figure below shows a light dependent resistor (LDR), resistor R and S, a light emmiting diod (LED), a transistor and a battery that will be connected to form a circuit. The LED emmits lights when it is in a bright surroundings.
(i) State one function of a transistor. __________________________________ [1 mark] (ii) Complete the circuit
(iii) Give one reason why LED emmits light in a bright surrounding. _________________________________________ [2 mark] (b) What modification is required to the circuit so that the LED will emmits light when the surrounding become dark? _______________________________ [1 mark] An alarm is needed which emmits sound when there is a fire. Two modifications have to be made to the circuit in (a)(ii) by replacing electronic components.
State one electronic component which needs to be replaced. Give a reason for your answer. _____________________________ _____________________ [2 mark] Name two electronic component that are needed to replace the unsuitable components. ____________________________ [2 mark] In the space below, draw a circuit diagram to show the new circuit.
[2 mark] 6. Two similar bulbs, P and Q are connected to a transistor in the base circuit and collector circuit respectively, as shown in figure below. When S is switched on, bulb P does not light up but bulb Q light on. Then the base circuit is connected to two batteries as shown in figure below. When S is switched on, bulb P lights up but bulb Q lights up more brightly.
Using this information; a. make one suitable inference, [1 mark] b. state one appropriate hypothesis that couldnbe investigated, [1 mark] c. describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis using transistor and other apparatus. In your description, state clearly the following: (i) aim of the experiment (j) variables in experiment (k) list of apparatus and materials (l) arrangement of the apparatus (m) the procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and method of measuring the responding variable (n) the way you would tabulate the data (o) the way you would analyse the data [10 mark]
Answer (Assessment) Objective question 1. 2. 3. 4. A B A A
Structured Question 1.
2. (i) (ii)
transistor as current amplifier transistor as automatic switch
3. zero 4. small, big 5. (i) current amplifier (ii)
Resistance LDR decrease when the potential difference LDR decreases. Base current across through S increases replace the resistance of R with the LDR
(i) can (ii) (iii)
LED are needed to be replaced by electronic component that produce the wave sounds Bell and thermistor
6. (a) (b) (c) (ii)
Collector current in a transistor is affected by the base current  As base current increases by a little amount, the collector current will increases by a large amount.  (i) to investigate the relationship between collector current and base current in a transistor.  variables: - manipulated - responding - constant : : base current : collector current Type of transistor used
Transistor pnp, resistor R=10kΩ, battery, miliammeter, microammeter, switch, connecting wire 
 (v) A battery is connected across MN. The switch is switched on. Reading of microammeter is recorded. This is the value of base current Ib. Reading of miliammeter that corresponds is recorded. This is the value of collector current, Ic. The experiment is repeated by connecting 2, 3, 4 and 5 bateries across MN. The corresponding values of Ib and Ic are recorded. 
(vi) No. Of battery 1 2 3 4 5
Base current, Ib/micrometre
Collector current, Ic/milimetre
Graph of collector current, Ic againts base current, Ib is plotted. Ic
TOPIC: ELECTRONICS 4.4 ANALYSING LOGIC GATES CHAPTER HIGHLIGHT: 5. Types of logic gates and their truth tables - Logic gates are electronic devices which have only two output states. - The potential of the output is either ‘HIGH’ (5 – 6 V) or ‘LOW” (0 V). Types of logic gates Logic symbol Boolean expression Action of logic gates The output is high if the input is not high. The output is always the opposite of the input. Characteristi c of logic gates The output is opposite to the input. It is an inverter.
Truth table input A 0 1 input A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 input A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 input A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 input A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 output Y 1 0
A • B=Y
output The output is If both inputs Y high only if input is ‘1’ will give 0 X and input Y output ‘1’ 0 are high. 0 1 output The output is When either; Y high when either input is ‘1’, 0 X or Y or both output is ‘1’ 1 are high. 1 1 The output is The output is output not high only if opposite to Y input X and the AND 1 input Y are high. gate output 1 1 0 output Y 1 0 0 0 The output is not high if either input X or input Y are high. The output is opposite to the OR gate output
A• B = Y
A+ B = Y
6. Logic gates in combination i.
The truth table Input A B C ⎛ From ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜A ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 0 0
Logical operation D E F ⎛ From ⎞ ⎛ From ⎞ ⎛ From ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜B ⎟ ⎜B ⎟ ⎜ B, C ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
G ⎛ From ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ D, E ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 0 1 0
Output Y ⎛ From ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ F,G ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 ii.
0 1 0 1
The truth table Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C ⎛ From ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜A ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0 0 1 1
Logical operation D E G ⎛ From ⎞ ⎛ From ⎞ ⎛ From ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜A ⎟ ⎜A ⎟ ⎜ C, D ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
H ⎛ From ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ E, F ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0 1 0 0
Output X ⎛ From ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ G, H ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 1
7. Application of logic gates Air conditioner controlling system
Input A 0 0 1 1 Input Heat sensor Light sensor Output Air conditioner B 0 1 0 1 Situation Warm room Cold room Day Night Switch on Switch off
Output Y 0 0 0 1 Logic 1 0 1 0 1 0
ACTIVITY A: State types of logic gates given :
SOLUTION ACTIVITY A: a. AND gate c. NOT gate e. NOR gate b. d. f. OR gate NAND gate NOT gate
ACTIVITY B: Build gate circuit by using AND, OR and NOT for Boolean expressions given : (a) A . B + A.B = Y (b) A . C + A.B.C = Y SOLUTION ACTIVITY B:
ASSESSMENT : Objective Question 1. The diagram shows a logic gates circuit.
A P 0 0 1 1
Q 0 1 0 1
R 1 0 1 0
P 0 0 1 1
Q 0 1 0 1
R 0 1 0 1
B P 0 0 1 1
Q 0 1 0 1
R 0 1 1 0
P 0 0 1 1
Q 0 1 0 1
R 0 1 1 0
2. The circuit represents a Boolean algebraic principle with output Z.
Which of the Boolean algebraic expression represents the output Z? A Z=X • Y C Z=X • Y B Z=X • Y B Z=X +Y Structured Question 1. In each logic gates combination given: (i) State Boolean expression (ii) Name their logic gate
Figure above shows a combination logic gates in a circuit. Based from the arrangement, complete the truth table given.
3. A factory producing pesticide uses a logic system to ensure the volume of pesticide in a plastic bottle is within acceptable range. Figure below shows the arrangement of the logic system fixed beside a conveyor belt carrying bottles of pesticide. The radioactive detector, S1 and S2 detect the levels of radiation passing through the bottles.
Detectors S1 and S2 will give input 0 to logic gate system when they receive a low level of radiation. Detectors S1 and S2 will give input 1 to logic gate system when they receive a high level of radiation. (a) State the level of the pesticide in the bottle if the input S1 is 0. Give a reason for your answer. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________ [2 mark] (b) State the level of the pesticide in the bottle if the input S1 is 1. Give a reason for your answer. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ [2 mark] Figure below shows two combinations of logic gates, P and Q that are suggested to develop the logic gate system.
(c) Name the logic gate M __________________________________________ (d) Complete the truth tables for P and Q. Output S2 Input S1 0 0 1 0 1 1 The truth table of P Input S1 0 1 1 Output S2 0 0 1 The truth table of Q
[4 mark] (e) When the output of the logic gate system is 1, it indicates the volume of the pesticide in the bottle is within the acceptable range. When the output of the logic gate system is 0, it indicates the volume of the pesticide in the bottle is outside the acceptable range.
Based on the output of the truth tables in (d), which combination of logic gates is suitable to be used for the logic gate system? Combination of logic gate___________________ [1 mark]
Give two reason for your choice. 1._________________________________________ 2._________________________________________ [2 mark]
4. Ali wishes to design a security system in his house as shown in figure below. When a person crosses the infrared beam at night, the infrared sensor will send asignal to a logic gate which then light up a spotlight. The spotlight has a 240 V alternating current (a.c) supply and will only light up at night.
The circuit that could help Ali to develop the security system is shown in figure below.
If the potential difference across resistor W is 2 V, what is the potential difference across the infrared sensor? _________________________________ [1 mark] Component X has a high resistance when the surroundings are dark and a low resistance in bright surroundings. Name the component X. _________________________________ [1 mark] Component S is a switch that connects the 240 V a.c spotlight circuit. (i) What type of switch is component S? ___________________________ [1 mark] (ii) Why is component S necessary in the circuit? ___________________________ [1 mark]
The following truth table shows the operation of a logic gate in the circuit in the circuit in figure above. : : : : : : high input voltage at P, low input voltage at P, high input voltage at Q, low input voltage at Q, high input voltage at R, low input voltage at R, logic’1’ logic’0’ logic’1’ logic’0’ logic’1’ logic’0’
Key: Dark surroundings Bright surroundings Person crossing the path Nobody crossing the path Switch S is on Switch S is off
Input P Output Q Output R Surrounding Input voltage Person Input voltage at P crossing at Q Bright 0 No 0 Bright Yes Dark No Dark Yes (i) Using the given key, complete the truth table above. [4 mark] (ii) (iii) Name the logic gate in the circuit in figure above. ______________________________________ [1 mark] Sketch the symbol of the logic gate in (d)(ii).
Answer (Assessment) Objective question 1. B 2. A Structured Question 1.
(a) (b) (c) (d) Input S1 0 1 1 Input S1 0 1 1 (e)
Out of the range caused less light received. Not enough to achieve the range caused high light received. OR gate Output S2 0 0 1 The truth table of P Output 0 1 0
Output S2 Output 0 1 0 1 1 1 The truth table of Q i. Logic gate combination : P ii. 1. Input S1 1 and input S2 0 in the range 2. Input S1 0 and input S2 0 or Input S1 1 and input S2 1 in the range
4. (a) Potential difference = 12-2=10v (b) X Light Depndent Resistor (c) i. S relay switch ii. S is needed to activate the spotlight in the circuit (d) i. Input P Surrounding Input voltage at P Bright 0 Bright 0 Dark 1 Dark 1 ii. AND gate iii. Output Q Person Input voltage crossing at Q No 0 Yes 1 No 0 Yes 1 Output R 0 0 0 1
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